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Sample records for azadirachta indica seed

  1. Biodegradable Detergents from Azadirachta Indica (neem Seed Oil

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    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodegradable detergent from Azadirachta Indica (neem seed oil was studied in this work. The synthesized detergent was characterised and compared with commercially available detergents. 33g of biodegradable detergent was produced from 30ml of the oil. In the foamability test, the height of liquid and foam of detergent rose to 3cm in a 250ml beaker thus indicating its effectiveness since it compared favourably with the foam heights of commercial detergents. The surface tension of solution of 5g of the synthesized detergent in 100ml of water determined to be 0.00523 N/m was found to be better that of the commercial detergent of same concentration. The oxygen demand for a solution of the synthesized detergents over a five day period found to be 0.4ppm indicated it was biodegradable.

  2. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

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    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  3. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

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    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a pos

  4. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Fractions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Seed Extract

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    Zafar Iqbal*, Wasim Babar, Zia ud Din Sindhu, Rao Zahid Abbas and Muhammad Sohail Sajid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at determination of anthelmintic activity of different fractions of Azadirachta indica seed prepared from the crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME. For this purpose, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum spirit fractions of A. indica seeds employing standard bioassays. All the fractions of A. indica seeds exhibited dose and/or time dependent ovicidal and wormicidal effects against H. contortus. The best ovicidal activity was demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction with LC50=21.32 µg/ml; whereas, it was 6-14 times lower for the other fractions. Likewise, ethyl acetate fraction @ 50 mg ml-1 exhibited the best wormicidal effects by killing 83% adult H. contortus one hour post-exposure. For in vivo anthelmintic activity faecal egg count reduction test was perform on sheep naturally infected with helminthes. Maximum reduction (98.9% was observed with CAME. Therefore, it is concluded that future studies aimed at identification of active anthelmintic principles of A. indica may be focused on ethyl acetate fraction of the plant.

  5. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

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    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  6. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  7. Repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica seed oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) seed oil against filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) from Purulia district of the West Bengal state, India. Methods: The repellent activity of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils (using coconut oil base) against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito were evaluated in indoor conditions. Three concentrations, 0%, 50% and 100% (v/v) of both the agents were considered in the studies. The protection percentage was determined, and the protection time was recorded. Results: The test oils showed excellent repellent action against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The A. indica seed oil provided 90.26% and 88.83% protection, and the Eucalyptus oil 93.37% and 92.04%, at concentrations 50% and 100% (v/v), respectively, with the protection time up to 240 min. There was no bite within 120 min and 180 min, respectively, due to the action of Eucalyptus andA. indica seed oil, and thus 100% protection from the bite of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito was achieved. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils as topical repellents against Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  8. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

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    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulce

  9. Effort on planting and product development of Azadirachta indica in Southwest China

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    ZHANG Yan-ping; PENG Xing-min; ZHENG Yi-xing; LAI Yong-qi

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four provenances of two species (Azadirachta siamensis and Azadirachta indica) have been introduced to China from South Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa Since 1995. This paper summarizes the researches on the introduction and planting of Azadirachta indica and analyzes the morphological, phenological characteristics, the growth rhythm, pollinating and seed yielding features of the introduced 24 provenances of the two species as well as the variations of filial generation plants. The experiments showed that most of the provenances of A. indica have normal growth and can blossom and fruit in the dry-hot valleys with tropical climate conditions in Yunnan Province, China. The normal regions for A. indica were classified and the selection criteria for superior plants were put forward in this paper, moreover, the major contents of industry planning and technical approaches for A. indica plantation establishment were discussed and the countermeasures to reduce the neem-based pesticide products were also proposed.

  10. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  11. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

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    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  12. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

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    Imna Trigueros V; Miguel Ramón C; José Vázquez O; Juan Aguirre M; Carlos Garcia C; Jaime Martínez T

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline...

  13. Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae , conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partición metanol-hexano a partir de aceite de semillas y hojas verdes maduras. Adicionalmente, se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR con el fin de relacionar su perfil químico con el contenido de terpenoides, de conocida actividad antifúngica. Se empleó como control positivo el antimicótico Terbinafina. Los resultados mostraron inhibición total del crecimiento de los aislamientos de dermatofitos a concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias (CMI entre 50 μg/mL y 200 μg/mL para el extracto de hojas y entre 625 μg/mL y 2500 μg/mL para el extracto de aceite de semillas. La CMI encontrada para el control positivo (Terbinafina fluctuó entre 0,0078 μg/mL y 0,0313 μg/mL. Los extractos metanólicos de hojas y aceite de semillas de neem exhibieron diferentes perfiles cromatográficos en CLAR, lo cual podría explicar las diferencias observadas en su actividad antifúngica. Éste análisis químico reveló la posible presencia de compuestos terpenoides en ambos extractos, los cuales se conocen por su actividad biológica. Los resultados de esta investigación son un nuevo aporte sobre el potencial terapéutico del neem para el control de dermatofitosis.

  14. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  15. Successive solvent extraction and free radical scavenging activity of Azadirachta indica A. juss

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    Mohammed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-based or plant-derived drugs occupied 30% of the modern system of medicine. Several trees possess a variety of biologically active compounds. Among them, Azadirachta indica, belonging to the family Meliaceae, plays a vital role as it acts as nature′s pharmacy from several centuries of time. In the path of searching for potential antioxidants from plant origin, different parts of Azadirachta indica have been selected. Aim: Successive solvent extracts of leaves, seeds and root barks of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem were studied for their free radical scavenging activity. Materials and Methods: Extraction capacity of different solvents based on their polarity order was compared and the extracts were subjected to 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Statistical Analysis: All values were expressed in mean±SEM and correlation coefficient (R 2 values obtained from dose response curves were expressed for antioxidant results. Results: The results showed that the highest yields was found with the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, followed by the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and methanolic extracts of leaves and seeds, respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of various extracts was determined by measuring 1, DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results were expressed in terms of IC 50 values. The root bark methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest IC 50 of 14.82-μg/mL at the concentration of 25-μg/mL. Conclusion: It is concluded that hydroalcohol and methanol are the best solvents to extract the antioxidant compounds from Azadirachta indica. The root bark methanolic extract was found to have the highest free radical scavenging potential against DPPH radical.

  16. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

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    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  17. Antimicrobial Potential Of Azadirachta Indica Against Pathogenic Bacteria And Fungi

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    Mohammad Asif

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drugs from natural sources are used for treating various diseases since the ancient times. From the literature it is clear that various type of pharmacological and biological activities are associated with Azadirachta indica. Theleave oil of A. indica is known to have good antimicrobial potential. The oil of A. indica leaves, was tested against the different infectious microorganisms [Gram positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria], such as bacterial strains; S. aureus, E. coli, B. cerus, P. vulgaris, S. typhi, K. pneumonae, S. dysenterae and Fungal strains; F. oxysporum, A. flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, C. albicans, Cladosporium sp., M. canis, M. gypseum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, P. notatum and P. citrinum etc.The results showed that level of antimicrobial activities of the A.indica oil depends on both the protein and carbohydrate contents. Generally, the high level of protein and carbohydrate contents of extract had better antimicrobial activities.

  18. REVIEW ON NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA: THOUSAND PROBLEMS ONE SOLUTION

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    Sharma Pankaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem has become important in the global context today because it offers answers to the major concerns facing mankind. Azadirachta indica is a fast growing evergreen popular tree found commonly in India, Africa and America. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activity and its preventive-promotive medicinal uses and applications over all this review also tell you that how the “neem is the one solution of thousand problems”, like Antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities.

  19. Neem (Azadirachta indica: Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

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    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  20. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

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    Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt on cisplatin- (CP- induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, (iv as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  1. Effects of Azadirachta indica on Sheep Infected Naturally with Helminthes

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    F. R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica on natural helminthes infection in lambs. Forty, four-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on pasture, over a 20 week period. They were divided into 4 treatments: Without drenching (ND, 3 g A. indica/animal (A3, 6 g A. indica/animal (A6 and 9 g A. indica/animal (A9 over 5 consecutive days, with an interval of 25 days between drenchings. Faeces were collected weekly and lamb weight and blood collection were carried out fortnightly. Four weeks after the last drenching all lambs were slaughtered, and worm burdens calculated. No significant differences were observed for lamb performance between treatments. Blood parameters highlighted the progress of the worm infections, with sheep on treatments A6 and A9 ending the experiment showing anemia. There was an increase in the total number of worms associated with increasing levels of neem, especially due to the increase in number of H. contortus in detriment to the number of T. colubriformis for highest levels of neem (A6 and A9. The increasing doses of neem did not improve the control of endoparasites in sheep naturally infected.

  2. Analysis of Fruit Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Kernel Oil in Azadirachta indica ×Melia azedarach%杂交楝果实含油量及籽油脂肪酸组成分析

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    朱春玲; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    The fruit oil content of 7-years-old hybrid neem tree which was produced from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Melia azedarach by somatic hybridization technology, and the fatty acid composition of seed kernel oil were analyzed. Results showed lower oil content in fruit peel and fruit pulp, i.e. 1.65 % and 1.53 %, respectively. However, high oil content (39.20 % ) in seed kernel was found. Seed kernel oil was analyzed by GC-MS and six kinds of fatty acids were determined. There were linoleic acid( C18 : 2) 67.00 % , oleic acid ( C18 : 1 ) 18.03 % , palmitic acid ( C16 : 0 ) 8.96 %, stearic acid ( C18 : 0 ) 3.94 %, arachidic acid (C20:0)0.35 % and unknown fatty acid 1.72 %. The content of unsaturated fatty acid of seed kernel oil was 85.03%. Compared with the M. azedarach, the oil content of hybrid neem tree seed kernel was 1.6 percentage points higher.%对印楝和苦楝2个亲本采用体细胞融合技术杂交形成的7年生杂交楝进行了果实含油量测定,并对其籽油进行了脂肪酸组成分析。结果表明:果皮和果肉含油量较低,分别为1.65%和1.53%;种仁含油量较高,为39.20%。种仁经提取获得籽油后进行甲酯化处理,再进行GC—MS分析,共检测出6种脂肪酸。它们是亚油酸(C18:2)67.00%、油酸(C18:1)18.03%、棕榈酸(C16:0)8.96%、硬脂酸(C18:0)3.94%、花生酸(C20:0)0.35%和未知脂肪酸1.72%;其中不饱和脂肪酸占85.03%。杂交楝种仁含油量比苦楝高出1.6个百分点。

  3. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  4. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

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    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  6. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

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    Naveen Kumar Chundran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  7. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    S S El-Hawary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%, γ- Elemene (9.89%, Germacrene D (9.72%, Caryophyllene (6.8% and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04% mainly attributed to sesquiterpene oxide. On the other hand, flowers oil hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% composed mainly of pentacosane (18.58%, tetracosane (10.65%, β-germacrene (9.73%, β- caryophyllene (5.84% and dodecene (4.54% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%, verdiflorol (5.32%, farnesol (1.63% and α– terpineol (1.51%. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, antifungal and larvicidal activities were promising and in relation with the chemical composition of the essential oils. The results indicated that essential oil of flowers could be especially promising as an inexpensive source of effective antioxidant /antimicrobial /larvicidal agents tantamount to fixed oil of the neem seeds.Industrial relevance. The use of medicinal plants is a universal phenomenon. Natural products from plants are rich source to identify, select and process new drugs for medicinal use. Most of research focused on fixed oil of neem seeds but very little was concerned about volatile oils of leaves and flowers. The diverse biological activities of Neem essential oils can be applied on a large scale as antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal agents comprising many important benefits including their volatility, lower level of risk to the environment than with synthetic ones.Keywords. Azadirachta indica; Neem; essential oil; GC/MS; antioxidant

  8. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  9. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

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    Imna Trigueros V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline transesterification. Data was statistically analyzed by a completely random procedure and the measurements were compared with the Tukey test(p≤0.05. Results. The greatest weight gain, consumption and best feed conversion were found in the treatment that contains 1% neem seed flour. It also produced the increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (C18:2 Omega-6 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega-3, and the proportion of palmitic acid (C16:0. The consumption of feed diminished when 5% of neem flour was added. Conclusions. It was demonstrated that incorporating 1% neem seed flour in the diet of broiler chicks modifies the consumption of fatty acids without harming its productive behavior.

  10. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

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    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  11. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  12. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  13. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

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    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  14. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

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    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  15. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  16. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  17. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identi...

  18. Antidermatophytic Activites Of Azadirachta Indica : An In Vitro And In Vivo Study

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    Ranganathan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf and seed extracts of Azadirachta indicia were tested for antifungl activity against dermatophytes by in vitro and vivo tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of neem seed extract was found to be lower than that neem leaf when tested against different species of Trichophyton and Epidermophyton floccosum. Experimental lesion in guinea pigs healed better after treatment with neem seed extract when compared to untreated control animals.

  19. Dentinal Tubule Disinfection with Propolis & Two Extracts of Azadirachta indica Against Candida albicans Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; Garg, Paridhi; Verma, Anurag; Malik, Vibha; Maccune, Edgar Richard; Vasudeva, Agrima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. Materials & Method: One hundred and five human teeth were infected with Candida albicans for 2 days. Samples were divided into 7 groups. Group I- Propolis, Group II- Alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica, Group III- Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine, Group V- Calcium hydroxide, Group VI- Ethanol and Group VII- Saline (negative control). At the end of 1,3 and 5 days, the antimicrobial efficacy of medicaments against Candida albicans was assessed at the depths of 200 µm and 400 µm. Results: The overall percentage inhibition of fungal growth (at 200 µm and 400 µm depth) was 99.2% with 2% chlorhexidine gel. There was no statistical difference between propolis, alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) and 2% chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Propolis and alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica performed equally well as that of 2% Chlorhexidine. PMID:26962368

  20. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  1. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

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    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  2. Neem (Azadirachta indica):Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80%of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  3. In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Paulpandi, Manickam; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission is a serious emergence in urban and semiurban areas worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. Malaria is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The extensive employ of synthetic pesticides leads to negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, plant-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective mosquitocides. In this research, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the Azadirachta indica seed kernel extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The A. indica seed kernel extract was toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC50 were 232.8ppm (larva I), 260.6ppm (II), 290.3ppm (III), 323.4ppm (IV), and 348.4ppm (pupa). AgNP LC50 were 3.9ppm (I), 4.9ppm (II), 5.6ppm (III), 6.5ppm (IV), and 8.2ppm (pupa). The antiplasmodial activity of A. indica seed kernel extract and AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of A. indica seed kernel extract were 63.18μg/ml (CQ-s) and 69.24μg/ml (CQ-r). A. indica seed kernel-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50, of 82.41μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.12μg/ml (CQ-r). However, in vivo anti-plasmodial experiments conducted on Plasmodium berghei infecting albino mice showed moderate activity of the A. indica extract and AgNP. Overall, this study showed that the A. indica-mediated fabrication of AgNP is of interest for a wide array of purposes, ranging from IPM of mosquito vectors to the development of novel and cheap antimalarial drugs.

  4. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Chander Gangar; Rajat Sandhir; Durg Vijay Rai; Ashwani Koul

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE)against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice.METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experiment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P+A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P+A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology.RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100%in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4%as observed in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group.Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium.In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice.Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture.CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B(a)P-induced forestomach tumors in

  5. Isolation and characterization of glucosamine from Azadirachta indica leaves:An evaluation of immunostimulant activity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; Narenk Nair; Srinivasan Narasimhan; Subramaniam Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential immunostimulant activity of glucosamine from Azadirachtaindica leaves in mice. Methods: The hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves were prepared and its immunostimulant activity was studied. The aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (AEAIL) showed significant (P<0.001) higher immunostimulant activity than other extracts. Hence, isolation of possible phytoconstituent(s) from AEAIL was carried out and glucosamine was isolated. The Azadirachta indica leaves glucosamine (AILG) was administered at 266, 400 and 800 μg/kg of mice, intraperitoneal route weekly for 4 weeks to evaluate immunostimulant activity. The serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) level and histopathological studies on thymus were performed to confirm AILG immunostimulant activity. Results: The administration of above doses of AILG has significantly (P<0.001) increased serum IL-2 levels in mice than control mice. The dose dependent effect on IL-2 was noticed in AILG treated mice. The weight of thymus, liver and kidney were significantly (P<0.001) increased after the AILG treatments compared to control mice. Also, body weight of AILG treated mice showed significant (P<0.001) increment from second week to fourth week than control mice. The proliferation of T-lymphocytes in thymus after the administration of AILG was observed in histopathological study. Conclusion: The glucosamine was isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract and its immunostimulant activity was confirmed in mice.

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  7. Biogenic Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots at Ambient Temperature Using Azadirachta indica (Neem) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Chinmay; Mewada, Ashmi; Dharmatti, Roopa; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Sharon, Madhuri

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors.

  8. In vitro antifilarial activity of Azadirachta indica aqueous extract through reactive oxygen species enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niladri Mukherjee; Prasanta Saini; Suprabhat Mukherjee; Priya Roy; Santi P. Sinha Babu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate an aqueous preparation from the Azadirachta indica leaves (AEA) against Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a model filarial parasite. Methods:In vitro efficacy of AEA was evaluated against S. cervi through estimation of relative motility value, dye exclusion test and MTT assay. Visible morphological alterations were monitored using conventional microscopic techniques in microfilariae and haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of AEA-treated adults. Results:Enhancement of reactive oxygen species in S. cervi treated with AEA was established through alteration in the activity of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and level of superoxide anion and reduced glutathione. Conclusions:In vitro filaricidal activity of AEA is possibly through disturbing redox homeostasis by down-regulating and altering the level of some key antioxidants and regulatory enzymes like reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase of S. cervi.

  9. The Potential Role of Azadirachta indica Treatment on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A Dkhil; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Aref, Ahmed M.; Othman, Mohamed S.; Kamal M. El-Deib; Ahmed E Abdel Moneim

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative...

  10. Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid...

  11. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  12. MORFO-ANATOMIA E HISTOQUÍMICA FOLIAR DE Azadirachta indica A. JUSS (Neem) (MELIACEAE), CULTIVADAS EM GOIÁS

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Amede, Soraia; Graciano Ribeiro, Alva; Rezende, Maria Helena; Faria, Maria Tereza

    2015-01-01

    O Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss é uma árvore da família Meliaceae, originária da Índia. Nessas regiões o “Neem”, é considerado uma planta medicinal de relevante importância pelos seus efeitos positivos junto à saúde das plantações, animais e do próprio homem. Muitos compostos ativos já foram isolados de A. indica sendo que o liminóide azadiractina encontrada nas sementes, usado principalmente como repelente e inseticida. Foram registrados na literatura especializada vários trabalhos do pon...

  13. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

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    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  14. Combination of Nicotiana tabacum and Azadirachta indica: A Novel Substitute to Contain Prevalence of Levamisole and Ivermectin-Resistant Haemonchus contortus in Ovine

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    Kareem Khoshnow Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed at exploring the activity of combined crude aqueous methanol extracts (CAMEs of Nicotiana (N. tabacum leaves and Azadirachta (A. indica seed kernels to control levamisole (LEV and ivermectin (IVM-resistant Haemonchus (H. contortus in sheep. The in vivo fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT demonstrated rampancy of resistance among H. contortus populations against LEV and IVM. There was a significant difference (P<0.05 between groups treated with the combined plant extracts compared to other groups treated with solitary N. tabacum and A. indica. The recorded FECR% at low (1+1g kg-1 BW and high (2+2g kg-1 BW doses was 52.71 and 94.59, respectively for the combined extracts, whilst for N. tabacum at low (2g kg-1 BW and high (4g kg-1 BW doses, the FECR% was 87.5 and 88.6, respectively. Moreover, the FECR% for A. indica was 45.62 and 85.14 at low (2g kg-1 BW and high (4g kg-1 BW doses, respectively. There was a dose and time dependent ovicidal and adulticidal activity of CAMEs with estimated LC50 values of 0.523, 0.566 and 1.169 μg ml-1 for the combined extracts, solitary N. tabacum and A. indica, respectively in egg hatch assay (in vitro test. The estimated LC50 values in adult motility test (in vitro test 10 hours post-exposure were 0.17, 0.20 and 0.80 mg ml-1 for the combined extracts, sole N. tabacum and A. indica, respectively. Accordingly, the aforementioned combined extracts at high dose were more efficacious than solitary N. tabacum and A. indica and, thus, can be used to restrict rampancy of LEV and IVM-resistant H. contortus populations parasitized in sheep.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs

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    Temidayo O Omobowale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P 0.05 difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05 decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection.

  16. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  17. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  18. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory.

  19. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  20. Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

    2007-03-01

    The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments.

  1. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  2. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

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    Arindam Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  3. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azima Laili Hanifah; Siti Hazar Awang; Ho Tze Ming; Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Maizatul Hashima Omar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.Results:Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D.farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  4. EFECTO ANTIALIMENTARIO DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT OF CELL SUSPENSION EXTRACTS OF Azadirachta indica ON Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Capataz Tafur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica y sus ingredientes activos como la azadiractina, presentan acción antialimentaria e inhibición del desarrollo de muchos insectos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto antialimentario de los extractos de suspensiones celulares de neem elicitadas a diferentes condiciones de luz y temperatura. Los extractos fueron aplicados en discos de hojas de maíz y sometidas a bioensayos en larvas de segundo instar de Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidptera: Noctuidae. Los extractos intracelulares y del medio de cultivo de las suspensiones celulares de A. indica mostraron efecto biológico sobre larvas de S. frugiperda L2, con valores del 100 % de índice antialimentario para los extractos intracelulares de suspensiones de A. indica elicitadas a 15 °C y oscuridad, y del 39,3% para extractos extracelulares (medio de cultivo de suspensiones elicitadas a 35 °C y oscuridad.Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica and their active ingredients as azadirachtin, present an action and inhibition of the development of many insects. In this study, the antifeedant effect of cell suspension extracts elicited to different conditions of light and temperature was examined. The extracts were applied in corn leaves disks and submitted to bioassays in larvae of second instar of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The intracellular extracts and the culture media (supernatant of the cell suspensions of A. indica showed a biological effect on larvae of S. frugiperda L2, with values of the 100 % of antifeeding index for the intracellular extracts of cells elicited to 15 °C and darkness, and 39,3% of antifeeding index for extracellular extracts (medium of cultivation of elicited suspensions to 35°C , and darkness.

  5. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANDIDIAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA AN IN VITRO STUDY

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    Kudalkar Mithun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of humans since the dawn of civilization. In recent years, multiple drug resistance has developed due to indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. This drives the need to screen medicinal plants for novel bioactive compounds as plant based drugs are biodegradable, safe and have fewer side effects. Neem (Azadirachta indica is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. Almost all parts of the plant are endowed with medicinal properties. Several pharmacological activities and medicinal applications of various parts of Neem have been documented in the ancient literature. Teeth and their supporting structures are subject to infections by Streptococcus species, a number of facultative anaerobes like Enterococcus faecalis, and opportunistic pathogens like Candida albicans. Literature shows that Neem is a powerful agent that inhibits the increase and establishment of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases in the oral cavity.In the present study we have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of Neem leaf aqueous and alcohol extracts. To determine the inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indica (aqueous and alcoholic extract of neem on Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The activity of Azadirachta indica against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was tested by serial broth dilution method and was expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the aqueous neem extract to all the organisms was 7.5%. The MIC of the alcoholic neem extract for E. faecalis, S.mutans, C. albicans were 1.88%, 7.5%, and 3.75% respectively.

  6. EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss NO CONTROLE DE Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer

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    GIOLO, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sectors of the Brazilian economy is the poultry industry, with high productivity of chicken. However, one of the factors that may affect this branch of production is the presence of pests on the farm, like the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (mealworm, an insect of the family Tenebrionidae, originating from West Africa. From the literature, we observe the insecticidal activity of the leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica in beetles mealworm thus helping to control and reduce this which is one of the major problems of modern poultry production . Neem has been known for over 5,000 years and has the control action of about 430 species of pests that occur in the world. Thus, this study aimed to test different doses of aqueous extract of neem leaves as a natural alternative to control this insect population. The following concentrations were analyzed: 1/20 ( w /v , 1/6 , 67 ( w / v , 1/3 , 33 ( w / v to the dried sheet, the control and treatment of water in concentration of 1/2 ( w / v with fresh leaves, sprayed directly on the insects. Treatments showed no significant differences in mortality of insects except for the 504 hours of the test, showing not technically feasible method to control this pest. Um dos maiores setores da economia brasileira é a avicultura de corte, com alta produtividade de carne de frango. Porém, um dos fatores que podem afetar esse ramo da produção é a presença de pragas da granja, como o besouro Alphitobius diaperinus (cascudinho, um inseto da família Tenebrionidae, originário do oeste africano. A partir da literatura, se observa a ação inseticida do extrato de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica em besouros cascudinhos, portanto ajudando a controlar e reduzir este que é um dos grandes problemas da avicultura moderna. O nim é conhecido há mais de 5.000 anos e apresenta ação no controle de cerca de 430 espécies de pragas que ocorrem no mundo. Dessa maneira, o presente trabalho teve como

  7. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  8. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

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    Sri Rahayu Santi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nemm leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the antimicrobial soap product is as good as ordinary soap, having full of foam, not hot without iritation, because it is properly laboratory tested. All of participants showed their enthusiasm during activity and they will try to make soap. This was showed by the evaluation report saying that all participants understand about making soap and they want to try at home. This public service made people interested to improve their knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  9. Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole Busayo, Akinola; Laura, Zatta; Olufunke Olubusola, Dosumu; Oluwafunmike Sharon, Akinola; Luciana, Dini; Ezekiel Ademola, Caxton-Martins

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (161-190 g) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups of six animals each: control, diabetic, diabetic + AIE, diabetic + metformin, AIE only. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). AIE and metformin were administered orally for 50 days (50 d) at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 350 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Blood glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method; plasma urea and creatinine were assayed; and paraffin sections of the kidney were stained by periodic acid-Schiff technique. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Renal histopathology of these animals showed features of diabetic nephropathy, with nodular glomerulosclerosis and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells (Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon). These feature were absent in the diabetic rats treated with AIE. Besides, plasma urea and creatinine were not significantly different from the control in this group (p > 0.05), in contrast to the untreated diabetic rats, where significant increases in these markers (p < 0.05). These findings showed that the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in rats.

  10. Production of Limonoids with Insect Antifeedant Activity in a Two-Stage Bioreactor Process with Cell Suspension Culture of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rivera, Andrés; Chicaiza-Finley, Diego; Hoyos, Rodrigo A; Orozco-Sánchez, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) cell suspension culture is an alternative for the production of limonoids for insect control that overcomes limitations related to the supply of neem seeds. To establish conditions for cell growth and azadiracthin-related limonoid production, the effect of different sucrose concentrations, nitrate and phosphate in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and the addition of one precursor and three elicitors was evaluated in shake flasks. The process was scaled up to a 3-l stirred tank bioreactor in one- and two-stage batch cultivation. In shake flasks, more than fivefold increase in the production of limonoids with the modified MS medium was observed (increase from 0.77 to 4.52 mg limonoids/g dry cell weight, DCW), while an increase of more than fourfold was achieved by adding the elicitors chitosan, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid together (increase from 1.03 to 4.32 mg limonoids/g DCW). In the bioreactor, the volumetric production of limonoids was increased more than threefold with a two-stage culture in day 18 (13.82 mg limonoids/l in control single-stage process and 41.44 mg/l in two-stage process). The cultivation and operating mode of the bioreactor reported in this study may be adapted and used in optimization and process plant development for production of insect antifeedant limonoids with A. indica cell suspension cultures.

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  12. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  13. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  14. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  15. Pharmacodynamic evaluation for antiplasmodial activity of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (Neemb) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadhav Priyanka; Lal Hingorani; Kshirsagar Nilima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of plants selected based on the symptomology mentioned in Ayurveda. Methods: The aqueous extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (H. antidysentrica) (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (Neemb) for their antiplasmodial potential in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice was assessed using Peters four day suppressive test. Both the extracts were administered at 2 dose levels, full dose (1 000 mg/d) and minimized dose (200 mg/d). 106 P. berghei infected RBCs were injected on day ’0’ and treated from day ’0’ till day ’3’ post-infection. Tail blood smears were collected, giemsa stained and analyzed. The mice were observed for survival and parasitemia was assessed till 50% of mice in control survived. Results: It was observed that the percentage of parasitemia increased gradually in all the groups, with maximum in control group (Day 3-35, Day 9-46.98) and minimum in Chloroquine arm (Day 3-14.06, Day 9-19.92). The percentage of parasitemia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test depicting that all test groups exhibited reduction in parasitemia as compared to control (P-value<0.002 for all groups). These groups showed similar percentage of survival as Chloroquine. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrated the anti-plasmodial effects of H. antidysentrica and A. indica, which are two most commonly used medicinal plants in Ayurved for treatment of fever.

  16. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

    2014-11-06

    The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery.

  17. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  18. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosaEfeito alelopático de extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. em alface, soja, milho, feijão e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Maria Pilatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Meliaceae has been identified as one of the most promising for biological control, as most species have biologically active compounds. Among the species, the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is that stands out most for its efficiency and low toxicity, and it is utilized to control insects, fungi and nematodes. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic potential of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Neem on germination of lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosa, as a way to control this weed. The extract was obtained by grinding 200g/L of fresh leaves of the Neem (considered extract 100% and diluting in distilled water at concentrations of 80, 60, 40, and 20%, and a control with only water. The seeds were kept in the germination chamber at a temperature of 25°C, with photoperiod of 12 hours of light. The aqueous extract affected the germination percentage and average length root of lettuce, with values of 1% and 0.1, cm respectively. For the soybeans, the extract influenced negatively the average time of germination and average speed of germination. There was a drastic reduction of the average root length at higher concentration for soybean, corn and beans. For Bidens pilosa all the parameters analyzed were negatively affected, which means sensitivity to the extract. The bioassay performed in the laboratory showed that the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica has allelopathic effect on all species.A família Meliaceae foi identificada como um dos grupos mais promissores para o controle biológico, pois a maioria das espécies possui compostos biologicamente ativos. Dentre as espécies, o Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. é a que mais se destaca pela sua alta eficiência e baixa toxidade, empregada no controle de insetos, fungos e nematóides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de Nim sobre a germinação de alface, soja, milho, feij

  19. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  20. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies.

  1. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use.

  2. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole) formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakist...

  3. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Gotep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p<0.05 dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis.

  4. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotep, J. G.; Tanko, J. T.; Forcados, G. E.; Muraina, I. A.; Ozele, N.; Dogonyaro, B. B.; Oladipo, O. O.; Makoshi, M. S.; Akanbi, O. B.; Kinjir, H.; Samuel, A. L.; Onyiche, T. E.; Ochigbo, G. O.; Aladelokun, O. B.; Ozoani, H. A.; Viyoff, V. Z.; Dapuliga, C. C.; Atiku, A. A.; Okewole, P. A.; Shamaki, D.; Ahmed, M. S.; Nduaka, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. PMID:26989496

  5. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elumalai, K. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: drvelmurganphy@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics (FEAT), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  6. Efeito dos extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae] na produção de patulina em maçãs contaminadas por Penicillium expansum Effect of aqueous and oily extracts of Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae] on patulin production in apples contaminated with Penicillium expansum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Arroteia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Sul do Brasil é grande produtora de maçã, sendo 80% destinada ao consumo in natura. As micotoxinas são metabólitos secundários de fungos presentes na cadeia alimentar como contaminantes, causando diversos efeitos toxicológicos e imunológicos. Considerando que a patulina seja uma micotoxina produzida por Penicillium expansum, principal contaminante da maçã propôs-se investigar a ação de extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim (Azadirachta indica em maçã artificialmente contaminada. Foram testados dois tipos de extratos: o extrato aquoso obtido de maceração de folhas de Nim nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 30%, e o extrato oleoso comercial (DalNeem®, obtido de sementes de Nim, nas concentrações de 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2 e 5%. Os extratos aquosos não alteram a produção da patulina em maçãs contaminadas artificialmente por P. expansum, mas o extrato oleoso obtido das sementes da planta diminuiu acentuadamente a produção de patulina, inclusive em concentrações inferiores a 0,5%.The South region of Brazil is a major apple producer, where 80% is destined to the "in natura" consumption. The mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites present as contaminants in the food chain, causing several toxicological and immunological effect. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium expansum and well known as the main contaminant in apples. Due to this contamination, the aim of this work was to access the effect of Neem extract (Azadirachta indica on artificially contaminated apples. Two types of Neem extracts were tested: the aqueous extracts of Neem leafs at 5, 10, 20 and 30% concentrations, and commercial seed oil of Neem (DalNeem® at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% in water. Although the addition of Neem aqueous extracts in artificially contaminated apples with P. expansum was unable to affect the patulin production, the Neem seed oil extract at concentrations as lower as 0.5%, caused a pronounced diminution over

  7. EXTRATO AQUOSO DE FOLHAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss NO CONTROLE DE Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

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    Marcelo Toller Borsonaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to test different dosages of aqueous extract of leaves of neem(Azadirachta indica as natural alternative and of easy application in the control of Sitophilus zeamais in grains of corn, seeing it is one of main stored corn pests. Were evaluated the following concentrations: 10%, 20%, 30% and witness. They were applied directly on the mass of grains and the insects with a pressurized pulverizer model Guarany PCP-1P in the dosage of 0,56 mL for dish. The treatments did not present significant difference as the reduction of weight of grains, but there was significant difference in relation to the population control. As for this parameter, the aqueous extract of leaves of neem in concentration 30,3%, can be considered an alternative treatment against S. zeamais in stored corn grains.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo testar diferentes dosagens de extrato aquoso de folhas de Nim (Azadirachta indica A Juss como alternativa natural e de fácil aplicação no controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae em grãos de milho (Zea mays L., visto que esta é uma das principais pragas do milhoarmazenado. Avaliaram-se as seguintes concentrações: 10%, 20%, 30,3%, além do tratamento testemunha. Foram aplicados diretamente sobre a massa de grãos e sobre os insetos com um pulverizador pressurizado modelo Guarany PCP-1P na dosagem de 0,56 mL por placa. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa quanto à redução de peso de grãos, mas houve diferença significativa em relação ao controle populacional. Quanto a este parâmetro, o extrato aquoso de folhas de Nim na concentração 30,3%, pode ser considerado um tratamento alternativo no controle de S. zeamais em grãos de milho armazenado.

  8. The potential role of Azadirachta indica treatment on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; El-Deib, Kamal M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a) histological changes, (b) tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c) investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.

  9. The Potential Role of Azadirachta indica Treatment on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Female Rats

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    Mohamed A. Dkhil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a histological changes, (b tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.

  10. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

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    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  11. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

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    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  12. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

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    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  13. Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.

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    Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals.

  14. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

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    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti

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    Koech Peter Kiplang’at

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum, Neem (Azadirachta indica and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora extracts. Different concentrations of the extracts were tested for mosquito repellency on rabbit skin as the host of Aedes aegypti. Laboratory reared starved females were used for the tests and data collection was done by observational parameters based on frequency of mosquito landing and blood engorgement. Synergised Crude oleoresin extract of Pyrethrum and Ballet mosquito repellent® were included as positive test controls and Vaseline pure petroleum jelly® as a negative test control. The results showed that synergised Pyrethrum oleoresin showed complete protection at 0.1% as compared to Lemon Eucalyptus oil and Sweet Basil oil at 2% and 3% respectively (p<0.05. Neem oil and Ballet did not provide complete protection. The mean percent repellency of 5% Neem oil was 84.21 and that of Ballet was 66.84 (p<0.05. Sweet basil and Lemon Eucalyptus oils can be alternative to Pyrethrum as natural mosquito repellents from plant origin.

  16. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

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    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  17. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera and Azadirachta indica against some pathogenic microbes: A comparative study

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    Anupama Priadarshini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of petroleum ether and chloroform leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera were studied against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae for varying concentration of extracts of 200mg/ml, 150mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml, using disc diffusion method. It was compared with gentamycin 150mg/ml as standard. The petroleum ether extract showed maximum and equal inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, followed by Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli in a descending order in both the extracts. Salmonella typhimurium was found to be resistant to petroleum ether extract of both plants. The chloroform extract showed maximum inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and equal zone of inhibition was shown by Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium where as minimum zone of inhibition was recorded in Escherichia coli. Overall chloroform leaf extract exhibited better antimicrobial potential against pathogens. Results indicate the potential of these plants for further work on isolation and characterization of the active principle responsible for antibacterial activity and its exploitation as therapeutic agent

  18. De novo adventitious root formations in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica in response to different rooting media and auxin treatments

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    Gehlot A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is a multipurpose Indian tree important to local economy. Conservation of the genetic resources of neem is essential for the adaptability of this tree species to projected climate change impacts. Here, the effect of type and concentration of auxins in different rooting media on adventitious root formation (ARF in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica is depicted. Three different rooting media (i.e., sand, vermiculite and soil were used, and the experiment was established using three types of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA and 6 concentration treatment combinations (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1, in a complete randomized block design (CRBD. Significant effects of different auxin types, concentration treatments and rooting media on adventitious root formation of neem mini-cuttings were observed. Mini-cuttings were assessed for rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and number of leaves. IBA resulted in higher rooting percentage (90%, number of roots (149.56, root length (14.83 cm and number of leaves per rooted mini-cuttings (12.78, when growing in sand. The determination of proper rooting protocols and the use of mini-cuttings were proved important for improving mass propagation of A. indica.

  19. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  20. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis pre

  1. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

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    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  2. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety.

  3. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice

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    Fauziah Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Azadirachta indica (Neem has been used traditionally for many centuries.Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeuticeffect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purposeof the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extractin an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice.Materials and Methods: A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups consisting of 12 mice pergroup. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 inphosphate buffer saline (PBS (NC, 250 mg/kg Neem (N250 or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500.The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS(CC, and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, 250 mg/kg Neemleaf extract (CN 250 or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were used to evaluate apoptosis(cell death in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statisticalanalysis. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Non parametric analysis ofvariance (ANOVA was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays.Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA.Results: TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidenceof apoptosis compared with the cancer controls.Conclusion: The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breastcancer BALB/c mice.

  4. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant.

  5. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  6. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  7. ESTABLECIMIENTO DEL SISTEMA DE REGENERACION POR EMBRIOGÉNESIS SOMÁTICA DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Maria D. Artigas R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica, es una planta con múltiples aplicaciones tanto forestal como farmacológica. Por ende, el establecimiento del sistema de cultivo in vitro por embriogénesis somática ofrece diversas y variadas ventajas, tales como obtener plantas altamente productivas en metabolitos. En este estudio, se utilizaron secciones foliares y cotiledonares, inducidas en medios MS (1962 suplementados con: BAP sólo y combinado con ANA/2,4-D, TDZ sólo y con ABA. La regeneración fue con MS sólo o con K + AIA y BAP + AIA. Como resultado se estableció un sistema eficiente con secciones de cotiledones, observándose organogénesis a bajas concentraciones de BAP, mientras a altos niveles de BAP (2,5 mg.L-1, así como  con TDZ + ABA (0,02 + 1mg.L-1 respectivamente favorecieron la embriogénesis somática primaria y secundaria en un 96 % y 71 % respectivamente. La regeneración fue 71 % con MS, mientras que el enraizamiento fue de 86,67 % con MS½, obteniéndose plantas completas a corto plazo. ABSTRACTAzadirachta indica, is a plant with multiple forest and pharmacological application. Therefore, the establishment of in vitro culture system for somatic embryogenesis offers several distinct advantages such as obtaining highly productive plant metabolites. In this study, were used sections cotyledon and leaf, induced on MS medium (1962 supplemented with: BAP alone and combined with NAA / 2,4-D, TDZ alone and ABA. Regeneration was with MS alone or with K + BAP + IAA and IAA. As a result was established an efficient system with cotyledon sections, being observed organogenesis at low concentrations of BAP, while high levels of BAP (2.5 mg.L-1 with 96 % and TDZ + ABA (0.02 + 1mg.L-1 with 71 %, favoring the primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis. Regeneration was 71 % with MS; rooting was 86.67 % with MS½, presenting whole plants obtained short term.RESUMOAzadirachta indica, é uma planta com várias aplicaçãos florestas e farmacológicas. Por

  8. In vitro and in vivo effects of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) products on larvae of the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L. Díptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Palacios, R; Servín, R; Ramírez-Orduña, J M; Ascencio, F; Dorchies, P; Angulo-Valadez, C E

    2014-02-24

    Two studies were carried out in order to test the effects of neem tree extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on sheep bot fly larvae (Oestrus ovis L. Diptera: Oestridae). First, aqueous extracts from neem seeds (ASNE) at 0, 5 y 10% (w/v) concentrations were tested on larval mortality in vitro. In a second study, the effect of oral administration with neem seed meal (0, 100 y 200mg/kg) and neem leaves (1% of diet) on number of larvae found at necropsy and larval development was evaluated in experimentally O. ovis-infected sheep. Results in Experiment 1 showed a significant (P<0.05) effect of ASNE on time to L1 mortality in a dosis-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, oral administration of seeds or leaves did not affect the number of larvae found at necropsy of the sheep, but interfered with larval development and there was a tendency to reduce larval weight at the end of the infection period (55d).

  9. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

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    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  10. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  11. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults Efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica Sobre adultos de Ceratitis capitata

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    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica sobre Ceratitis capitata. Os tratamentos em um tubo plástico com algodão foram expostos para dois casais numa gaiola plástica. Nessa gaiola, também foi fornecida dieta artificial (proteína hidrolisada + açúcar ad libitum. Os extratos afetaram significativamente a longevidade de C. capitata. O período de pré-oviposição não foi significativamente afetado pelos extratos. Em contrapartida, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano (888 ppm afetou a fecundidade e a fertilidade, reduzindo em 80% o número de ovos colocados e a viabilidade dos ovos em 30%, no 8º dia. Portanto, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano afeta a reprodução de C. capitata.

  12. 印楝Azadirachta Indica A.Juss的冷驯化与抗冻蛋白的研究%On Cold-Acclimation and Antifreeze Proteins of Azadirachta Indica A.Juss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 杨光伟

    2012-01-01

    The micropropagation system has been established through plant tissue culture technology with traditional herbal plant Azadirachta Indica A. Juss as material before cold acclimation process is carried out; in vivo antifreeze proteins of neem have been investigated and analyzed. The main results are as follows: ①After cold acclimation, total amount of neem protein increases and several new proteins produce. However, with the cold treatment for too long a time, amount of the neem cold-induced proteins decrease, and even some of them are degradated. ②The stability of antifreeze proteinfrom neem is related to the time of cold treatment in cold acclimation. The shortest time for antifreeze protein production is two weeks in 5℃ , and the cold resistant limit of neem is in 5℃ for 20 days. When the temperature drops below 0℃ , AFPs are accumulated in the first days of cold treatment(0~ 15 d). However, while the treatment time i.s prolonged, Antifreeze protein are degradated and dismissed on the 30th day. ③ Purified antifreeze protein is obtained, and the relative molecular mass is around 36 KD.%采用木本植物材料——印楝,通过组织培养建立快繁体系,然后对其进行冷驯化处理,并分析检测印楝植物体内抗冻蛋白.主要结果如下:①冷驯化处理后印楝的总蛋白一些表现为量的增加同时会有新的蛋白产生.但脱驯化或处理时间过长时,抗冻蛋白在量的表达上会有逐渐减少或消失的现象.②在对印楝的冷驯化中,发现不同的温度处理后蛋白稳定存在的时间不同.抗冻蛋白出现的最早时期为5℃处理2周左右,印楝能耐受的稳定最低温为5℃,所持续的最长时间约为20 d.在0℃低温处理后,虽然在处理初期(0~15 d)也有抗冻蛋白的产生,但随处理时间的延长,这种差异逐渐减少,在处理30 d时完全消失.③得到了分离纯化的抗冻蛋白,其相对分子质量约为3.6×104.

  13. Anti-juvenile activity of Azadirachta indica extract on the development and morphometry of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, Chand N

    2009-10-01

    Efficacy of extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Argemone mexicana, and Azadirachta indica were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Petroleum ether extracts of A. conyzoides and A. mexicana with LC(50) values 425.60 and 267.90 ppm and 140.15 and 137.70 ppm after a period of 24 and 48 h, respectively, were found effective. However, the methanol extract of A. indica with LC(50) values 21.95 and 11.30 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively, was the most competent larvicide. The methanol extract of A. indica, being the most potent extract was therefore studied for its impact on the developmental scenario of the mosquito. It had a significant effect on the life cycle of the vector, C. quinquefasciatus. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced compared to control. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period. Disrupted egg shells, dechitinized body walls, and distorted intestines were observed, indicating clearly the anti-juvenile potential of the extract. The growth index was considerably reduced.

  14. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  15. Chemopreventive Effects of Azadirachta indica on Cancer Marker Indices and Ultrastructural Changes During 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Sun, Bo; Wu, Peiwei; Wei, Xi

    2015-09-01

    The present study elucidated the prospective of Azadirachta indica supplementation, if any, in affording chemoprevention by modulating the altered cancer markers and ultrastructural changes in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were segregated into four groups viz., normal control, DMH treated, A. indica treated, and DMH+AI treated. Initiation and induction of colon carcinogenesis were achieved through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for both 10 and 20 weeks. A. indica extract was supplemented to rats at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight of animals thrice a week on alternative days, ad libitum for two different time durations of 10 and 20 weeks. The study observed a significant increase in the number of aberrant crypt foci in colons of DMH-treated rats at both the time intervals which were decreased significantly upon AI supplementation. Also, a significant increase was seen in the enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, which, however, was moderated upon AI administration to DMH-treated rats. Changes in the ultrastructural architecture of colonic cells were apparent following both the treatment schedules of DMH; however, the changes were prominent following 20 weeks of DMH treatment. The most obvious changes were seen in the form of altered nuclear shape and disruption of cellular integrity, which were appreciably improved upon AI supplementation. In conclusion, the study shows the chemopreventive abilities of AI against DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats.

  16. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  17. A Brief Review on Insecticidal Function of Azadirachta Indica%印楝的杀虫作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲; 王李斌

    2012-01-01

    印楝目前为国际上公认的杀虫植物,以其应用范围广,杀虫效果显著,生物活性物质含量高和易提取等特点受到广泛关注。文章从其对靶标的主要活性成分、作用方式、害虫控制、作用机理等方面综述了近年来的研究进展。%Acknowledged as the most potential insecticidal plant in the world , Azadirachta indica A.Juss.has features of widely-applied areas, marked effect, high effective ingredients and easy abstraction.Advances in study on the effective components, modes of action, insect control and function mechanism in recent years are discussed in this paper.

  18. Bio-green synthesis of Ag-GO, Au-GO and Ag-Au-GO nanocomposites using Azadirachta indica: its application in SERS and cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareesh, K.; Williams, J. F.; Dhole, N. A.; Kodam, K. M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    Silver-graphene oxide, Gold-graphene oxide, Silver-Gold-graphene oxide nanocomposites were synthesized from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) extract using a bio-green one-pot method. The synthesized bio-green nanocomposites were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffractogram, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated the decoration of ˜10 nm of silver, ˜20 nm of gold and ˜15 nm of silver-gold nanoparticles on a graphene oxide sheet. The synthesized nanocomposites showed enhancement in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy with alizarin and also enhancement in cell viability of Chang liver cell lines which may be due to a synergetic effect of nanoparticles and graphene oxide.

  19. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Garg, Paridhi; Singh, Udai Pratap; Mishra, Chandrakar Chaman; Nagpal, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem) etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem) group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted. PMID:24347888

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  3. Nutrient dynamics associated with leaf litter decomposition of three agroforestry tree species (Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sissoo, and Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Hossain; Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique; Md. Saidur Rahman; Md. Zaber Hossain; Md. Mahedi Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss,Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.,and Melia azedarach L.are little studied species in nutrient return capabilities from leaf litter decomposition to maintenance of the soil fertility despite their importance in agroforestry practices of Bangladesh.A leaf litter decomposition experiment was conducted using a litterbag technique to assess the nutrient return efficiency of these species.The decomposition rate of leaf liter was highest for M.azedarach and lowest for D.sissoo.Rainfall and temperature of study sites showed a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship with the rate of leaf litter decomposition.The highest decay constant was observed for M.azedarach (6.67).Nitrogen and Phosphorus concentration in leaf litter showed a decreased trend sharply at the end of the first month,whereas rapid decrease of Potassium concentration was reported within 10 days.Conversely,higher concentration of nutrient was observed at the later stages of decomposition.All three species showed a similar pattern of nutrient release (K > N> P) during the decomposition process of leaf litter.Among the studied species,D.sissoo was best in terms of N and P return and A.indica was best in terms of K return.

  4. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: a step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A.indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region.

  5. To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica (neem, a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect. Materials and Methods: Forty five subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were selected for the study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I patients were asked to rinse with 15 ml of neem mouthwash twice daily, group II with 15 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily, and group III with 15 ml of saline twice daily. The three groups were asked to perform the routine oral hygiene procedures thought out the study period. Bleeding on probing and gingivitis were evaluated by Muhlemann and Son′s Sulcus bleeding index (1971 and Loe and Sillness gingival index (1963, respectively, at base line, after every week till one month. Results: Our result showed that an A. indica mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 21 days as compared to placebo. Conclusion: A. indica-based mouth rinse is equally efficacious with fewer side effects as compared to chlorhexidine and may be used as an adjunct therapy in treating plaque induced gingivitis.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  7. Biosorptive behaviour of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for Hg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Cd{sup 2+} toxic ions from aqueous solutions: a radiotracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Diwakar; Mishra, Shuddhodan P. [Nuclear and Radiochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Mishra, Manisha; Dubey, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biosorption of Hg{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} on dead biomass Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark has been assessed at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions employing the 'radiotracer technique'. A high level of uptake of metal ions on these solid surfaces occurs within ca. 4 h of contact time reaching apparent saturation. The increase of sorptive concentration (10{sup -8} to 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}), temperature (293-323 K) and pH (ca. 3 to 10) favoured the removal process of these ions; but in the case of Hg{sup 2+} on Neem bark, there was seemingly no temperature effect. The uptake process follows first order rate law and obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Added anions and cations in the bulk solution inhibit to some extent the removal of these toxic ions. Similarly the inhibition in the uptake was also observed when both biomasses were irradiated by neutron and {gamma}-rays prior to being employed as sorbents. No significant sorption of Cd{sup 2+} was observed on these dead biomass solid surfaces under various physical-chemical conditions.

  8. Eficiência do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss como barreira natural ao ataque de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King The efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss as natural barrier to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on the Brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clese Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência da espécie Azadirachta indica como barreira natural ao ataque da Hypsipyla grandella sobre o mogno em diferentes arranjos e densidades de plantio foi, avaliada. O estudo foi realizado numa área de pastagem degradada em Vigia, PA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco repetições, sendo as formas de cultivo do mogno as parcelas, e as épocas de avaliação (meses as subparcelas. A barreira natural formada pelo nim não evitou o ataque de H. grandella sobre o mogno, mas retardou e minimizou o ataque em plantios mistos. Para o maior controle do ataque de H. grandella, o mogno não deve ser plantado simultaneamente com o nim, mas um ano após o plantio do nim, quando este apresenta mais de três metros de altura, formando uma barreira natural mais eficaz ao ataque desta praga.The efficiency of Azadirachta indica as natural barrier against the attack by Hypsipyla grandellaon mahogany in different arrangements and planting densities was evaluated. The study was carried out in degraded pasture in Vigia, Pará. The experimental design was a randomized block in split plot in time with five replications, the forms of cultivation of mahogany as plots and the evaluation periods (months as the subplots. The natural barrier formed by neem did not prevent the attack of H. grandella on mahogany, but delayed and minimized the attack in mixed plantings. It is recommended that mahogany should not be planted simultaneously with the neem, but a year after planting the neem, when it has more than three meters in height, forming a natural barrier more effective to pest attack.

  9. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection.

  10. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica on c-MycOncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Pei Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250, and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500. In situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue.Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05 suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group.Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolicneem leaf extract.

  11. Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Opender Koul; Gurmeet Singh; Rajwinder Singh; Jasbir Singh; W M Daniewski; Stanislaw Berlozecki

    2004-12-01

    Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 g/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% in S. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of the H. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

  12. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  13. Rendimento e Características Físicas dos Óleos de Nim (Azadirachta indica e Mamona (Ricinus communis

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar o rendimento e a viscosidade de óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e mamona (Ricinus communis. Os frutos de nim foram coletados no Núcleo de Pesquisa do Semiárido, em Patos, Paraíba, e os de mamona, às margens do Rio Espinharas, Patos e em Igaracy, Paraíba. Os frutos foram beneficiados no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Produtos Florestais, em Patos. Foram retiradas amostras de sementes para a determinação do teor de umidade e do rendimento em óleos. Os óleos foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo de soluções com os óleos de nim e mamona. Determinaram-se a densidade e a viscosidade das soluções. A mamona teve menor teor de umidade e rendimento em óleo que o nim. A densidade e a viscosidade do óleo de nim foram menores que o da mamona. Uma maior quantidade de óleos de mamona proporcionou aumento na densidade e na viscosidade das soluções preparadas.

  14. Morphological and biochemical changes in Azadirachta indica from coal combustion fly ash dumping site from a thermal power plant in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Sami Ullah; Raja, Vaseem; Siddiqui, Weqar A

    2016-07-01

    The foliar and biochemical traits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss from fly ash (FA) dumping site in Badarpur thermal power plant (BTPP) New Delhi, India was studied. Three different experimental sites were selected at different distances from the thermal power plant. Ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal index (SI), stomatal conductance (SC), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration [CO2]i, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrogen, nitrate, nitrate reductase activity, proline, protein, reducing sugar and sulphur content were measured. Considerable reduction in pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and total chlorophyll was observed at fly ash dumping site. Fly ash stress revealed the inhibitory effect on Nitrate reductase activity (NRA), Nitrate, soluble protein, and reducing sugar content, whereas stimulatory effect was found for the stomatal index, nitrogen, proline, antioxidants and sulphur content in the leaves. Under fly ash stress, stomatal conductance was low, leading to declining in photosynthetic rate and increase in the internal CO2 concentration of leaf. Single leaf area (SLA), leaf length and leaf width also showed a declining trend from control to the polluted site. Antioxidant enzymes increased in leaves reflecting stress and extenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  15. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  16. In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

    2012-08-13

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae.

  17. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  18. Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h.

  19. Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Cake/Kernel as Protein Source in Ruminants Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Aruwayo, A.; S.A. Maigandi

    2013-01-01

    Ruminant production that is very popular in Nigeria livestock production faces series of problems, chief among them is the shortage of protein supply in adequate amount for optimum performance of the animals. The forages, which constitute the bulk of the source of feed for these animals, fluctuate in supply with poor nutrient content especially during the dry season of the year. The convectional protein concentrates which boost the protein supply faces intense competition from man. It has bec...

  20. Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer.

  1. Comparison of Two Adsorbent Based de-Bittering Procedures for Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Tea- Effect on Polyphenols, Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Color and Volatile Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhinandya; Grün, Ingolf U; Kwasniewski, Misha T; Fernando, Lakdas N

    2017-03-01

    Bitterness reduction, especially of foods and beverages containing phytonutrients, is one of the biggest challenges in the food industry because bitterness has a deleterious effect on the taste profile of foods and beverages. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a medicinal tree, indigenous to the Indian-subcontinent, whose medicinal properties have led to it being heralded as the tree which is the "panacea for all diseases". However, neem leaf is extremely bitter, in large part due to its limonoid content, making it unpalatable. The objective of this study was to apply two adsorbent based strategies, namely solid phase extraction (SPE) and Amberlite XAD-16 (AMB) resin, to achieve de-bittering of neem tea and to determine the effects of the de-bittering on the bio-active, color and volatile properties. The solid SPE treatment completely removed the flavonol, quercetin, from neem tea while in Amberlite XAD-16 treated tea (AMB) it was only insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced. We also observed decreases in total phenolic content and consequently anti-oxidant activities after de-bittering. A 62% mean reduction of limonoid aglycones indicated diminished levels of bitterness. The loss of phenolics lead to a visually appreciable color changes in the treated teas. The de-bittering also leads to a loss of sesquiterpenes, ketones and acids from neem tea. In conclusion, we found that while SPE cartridges were more efficient in removing bitterness, they caused a greater reduction in bio-active compounds than AMB XAD-16 resins, which may ultimately affect the health properties of neem tea.

  2. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA DL50 y TL50 DE EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda DETERMINATION OF THE LD50 AND THE LT50 ETHANOL’S EXTRACTS OF CELLULAR SUSPENSIONS FROM Azadirachta indica OVER Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Trujillo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La obtención in vitro de metabolitos secundarios de neem surge como una alternativa para la posible producción industrial de biocidas. Para la búsqueda de propuestas dirigidas al control de Spodoptera frugiperda, se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos etanólicos de suspensiones celulares de Azadirachta indica para determinar la DL50 y el TL50 sobre la fase larval del segundo ínstar (L2. Se probaron cuatro concentraciones de los extractos (2.500, 5.000, 10.000 y 30.000 ppm y el testigo (alcohol 96% para determinar la mortalidad en el tiempo (0, 12, 18, 25, 40 h. Se determinó una DL50 a las 12 h de 2.256 ppm (R² = 88,54%, a las 18 h de 3.928 ppm (R² = 90,3 %, a las 25 h de 2.818 ppm (R² = 90,3 % y a las 40 h de 1.064 ppm (R² =90,3 %. Las dosis de 5.000 ppm, 10.000 ppm y 30.000 ppm, no presentaron diferencia estadística en su acción letal, pero fueron efectivas en el control del insecto.The production in vitro of secondary metabolites from neem arises like an alternative for the possible industrial processing of biocidas. In the search of alternatives for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda, were evaluated ethanolic extracts of cellular suspensions from Azadirachta indica in order to determine the DL 50 and the TL50 on the larval state of the second “instar” (L2. Four concentrations of the extracts (2.500, 5.000, 10.000, and 30.000 ppm and the control (alcohol 96% to determine mortality in the time (0, 12, 18, 25, 40 hours were compared. It was determined a DL50 at the 12 hours of 2.256 ppm, (R2 = 88, 54%, at the 18 hours of 3.928 ppm, (R2 = 90,30%, at the 25 hours of 2.818 ppm, (R2 = 90,30% and at the 40 hours of 1.064 ppm, (R2 =90,30%. The doses of 5.000 ppm, 10.000 ppm and 30.000 ppm, didn't present differences statistically significant in their lethal action, but were effective in the insect control.

  3. EFECTO DE LA RELACIÓN AGITACIÓN-AIREACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO CELULAR Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AZADIRACTINA EN CULTIVOS CELULARES DE AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS AGITATION-AERATION RELATION EFFECTS ON CELL CULTURE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS NEEM ON AZADIRACHTIN PRODUCTION IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Bedoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de azadiractina a partir de células de Azadirachta indica A. Juss, establecidas en un biorreactor sometido a variaciones en la velocidad de agitación y el caudal del aire suministrado al medio de cultivo. Además, se determinó el efecto del oxigeno disuelto en el medio de cultivo, sobre el crecimiento celular y la producción del metabolito, mediante la estimación del coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno (kLa, la velocidad de transferencia de oxígeno (OTR, la velocidad de consumo de oxígeno (OUR y el consumo celular específico de oxígeno (SOUR. Los resultados mostraron que el crecimiento celular y la producción de azadiractina, están fuertemente influenciados por las condiciones de mezclado presentes en el biorreactor, indicando un alto grado de sensibilidad de las células al estrés hidrodinámico. Por otra parte, se evidenció que los valores de kLa y OTR aumentaron al incrementar la velocidad de agitación y aireación, lo que favoreció la transferencia de masa, mientras que ocurrió lo contrario con la OUR y la SOUR, posiblemente debido a la pérdida de la viabilidad celular, al incrementar los esfuerzos cortantes dentro del biorreactor.It was evaluated the production of azadiractin from cells of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, established in a biorreactor submitted to variations in the speed of agitation and the air flow provided to the culture medium. Besides, it was determined the effect of the oxygen dissolved in the culture medium, on cellular growth and production of the metabolite, by means of estimating the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa , oxygen transfer rate (OTR, oxygen uptake rate (OUR, and the cellular specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR. The results showed that the cellular growth and azadiractin production, are strongly influenced by the mixed conditions in the biorreactor, indicating a high degree of sensitivity of cells to the hydrodinamic stress. On the other hand, it was evident that k

  4. Stress, storage & survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display intermediate or recalcitrant s

  5. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a tr

  6. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (elephants as dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  7. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models

    OpenAIRE

    Sandesh, P.; Velu, V.; R. P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as ...

  8. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  9. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  10. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  11. Evaluation of the fatty acid composition of the seeds of Mangifera indica L. and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhsien; Tokuda, Megumi; Kashiwagi, Ayaka; Henmi, Atsushi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Tachibana, Shinya; Nomura, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), an edible fruit, is one of the main agricultural products in many tropical regions. Mango varieties differ in not only fruit shape but also aroma, which is an important characteristic. Although the fruit has many uses, the seeds are discarded as waste. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the fatty acid content of seed oil of mangoes from different cultivation areas (Miyazaki, Japan, and Taiwan), and to evaluate their application in cosmetics. Five fatty acids were identified in the mango seed oil. Oleic acid and stearic acid were the principal components of mango seed oil obtained from Miyazaki (46.1% and 39.8%, respectively) and Taiwan (43.7% and 40.1%, respectively). As a cosmetic ingredient, mango seed oil showed good deodorizing effect on both 2-nonenal and isovaleric acid. The results indicated the potential applications of mango seed oil in the cosmetic industry.

  12. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  13. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods.

  14. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  15. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  16. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 2. Influence of seed supplemented diet on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-11-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate some biological parameters in rats fed with a supplemented diet with Opuntia ficus indica powder seeds. Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noticed between the different diets. The results indicated a significant decrease in body weight of rats receiving a diet partially substituted with O. ficus indica powder seeds, probably due to a significant decrease in serum-free thyroxin (FT(4)) compared to the control group. In the treated group, a decrease of glucose concentration in blood and an increase of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle were noticed. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was noted in the group receiving the supplemented diet with O. ficus indica powder seeds. These results suggest that O. ficus indica seeds can be used as a healthy food.

  17. Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC, protein content (PK. Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01 in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01 as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.

  18. Seed germination and seedling development in the mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbineau, F; Kanté, M; Côme, D

    1986-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L., cv Ruby) seeds taken from ripe fruit showed no dormancy. They germinated at temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C, but germination was most rapid near the upper end of this range (25-40 degrees C). The fresh seeds had a high moisture content (85%, dry weight basis) and quickly died on dehydration. The optimal temperature for growth of the seedlings was close to 30 degrees C. High temperatures (40 degrees C) and temperatures below 15 degrees C were lethal. Growth of the stem occurred in successive flushes separated by rest periods. When the leaves of the preceding flush finished growing, the axis lengthened beneath the apical bud.

  19. 不同林龄杂交楝(Azadirachta indica× Melia azedarach)人工林土壤水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation Functions of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach Plantation at Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成向荣; 虞木奎; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    为了明确林龄对杂交楝(印楝×苦楝)人工林土壤水土保持功能的影响,通过测定土壤持水能力、渗透能力和抗蚀能力来综合评价不同林龄杂交楝人工林保持水土功能.结果表明,随着杂交楝林龄增加,林地土壤孔隙结构得到改善、持水性能增加、渗透能力增大,提高了土壤水稳性指数,增加了土壤抗蚀性,土壤水土保持功能得到增强.3年生杂交楝林分的土壤持水性能、渗透能力和抗蚀性与1年生林分之间无显著差异,5年生杂交楝林地各指标均比1年生和3年生林分有显著提高.5年生杂交楝林地的土壤最大持水量、总孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度、平均渗透速率和水稳性指数分别比1年生林地增加18.6%、11.4%、19.8%、45%、30.1%.因此,种植杂交楝可以在短期内提高林分的土壤水土保持功能,在山地丘陵地区值得大力发展杂交楝.%In order to evaluate the effect of forest age of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach (hybrid neem tree) plantation on soil and water conservation function, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity and erosion resistance of hybrid neem plantation in different ages were studied. The results showed that soil pore structure, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance increased with the increase of hybrid neem stand age, soil and water conservation function was further enhanced. Soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance were not significant difference between 3-year-old and 1-year-old hybrid neem stands, however, these variables of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand were significantly higher than that of 1-year-old and 3-year-old stands. Compared to 1-year-old stand, maximal soil water-holding capacity, total porosity, non-capillary porosity, the average infiltration rate and water stability index of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand increased by 18.6%, 11.4%, 19.8%, 45

  20. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  1. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  2. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on incision and excision wound models in Wister albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Nagesh

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed promising wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of A. indica and provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use in the management of wounds. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1178-1182

  3. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of seeds oils and fruit juice of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia Dillenii from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Z.; Ramdani, M.; Tahri, M.; Rmili, R.; Elmsellem, H.; El Mahi, B.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    This study provides basic information on the mineral composition of the seeds and antioxidant activity in seeds oils and fruit juices of cactus belonging to two species Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii, from Morocco (Oujda), in order to evaluate the nutritional value of the Opuntia extracts. Minerals determined from dry seeds of Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii were: calcium 480.93 and 408.28; phosphorus 1417.59 and 970.15; potassium 304.51 and 201.96; magnesium: 316.59 and ...

  4. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md. Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  5. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  6. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-04-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an approximately 34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 A.

  7. Preliminary investigation on the antibacterial activity of mango (Mangifera indica L:Anacardiaceae) seed kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasminder Kaur; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Khoo Miew Leng; Rajasekaran Ayyalu; Kathiresan S; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera indicaL.) seed kernel.Methods: Chokanan mango seed kernel and seed kernels from assorted mango varieties were collected, cleaned, dried and powered. Crude methanolic extracts of mango seed kernel were analyzed for the phytochemical constituents. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion assay with three medically important bacterial pathogens such as methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)(MRSA),Escherichia coli (E. coli) andVibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus).Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of important phytochemical compounds such as glycosides, saponins, flavanoids, tannins and alkaloids. There was no significant difference in the phytochemical content between the single and assorted mango seed kernels. However, the free radical scavenging study indicated that the assorted mango kernels showed slightly higher activity than the single species (P<0.05). The crude methanolic extract of mango seed kernel at a concentration of100 mg/mL is found to have potential antimicrobial activity againstMRSA and E. coli compared toV. vulnificus. Study on the antibacterial activity also indicated that there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the single and assorted mango seed kernel extracts.Conclusions: The present study conclusively demonstrates the free radical scavenging activity and antibacterial activities of mango seed kernel. In addition, the results also indicated that there is no significant difference in the phytochemical content and biological activity of mango kernels from single and assorted mango varieties.

  8. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical.

  9. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  10. Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaroen, Y; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Changbumrung, S; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2005-11-01

    Although it is already known that Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds contain phenolic substances, the individual components of the seeds have not been fully identified and quantitated, and in the case of Tamarind pericarp not reported. Therefore, major polyphenolic compounds were extracted using organic solvents and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), nano-electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and where possible by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H and 13C NMR. Quantitative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in Tamarind seeds and pericarp was conducted by analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), calculated against standard curves of authentic compounds. The yields of total phenolic compounds after Soxhlet extraction with methanol were 6.54 and 2.82 g/kg (dry weight) in the seeds and pericarp respectively. The profile (%) of polyphenolics in Tamarind pericarp was dominated by proanthcyanidins (73.4) in various forms (+)-catechin (2.0), procyanidin B2 (8.2), (-)-epicatechin (9.4), procyanidin trimer (11.3), procyanidin tetramer (22.2), procyanidin pentamer (11.6), procyanidin hexamer (12.8) along with taxifolin (7.4), apigenin (2.0), eriodictyol (6.9), luteolin (5.0) and naringenin (1.4) of total phenols, respectively. The content of Tamarind seeds comprised only procyanidins, represented (%) mainly by oligomeric procyanidin tetramer (30.2), procyanidin hexamer (23.8), procyanidin trimer (18.1), procyanidin pentamer (17.6) with lower amounts of procyanidin B2 (5.5) and (-)-epicatechin (4.8). Extraction of Tamarind pericarp and seeds using acetone:methanol:acetic acid gave only procyanidin oligomers, but in much higher yield and variety. The antioxidant capacities of the Soxhlet methanolic extracts were determined, and indicates that Tamarind may be an

  11. Toxicity of fixed oil and crude extract from sa-dao-thiam, Azadirachta excelsa (Jack seed kernel to Aedes aegypti (L.

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    Ekkarat Kaewnang-O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of various concentrations of fixed oil and crude extract from sa-dao-thiam, Azadirachta excelsa(Jack seed kernel was assayed on an Aedes aegypti (L. test population under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrationlevels of responses at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs were evaluated. The LC50 values of the fixed oil and the crude extract were403.6 and 518.7 ppm, respectively. One hundred percent mortality in 24 hrs-post treatment was achieved at 2,000 and 4,000ppm for the oil and crude extract, respectively. It suggested that the oil is more toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae than the crudeextract. Further investigation suggested the occurrence of molting inhibition of Ae. aegypti larvae by the fixed oil and crudeextract as indicated by the small number of emerged adults. In addition, histological study suggested that damages on theepithelial cells of the midgut could result from the effects of the oil and crude extract. Hypertrophy and degeneration of theepithelial cells were observed, resulting in a presence of some cytoplasmic material in the alimentary canal. Further studiesshould be taken into account to identify their stability and residual activity of these products under field conditions.

  12. Eficacia del extracto de las hojas del NeemAzadirachta indica A. Juss en el control de nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovino Pelibuey - Efficiency of the Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extract in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in Pelibuey sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dublín, Devon Ronald, MVZ (Tesista

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss sobre los nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos, se llevó a cabo un experimento en la colonia de ovino de CENPALAB.AbstractWith the objective of evaluating the effects of the watery extract of Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss leaves on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, an experiment in the ovine colony of CENPALAB was carried out.

  13. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  14. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  15. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity.

  16. 氮素对印楝愈伤组织和悬浮细胞培养的影响%Effects of Nitrogen on Azadirachta indica A. Juss Callus and Suspension Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广建; 李兴林; 别振宇; 张国运

    2015-01-01

    通过改变印楝组织培养基中硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比,并与培养物的生物量、可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素、柠檬苦素含量相关联,探讨了 MS 培养基中氮素对印楝愈伤组织和悬浮细胞培养的影响.实验结果表明:在印楝的愈伤组织培养过程中,当硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比为 4:1 时,生物量、可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素以及柠檬苦素含量均达到最大积累量;在悬浮细胞培养的过程中,当硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比为 3:1 时,可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素以及柠檬苦素含量达到最高,而在 2:1 时生物量达到最大.因此,印楝组织培养的不同阶段应该采用不同形式氮素比例的培养基,只有这样才能获得最佳的目标培养物.%To study the effects of nitrogen in MS medium on neem(Azadirachta indica A. Juss)tissue culture,we deter-mined the biomass,soluble protein content,azadirachtin and limonoid contents of neem callus and suspension cells in the end of their cultures by changing the ratio between nitrate and ammonium. The results indicate,that while culturing callus, the four measurement indicators reached the maximum accumulation when the ratio of nitrate to ammonium was 4:1;while culturing suspension cells,the soluble protein contain,azadirachtin and limonoids contains got their maximum whenthe ratio of nitrate to ammonium was 3:1,but the maximum biomass was obtained when the ratio was 2:1. In conclusion,the ratio between nitrate and ammonium in the MS medium should be corresponded with the objects being cultured at different peri-ods.Only in this way,can we get the best target cultures.

  17. Effect and Mechanism of Cold Tolerant Seed-Coating Agents on the Cold Tolerance of Early Indica Rice Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-qing; ZOU Ying-bin; XIAO Guo-chao; XIONG Yuan-fu

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the effect and mechanism of cold tolerant seed-coating agents on the cold tolerance of rice seedlings,the physiological and biochemical effects of four cold tolerant seed-coating agents (HET, YKJ, YKZYJ, and the ABA seed coating agents) on two early indica rice varieties were studied under chilling stress. The results showed that the rice seedlings treated with cold tolerant seed-coating agents under chilling stress maintained dramatically higher root vigor,POD, CAT and SOD activities, and chlorophyll content, had lower MDA content and electrolyte leakage, and accumulated more soluble sugar and free proline, when compared with the control without the treatment, and finally showed lower plant injury rate. It was indicated that the cold tolerant seed coating agent improved the ability of rice seedlings in resisting to chilling stress. YKZYJ was ranked the first in terms of the efficiency in cold tolerance among the four cold tolerant seed-coating agents tested.

  18. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  19. Correlation Between Parents and F1 and Combining Ability of Parents on Seed Dormancy in indica Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bao-qin; LU Zuo-mei

    2009-01-01

    Dormancy indices of hulled and dehulled seeds were investigated by using 19 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, 9 restorer lines and their 109 F1 hybrids of indica hybrid rice. The seeds of each F1 and the parents were harvested on 35 days after flowering. Combining ability was analyzed in 25 combinations made by 5 CMS lines and 5 restorer lines (North Carolina II mating design). The seed dormancy index of F1 was positively and highly significantly correlated with those of their parents and mid-parent value. Out of the 109 combinations, 82 combinations showed mid-parent heterosis, and 43 heterobeltiosis. Seed dormancy indices of F1s and their parents declined dramatically in dehulled seeds compared with hulled seeds, indicating that the hull played an important role in seed dormancy. However, the trends were similar in hulled seeds and dehulled seeds in terms of relationships between the seed dormancy indicices in F1 and their parents. The influence of hull on seed dormancy mainly depended on F1 genotype, not on the hull from maternal parent. The variances of general combining ability (GCA) in female and male parents occupied 59.2% and 31.1% of total variance, respectively. The variance of specific combining ability (SCA) in combinations occupied 9.7% of total variance, indicating that gene additive effects were principal. Among the 5 CMS lines, II112A had the highest GCA effect for seed dormancy, followed by D62A. Among the 5 restorer lines, IR112 had the highest GCA effect for seed dormancy, followed by 2786. These lines are elite parental materials for breeding F1 hybrid rice with stronger seed dormancy.

  20. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  1. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  2. Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi; Ganiyu Oboh; Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi; Aline Augusti Boligon; Margareth Linde Athayde

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity ofMangifera indica (M. indica) and Mucuna urens (M. urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro. Methods: Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against α-amylase andα-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and ρ-nitrophenylglucopyranoside as their respective substrates. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme; inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.Results:The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner, having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>α-glucosidase>α-amylase. With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase, M. indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M. urens. Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern, with M. indica being more potent than M. urens.Conclusions:The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M. indica and M. urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications

  3. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein.

  4. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khanittha Chawananorasest; Patsuda Saengtongdee; Praphakorn Kaemchantuek

    2016-01-01

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernata...

  5. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40◦C, 60◦C and 100◦C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60◦C/6 hours and 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (pseed extracted at 40◦C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 μmol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 μmol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100◦C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 μL/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 μL/mL.

  6. Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting.

  7. Response of laying hens and growing broilers to the dietary inclusion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunsi, A A

    2005-02-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the nutritive value and utilization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel (MSK) in the diets of layer and broiler chickens. The physical component of mango seeds was found to consist of 678 g/kg kernel, 292 g/kg shell and 30 g/kg testa. Meal from the seed kernel contained 61.6 g crude protein, 136.2 g ether extract, 22.3 g ash, 46.4 g crude fibre, 673.5 g nitrogen-free extract and appreciable mineral content. In the layers trial, MSK replaced maize weight for weight at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g/kg. Results indicated a significant decrease (p 0.05) on feed intake and feed efficiency when compared with control diet. Organ weights with the exception of liver and lung were unaffected by dietary MSK. Haematological indices were not influenced (p > 0.05) by dietary MSK except haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin, which were higher (p<0.05) in broilers fed 100 g/kg MSK. Neutrophils, lymphocytes and albumin/ globulin ratio were similar on all diets. The results indicated that at higher weight for weight levels, MSK cannot readily substitute maize in layer diets, whereas a marginal improvement was recorded in the broiler diet, albeit with nutrient supplementation.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-07-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%.

  9. Chemical characterization of xyloglucan obtained from Tamarindus indica seeds from the semi arid northeastern; Caracterizacao quimica de xiloglucana obtida a partir de sementes de Tamarindus indica oriundas do semi arido nordestino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Silva, Sarah M.F.; Gallao, Maria Izabel, E-mail: izagalao@gmail.com [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia; Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Playing an important role in food, seeds are sources of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, so they have been explored for a long time by the food industry. For this reason, the objective of present work is to obtain and characterize xyloglucan obtained from tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica). In order to assess possible industrial applications of the polysaccharide, it was characterized by Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Search results showed that it was possible to perform xyloglucan extraction but the process still requires improvements in order to increase the extraction yield. FTIR, NMR and TGA results were similar to those found in literature. (author)

  10. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  11. Anti-enteric bacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of the seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica Linnaeus againstShigella dysenteriae (Shiga, corrig.) Castellani and Chalmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial efficacy of the seed kernel extract ofMangifera indica (M. indica) against the enteropathogen,Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae), isolated from the diarrhoeal stool specimens.Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Cold extraction method was employed to extract the bioactive compounds from mango seed kernel. Disc diffusion method was adopted to screen antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by agar dilution method. The crude extracts were partially purified by thin layer chromatography(TLC) and the fractions were analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography(HPTLC)to identify the bioactive compounds.Results:Phytochemical scrutiny ofM. indica indicated the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, gums, flavanoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and xanthoproteins. Antibacterial activity was observed in two crude extracts and various fractions viz. hexane, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water.MIC of methanol fraction was found to be (95±11.8) μg/mL. MIC of other fractions ranged from130-380 μg/mL.Conclusions: The present study confirmed that each crude extracts and fractions ofM. indica have significant antimicrobial activity against the isolated pathogenS. dysenteriae. The antibacterial activity may be due to the phytochemical constituents of the mango seed kernel. The phytochemical tannin could be the reason for its antibacterial activity.

  12. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  13. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rajkumar; Das, Uttam Kumar; Ghosh, Debidas

    2005-07-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were divided into mild diabetic (MD) and severe diabetic (SD) on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. Diabetes was confirmed here by intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT), biochemical assay of glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, glucose-6-phosphatase activity in liver, and serum insulin levels. Hyperlipidemia developed in these experimental diabetic rats was assessed by quantification of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and triglyceride (TG) in serum. Aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica was given to MD and SD rats at the dose of 80 mg and 120 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight/d respectively for 14 d. Significant attenuation of hyperglycemia was indicated by measuring FBG, glycogen level and glucose-6-phosphatase activity along with monitoring of intravenous GTT and serum insulin level. Similarly, correction of hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats after this extract supplementation was confirmed by significant reduction in the levels of above-mentioned hyperlipidemic indicators. Intravenous GTT was performed that highlights the antidiabetic action of this extract is not due to its effect on the intestinal rate of glucose absorption but may be due to modulation of intracellular glucose utilization in target organs. This study focus the efficacy of this extract for the management of experimental diabetes in rat model which may shed some light on the scientific basis of ancient herbal therapy in this line using this seed.

  14. Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days.

  15. Single-seeded InDel fingerprints in rice: An effective tool for indica-japonica rice classification and evolutionary studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LIU; Xing-Xing CAI; Bao-Rong LU

    2012-01-01

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.),an important cereal crop worldwide,was domesticated from its wild ancestor 8000 years ago.During its long-term cultivation and evolution under diverse agroecological conditions,Asian cultivated rice has differentiated into indica and japonica subspecies.An effective method is required to identify rice germplasm for its indica and japonica features,which is essential in rice genetic improvements.We developed a protocol that combined DNA extraction from a single rice seed and the insertion/deletion (InDel)molecular fingerprint to determine the indica and japonica features of rice germplasm.We analyzed a set of rice germplasm,including 166 Asian rice varieties,two African rice varieties,30 accessions of wild rice species,and 42 weedy rice accessions,using the single-seeded InDel fingerprints (SSIF).The results show that the SSIF method can efficiently determine the indica and japonica features of the rice germplasm.Further analyses revealed significant indica and japonica differentiation in most Asian rice varieties and weedy rice accessions.In contrast,African rice varieties and nearly all the wild rice accessions did not exhibit such differentiation.The pattern of cultivated and wild rice samples illustrated by the SSIF supports our previous hypothesis that indica and japonica differentiation occurred after rice domestication under different agroecological conditions.In addition,the divergent pattern of rice cultivars and weedy rice accessions suggests the possibility of an endoferal origin (from crop) of the weedy rice included in the present study.

  16. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  17. Prevention of High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Male Wistar Rats by Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus Indica Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamd Reza Shahraki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01 when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01 compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01 while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  18. Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel; Anyachukwu; Irondi; Ganiyu; Oboh; Afolabi; Akintunde; Akindahunsi; Aline; Augusti; Boligon; Margareth; Linde; Athayde

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica(M.indica) and Mucuna urens(M.urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes(-amylase,-glucosidasc and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro.Methods:Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against-amylase and-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and p-nitrophenylglucopyranosidc as their respective substrates.Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme;inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.Results:The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance,including gallic acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,ellagic acid,catechin,rutin,quercitrin.quercetin and kaempferol.Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited-amylase,-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner,having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>-glucosidase>-amylase.With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations(IC50)against-amylase,-glucosidase,and aldose reductase,M.indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M.urens.Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern,with M.indica being more potent than M.urens.Conclusions:The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M.indica and M.urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2diabetes.

  19. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawananorasest, Khanittha; Saengtongdee, Patsuda; Kaemchantuek, Praphakorn

    2016-06-15

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by ¹H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A), a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B) and the export tamarind powder industry(C) gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm(-1), 2920.76 cm(-1), 1018.85 cm(-1) and 555.16 cm(-1). The ¹H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50-4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  20. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  1. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  2. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  3. Intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae Poisoning in swine from the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano N. Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    avermelhamento transmural da parede do intestino e conteúdo intestinal sanguinolento nos Suínos C-E. Um hematoma foi observado no pulmão do Suíno C. Os achados histopatológicos no encéfalo dos suínos alimentados com as maiores concentrações (20% de sementes de A. indica (C-E consistiram em áreas focais e simétricas de congestão, edema, hemorragia e tumefação do endotélio vascular em diversos núcleos e no córtex telencefálico. Nos Suínos A e B, que receberam menores concentrações das sementes de A. indica, e no Suíno F, caso espontâneo da doença, as alterações histológicas no encéfalo consistiam de áreas bem definidas de malacia focal simétrica; nessas áreas a neurópila normal era obliterada por numerosos macrófagos espumosos dispostos em estreita aposição, astrocitose e capilares com endotélios tumefeitos. Os focos de malacia focal simétrica em suínos intoxicados com sementes de A. indica afetavam os núcleos cerebelares e vestibulares, a substância negra, o putâmen e os núcleos mesencefálicos, oculomotor e núcleo vermelho. Esses dados indicam que a ingestão de sementes de A. indica é responsável por essa condição neurológica, que a doença pode ser fatal e que parece afetar igualmente suínos jovens e adultos. O desenlace clínico e as alterações patológicas são dependentes da dose e as lesões encefálicas progridem de danos vasculares a edema vasogênico, hemorragia e malacia.A spontaneous outbreak of a neurological disease in swine caused by the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica seeds and the reproduction of the disease in the same animal species are reported. The natural outbreak occurred in a pig-raising facility in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. On the premises there were 100 pigs (20 breeding sows and 80 young weaned pigs from several categories that were fed a ration made by mixing 50% of corn bran, 25% of soybean bran, 5% of a commercial mix of vitamins and minerals, and 20% of broken

  4. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    C.P. Anokwuru; O. Ajibaye; A. Adesuyi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g) than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g) but ...

  5. A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fook, J M S L L; Macedo, L L P; Moura, G E D D; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Queiroz, A F S; Sales, M P

    2005-05-01

    Proteinaceous inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were found in seeds of the Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). A serine proteinase inhibitor denoted PG50 was purified using ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatographies. Inhibitor PG50 showed a Mr of 14.9 K on Sephadex G-50 calibrated column and a Mr of 11.6 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PG50 had selective activity while cysteine proteinases (papain and bromelain) and serine proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin) were not inhibited, it was strongly effective against serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin and isolated human neutrophil elastase. The IC50 value was determined to be 55.96 microg.mL-1. PG50 showed neither cytotoxic nor haemolytic activity on human blood cells. After pre-incubation of PG50 with cytochalasin B, the exocytosis of elastase was initiated using PAF and fMLP. PG50 exhibited different inhibition on elastase release by PAF, at 44.6% and on release by fMLP, at 28.4%. These results showed that PG50 preferentially affected elastase release by PAF stimuli and this may indicate selective inhibition on PAF receptors.

  6. Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2011-12-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media.

  7. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olubodun Obasa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  8. Studies on Application of the Extract from Azadirachta indica A.Juss for Control of Plutella xylostella L.Larvae%印楝素对小菜蛾幼虫的防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春萍; 李琪; 程晋伟; 陈洁; 宗浩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究无公害生物农药对小菜蛾的防治效果,采用固-液连续萃取法提取印楝(Azadirachta india A.Juss)种仁的活性物质,减压浓缩后得到粗提物,得率13.8%;应用高效液相色谱测得浸膏中楝素的含量为17 mg/g.室内毒力测定结果表明该提取物对小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella L.)幼虫具有较强的毒杀作用;用不同稀释倍数的种仁甲醇粗提物对小菜蛾幼虫进行了拒食作用的测定,试虫的拒食率分别达到37.5%、47.6%和61.9%.结果表明印楝提取物对小菜蛾幼虫具有较好的防治效果.%The toxieity of the extract from neem tree (Azadiachta Mica A.Juss) to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L. ) was evaluated in laboratory to study the application of the pollution-free biological pesticides. The extracting rate of the methanol extract from neem kernel was 13.8 % ,and the azadiraehtin obtained was 17 mg/g by HPLC. In a laboratory study, the methanol extract was effective against the diamondback moth larvae. The antifeedant effect of the diamondback moth larvae on the extract from neem tree was determined. The antifeedant rate of the different concentrations against the diamondback moth larvae were 37.5 %, 46.7 % and 61.9 %, respectively, 24 h after treated by feeding method. The results showed that the extract from the neem had strong control of the diamondback moth.

  9. Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunayana Rathi; K. Pathak; R. N. S. Yadav; B. Kumar; R. N. Sarma

    2014-04-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean $r^2$ and $D'$ value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations $(P \\lt 0.01)$, with the $R^2$ values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), -amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, α-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, -amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization.

  10. Deposition of stearate-oleate rich seed fat in Mangifera indica is mediated by a FatA type acyl-ACP thioesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Ghosh, Santosh K; Neogi, Krishnakali; Aich, Aniruddha; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Sen, Soumitra K; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy

    2011-02-01

    Although the mechanism of accumulation of C8-C16 saturated fatty acids in seed oils has been well-studied, the control of stearic (C18:0) acid deposition in high stearate seed fat is still unclear. We investigated the mechanism that regulates high level of stearate and oleate (C18:1) accumulation in mango (Mangifera indica) seeds during its development, and examined the seed plastid extracts for induction of any specialized fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) that may control this high level of deposition. Though the specificity of the Fat enzymes does not account directly for the fatty acid composition of mango seeds, our result suggested that an induced synthesis of a FatA type of thioesterase could be responsible for the high content of oleate and stearate in its seed fat. The major thioesterase from developing seed kernel was purified to near homogeneity, and characterized as a heat-labile, dimeric, neutral protein with relative substrate specificity of 100:35:1.8 towards oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP, respectively. This enzyme was confirmed as Mi FatA by mass spectrometric analysis. Additionally, a heat-stable FatB type enzyme (Mi FatB) was also partially purified, with relative substrate specificity for the same substrates as 9:8.5:100, respectively. Mi FatA is an enzyme of great biotechnological interest because of its involvement in the regulation of stearate rich seed fat in mango.

  11. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals.

  12. A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita

    2010-10-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats.

  13. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

  14. Preliminary Study on Mechanized Cultivation Technologies of Male Parent in Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice Seed Production%籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆惠斌; 马寅超

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduced the trials and demonstration of male parent machine transplanting and machine harvesting in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed production in Ningbo City about four years. The costs and seed yield of male parent with different cultivation method were analyzed, and put forward the mechanized cultivation techniques of male parent in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed pro-duction.%介绍了宁波市4年来籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收的试验示范情况,分析比较了父本机插机收与人工插种收割的成本和制种产量,提出了杂交水稻父本机插机收的配套栽培技术。

  15. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production.

  16. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  18. Eco-dyeing using Tamarindus indica L. seed coat tannin as a natural mordant for textiles with antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    K.H. Prabhu; Teli, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind seed coat tannin was extracted and its tannin class was determined. The extracted tannin was employed as a natural mordant alone and in combination with metal mordant namely copper sulphate for cotton, wool and silk fabrics and dyed using natural dyes namely turmeric and pomegranate rind. The colour strength, colour coordinates, wash and light fastness were evaluated and compared for all the three fabrics with and without mordanting. The pre-mordanted fabrics on dyeing gave better co...

  19. Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO(2) flow rate = 15 mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2): 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2): 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2): 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C).

  20. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  1. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  2. Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T T

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC(50) of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4(+) T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs.

  3. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera.

  4. Study of Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Mangifera Indica Seed (Mango in Presence of Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by pyrolysis of seeds mango in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities. Seeds mango from Colombian Mango cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of NaOH and KOH following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 3:1 (weight terms. Activation was carried out under argon flow by heating to 823 K with 1 h soaking time. The porous texture of the obtained ACs was characterized by physical adsorptions of N2 at 77 K and CO2 at 273 K. The impregnation ration and hydroxide type had a strong influence on the pore structure of these ACs, which could be easily controlled by simply varying the proportion of the hydroxides used in the activation. Thus, the development of porosity for precursors with low structural order (high reactivity is better with NaOH than KOH, whereas the opposite is observed for the highly ordered ones. Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. In general, KOH produces activated carbons with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH.

  5. Eco-dyeing using Tamarindus indica L. seed coat tannin as a natural mordant for textiles with antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed coat tannin was extracted and its tannin class was determined. The extracted tannin was employed as a natural mordant alone and in combination with metal mordant namely copper sulphate for cotton, wool and silk fabrics and dyed using natural dyes namely turmeric and pomegranate rind. The colour strength, colour coordinates, wash and light fastness were evaluated and compared for all the three fabrics with and without mordanting. The pre-mordanted fabrics on dyeing gave better colour strength, wash and light fastness than those dyeing obtained without mordanting. The total phenolic content of the extract was calculated and minimum inhibition concentration was 1% against both the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The mordanted and dyed fabrics resulted in good antibacterial activity up to 20 washes, when natural mordant was used along with 0.5% and 1% copper sulphate mordant and dyed with natural dyes.

  6. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1×10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50 of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50 was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants.

  7. BINDING TO AND RETENTION BY MUCOSAL CELLS OF THE TAMARINDUS INDICA SEED POLYSACCHARIDE: VISUAL EVALUATION BY MEANS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Braga*, M. Dal Sasso, M. Culici

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using inorganic and organic markers to visualize the ability of the transparent polysaccharide (TSP polymer isolated from the endosperm of the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica, a tree that mainly grows in India and South-East Asia, to bind to human mucosal cells. A layer of human buccal cells was prepared on slides and overlaid by 0.2 ml of 0.6, 0.3, 0.15 and 0.075 % TSP solutions in phosphate buffer and then colloidal carbon black particles were deposited on the slides. The unbound colloidal carbon black particles were cleared by thoroughly washing the slides. The slides were then examined by means of Nomarski interference contrast microscopy in order to visualize the degree of surface retention of the black particles by the buccal cells. The same procedure was followed using Escherichia coli as organic markers. The clearly visible binding of black carbon particles to the cells treated with polymer revealed the presence of a thin layer of TSP covering the cells (untreated cells had no black carbon particles binding. The presence of the TSP has also been confirmed by a significant reduction in bacterial adhesiveness. Both markers made it possible to visualize the binding of the thin transparent layer of TSP and its retention, which was proportional to the degree of dilution. Using Escherichia coli it has been observed the possibility of counteracting the lock-and-key mechanism of micro-organism adhesion using the bioadhesive properties of this polymer to prevent possible contact between microorganism adhesins and complementary receptors.

  8. 接种量与通气比对印楝悬浮细胞生长及印楝素产量的影响%Effects of Inoculum Size and Compression/ventilation Ratio on Growth of Azadirachta indica Suspension Cells and Azadirachin Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云竹; 钟秋平

    2015-01-01

    为印楝悬浮细胞扩大培养提供依据,利用5 L 气升式发酵罐,以印楝悬浮细胞作种子细胞,研究接种量与通气比对印楝悬浮细胞生长和印楝素产量的影响。结果表明:在反应器中,印楝悬浮细胞生长和印楝素产量呈偶联型;种子细胞适宜接种量和通气比分别为60 g/L 和0.2 vvm,在此条件下,悬浮培养基质中的 pH 呈先降后升的变化趋势,细胞干重和印楝素产量分别为11.41 g DW/L 和8.32 mg/g,添加复合诱导子后48 h 印楝素产量最大,达94.78 mg/L。%The effects of inoculum size and compression/ventilation ratio on growth of A.indica suspension cells and A.indica yield were analyzed when A.indica suspension cells was cultured in 5 L airilift ferment reactor to provide a reference for enlarging culture of A.indica suspension cells.The results showed that growth of A.indica suspension cells and A.indica yield in the airilift ferment reactor represent a coupled type.The optimum inoculum size and compression/ventilation ratio for A.indica suspension cells is 60 g/L and 0.2 vvm respectively.The cell dry weight and azadirachin yield are 11.41 g DW/L and 8.32 mg/g under the optimum culture conditions respectively.Adding compound inductors can improve azadirachin yield significantly and the azadirachin yield reaches 94.78 mg/L after 48 h.

  9. Effects of Different Chemical Agents Treatments on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growing of Lagerstroemia Indica%不同化学药剂对紫薇种子萌发和幼苗长势的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宽莹; 陈彦; 邢柱东; 曲宇杰

    2011-01-01

    紫薇结实率虽高,但容易产生烂种,发芽率较低,成长为健壮幼苗比较困难.本实验采用不同浓度SA和GA处理紫薇种子,在模拟自然环境和恒温25℃全光照两个不同的自然条件下,研究了紫薇种子的发芽力和幼苗的株高、鲜重、叶面积的变化.结果表明:1~15 mg/L范围内SA处理的种子发芽力较低和幼苗长势较弱.1 000 mg/L GA处理的种子在模拟自然环境条件下发芽力较高,但是幼苗长势差于1 500 mg,/L GA的处理.恒温25℃条件下,1 500 ms/L处理的种子总体效果最好.%Lagerstroemia indica has highly rate of seeds, but easy to rot and difficult to grow strong and healthy seedlings.Lagerstroemia indica seeds were processed by different levels of SA and GA3 in this experiment.This experiment studied Lagerstroemia indica seed germination ability, seedling height, fresh weight and leave area in simulateded environment,25 ℃ constant temperature and all light condition.The result showed that the seed genninating ability and seedling growth were weak when SA concentration was 1 - 1.5 mg/L.In simulated environment,when GA3 concentration was 1 000 mg/L, seed germination ability was relative high, but seedling growth vigour was weaker than that of 1 500 mg/L GA3.In a word, seed treatment effect was the best in constant temperature and 1 500 mg/L GA3 condition.

  10. MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SOME STORED SEEDS AND THEIR CONTROL BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    ZAKARIA A. M. BAKA*, MAMDOUH S. SERAG AND TAREK A. KARDOSHA

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne fungi associated with some seeds collected from Egypt markets during storage and the possibility of their control by medicinal plant extracts. The studied seeds were Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, Lens esculentus, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea and Vicia faba. Thirteen fungal species were isolated from those Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most prevalent. Sixteen medicinal plants named Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Mentha basilicum, Musa acuminate, Eucalptus rostrata, Datura stramonium, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbia peplis, Ocimum basilicum, Carum carvi, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum and Citrullus colocynthis were screened for their antifungal activities. Aqueous plant extracts of all mentioned plants were tested against the most prodomonant fungal species. Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis exhibited the highest antifungal activity within all plants tested. Treated seeds by plant extracts showed an increase of the percentage of their germination and reduction of seed-borne fungal infection. Mycotoxins of infected seeds and fungal pathogens were also determined.

  11. Variation and Resistance of Lagerstroemia indica Seed Under Radiation%紫薇种子辐射变异和抗性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂硕; 张林; 王峰; 孙忠奎; 朱翠翠; 谢宪; 王长宪

    2016-01-01

    为了研究辐射对紫薇种子的影响及选育抗白粉病新品种,以不同剂量的60Co-γ射线处理紫薇种子并对部分植株进行了扦插对比试验,对出苗率、长雄蕊变异、抗性及生长量进行了调查。结果表明,辐射处理可以显著地抑制种子的出苗率;对长雄蕊瓣化现象具有一定的促进作用;在辐射的‘六月飞雪’中,发现了2株对白粉病抗性极强的植株,其他调查植株全部染病;抗病1号表现为对白粉病免疫,抗病2号表现为高抗,‘四海升平’表现为中感,‘六月飞雪’和‘红火箭’均表现为高感;同时发现2株抗病植株的株高及地径均高于不抗病植株,且抗病植株的落叶期明显晚于不抗病植株。%In order to study the effect of radiation on the Lagerstroemia indica seed and select new varieties with resistance to powdery mildew, the seeds were treated by 60Co-γradiation and contrast tests were carried out using cutting seedlings, the emergence rate, long stamens petalody, resistance and growth were investigated. The results showed that radiation treatment could significantly inhibit the emergence rate and had a certain role in promoting the petalody of long stamens. There were two plants with strong resistance to powdery mildew among the plants of Lagerstroemia indica‘Liuyue Feixue’that were radiated, and the others were infected with powdery mildew. Kangbing No.1 was immune to powdery mildew, and Kangbing No.2 showed high resistance to powdery mildew,‘Sihai Shengping’was moderately sensitive to powdery mildew,‘Liuyue Feixue’and‘Redrocket’were highly sensitive to powdery mildew. The plant height and ground diameter of the two disease-resistant plants were higher than those of the non disease-resistant plants, and the leaf fall period of disease-resistant plants were significantly later than that of non disease-resistant plants.

  12. Effects of Different Growth Substance Treatments on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growing of Lgerstroemia indica%不同生长物质对紫薇种子萌发和幼苗长势的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宽莹; 陈彦

    2011-01-01

    Lagerstroemia indica seeds were processed by different levels of SA,TDZ,6-BA and GA3 in this experiment.During the 25 ℃ light conditions,we researched seeds germinate and shoots,fresh,leaf area of Lagerstroemia indica.The result showes that there is lower sprout power and weaker growing within 1-15 mg/L of SA.Compared with others the young plants are growing best in deal with GA3 the better than TDZ.It has the best overall effect of the seeds which was dealed with 1 000 mg/L GA3 in the 25 ℃ conditions.%本实验采用不同浓度SA、TDZ、6-BA和GA3处理紫薇种子,在恒温25℃全光照的条件下,研究了紫薇种子的萌发情况和幼苗的株高、鲜重、叶面积.结果表明:恒温25℃条件下,1-15mg/L范围内SA处理的种子发芽力较低,幼苗长势较弱.四种植物生长物质对比得出GA3处理的种子总体效果最好,其次是TDZ处理的种子效果明显.尤其1 000mg/L GA3的浓度下处理的种子效果最佳.

  13. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  14. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  15. Effects of combined leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica on hepatic morphology and hepatotoxicity markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats%扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病大鼠肝脏形态学及肝毒性标志物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwole Busayo Akinola; Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso; Oluwafunmike Sharon Akinola; Olufunke Olubusola Dosumu; EstherTomiAdewoye

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病大鼠肝脏形态学、肝脏氧化性应激标志物及部分肝脏酶类的影响.方法:大鼠腹腔注射链脲佐菌素致糖尿病.不同治疗组大鼠分别口服扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物(500mg/kg)或二甲双胍(150 mg/kg),疗程8周,每周测量大鼠的血糖水平及体质量变化.8周后麻醉处死大鼠.取肝组织制成切片,希夫染色法染色,并测量肝匀浆中丙二醛和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶的含量;下腔静脉采血,分离血浆,检测血浆中丙氨酸氨基转移酶和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的活性.结果:二甲双胍及植物提取物均能显著改善糖尿病大鼠的血糖水平,且与糖尿病模型组相比,治疗组的体质量明显增加(P<0.05).光学显微镜下,各组大鼠的肝脏形态学无明显差别.植物提取物治疗组大鼠的血浆丙氨酸氨基转移酶及天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的活性与正常对照组相比无明显变化(P>0.05),而丙二醛含量明显下降(P<0.05).结论:扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对糖尿病大鼠有明显的降糖作用,而肝脏形态学及肝毒性标志物没有明显变化.%Objectives: In this work,we studied liver morphology,markers of hepatic oxidative stress and some liver enzymes in diabetic rats treated with the combined leaf extract (CLE) of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (neem).Methods: Diabetes was induced in fasted male Wistar rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ).Oral CLE (500 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (150 mg/kg body weight) were administered to different groups of diabetic rats for eight weeks.Blood glucose and change in body weight were estimated weekly.All animals were sacrificed under anaesthesia after eight weeks.Hepatic sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff.Liver samples were homogenized and assayed for contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and

  16. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  17. Effects of extracts from Tiam seeds on cotton leafworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantrapromma, K.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the seeds of Azadirachta excelsa Jack. (Tiam and A. indica var. siamensis Valeton (Neem, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 and permethrin were tested for mortality effect on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera litura F. by topical application and spraying methods. Among the seed extracts, crude methanolic extract from A. excelsa was the most effective. Its LC50, by topical application, at 72 hours after tested on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae was 5.26, 8.83 and 19.69 g/l, respectively, and by feeding was 1.59, 3.67 and 4.72 g/l, respectively. Crude methanolic extract was more effective than the crude n-hexane extract in each particular plant. Among tested samples, permethrin, a semi-synthetic chemical insecticide, showed the highest insecticidal effect. Its LC50, by topical application, at 72 hours after tested on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae was 0.12, 0.18 and 1.44 g/l, respectively, and by feeding was 0.08, 0.11 and 0.34 g/l, respectively. Use of the crude methanolic extract of A. excelsa to reduce the population of the 2nd instar larvae of cotton leafworm on Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey was more effective than that of crude methanolic extract of A. indica var. siamensis.

  18. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  19. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Menakshi; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar K; Tirmale, Amruta R; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Joshi, Bimba N

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using invivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes.

  20. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using in vivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes.

  1. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products.

  2. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-06-10

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention.

  3. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  4. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  5. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  6. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors.

  7. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sujanya; B Poornasri Devi; Isha Sai

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of nutritional alteration on biomass content and azadirachtin production in cell suspensions of the elite neem variety crida-8. Variations in total nitrogen availability in the medium in terms of different ratios of nitrate:ammonium showed that the ratio 4:1 revealed a profound effect, leading to a 1.5-fold increase in the total extracellular azadirachtin production (5.59 mg/l) over the standard MS medium. Reduction in sucrose (15 mg/l) in the medium exhibited a reduction in biomass and absence of azadirachtin, whereas total phosphate reduction raised intracellular azadirachtin production (6.98 mg/l). An altered medium with a nitrate:ammonium ratio of 4:1 coupled with complete elimination of phosphate enhanced biomass by 36% (59.36 g/l).

  8. Pretreatment and Process to Control Mycotoxin in Sustainable Feed Production Using Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Idayu Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By some recent estimates, mycotoxins affect as much as 25% of the world’s food crops each year. These highly toxic, naturally occurring compounds are by products (metabolites of the growth of fungi or moulds. Mycotoxins can result in significant economic loss for crop producers and broiler producers since it represent an ongoing risk to profitability. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. This paper highlights the use of naturally derived aflatoxin inhibitors from Azadirachtin compound of neem oil, and tray drying in controlling moisture content to inhibit the aflatoxin contamination in pretreated soy based animal feed. High moisture content found in soy based animal feed increases the risk of fungal growth during storage. Neem extract has shown potential as an effective feed additive to minimize the growth of fungi and possibly reduce the risk of toxic effects from mycotoxin production. Preservation methods by means of tray drying have also shown positive results towards the control of fungal growth.

  9. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azima Laili Hanifah

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  10. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive control, and negative control. Data collection to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was done by comparing the clarity of culture in TSB medium 2% on a variety of different concentrations, the positive control and a negative control. Determination MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration was done by looking at the presence or absence and the number of colonies of bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus that appears in the subculture medium TSA 2% after 24 h incubation. The results showed that the value of MIC was 5%, as shown by the tube began to clear. Value of MBC of neem leaf extract against Vibrio alginolyticus was characterized by a concentration of 12.5% has been no emergence of bacterial colonies Vibrio alginolyticus. Based on the research, it concluded that neem leaf extract can provide antibacterial effect against bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in vitro.

  11. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Method

  12. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  13. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  14. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Khabat Vahabi; Irena Sherameti; Madhunita Bakshi; Anna Mrozinska; Anatoli Ludwig; Ralf Oelmüller

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcrip...

  15. Effect of Neem seed kernel extract on the incidence of major pest (tukra in mulberry leaves on excretory products in Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaindira P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides over a period of time cannot sustain the crop yield and also harmful effects on soil and environment. Mulberry leaves are the predominant food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori rearing. The incidence of Pink mealy bug occurring in mulberry plantation can cause tukra disease that leads to qualitative loss of mulberry plantation. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of neem seed kernel extract having potential against the pests and insects as natural botanicals origin by foliar spray. The seed kernel extract of Azadirachta indica sprayed to occurring mealy bugs at the early cause of infection to V1 mulberry variety and reared to Silkworm. The total ammonia, urea and uric acid parameters were studied in tissue like haemolymph. The ammonia and uric acid activity gradually increased this increase however was significant at (P>0.05. There were a gradual decrease of urea level from day 3 to day 6, this decrease was however non-significant. Foliar spray of seed kernel extract hold greater promise for control of tukra infested mulberry leaves and did not affect the excretory system in silkworms.

  16. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides.

  17. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  18. 紫外线B辐射增强对杂交稻籼型恢复系结实率和千粒重的影响%Effect of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Seed Setting Rate and 1 000-grain Weight of Indica Hybrid Rice Restorer Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况浩池; 曾祥瑞; 罗俊涛; 曾正明; 杨扬; 陈光珍; 何兴材; 付均

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to investigate the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight of hybrid rice combinations.[Method] The seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight of 10 new sterile indica restorer lines planted in pots under enhanced UV-B radiation and fluorescent lamps (control) were respectively measured,and the differences were compared.[Result]The enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced the seed setting rate of indica restorer lines,and the differences between that UV-B radiation treatment and control all reached extremely significant level.In addition,the enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the 1 000-grain weight of most indica restorer lines,and compared with that of control the difference achieved significant or very significant level.However,the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight differed to different indica restorer lines,and the differences among restorer lines tested were significant or very significant,which indicated the possibility to screen antiUV-B radiation rice materials and combinations.Finally,the indica restorer lines 09R-14,Luhui 37 and 10R-7703 which were strongly resistant to UV-B radiation were screened out.[Conclusion] This study laid foundation for breeding hybrid rice varieties resistance to UV-B radiation.%[目的]研究UV-B辐射增强对杂交稻组合及亲本的影响.[方法]通过盆栽和增强UV-B辐射试验,研究了UV-B辐射增强对10个新育籼型恢复系结实率和千粒重的影响.[结果]UV-B辐射增强导致籼型恢复系结实率明显下降,与对照相比差异全部达到极显著水平;UV-B辐射增强导致绝大多数籼型恢复系千粒重下降,与对照相比差异达到显著或极显著水平.但UV-B辐射增强对不同籼型恢复系结实率和千粒重的影响程度差异较大,参试恢复系之间达到显著或极显著差异水平,这一结果预示着筛选抗UV-B辐射的杂交水稻育种材料和

  19. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kumar; O P Luthra; V Chawla; N R Yadav; R Kumar; A Khar

    2003-03-01

    Embryos excised from seeds of six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) of a cross WH 283 × WH 533 were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia indica. Significant variations for callusing response (CR) (54.55–75.55%) were observed among generations but the presence or absence of N. indicia did not affect callusing response. A clear inhibition zone (IZ) was formed around each embryo showing callusing. The diameter of IZ varied significantly among generations and was maximum in the resistant genotype, WH 283 (3.60 cm). Fresh weight and dry weight of calli, initiated from embryo cultured and inoculated with N. indica, varied significantly among generations. Coefficient of infection as well as percentage of infection reflected the overdominance of susceptibility. Generation mean analysis showed that the three parameter model was adequate for diameter of IZ only. Six-parameter model showed that additive (in presence of N. indica), additive and additive × dominance (in absence of N. indica) effects were also significant. Complementary type of epistasis for fresh weight of calli and dominance, and dominance × dominance effects for dry weight of calli were observed in the presence of N. indica. Magnitude of additive effects was higher for diameter of IZ in three parameter model. Therefore, selection might assist in improving this trait and thus indirectly help in attaining the resistance towards N. indica.

  20. Effects of Azardirachta indica on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cytokines in Diabetic Deep Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Singh, Surya Kumar; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    A chronic, unhealed diabetic wound is one of the severe complications of diabetes mellitus. Azadirachta indica has been reported to have antidiabetic and antiapoptotic properties. The present work incorporates the healing potential of 50 % ethanol A. indica leaves extract against deep surgical wounds in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rats. A. indica leaves extract (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for ten days. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides as well as body weight, food, and water intake, and tissue antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione), free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide), myeloperoxidase, total collagens (hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid and hexosamine), protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytokines (tumor necrotic factor-α and interleukin-1β) were estimated. Histology was done for connective tissue formation and inflammatory and healing in deep granulation tissue after A. indica leaves extract treatment. Diabetic rats showed an increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, food and water intake, and granular tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase, and cytokines, but a decrease in body weight, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. A. indica leaves extract reversed the increased serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, food and water intake, and tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase and, cytokines, but increased body weight, tissue antioxidants, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor contents. The results thus indicated an improvement in wound healing by A. indica leaves extract in diabetic rats through enhanced angiogenesis mediated through the inhibition of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and down- and upregulation of inflammatory mediators and growth factor expression.

  1. 内生真菌印度梨形孢诱导提高玉米苗期抗旱性研究初探%Conferring Drought Tolerance in Maize Seeding by Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文英; 蒿若超; 汪嫒嫒; 杨婷; Ralf Oelmüller

    2013-01-01

    采用盆栽试验,初步研究内生真菌印度梨形孢诱导提高玉米抗旱性的效应。结果显示,在自然干旱胁迫下,根长、根鲜重、根干重、叶片数、叶面积、叶绿素含量等指标接种印度梨形孢的玉米幼苗比未接种的明显增加,差异达到显著、极显著水平;根干重、叶绿素含量等性状,接种印度梨形孢干旱胁迫处理的幼苗显著地高于未接种干旱处理,表明印度梨形孢真菌具有促进玉米幼苗生长的作用,能有效增强玉米幼苗的抗旱性。%A pot experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica fungi that could confer drought tolerance in maize. The results showed that significant increase under natural drought stress on the indicators of length of roots, fresh weight of roots, dry weight of roots, number of leaves, area of leaves, chloro-phyll content, maize seedlings inoculated Piriformospora indica fungi than the unvaccinated, and the difference reached a significant level, traits of dry weight of roots, chlorophyll content were significantly higher than the“non-drought”control. The present work indicated that Piriformospora indica has a role in promoting the growth of maize seedlings, and could effectively enhance the drought tolerance of maize seedlings.

  2. Mangifera Indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  3. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  4. 杂交稻新品种Ⅱ优5928亲本特征特性及高产制种技术%Parent Characteristics and High-yield Seed Production Techniques for New Late Indica Hybrid Rice Combination , Ⅱ you 5928

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 徐淑英

    2012-01-01

    Ⅱ You 5928 is a late indica hybrid rice combination derived from CMS line Ⅱ-32A and restore line longhui 5928 by Longyan Agricultural institution,Fujian province,and authorized by the Fujian Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in 2008.The characteristics of the combination was high yield,disease resistance,wide adaptability,high seed production.The parental characteristics and seed production techniques were summarized in the paper.%Ⅱ优5928是福建省龙岩市农科所用不育系Ⅱ-32A与自育恢复系龙恢5928配组育成的晚籼杂交稻新品种,2008年通过福建省农作物品种审定。具有产量高、抗病性强、广适性好、制种产量高等特色优势性状。概括了Ⅱ优5928亲本的特征特性,总结了该品种的高产制种技术。

  5. Prediction of biological activity spectra of a few phytoconstituents of Azadirachta indicia A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pramely

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The use of drug substances derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, and marine organisms are ‘‘Mother Nature Gift’’ for diseases of mankind. Many of these are discovered serendipitously and have a long tradition in medicine. Till date, the use of natural products, their semi synthetic and synthetic derivatives have been mostly confined to their ethnic use. But it has been well known that each substance has a wide spectrum of biological activities as evident from some new uses of many old drugs. PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances has been employed as a strong potential tool to predict the biological activity spectrum of synthetic substances for the discovery of new drugs. But the potential of PASS to predict the biological activity spectra of natural products is still underestimated. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate and correlate the biological activity spectrum of the main phytoconstituent of Azadirachta indica with their reported biological activities in order to evaluate the applicability of PASS. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Desenvolvimento e mortalidade larval de Spodoptera frugiperda em folhas de milho tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica Larval development and mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda fed on corn leaves treated with aqueous extract from Azadirachta indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Viana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso de folhas de nim sobre o desenvolvimento e a mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Para constatação do efeito de contato e de ingestão, as lagartas foram pulverizadas e as folhas de milho submersas no extrato (10 mg.mL-1 em laboratório e/ou pulverizadas no campo com um pulverizador de CO2. Partes de folhas de milho tratadas foram colocadas em copos plásticos para alimentar as lagartas e trocadas a cada dois dias. Adjuvantes foram adicionados ao extrato visando melhorar sua aderência às superfícies tratadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a mortalidade e o desenvolvimento larval. As folhas de milho submergidas e pulverizadas com o extrato causaram elevada mortalidade (100% e prejudicaram o desenvolvimento das lagartas sobreviventes. Na avaliação realizada 10 dias após a aplicação, o espalhante adesivo e o óleo de soja misturados ao extrato melhoraram a eficiência deste. A mortalidade das lagartas ocorreu três dias após a aplicação do extrato e a sua pulverização diretamente sobre o inseto não prejudicou o desenvolvimento larval. O extrato aquoso de nim mostrou-se com potencial para o controle de S. frugiperda.The effect of aqueous extracts from neem leaves and spraying adjuvants were evaluated on development and mortality of neonate S. frugiperda larvae. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extract (10 mg.mL-1 in the laboratory and/or sprayed in the field with a CO2 sprayer and placed in plastic cup for larvae rearing. The treated corn leaves were replaced every other day. Corn leaves submerged and sprayed with the extract caused high larval mortality (100% and showed a negative effect on the larval development. The spreading agent and soybean oil mixed with neem extract improved larval mortality at the end of the 10-day period. The aqueous extract caused lethal effect on S. frugiperda larvae after three days of the application and sprayed directly on the larvae did not inhibit the larval development. The neem aqueous extract showed good potential to be used as a control agent for S. frugiperda.

  7. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  8. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  9. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Gwaram Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  10. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp) dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    OpenAIRE

    Husen Asbanu; Sam Herodian; Sutrisno

    2012-01-01

    The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp) as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of sli...

  11. Optimization of Extraction and Purification of Flavoinds from the Tamarind Indica Lin Seed%罗望子果实黄酮类物质的提取纯化工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 杜阳吉

    2011-01-01

    The conditions for isolation and purification of total flavonoids from Tamarindlndica Lin seed were optimized by orthogonal design.The result showed that the crude flavonoids was obtained by twice extraction of the guava leaves in 75% ethanol-water solvent for 2 hours at 80 ℃,with the ratio of the solvent and the tamarind seed being of 30:1 (m/m). The crude flavonoids was further purified by ethanol extraction and macroporous absorption resin (Diaion HP-20) absorption and the maximum extract yield of crude flavonoids was 1.03%. The content of flavonoids of final product was 90.43%.%为了筛选出罗望子果实中黄酮类化合物的最佳分离纯化工艺,本文了采用正交设计试验筛选罗望子果实中黄酮类化合物的提取的最佳工艺.结果表明罗望子果实中黄酮类化合物最佳提取工艺为:使用75%乙醇溶液按1:30的料水比进行加热,在80℃恒温下2h回流提取,重复2次.罗望子果实中粗黄酮的进一步的精制方法为醇沉法和Diaion HP-20大孔吸附树脂吸附法.结果表明通过醇沉法以及Diaion HP-20大孔吸附树脂吸附法相结合的纯化过程对罗望子果实中粗黄酮纯化效果良好,使用该方法罗望子果实中黄酮的最大收率为1.3%,且能够得到纯度为90.43%的总黄酮.

  12. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  13. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabat Vahabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771 published by Vahabi et al. (2015 in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  14. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  15. New early indica variety Zhongyouzao 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFasong; HUPeisong; TANGShaoqing; LUOJu

    1997-01-01

    Rice variety Zhongyouzao 3 was developed by CNRRI and Hunan Rice Research Institute,Hunan Province, from the cross 84-240/Hongtu 5 made in 1986. The 84-240 is the second season indica line with superior grain quality and multl-reslstance to rice pests, and the Hongtu 5 is early indica variety with highyielding.

  16. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut...... dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species....

  17. Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimple B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Tamarindus indica Linn (Caesalpiniaceae was evaluated by intoxicating the rats with paracetamol (1 g/kg p.o. for seven days. The aqueous extracts of different parts of Tamarindus indica such as fruits, leaves (350 mg/kg p.o. and unroasted seeds (700 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 9 days after the third dose of paracetamol. Biochemical estimations such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein were recorded on 4 th and 13 th day. Liver weight variation, thiopentone-induced sleeping time and histopathology were studied on 13 th day. Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard. A significant hepatoregenerative effect was observed for the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds (p< 0.05 as judged from the parameters studied.

  18. Effect of Different Seeding and Transplanting Dates on Tillering Characteris-tics of Super IndicaHybrid Rice with Mechanized Seeding and Planting and Its Relationships with Meteorological Factors%播栽期对机插超级杂交籼稻分蘖成穗的影响及与气象因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓媛; 赵敏; 李俊杰; 陈多; 田青兰; 王丽; 黄光忠; 任万军

    2016-01-01

    为探讨不同播栽期对机插超级杂交籼稻分蘖成穗的影响,以2个超级杂交籼稻品种F优498和宜香优2115为材料,设置3月21日(S1)、3月31日(S2)、4月10日(S3)、4月20日(S4)和4月30日(S5)5个播期,秧龄均为30 d,移栽期依次为4月21日、5月1日、5月11日、5月21日和5月31日,研究其分蘖发生成穗特点及与气象因子的关系。结果表明,不同播栽期水稻产量差异显著,随着播栽期推迟,产量呈降低趋势,早播 S1的产量最高、迟播S5的产量最低。不同播栽期处理下水稻主茎对产量的贡献表现为(S1~S4) S5, S1优势蘖位为第3~第6叶,而S2~S5优势蘖位为第3~第5叶。随播栽期推迟,分蘖发生和成穗叶位趋于集中, F优498一次分蘖发生在S1~S4以3/0~7/0为主,而在S5以3/0~6/0为主;宜香优2115在S1以3/0~7/0为主,在S2~S5以3/0~6/0为主。一次分蘖成穗率在S1以3/0~6/0为主,而在S2~S5以3/0~5/0为主;二次分蘖发生和成穗以第3~第4叶为主。气象因子对分蘖发生和成穗的影响为一、二次分蘖发生率与日平均相对湿度呈显著负相关,而与平均气温日较差、积温、日照时数呈显著或极显著正相关;一次分蘖成穗率与分蘖期日平均相对湿度、平均气温呈显著负相关,与分蘖期平均气温日较差、积温、日照时数呈显著正相关,与幼穗分化期日平均相对湿度呈显著负相关,与抽穗开花期日照时数呈显著正相关。综合看来,成都平原地区机插超级杂交籼稻在4月11日前播种5月11日前移栽有利于产量的提高,在4月21日前播种5月21日前移栽有利于稳产,在4月21日以后播种5月21日后移栽产量显著降低。%In order to explore tillering characteristics and its relationships with meteorological factors in superindica hybrid rice with mechanized seeding and planting with different seeding and transplanting dates, a split plot field experiment was conducted using superindica hybrid rice F

  19. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  20. TAMARIND SEEDS CARBON: PREPRARTION AND METHANE UPTAKE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Munusamy; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4) and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C) were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray ...

  1. Effect of Environment and Genetic Recombination on Subspecies and Economic Trait Differentiation in the F2 and F3 Generations from indica-japonica Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He-tong; XU Zheng-jin; JIN Feng; JIANG Yi-jun; LIN Qing-shan; XU Hai; CHENG Ling; XIA Ying-jun; LIU Chun-xiang; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    indica and japonica are the two most important subspecies of Asian cultivated rice. Identifying mechanisms responsible for population differentiation in these subspecies is important for indica-japonica hybridization breeding. In this study, subspecies and economic trait differentiation patterns were analyzed using morphological and molecular (InDel and Intron Length Polymorphism) data in F2 and F3 populations derived from indica-japonica hybridization. Populations were grown in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces, China, with F3 populations generated from F2 populations using bulk harvesting (BM) and single-seed descent methods (SSD). Segregation distortion was detected in F3-BM populations, but not in F3-SSD or in F2 populations. Superior performance was observed with respect to economic traits in Liaoning compared with that in Guangdong and 1 000-grain weight (KW), seed setting rate (SSR) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were signiifcantly correlated with indica and japonica subspecies types. Analysis of molecular and morphological data demonstrated that the environment is the main factor giving rise to population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization. In addition, we also found that KW, SSR and GYP are related to subspecies characteristics and kinship, which is possibly a signiifcant factor resulting in economic trait differentiation and determining environmental adaptability. Our study has provided new insights into the process of population differentiation in these subspecies to inform indica-japonica hybridization breeding.

  2. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  3. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  4. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  5. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of a polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, T T; Vijayakumar, T; Ankanthil, R; Vijayan, K K; Nair, M K

    1993-04-01

    A polysaccharide isolated and purified from Tamarindus indica shows immunomodulatory activities such as phagocytic enhancement, leukocyte migration inhibition and inhibition of cell proliferation. These properties suggest that this polysaccharide from T. indica may have some biological applications.

  7. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. APÓS TRATAMENTOS PARA SUPERAR A DORMÊNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA SALES GUEDES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. is cultivated extensively a fodder species and for fruit in many countries. The seeds have a lignified covering that protects them against adverse environmental factors, however it hinders germination. Objective was to determine to determine an efficient, practical and low-cost methodology to break seed dormancy. These were submitted to the following treatments: control (intact seeds (T1; mechanical scarification with number 80 water sandpaper for ten minutes (T2; sulfuric acid immersion for 3, 5 and 10 minutes (T3, T4 e T5, respectively; e 80ºC water immersion for 3, 5 e 10 minutes (T6, T7, e T8, respectively. The experimental design was entirely random, with eight treatments and four repetitions. The appraised characteristics were: emergence percentage first count and velocity index and seedling dry mass. The mechanical scarification with number 80 water sandpaper for ten minutes effectively broke the O. ficus indica seed dormancy.

  8. Effect of ecological environments on subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai XU; Wenfu CHEN; Hongguang LIU; Chunjie ZHU; Li YANG; Yanhua GUO; Jiayu WANG; Qianhua YANG; Zhengjin XU; Jiakui ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations, RILSA derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (indica) and "Toyonihiki" (japonica) rice cultivars, and RILSB derived from the cross between "Qishanzhan" (indica) and "Akihikari" (japonica) rice cultivars, were grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces, China to understand the effects of ecological environments on the subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica. The results showed that both the subspecies characteristics and economic traits changed significantly. The effects of ecological environments on Cheng's index and six subspecies characteristics were different on the basis of populations or characteristics. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSA was japonicalinous in Liaoning and Sichuan. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSB approached to normal distribution in Liaoning, but it wasjaponicalinous in Sichuan. As a whole, the two populations were more japonicalious in Sichuan than in Liaoning. The panicle number, seed setting rate and per-thousand-grain weight were decreased significantly in Sichuan. The grain number per panicle showed no significant change. A significant positive correlation was found between Cheng's index and the economic traits, including six subspe-cies traits. It suggested that the reason that the filial genera-tion of cross between indica and japonica in northern China showed japonieanous subspecies characteristics might be the artificial selection by breeders on the economic traits. In addition, indica-japonica differentiation and the relationship with ecological environments were discussed.

  9. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  10. Seed dispersal potential of Asian elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna C.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Roberts, John E.; Savini, Chution; Bauer, Jan M.; Savini, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut passage times (GPT). In total, 1200 ingested and non-ingested control seeds were planted in soil and in elephant dung to quantify differences in germination rates in terms of GPT and dung treatment. We used survival analysis as a novel approach to account for the right-censored nature of the data obtained from germination experiments. The average seed survival rate was 79% and the mean GPT was 35 h. The minimum and maximum GPT were 20 h and 72 h, respectively. Ingested seeds were significantly more likely to germinate and to do so earlier than non-ingested control seeds (P = 0.0002). Seeds with the longest GPT displayed the highest germination success over time. Unexpectedly, seeds planted with dung had longer germination times than those planted without. We conclude that D. indica does not solely depend on but benefits from dispersal by elephants. The declining numbers of these mega-faunal seed dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species.

  11. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

  12. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  13. Atividade inseticida in vitro do óleo de sementes de nim sobre Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae In vitro insecticidal activity of seed neem oil on Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Michelline V. Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis é o principal vetor da Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo de sementes de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre ovos, larvas e adultos do vetor. Os insetos foram capturados no campo e mantidos no laboratório a ± 27 °C e 80% de umidade relativa. Cinco tratamentos com diferentes concentrações foram realizados, usando-se dois controles negativos, um com água destilada e outro com Tween 80 (3% e um controle positivo com cipermetrina. Os ovos foram borrifados com o óleo em diferentes concentrações e avaliou-se o número de larvas eclodidas por 10 dias consecutivos. A mortalidade das larvas foi observada até a pupação, e a mortalidade dos adultos foi observada após 24, 48, e 72 horas. A análise estatística foi feita pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. No teste com ovos, a maior concentração obteve 65,16 ± 3,24% de eficácia. O teste com larvas apresentou 67,75 ± 2,21% de eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1. Com adultos, a eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1 foi de 96,64 ± 4,11%, após 24 horas. A análise fitoquímica revelou a presença de triterpenos. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial uso desse óleo no controle deste vetor.Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the effect of oil from (Azadirachta indica neem seeds on eggs, larvae and adults of the vector. The insects were captured in the field and kept in the laboratory at ± 27 °C and 80% relative humidity. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed using two negative controls (distilled water and Tween 80 and a positive control. The eggs were sprayed with the oil at different concentrations and the number of hatched larvae evaluated for 10 days. Mortality of larvae was observed to pupation and adult mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed by Tukey test

  14. Expression of indica rice resistant sources to Brown planthopper(BPH) in indica-japonica hybrids and their utillzation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGTibin; XUSuoshun; GUFulin

    1992-01-01

    We studied the genetic mode in transferring BPH-resistance genes from indica varieties to japonica varieties January 1988 to December 1989 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Indica varieties selected on a basis of BPH-resistance genes, i.e., Yankeng 2 (japonica), 02428 (japonica), 40316 (indica-japonica progeny),

  15. Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang, Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-mei; Wang, Fu-hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

    2010-12-01

    Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R(2)) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R(2)>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice.

  16. 水稻待测粳型亲籼系的亲籼性鉴定%Test on Indica-compatibility of Candidate Indica-compatible Japonica Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃进

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to breed the indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJL). [ Method] The indica-compatibility of 5 candidate ICJLs were tested based on the pollen fertility and spikelet fertility of F1 hybrids with 6 indica testers,6 japonica testers and 6 and middle testers. [ Result] Candidate ICJL G2123, G2417, G2410 and G3005 were grouped into the exceptionally indica-compatible lines based on their high indica-compatibility and low japonica-compatibility. Candidate ICJL G2615 was grouped into the non-compatible lines on their low indicacompatibility and low japonica-compatibility. The testers, fertility identification standards, test methods of pollen fertility and spikelet fertility were discussed when the compatibility of CICJL was tested. The reason of the indica-compatibility in G2417 was analyzed. [ Conclusion] The selfing seed setting rate (spikelet fertihty) of G2417 was 95.1% and the crossing seed setting rate ( spikelet fertility ) of F hybrid between G2417 and indica testers was 94.9%. G2417 had high indica-compatibility and good synthesis-character.%[目的]选育粳型亲籼系.[方法]选用6个籼稻、6个粳稻和6个广亲和测验种,以F1代花粉育性和小穗育性为指标,测定了5个待测粳型亲籼系的亲籼性.[结果]待测粳型亲籼系G2123、G2417、G2410和G3005亲籼、不亲粳,为特异亲籼系;G2615不亲籼,也不亲粳,为不亲和系.同时探讨了粳型亲籼系亲籼性测定时的测验种、育性指标、花粉育性和小穗育性的测定方法,分析了G2417高亲籼性的原因.[结论]G2417自交结实率(小穗育性)95.1%,与6个籼稻测验种杂交的F1代平均结实率(小穗育性)94.9%,是个亲籼性极好、综合性状优良的亲籼系.

  17. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Mel

  18. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  19. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries.

  20. 印楝扦插繁殖技术研究%Study on the Cutting Propagation of Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪香; 苏海; 廖仿炎; 徐金柱; 陈贰

    2006-01-01

    2002~2005年,开展了印楝扦插繁殖试验,对影响生根成活率的基质、插穗材料、生根剂、扦插季节、扦插后管理等因子进行了研究.结果表明,较佳的扦插技术组合为:塑料杯育苗以无菌黄心土∶河沙(3∶1)作为基质,苗床育苗以等量的黄心土和河沙混合为基质,扦插前一天用10 g/L高锰酸钾液消毒,在春季和夏季采集当年生刚木质化或半木质化枝条和萌芽条作为插穗,用1 g/L吲哚丁酸生根粉处理插条后扦插,插后育苗床注意保温保湿,生根率可达80%以上.

  1. Study on the Rapid Tissue Culture Propagation of Neem (Azadirachta indica)%印楝快繁技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华; 何雪香; 王振师; 龚峥

    2006-01-01

    试验以印楝实生苗的嫩枝为材料,对印楝的初代培养、丛生芽诱导和生根、再生植株炼苗等进行系统研究,通过单因素和正交试验筛选出各阶段的最适培养条件:(1)初代培养基为MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L;(2)丛生芽诱导培养基为MS改+6-BA 0.4~1.0 mg/L+KT 0.5~1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05~0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L;(3)生根培养基为1/2 MS+IBA 0.3 mg/L+PG 3 μmol/L+糖20 g/L.

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, triphala, green tea polyphenols and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus fecalis biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paridhi Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Enterococcus fecalis is the most common micro-organism isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives since the gold standard for irrigation i.e., sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl has many disadvantages. Objective: The present study was aimed to explore newer irrigation solutions, which would probably be as effective as NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Extracted human single rooted premolar teeth were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to E. fecalis is grown on Mueller Hinton agar plates to form a biofilm for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 th week, all seven groups were treated with 3 ml of test solutions and control for 10 minutes and evaluated for E. fecalis growth and number of colony forming units. Results: Propolis, NaOCl and triphala showed no statistically significant difference, whereas all the other inter-group differences were statistically significant (Tukey′s honest significant difference (HSD (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Propolis and triphala were found to be as efficacious as NaOCl. The use of herbal alternatives as root canal irrigation solutions might prove to be advantageous considering several unfavorable properties of NaOCl.

  3. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  4. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducted for the most prevalent pathogenic fungus using aqueous neem extract in both cold and hot water. The results showed that the fungal isolates belong to three genera Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger A. terrus and A. flavus Botryosphaeria sp. and Botrytis sp. The most prevalent mycoflora was Botryosphaeria sp. relative density range 35-45 the second one was A.niger 20 then Botrytis sp. 15 A. flavus 10 and A.terreus 2-8. The efficacy of aqueous cold and hot extracts of neem leaf on the growth of Botryosphaeria sp. showed that the hot extract is effective than the cold one and the inhibition percentage were 100 and 65 respectively on the 14th days.

  5. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducte...

  6. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it faile...

  7. Use of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil in The Control of Musca domestica L.(Diptera:Muscidae in Poultry Breeding Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Flávia S Rovida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it there is production of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. Damage caused by use of synthetic insecticides reactivated studies with bioinsecticides for being one of the most selective options in pest control. Furthermore, they do not cause environmental alterations such as food, soil, water poisoning and they are practically nontoxic to mammals. Among vegetable species with insecticidal activities that have been used a lot, we have neem, subtropical plant that shows low residual power and lower risk of intoxication for mammals and poultry. Thus the objectives that guided this work, was the observation of morphological alteration in M. domestica larvae and malformation of pupae after the use of neem, powder and emulsifiable oil at different concentrations (0,5%, 1%, 1,5% were tested. Following, after the applications, the midgut of flies in larval stage was isolated, processed and analyzed under light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in most dipterous, the cell types found were columnar cells and regenerative cells, which showed alterations such as: coalescing vacuoles, intercellular spaces, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, broken microvilli, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilated mitochondria. The statistical analysis registered for pupa malformation showed significant results in comparison to control, but there was no difference among treatments. The different concentrations of neem oil contributed in altering morphological and ultrastructurally the midgut in M. domestica larvae, interrupting its development. These results showed that in poultry breeding farms, neem oil can be a pratical alternative to the control of M. domestica.

  8. Post-natal development of rats` offspring treated with the ethanol extract of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenicity and developmental abnormalities in the offspring of female rats that ingested ethanol extract of Neem plants during pregnancy and lactation period were assessed. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control group and in three experimental groups and treated during the 4th, 5th, and 6th day of pregnancy. After birth, the lactating females received, by gavage, 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 of Neem ethanol extract, during 15 days. Results show, there was no significant difference in body mass index of neonatal rats in the 4 groups evaluated, whereas mean rate of offspring survival was 79.4%. Hair growth, incisor teeth eruption, ear detachment, eyelid opening, and spontaneous ambulation were similar for all groups. Likewise, physical development and development of motor activity, ambulation, and postural reflexes were similar for all groups. The administration of Neem ethanol extract did not cause any reproductive or systemic toxicity in animals. Results show that, Neem ethanol extract safe at doses 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 in pregnant or lactating rats.

  9. Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Chandra, Vikas

    2009-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of T. indica fruit pulp (100 mg/kg body weight) and M. oleifera seeds (50 mg/kg body wight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity.

  10. Variation in Seedling Growth of Tamarindus indica (L.: A Threatening Medicinal Fruit Tree Species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Salim Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth is a precondition for conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources which depends upon understanding of breeding system, genetic inconsistency, and evolutionary forces in forest tree improvement. The aim of this study was to determine variation in seedling growth and age-age correlations of Tamarindus indica at population level in Bangladesh. The study revealed significant (P<0.05 differences of seasonal variation in seedling growth. Height and collar diameter growth showed significant (P<0.05 positive correlation with mean monthly rainfall. The study also revealed significant difference (P<0.05 of seedling growth among T. indica population. PCA illustrated rainfall, height growth, and diameter growth as the main characters in this study which defined drought as an additive character for this species. Cluster analysis of similarity showed how seedlings from 22.67°N latitude (origin separated from others. An increasing trend of age-age correlation was identified in both cases of shoot height and diameter growth. The study concluded that seed collection for either ex situ conservation or seedling production can be done from 22.67°N latitude as seedlings from that area performed better than others, and early clonal selection of T. indica can be done at the age of 9 months.

  11. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar; Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus[Tamarindus indica L.(T.Indira)],belongs to the family Leguminosae(Fabaceae),commonly known as Tamarind tree,is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine.The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T.indir.a.Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google.The keywords Tamarind,T.indica were used for search.Only the health related articles selected.Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent,Africa,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nigeria and most of the tropical countries.It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain,diarrhea and dysentery,some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,wound healing,constipation and inflammation.It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals,and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antimicrobial,antivenomic,antioxidant,antimalarial,cardioprotective,hepatoprotective,antiasthmatic,laxative and anti-hyperlipidemir activity.T.indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases.It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  12. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  13. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL GEL OF MAGNIFERA INDICA LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad D.D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To formulate Magnifera indica Linn bark extract in to a gel. Ethanolic extract of dried bark of Magnifera indica Linn were subjected to priliminery phytochemical evaluation studies. Different gel formulations of ethanolic extract of Magnifera indica linn (2% w/v were prepared using polymers carbopol 934 & HPMC by varying their concentration. These formulation were evaluated for physical parameters, drug contains, Ph, viscosity, Extrudability, Spread ability, primary skin irritation, study.Keywords:

  14. The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Rao, Usha Anand

    2005-12-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. No plant materials have been investigated for its activity against B. pseudomallei. Therefore, a preliminary study was carried out using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods to evaluate the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of five Indian medicinal plants documented to have been used for several ailments in the ancient Indian scriptures. The leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and the seeds of Vigna radiata were prepared using methanol as solvent. The disc diffusion and MIC methods were used to assess the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of the plants tested. Only methanol leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity starting from disc concentrations of 150 mug by the disc diffusion method. The other plants failed to show any zone of inhibition. MIC assay revealed that the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for B. pseudomallei were 125 mug/ml. Our preliminary finding showed that methanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under in vitro conditions. Extensive animal studies may be required before investigating the role of Tamarindus indica for treating melioidosis.

  15. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  16. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-yuan; TAN Xiao; LU Wen-jie; YA Qi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica.Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate (1),monotetracontane (2),taraxerol (3),stigmasterol (4),stearic acid (5),heptatriacontanoic acid (6),arachidic acid (7),ursolic acid acetate (8),quercetin (9),myricetin (10),myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (11),and rutoside (12).Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  18. Genome Polymorphisms Between Indica and Japonica Revealed by RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Song-wen; LIU Xia; XU Cai-guo; SHI Li-li; ZHANG Xin; DING De-liang; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Revealing the genome polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies; RFLP markers, which are located across 12 chromosomes of rice, were used to analyze indica-japonica differentiation in different rice varieties. At the same time, genome sequence variations of screened loci were analyzed by bioinformatics method. Twenty-eight RFLP probes, which can classify indica-japonica rice, were confirmed. Subspecies genome polymorphisms of screened loci were found by analyzing the publication of the genome sequences data of rice. The study indicated that these screened markers can be used for classifying indica-japonica subspecies. With the publication of the genome sequences of rice, marker polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies can be revealed by genome differentiation.

  19. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  20. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sitthiphong Soradech; Intira Petchtubtim; Jeerayu Thongdon-A; Thanchanok Muangman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH) wa...

  1. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  2. COMPORTAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PALMA (Opuntia ficus-indica l. SUBMETIDAS À FERMENTAÇÃO E SECAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage cactus is cultivated of extensive form as a producing species of fruits and fodder plant in many countries. The extensive culture if bases on the vegetative propagation, that is preferred, had its easiness. The propagation for seeds can come to be a useful tool for ends of genetic improvement, then, in this work forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L. seeds were submitted to different fermentation periods (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 hours and were dried or not, before sowing. It was evaluated the physiological quality of the seeds through the determination of the moisture content, emergence percentage and speed of seedling emergency. It was used an entirely randomized experimental design 5x2 (period of fermentation and drying. The practical one of the fermentation is efficient in the elimination of the sarcotesta in palm seeds, occurring bigger vigor in the seeds without drying and submitted the 55 hours of fermentation, as well as, the drying of the seeds, after the first periods of fermentation promotes reduction of the physiological quality, with reflected right-handers in the vigor.

  3. Thermal Hardening: A New Seed Vigor Enhancement Tool in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad FAROOQ; S. M. A. BASRA; Nazir AHMAD; K. HAFEEZ

    2005-01-01

    In a laboratory study, indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were exposed to thermal hardening (heating followed by chilling followed by heating; chilling followed by heating followed by chilling; heating followed by chilling or chilling followed by heating). In indica rice, heating followed by chilling followed by heating resulted in decreased mean germination time, time to start germination, electrical conductivity of seed leachates, and time to 50% germination, as well as increased germination index, energy of germination, radicle and plumule length, root length, root/shoot ratio, root fresh and dry weight, radicle and plumule growth rate, and shoot fresh weight. In japonica rice, chilling followed by heating followed by chilling performed better than all other treatments, including control.

  4. Pemanfaatan Sirup Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisa Amilum Dari Biji Mangga Arumanis (Mangifera indica Linn) Sebagai Pemanis Pada Pembuatan Manisan Dari Buah Kedondong (Spondias dulcis Forst )

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Herty Dita Utami

    2011-01-01

    A research was done to know the content of starch on the seed of arumanis mango (Mangifera indica Linn), that can made as glucose syrup by hydrolyzing the starch with HCl 3%. Sample taken by using simple random sampling. Sample that was the starch of the seed of arumanis mango hydrolyzed by HCl 3% to produce the glucose syrup. The content of glucose was analyzed by Nelson-Somogyi method with regression analysis. The result of this research showing the content of glucose on glucose syrup are 3...

  5. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  6. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  7. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Rani Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS on high fat diet (HFD induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  8. Studies on the Growth Habits and Characteristics of Two Polyploid Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice with Powerful Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-jian; DU Chao-qun; DAI Bing-cheng; CHEN Dong-ling; CHEN Jian-guo; CAI De-tian

    2007-01-01

    Based on a series of polyploid indica-japonica hybrid plant lines obtained from a new breeding strategy of using double predominance of wide cross and polyploidization to breed super rice, two polyploid indica-japonica hybrids, PSR073 and PSR120 were studied in their growth periods to show the powerful heterosis in a larger scale and to study the characteristics of polyploid indica-japonica hybrids more elaborately. The leaf age, tiller growth, flowering habits, and agronomic traits of them were observed to analyze their growth habits and characteristics. The results showed that the.agronomic traits of PSR073 and PSR 120, such as the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, and 1000-grain weight, all acquired obvious predominance of polyploidy, and that the seed setting rate was more than 83%. No significant difference was observed between the two tetraploids and common diploids in the leaf age, tiller growth, and flowering habits. It was concluded that the characteristics of the two powerful heterosis polyploid hybrids were different from those of the polyploid rice reported earlier. Wide cross and polyploidization had no negative effects on their growth habits and characteristics; on the contrary these had powerful heterosis. This had provided theoretic and practical evidences for their application to agricultural production.

  9. ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF LINDENBERGIA INDICA (70% EtOH) EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Surendra K.

    2003-01-01

    Oral feeding of 70% EtOH extract of Lindenbergia indica to female rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg / kg body weight caused significant reduction of serum cholesterol, HDL – cholesterol, triglycerides & phospholipids (P≤ 0.05 to P≤ 0.001). Where as the protein levels were not reduced significantly. Fertility test showed 100% negative results. The negative fertility reflects the arrest of Oogenesis & depletion of estrogen level. Further Lindenbergia indica reflects antiestr...

  10. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  11. Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Viswanad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. Objective: The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Results and Discussion: Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg was isolated from this fraction at an R F value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections.

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  14. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  15. Tamarindus indica L.: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Caluwé, Emmy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind (Tamarindus indica, Fabaceae, a tropical fruit found in Africa and Asia is highly valued for its pulp. Tamarind fruit pulp has a sweet acidic taste due to a combination of high contents of tartaric acid and reducing sugars. The pulp is used for seasoning, in prepared foods, to flavour confections, curries and sauces, and as a major ingredient in juices and other beverages. Commercial tamarind-based drinks are available from many countries. Vitamin B content is quite high; carotene and vitamin C contents are low. Presence of tannins and other dyeing matters in the seed testa make the whole seed unsuitable for consumption, but they become edible after soaking and boiling in water. Tamarind kernel powder is an important sizing material in textile, paper and juteindustries. Seeds are gaining importance as an alternative source of proteins, and are besides rich in some essential minerals. Seed pectin can form gels over a wide pH range. Leaves and flowers can be eaten as vegetables, and are prepared in a variety of dishes. They are used to make curries, salads, stews and soups. Tamarind leaves are a fair source of vitamin C and α-carotene; mineral content is high, particularly P, K, Ca and Mg. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-fungal activity has been documented from several plant parts. Tamarind is also extensively used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses, its phytochemistry and pharmacognosy is reviewed to provided with a particular orientation to its value in sub-Sahara Africa.

  16. Effects of Seed Maturity of Turf-Type Tall Fescue on the Seed Vigor and the Optimal Harvesting Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong; HAN Jian-guo

    2003-01-01

    By assay of accelerated aging germination, germination index, vigor index, seedling length,seedling weight, electric conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, ATP content and acid phosphoesterase activityduring seed development of turf-type tall fescue, the seed vigor of tall fescue were studied. Combining withseed moisture content and yield, the optimal harvesting time of tall fescue was determined. The results indica-ted that the seed vigor increased continuously along with seed maturity, and the higher seed vigor was achievedat 19th day after perk anthesis and maintained continuously until 31st day after peak anthesis. At 25th day af-ter peak anthesis, the highest yield of 3 533 kg ha-1 and the good quality of seeds of tall fescue were harvestedwith 32.19% moisture content. From 22nd to 31st day after peak anthesis, the seed yield of 3 300 kg ha-1 andthe good quality seeds of tall fescue were harvested with 40 -12.43% moisture content, and the span was theoptimal harvesting time.

  17. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  18. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  19. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF AN INDIAN FRUIT: DILLENIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Munmee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of DiIlenia indica has been an integral part of the Assamese cuisine and it is claimed that this fruit can control blood sugar when consumed on a regular basis. A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 patients in Government Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. The study revealed the hypoglycemic activity of Dillenia indica in type 2 diabetes patients, following standardized approach. The fruit powder of Dillenia indica used in this trial showed significant hypoglycemic effect (p < 0.001. The result of the clinical trial has been highly encouraging with the mean blood sugar both FBS and PPBS of the patients being reduced gradually overtime without any unwanted effect.

  1. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Kumar; V Kumar; Om Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Methods: Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. Results: The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Conclusions: The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of the Successive Extracts of Aesculus indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the best source of active secondary metabolites which are beneficial to mankind. Many plant origin drugs have been reported with biological properties like Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, hypoglycemic agents and many more. The successive extracts of Aesculus indica leaves were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using the standard procedures. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and 50% crude methanol extracts exhibited IC 50 values of respectively in DPPH and respectively in nitric oxide radical inhibition assays. The values are comparable with the standards such as ascorbic acid and quercetin. The Aesculus indica leaves are showing significant antioxidant activity.

  3. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  4. Development of bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Azadiracta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; S P Dhanabal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop noval bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Azadiracta indica (A. indica) extract. Methods: In the present investigation, preliminary phytochemical analysis, total phenol, flavonoid, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis through HPTLC method were performed. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, saponin and flavonoid in the extract. Loss on drying, total ash and solubility in water was found to be 4.60%, 5.61% and 91.0%. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.8% and 14.08% w/w. The content of quercetin, rutin and gallic acid in A. indica was found to be 0.93%, 1.22% and 0.33% w/w respectively. Further the level of heavy metal content and microrganism were found to be in the safe level. Conclusions: In future, these bioanalytical parameters could be used as important tool for the standardization of A. indica extract.

  5. Some factors involved in microprojectile-mediated indica rice transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUERui; QIUXiaohui; YANMeixian; HUANGDanian; CAOShouyun; TIANWenzhong

    1997-01-01

    Immature embryos and calli derived from immature or mature embryos of the 16 indica rice varieties have been transformed by using particle bombardment. To improve growth state of subcultured calli, we set up a variety of parameters to optimize the important tactors involved in Biolistic system, and added various hormones, mannitol, and MES to CC or NB medium.

  6. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  7. Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

    2010-01-01

    We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants.

  8. TAMARIND SEEDS CARBON: PREPRARTION AND METHANE UPTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Munusamy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC from tamarind (Tamarindus indica seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4 and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The potential of TSC to be used as a methane storage material was tested and compared with a commercial activated carbon. The highest methane adsorption capacity obtained for TSC was ca. 32.5 cm3/g at 30 °C and 1 bar. The maximum methane storage capacity achieved was 180 cm3/g at 30 °C and 35 bars.

  9. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana en vue de leur rajeunissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age of the rootstock (two to six weeks depending on species, the level of grafting (on hypocotyl instead of epicotyl and the origin of the scion (apex have higher growth after micrografting than axillary buds. The method developed was applied to the restoration of juvenile traits of adult trees. The main criterion is the rooting ability of microcuttings sampled on scions, after micrografting. Rooting competence restoration depends on the species, the nature of the first copy of the donor tree and the number of cycles of micrografting. The rejuvenation was more definite for F. albida, mobilised by root cuttings. In this case, one third of the microcuttings rooted after the first cycle of micrografting and 75 % after the second. For 2. Mauritiana mobilised by horticultural budding, 25 % of microcuttings were rooted after the second successive micrograft. No restoration of rooting competence was obtained with A. senegal and T. indica mobilised by cutting.

  10. A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus.

  11. Establishment of an Efficient Regeneration System Amenable to Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Two Elite Indica Rice Varieties of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohitosh Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient plant regeneration system from embryogenic callus of two elite indica rice (Oryza sativa spp. indica varieties of Northeast India, Ketokijoha and Monoharsali is established. The effect of auxin, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D on callus induction was optimized. Friable, nodular and creamish-white embryogenic calli were induced from mature seeds on NB medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D. Plants were regenerated from 40-50 days old embryogenic callus on NB medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.25 mg/l ABA (abscisic acid. Regenerated plants with multiple tillers were rooted on half strength MS medium and rooted plants were acclimatized with 94% survival rate. Higher frequency of callus induction as well as plant regeneration was recorded in Ketokijoha as compared to Monoharsali. The calli of both the varieties were found amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as evident from strong GUS (β-glucuronidase expression. The results may find wide application for genetic improvement for valuable traits these elite indica rice varieties of Northeast India.

  12. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widely distributed from Southern Asia to Northern Oceania. The plant parts are enriched with various bioactive compounds such as gallic acid, quercitrin, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and lupeol, etc. Traditionally, it is used to treat itchy skin, fever, diarrhea, and body aches. The current review attempts to encompass the available literature on Leea indica with respect to its phytochemistry, traditional uses and gist of its various pharmacological activities.

  13. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  14. The root-colonizing endophyte Pirifomospora indica confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by stimulating the expression of drought stress-related genes in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherameti, Irena; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes the roots of many plant species, including Arabidopsis. We exposed 18-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings, which were either cocultivated with the fungus or mock-treated for the last 9 days, to mild drought stress for 84 h. During the first 36 to 48 h, seedlings cocultivated with the fungus continued to grow, while the uncolonized controls did not. This results in a threefold difference in the fresh weight and a more than twofold difference in the chlorophyll content. The photosynthetic efficiency was only slightly reduced in the colonized (F variable/F maximum [Fv/Fm] at t(0 h) = 0.82 and t(36 h) = 0.79) and was severely impaired in the uncolonized (Fv/Fm at t(0 h) = 0.81 and (t)(36 h) = 0.49) seedlings, which also showed symptoms of withering. When seedlings exposed to drought stress for 72 or 84 h were transferred to soil, 10% (72 h) and none (84 h) of uncolonized seedlings reached the flowering stage and produced seeds, while 59% (72 h) and 47% (84 h) of the colonized seedlings flowered and produced seeds. After exposure to drought stress for 3 h, the message levels for RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION 29A, EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION1, ANAC072, DEHYDRATION-RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN2A, SALT-, AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1, phospholipase Ddelta, CALCINEURIN B-LIKE PROTEIN (CBL)1, CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE3, and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) were upregulated in the leaves of P. indica-colonized seedlings. Uncolonized seedlings responded 3 to 6 h later, and the message levels increased much less. We identified an Arabidopsis ethylmethane-sulfonate mutant that is less resistant to drought stress and in which the stress-related genes were not upregulated in the presence of P. indica. Thus, P. indica confers drought-stress tolerance to Arabidopsis, and this is associated with the priming of the expression of a quite diverse set of stress-related genes in the leaves. Transfer to soil was again

  15. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Mohd Adil Tahseen

    2016-01-01

    Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widel...

  16. Bioactive limonoids from the leaves of Azaridachta indica (Neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Maria J; Malafronte, Nicola; Vassallo, Antonio; Braca, Alessandra; Cotugno, Roberta; Vasaturo, Michele; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio

    2014-03-28

    Eight new limonoids (1-8) and one new phenol glycoside (9), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Azaridachta indica. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds isolated were assayed for their cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Moreover, their ability to interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, affecting its biological activity, was tested.

  17. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  18. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Toxqui-López; Ana L. Padilla-Velasco; Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and ex...

  19. Environ: E00793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00793 Neem Margosa Medicinal herb Oleic acid [CPD:C00712] [DR:D02315], Octadecanoic acid [CPD:C01530] [DR:D00119], Azadirachtin [CPD:C08748], Epigallocatechin [CPD:C12136], Margocin, Sitosterol [CPD:C01753] Azadirachta indica [TAX:124943] Meliaceae Neem seed Major component: Oleic acid [CPD:C00712] [DR:D02315] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Meliaceae (mahogany family) E00793 Neem ...

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Skincare Preparations from Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kareru, PG; Keriko, JM; Kenji, GM; Thiong'o, GT; Gachanja, AN; Mukiira, HN

    2010-01-01

    In this study, Tithonia diversifolia Helms. (A Gray), Aloe secundiflora (Miller) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) plant extracts were used to make herbal soaps while Thevetia peruviana (Schum) seed oil was used to make a herbal lotion for skincare. The soaps were tested for the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The lotion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. Although Tithonia diversifolia soap exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test ba...

  1. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services.

  2. MADHUCA INDICA: A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K. Patel*, Narendra K. Prajapati and B.K. Dubey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicines obtained from plant source are known as an herbal medicine, and the herbal medicine are one which make human healthy without causing any of harmful effect. Madhuca Indica is a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic potential but is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Madhuca Indica has several pharmacological activity, and potential to provide health to the society. It is used as Anti diabetic, antiulcer, hepato protective, anti pyretic, anti fertility, analgesic, anti oxidant, swelling, inflammation, piles, emetic, dermatological, laxative, tonic, anti burn, anti earth worm, wound healing headache and many more problems. Here is a misconception about mahua tree that it is used as liquor and harmful for health, but this is what after the fermentation process, so the present review deals with the general and chemical profile of Madhuca Indica and its economic importance including medicinal and other uses, and tried to emphasize the most potent activity.

  3. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  4. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  5. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  6. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  7. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular do...

  8. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Patchreenart Saparpakorn; Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear coppe...

  9. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  10. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  11. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  12. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  13. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J P; Tai, C Y; Chen, B H

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Initially, the peel and seed of mangoes were removed, the pulps were cut into pieces, freeze-dried, ground into powder, extracted and subjected to HPLC analysis. A mobile phase of methanol-isopropanol (99:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) with the following gradient elution was developed: 100% A and 0% B in the beginning, maintained for 15 min, decreased to 70% A in 45 min, maintained for 15 min and returned to 100% A in 65 min. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 53 min by using a C-30 column with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. alpha-Carotene was used as an internal standard to quantify all the carotenoids. All-trans-beta-carotene was present in largest amount (29.34 microg/g), followed by cis isomers of beta-carotene (9.86 microg/g), violaxanthin and its cis isomers (6.40 microg/g), neochrome (5.03 microg/g), luteoxanthin (3.6 microg/g), neoxanthin and its cis isomers (1.88 microg/g), zeaxanthin (1.16 microg/g) and 9- or 9'-cis-lutein (0.78 microg/g).

  14. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline augmentation in scented indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties through Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikavoosi, Kayghobad; Kad, Trupti D; Zanan, Rahul L; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2015-12-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been identified as a principal aroma compound in scented rice varieties. Δ(1)-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene is reported to regulate the proline synthesis in plants and acts as the precursor of 2AP. Two scented indica rice varieties, namely Ambemohar 157 and Indrayani, were subjected to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation containing P5CS gene. Overexpression of P5CS led to a significant increase in proline, P5CS enzyme activity and 2AP levels in transgenic calli, vegetative plant parts, and seeds over control in both the varieties. 2AP level increased more than twofold in transgenic seeds in both varieties. This is the first report of enhancement in 2AP content through overexpression of using P5CS gene, indicating the role of proline as a precursor amino acid in the biosynthesis of 2AP in scented rice.

  15. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  16. Genetic Structure and Indica/Japonica Component Changes in Major Inbred Rice Varieties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ping; YUAN Xiao-ping; XU Qun; WANG Cai-hong; YU Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    We used 39 SSR markers to analyze the genetic structure of 304 major Chinese inbred rice varieties,and to compare changes in the indica or japonica components in these varieties that have been widely cultivated from the 1950s to the 1990s in China.The genetic structure analysis showed that these rice varieties were distinctly divided into two populations,indica and japonica.The sub-structure of indica varieties was more complex than that of japonica ones.Among the various lines,late-season indica and early season japonica varieties had simpler genetic backgrounds.The seasonal ecotypes were not quite consistent with the subtypes of genetic structure.Twelve SSR loci with specific differentiation between indica and japonica were used to calculate the indica/japonica components.The differences in indica/japonica components among the five decades were not significant,except for late-season indica varieties in the 1990s,which had a significantly higher japonica component.These results will help to understand the genetic structure of the major Chinese inbred rice varieties and will be useful for indica-japonica hybrid breeding in China.

  17. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Renata Paro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim, e sucessivamente concentrações iguais a fraction one-half da concentração anterior, até C11: 0,0048% de óleo de nim. O óleo de nim reduziu o crescimento de colônias de B. bassiana e P. farinosus, que não diferiram significativamente do controle apenas na concentração C11, mas para M. anisopliae o mesmo efeito foi observado com 0,039% de óleo de nim (C8. A esporulação também foi significativamente reduzida pelo óleo de nim, exceto na concentração C11 para B. bassiana; contudo, não se verificou efeito do óleo na viabilidade de esporos dos fungos.

  18. 印楝细胞培养物控制黄粉虫幼虫的研究%Controling the Larvae of Tenebrio molitor with Cultured Extracts of Azadirachta indica Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴林; 赵娜; 韩广建; 曹雪飞

    2014-01-01

    为了探究印楝细胞培养物控制害虫的效果,本文通过诱导幼叶、继代培养获得印楝的松散型愈伤组织,再经振荡培养获得悬浮细胞培养物;然后采用二氯甲烷溶剂浸提愈伤组织、悬浮培养物及悬浮培养细胞,制备相应的浸提液;用二氯甲烷分别将这些浸提液稀释成含0.003%印楝素A 的控虫工作液,用其分别处理黄粉虫幼虫,在12,d内,考察其控虫效果.结果表明:3种浸提液的致死效应明显高于阴性对照,其中,第9天的最大致死率达到20%,但它们要明显低于0.003%印楝素乳油农药的处理;3种浸提液对幼虫的虫体质量、拒食和趋避作用等方面效果较好,均达到印楝乳油杀虫剂的控虫水平.印楝细胞培养物经一步浸提后,直接用于控虫制剂的生产,可以节约分离、提纯印楝素等生产性成本.%To explore the pest control effect of neem cultures,relaxed callus was induced and subcultured from young neem leaves,from which suspension cells were obtained by shaking the culture. The callus,suspension cultures and suspension cells were turned into insecticidal solution by using dichloromethane dissolvent.The three kinds of solution were later di-luted into their working solutions with 0.003%Azadirachtin by using dichloromethane;and then those solutions were applied to Tenebrio molitor larvae,one by one. In 12,days,their pest control effects were observed. The results indicated that all the three kinds of dichloromethane extracts had a lethal rate against Tenebrio molitor larvae higher than that of the negative con-trol. The maximum lethal rate of the extracts reached 20%when cultured for 9,days,but the lethal rate was lower than that of 0.003%Azadirachtin EC. The extracts all gave good performance in dealing with the body weight,antifeeding and repellent rate of the larvae,and they all reached the pesticide control level of Azadirachtin Emulsion. In conclusion,neem cell cultures,by one step extraction,can be directly used as pest control agent.This method can lower the production cost of Azadirachtin separation and purification.

  19. 广东引种印楝树的主要病虫害种类及其防治技术%Diseases and Insect Pests on Neem Trees (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Their Control in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪香; 周丽华; 秦长生; 徐金柱; 陈贰; 苏海; 翁抗美; 蓝锦欣

    2009-01-01

    文章从生产实际需要出发,总结近年来对印楝的病虫害观察和防治试验结果,介绍在广东省人工栽培印楝主要病虫害种类及其防治对策,以期在今后发展种植印楝时提供参考.

  20. 碳基固体酸催化印楝树油与甲醇的酯交换反应%Transesterification of Azadirachta Indica Oil with Methanol Catalyzed by Cardon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文辉; 文鹤林

    2009-01-01

    制备了碳基固体酸催化剂,用红外光谱分析、元素分析、XRD分析和热重分析对所制备的催化剂进行了定性定量研究;用碳基固体酸催化印楝油与申醇的酯交换反应,研究了相关因素对反应的影响,用高效液相色谱法分析反应中TG、DG、MG和FAME的含量,结果表明,用碳基固体酸催化印楝树油与甲醇的酯交换反应非常有效,最佳反应条件(油酯与甲醇的物质的量比率固定在1∶12)是:催化剂用量为油酯质量的10%,反应温度为120℃,反应时间为8 h,反应原料中脂肪酸质量分数不大于10%,水的质量分数不大于5%,酯交换率可达95%.这种催化剂循环使用10次,酯交换率没有下降.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Contents of Some Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica in Kaduna Metropolis-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarkiyayi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three varieties of mangoes (Mangifera indica namely; Adansonia digitata (Durshea big seed, Durio zubethinus murr (Peter middle seeded, Foetide lour (Julie collected within Kaduna metropolis were subjected to proximate analysis. Analysis of the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the three varieties of mangoes revealed that moisture content, crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fat, ash content and vitamin c were 79.17, 1.97, 7.16, 1.89, 9.81 and 34.12% respectively for Durshea variety. The findings revealed that Peter (Middle Seeded mango proximate values for all the nutrients analyzed were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the values obtained from Durshea result. The Julie (Small Seeded mango’s moisture content (72.04% and carbohydrate contents (16.59 mg/100 g were significantly (p<0.05 different from Durshea and Peter varieties. The findings also revealed that calcium contents were 0.15, 0.10 and 0.13% for durshea, peter and Julie, respectively. Iron and magnesium contents were present in small amount for all the three variaties. The contents of cyanogenic glycosides (0.28 mg/100 g, oxalates (1.60 mg/100 g and phytate (0.62 mg/100 g for durshea were not significantly different from peter and jullie varieties of the mango. The findings revealed that the three varieties of mango contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that the body required for its normal metabolic functions .The anti nutrients contents is negligible. The Durshea variety is the most recommended for human consumption because of its high lipids and calcium contents.

  2. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  3. Protective potential of Tamarindus indica against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Azam Khan, Mir; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-13

    Abstract Context: Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, its clinical applications are often limited due to nephrotoxic effects. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) fruits against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. Materials and methods: A daily dose of 200 mg/kg of 70% aqueous-ethanol extract derived from T. indica was employed in male rabbits as a co-therapy with gentamicin (80 mg/kg) for a period of three weeks. Serum and urinary renal function parameters and histological assessments were carried out and compared with one way analysis of variance (Graphpad prism version 5.00, Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: The results showed that gentamicin-treated animals had significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen (54.1 ± 2.6 mg/dl), serum creatinine (4.0 ± 0.1 mg/dl), serum uric acid (2.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and urinary protein excretion (3.8 ± 0.3 mg/dl) with a fall in body weight (10 ± 1%), creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.09 ml/min), serum potassium (3.4 ± 0.1 mEq/l), serum calcium (7.6 ± 0.2 mg/dl), urinary volume (126 ± 9 ml/24 h) and urinary lactate dehydrogenase secretion (103.1 ± 4.2 U/l). However, animals treated by co-therapy with gentamicin and T. indica had significantly improved renal structure and function. Discussion and conclusion: Co-therapy of 200 mg/kg/d of T. indica for a period of three weeks successfully prevented functional and morphological derangements caused by gentamicin as assessed by different renal function parameters and histological examinations.

  4. Antioxidant levels and activities of selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norshazila, S; Syed Zahir, I; Mustapha Suleiman, K; Aisyah, M R; Kamarul Rahim, K

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine and compare the antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary and secondary) between selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits - guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.). Seeds are among byproducts from the processing of fruitsbased products. Instead of discarding seeds as waste, seeds with high potential as antioxidants could be utilised for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits were tested in this study for total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and metal ion chelating effect by ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from sample was done with 70% ethanol. TPCs of the seeds were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in mg per 100 g fresh seed weight. TPC assay showed that mango seeds had the highest TPC (i.e. 32 ± 0.001 mg GAE) followed by guava seeds (i.e. 20 ± 0.001 mg GAE) and papaya seeds (8 ± 0.003 mg GAE). For DPPH assay, IC50 data showed that mango seed extract scavenged 50% DPPH radicals at the lowest concentration (0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL) followed by the positive control BHA (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL), guava seed extract (0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and papaya seed extract (0.34 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Interestingly, all seed extracts showed higher free radical scavenging activities than BHA after sample concentration of 0.60 mg/mL. However, FIC assay indicated that metal ion chelating effects of all seed extracts were weaker than BHA suggesting that the fruit seeds are not sources of good metal ion chelators. Overall, present results suggest that TPC of the seeds show strong negative correlation with their primary antioxidant activity (r= -0.985, R2= 0.970), and not all compounds in extracts which could scavenge DPPH radicals are good metal ion chelators. Mango seeds relatively showed the highest antioxidant level and primary antioxidant

  5. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit.

  6. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  7. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities)

  8. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  9. Seed Development and Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  10. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  11. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

  12. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W

    2008-02-01

    Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.

  13. FLUORIDE SORPTION USING MORRINGA INDICA-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karthikeyan, S. Siva Ilango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiments using activated carbon prepared from Morringa Indica bark were conducted to remove fluoride from aqueous solution. A minimum contact time of 25 min was required for optimum fluoride removal. The influence of adsorbent, dose, pH, co-ions (cations and anions on fluoride removal by the activated carbon has been experimentally verified. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at 30 C, 40 C and 50 C. The kinetics of adsorption and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were studied. The fluoride adsorption obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and followed a pseudo first order kinetic model. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the fluoride adsorption by Morringa Indica is an endothermic process indicating an increase in sorption rate at higher temperatures. The negative values of G indicate the spontaneity of adsorption. SEM and XRD studies confirmed the surface morphological characteristics of the adsorbent and the deposition of fluoride on the surface of the material.

  14. Potential antianxiety activity of Fumaria indica: A preclinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gireesh K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the view of diverse CNS modulating properties of Fumaria indica, present study was planned to evaluate its putative anxiolytic activity in behavioural models of rats, followed by elucidation of mechanism of observed activity through biochemical estimations. Materials and Methods: Effects of seven daily 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg oral doses of a Fumaria indica extract (FI was compared with those of an acute oral dose (5 mg/kg of lorazepam in a battery of rat models consisting of open-field, elevated plus and zero maze, social interaction, and novelty induced feeding tests. Results: Dose dependant antianxiety effects of FI observed in all tests were qualitatively similar to those of the reference anxiolytic drug. Although FI treatments did not alter the concentrations of noradrenaline and serotonin in hippocampus and hypothalamus, concentrations of both these monoamines were dose dependently elevated in prefrontal cortex of FI treated animals. Flunitrazepam binding in brain frontal cortex was also elevated by the extract. Moreover, higher levels of brain expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 observed in animals with prior experience on elevated plus maze were almost completely reversed by the lowest dose of FI tested in the behavioral models. Conclusion: Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that FI is a functionally novel type of antianxiety agent, and that inhibition of cytokine expressions in the brain could be involved in its mode of action.

  15. In vitro plant development and root colonization of Coleus forskohlii by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted for optimization of in vitro substrates under aseptic conditions for interaction of Piriformospora indica with the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. It aims to test the effects of different substrates on P. indica colonization as well as growth parameters of the in vitro raised C. forskohlii. Interaction of in vitro C. forskohlii with root endophyte P. indica under aseptic condition resulted in increase in growth parameters in fungus colonized plants. It was observed that P. indica promoted the plant's growth in all irrespective of substrates used for co-culture study. The growth was found inferior in liquid compared to semisolid medium as well as there was problem of hyperhydricity in liquid medium. P. indica treated in vitro plantlets were better adapted for establishment under green house compared to the non treated plants due to fungal intervention.

  16. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASEEB Akhtar; SHARMA Anita; SHUKLA Prabhat Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil,bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P.fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.

  17. The seed nuclear proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  18. Development and Characterization of Elite Doubled Haploid Lines from Two Indica Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rukmini MISHRA; Gundimeda Jwala Narashima RAO; Ravi Nageswara RAO; Pankaj KAUSHAL

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant yield advantage over inbred rice, the adoption rate of hybrid rice in India is very low due to the high seed cost and poor quality of the produce. To alleviate the problem, we initiated a doubled haploid (DH) breeding approach to develop new lines from two elite indica rice hybrids (CRHR5 and CRHR7) through rapid fixation of homozygosity in the recombinants.In vitro culture of the rice anthers resulted in 243 and 186 fertile DH lines of CRHR5 and CRHR7, respectively. Flow cytometric and pollen fertility analyses confirmed the DH ploidy status of the regenerations. Morpho-agronomic evaluation revealed 100% uniformity and stability for all the characters in the DH lines of both hybrids. Nineteen promising DH lines of each hybrid were advanced to A2 generation for yield evaluation. The yield levels of the DH lines ranged from 5 097–6 965 kg/hm2 for CRHR5 and 5 141–7 235 kg/hm2 for CRHR7, which were at par or higher than the parental hybrids. Physico-chemicalcharacterization and cooking quality analyses revealed significant and acceptable values for grain length and width, alkali spreading value, amylose content and water uptake ratio of the selected DH lines. Three DH lines, CR5-10, CR5-49, CR5-61 from CRHR5, and four DH lines, CR7-5, CR7-7, CR7-12 and CR7-52 from CRHR7, showed significant grain yield and quality characteristics and have been recommended for multi-location trials for subsequent release as new indicadoubled haploid rice varieties.

  19. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-enzymatic Activities of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract Against Snake Venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Patchreenart Saparpakorn; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Rapepol Bavovada

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloyl glucopyranose) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on enzymatic activities of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) of Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Naja naja kaouthia (NK)venoms by in vitro tests. The anti-hemorrhagic and anti-dermonecrotic activities of MSKE against both venoms were clearly ...

  20. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  1. Independent domestication of Asian rice followed by gene flow from japonica to indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-chia; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi

    2012-05-01

    Results from studies on the domestication process of Asian rice Oryza sativa have been controversial because of its complicated evolutionary history. Previous studies have yielded two alternative hypotheses about the origin(s) of the two major groups of O. sativa: japonica and indica. One study proposes a single common wild ancestor, whereas the other suggests that there were multiple domestication events of different types of wild rice. Here, we provide clear evidence of the independent domestication of japonica and indica obtained via high-throughput sequencing and a large-scale comparative analysis of two wild rice accessions (W1943 and W0106) and two cultivars (a japonica cultivar called "Nipponbare" and an indica cultivar called "Guangluai-4"). The different domestication processes of the two cultivar groups appear to have led to distinct patterns of molecular evolution in protein-coding regions. The intensity of purifying selection was relaxed only in the japonica group, possibly because of a bottleneck effect. Moreover, a genome-wide comparison between Nipponbare, Guangluai-4, and another indica cultivar (93-11) suggests multiple hybridization events between japonica and indica, both before and after the divergence of the indica cultivars. We found that a large amount of genomic DNA, including domestication-related genes, was transferred from japonica to indica, which might have been important in the development of modern rice. Our study provides an overview of the dynamic process of Asian rice domestication, including independent domestication events and subsequent gene flow.

  2. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  3. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Kubica, Marcin; Pissis, Solon P; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing shortest left-seed array, longest left-seed array and checking for seeds of a given length. The algorithm for the last problem is used to compute the seed array of a string (i.e., the shortest seeds for all the prefixes of the string) in $O(n^2)$ time. We describe also a simpler alternative algorithm computing efficiently the shortest seeds. As a by-product we obtain an $O(n\\log{(n/m)})$ time algorithm checking if the shortest seed has length at least $m$ and finding the corresponding seed. We also correct some important details missing in th...

  4. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  5. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  7. Biosynthesis of Yttrium oxide nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Kannan; M Sundrarajan

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and transmission electron microscope for structural confirmation. The studies clearly indicate that the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticle is a crystalline material with a particle size from 23 to 66 nm. Further analysis was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, to provide the evidence for the presence of Y–O–Y and O–Y–O stretchings in the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses gave the thermal stability of Y2O3 nanoparticles. The results of the antibacterial studies conducted by using the synthesized Y2O3 revealed an increasing rate of antibacterial behaviour with pathogens.

  8. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process.

  9. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  11. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae. En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos preparados con las raíces de ambas plantas. A estos extractos, se les determinó el rendimiento de sólidos solubles totales y se les realizó el análisis fitoquímico general. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó frente a 25 cultivos bacterianos, dos cepas de hongos filamentosos y 13 cepas de siete especies de levaduras del género Candida. En ambas plantas, los extractos etanólicos tuvieron mayor actividad que los acuosos. Los extractos etanólicos de estas especies vegetales afectaron el crecimiento de siete cepas bacterianas, lo cual correspondió al 28 % de los cultivos evaluados. Esta actividad fue bacteriostática y bactericida para los dos extractos, a los que se les determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitoria (CMI y Bactericida (CMB frente a los cultivos sensibles. Solo se detectó actividad antifúngica por el extracto de W. indica sobre la cepa de C. utilis. La acción sobre bacterias enteropatógenas in vitro valida el uso de estas plantas en medicina tradicional y reafirma la necesidad de estudios toxicológicos para asegurar la inocuidad de su uso.

  12. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  13. Preliminary study on the genes related to the fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Studying the sterility of indica/japonica hybrid was a prerequisite for the utilization of heterosis in high yield rice breeding. In 1986, Ikehashi et al found that wide compatibility varieties, which possessed S5-n allele, couldovercome the sterility of indica/japonica hybrids, and thesterilitv was mainly caused by allelic interaction at S-5 lo-cus. Further studies indicated that the sterility could notbe completely overcome just by S5-n. There were must beother loci responsible for the sterility of indica/ japonicahybrids.

  14. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  15. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  16. Multiple and independent origins of short seeded alleles of GS3 in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Kai, Noriko; Jiang, Hui; Powell, Adrian; McCouch, Susan; Takamure, Itsuro; Furuya, Naruto; Doi, Kazuyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    GRAIN SIZE 3 (GS3) is a cloned gene that is related to seed length. Here we report the discovery of new deletion alleles at the GS3 locus, each of which confer short seed. We selected ten short seeded cultivars from a collection of 282 diverse cultivars. Sequence analysis across the GS3 gene in these ten cultivars identified three novel alleles and a known allele that contain several independent deletion(s) in the fifth exon of GS. These independent deletion variants each resulted in a frameshift mutation that caused a premature stop codon, and they were functionally similar to one another. Each coded for a truncated gene product that behaved as an incomplete dominant allele and conferred a short seeded phenotype. Haplotype analysis of these sequence variants indicated that two of the variants were of japonica origin, and two were from indica. Transformation experiments demonstrated that one of the deletion alleles of GS3 decrease the cell number in the upper epidermis of the glume, resulting in a significant reduction in seed length. The multiple and independent origins of these short seeded alleles indicate that farmers and early breeders imposed artificial selection favoring short seeds. PMID:23641184

  17. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  18. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  19. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  20. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxic and hypoglycemic properties of Mangifera indica peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Chowdhury

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This current research affirms prominent cytotoxic and moderate hypoglycemic potential of M. indica peel. Further bioactivity guided isolation of phytoconstituents and investigation on higher animals can lead to development of new drug molecules.

  1. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus-indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These analyses support the following hypotheses: that O. ficus-indica is a close relative of a group of arborescent, fleshy-fruited prickly pears from central and southern Mexico; that the center of domestication for this species is in central Mexico; and that the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic.

  2. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

    2004-01-01

    A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C...

  3. Morphological Characteristics and Distribution of Wild Germplasm Resources of Mangifera indica in South and North Pan River Valley%南北盘江河谷野生芒果种质资源的分布与形态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊卫国; 罗燕; 吴素芳; 葛会敏

    2012-01-01

    为了给南北盘江河谷野生芒果种质资源的保护与利用研究提供参考依据,对南北盘江河谷的野生芒果资源进行了调查,并选择代表性单株进行形态特征描述和果实性状分析测定.结果表明:在南北盘江下游海拔395~550 m的河各地区有野生芒果(Mangifera indica L.)资源分布,并有数百年生的野生古芒果树存在.这些野生芒果果皮厚,果实小,种子大,可食率低,品质差,多胚和单胚共存,未经种质改良过的野生性状特征明显.%In order to provide the reference for protection and utilization of the wild germplasm resources of Mangifera indica in South and North Pan river valley, the representative plants were selected for the description of morphological characteristics and the determination of fruit traits, according to the investigation and analysis to the wild M. indica resources in South and North Pan river valley. The results showed that some wild M. indica resources were distributed in 395 - 550 meters above sea level in the lower of the South and North Pan river, in which hundreds-year-old wild M. indica trees existed. The characteristics of the wild M. indica in the area were the thick pericarp, the small fruit, the big seed, the low edible rate and the poor quality. Meanwhile, the multiple embryos and single embryo coexisted in the same plant. The wild traits and characteristics of without germplasm improvement obviously showed.

  4. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  5. A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

    2013-02-01

    In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  6. Preliminary studies on rice quality of japonica-indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; ZHANGYunkang; WUJianli

    1997-01-01

    It has been proved that high yield combinations can be obtained via hybridization between indica and japonica rice. However, people have worried about the quality of this kind of rice for a long time. Our researches were mainly based on the mating pattern of “japonica male sterile line/indica restorer line” to generate and select elite japonicalinous crosses. Ricequality is shown in table 1 and 2.

  7. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

  8. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and redu

  9. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki;

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  10. The earliest seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Seed germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  12. 酸角的化学成分及生物活性研究现状%Current research status on chemical components and biological activities of Tamarindus indica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维熙; 王葳; 杨柏荣; 张璐; 苏薇薇; 王文静

    2016-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. tamarinds,belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae,is a kind of large subtropical ever⁃green tree. Every part of tamarind has rich nutritional value and broad usage in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies suggest extraction of leaves,flesh,seeds,and velamina of T. indica Linn. have numerous biological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory,detoxification,analgesic,antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemiactions. A great interest has been seen in various sec⁃ondary metabolites isolated and identified from chemical components of T. indica Linn. In this review article,we summarize recent achievement in chemical components and biological activities of T. indica Linn.,aiming to provide a useful reference for further study and exploitation of T. indica Linn..%酸角(Tamarindus indica Linn.)为苏木科酸角属的亚热带常绿大乔木经济植物。酸角各部位中不仅含有丰富的营养成分,还在传统医学中广泛应用。迄今的研究证明,酸角叶、果肉、籽及根皮提取物具有较好的抗菌、抗炎、解毒、止痛、降血糖及降血脂等生物活性。人们在对酸角提取物的化学成分进行研究中分离鉴定了多种类型的次生代谢产物,引起广泛的关注。作者以近年来有关酸角化学成分及生物活性的研究成果进行综述,旨在为酸角的深入研究和应用开发提供有益的参考依据。

  13. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  14. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action; Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da acao inseticida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista, E-mail: mrforim@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  15. Proteomic analysis of an unsequenced plant--Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuse, Santosh; Harsha, H C; Kumar, Praveen; Acharya, Pradip Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Goel, Renu; Kumar, Ghantasala S Sameer; Raju, Rajesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Slotta, Tracey; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2012-10-22

    Mangifera indica (Mango) is an important fruit crop in tropical countries with India being the leading producer in the world. Substantial research efforts are being devoted to produce fruit that have desirable characteristics including those that pertain to taste, hardiness and resistance to pests. Characterization of the genome and proteome of mango would help in the improvement of cultivars. As the mango genome has not yet been sequenced, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach followed by database searches of mango-derived ESTs and proteins along with proteins from six other closely related plant species to characterize its proteome. In addition to this, de novo sequencing followed by homology-based protein identification was also carried out. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango leaf proteome was performed using an accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This integrative approach enabled the identification of 1001 peptides that matched to 538 proteins. To our knowledge, this study is the first high-throughput analysis of mango leaf proteome and could pave the way for further genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies.

  16. Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  17. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  18. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-07-08

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana's roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STACHYTARPHETA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.N. Krishna Kumar*, S.D.Preethi, E. Chandana and Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Stachytarpheta indica Vahl. was assessed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoides, tannins and reducing sugars. The antibacterial properties of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts were studied against clinically important bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogens by disc diffusion method. The aqueous extract showed significant activity against all the presently investigated species of bacteria which is comparable with standard antibiotic streptomycin. At the concentrations of 50-100µg /disc, aqueous extract showed significant zone of inhibition against E. coli, (14 mm, B. cereus (13 mm, P. aeruginosa, (17 mm, and E. aerogens (7 mm. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC have been determined. The MIC values observed was 20, 30, 5 and 25µg/ml (for aqueous extract and 40, 35, 20 and 30µg/ml (for methanolic extract against E. coli, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and E. aerogens respectively. Further isolation of active compound responsible for the activity could be the potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  20. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  1. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  2. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  3. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC 50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  4. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract ofEleusine indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ette Okon Ettebong; Edidiong Etukakpan; Augustine Bassey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract ofEleusine indica. Methods:Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg) and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg). Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg), aminophylline (280 mg/kg) and isoniazid (250 mg/kg) were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  5. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  6. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-08-01

    Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. In the elephant's seed shadow: the prospects of domestic bovids as replacement dispersers of three tropical Asian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2015-08-01

    As populations of the world's largest animal species decline, it is unclear how ecosystems will react to their local extirpation. Due to the unique ecological characteristics of megaherbivores such as elephants, seed dispersal is one ecosystem process that may be affected as populations of large animals are decimated. In typically disturbed South Asian ecosystems, domestic bovids (cattle, Bosprimigenius, and buffalo, Bubalus bubalis) may often be the species most available to replace Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as endozoochorous dispersers of large-fruited mammal-dispersed species. We use feeding trials, germination trials, and movement data from the tropical moist forests of Buxa Tiger Reserve (India) to examine whether domestic bovids are viable replacements for elephants in the dispersal of three large- fruited species: Dillenia indica, Artocarpus chaplasha, and Careya arborea. We find that (1) once consumed, seeds are between 2.5 (C. arborea) and 26.5 (D. indica) times more likely to pass undigested into elephant dung than domestic bovid dung; and (2) seeds from elephant dung germinated as well as or better than seeds taken from bovid dung for all plant species, with D. indica seeds from elephant dung 1.5 times more likely to germinate. Furthermore, since wild elephants have less constrained movements than even free-roaming domestic bovids, we calculate that maximum dispersal by elephants is between 9.5 and 11.2 times farther than that of domestic bovids, with about 20% of elephant-dispersed seeds being moved farther than the maximum distance seeds are moved by bovids. Our findings suggest that, while bovids are able to disperse substantial numbers of seeds over moderate distances for two of the three study species, domestic bovids will be unable to routinely emulate the reliable, long-distance dispersal of seeds executed by elephants in this tropical moist forest. Thus while domestic bovids can attenuate the effects of losing elephants as dispersers

  8. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  9. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  10. Molecular docking studies and anti-tyrosinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-07

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.

  11. Study on Flavonoids in the Caryopsis of Indica Rice Rdh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Eei; DONG Bao-cheng; YANG Xiao-ji; HUANG Cheng-bin; WANG Xu-dong; WU Xian-jun

    2009-01-01

    To detect if there are phenolic flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins in Rdh, histochemistry assay toluidine blue O (TBO) staining and vanillin tests were performed. Rdh caryopsis transverse sections were stained by metachromatic stain TBO. It showed that there were a great deal of polyphenols in the pericarp and seed-coat tissues, and a little of them was in the cell wall of aleurone layers. The ovaries of Rdh and colorless rice were dealt with vanillin. It showed that all fertilized ovaries of Rdh were bright red regardless what degree the caryopsis maturity was, and all the ovaries of it before fertilization were not red after vanillin treatment. It suggested that every Rdh caryopsis had proanthocyanidins or its precursors, and fertilization was the premise of proanthocyanidins or its precursor synthesis. But colorless rice could not accumulate proanthocyanidins or its precursors. The pericarp, seed-coat and aleurone layer tissues of Rdh and colorless rice were anatomized and were dealt with vanillin. It was showed that three layers of Rdh were all bright red after treatment, revealing that they all had proanthocyanidins or its precursors, but colorless rice could not. It was suggested that polymerized proanthocyanindins were synthesized and accumulated in the pericarp of Rdh, and monomer-proanthocyanidins or leucoanthocyanidins were synthesized and accumulated in the seed-coat and the aleurone layer tissues.

  12. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  13. NEPHRO-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MELIA AZADIRACHTA AGAINST H2O2 INDUCED TOXICITY IN VERO CELL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal disorders have become very common nowadays, which may also lead to kidney failure. The disorder may be caused by the commonly used chemicals such as acetaminophen, CCl4, streptromycin, H2O2 etc. The objective of this work is to determine the nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract against H2O2induced toxicity in VERO cell line. Ethanolic extract is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects, which make it a most sought for herbal medicine. Its characteristic features have identified this compound as a potential hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agent. VERO cells are cells taken from the kidney of an African green monkey, which are used in our study. The matured leaves of Melia Azadirachtawere used to prepare ethanolic extract and the same was used to test for its inhibitory effect in 96 micro plate formats against in VERO cell lines. To study the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract against VERO cell line, we have tested the MTT assay with different concentrations in the range of 1000 to 62.5 μg/ml.From the performed assay, the effect of ethanolic extract drug reveals an enhanced activity on in VERO cell lines and that infers Melia Azadirachta, can be used as nephroprotective agent.

  14. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seeds are tiny, brown, black or white seeds. They are almost as small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint ... minerals. Chia seeds are also rich in essential fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6. Essential fatty ...

  15. Genetics of Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  16. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  17. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  18. Anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety or depressed mood is associated with low levels of serotonin in the brain. A hydroxycitric acid (HCA, constituent of Garcinia indica (GIA, increases serotonin release from isolated rat brain cortex. Aim: To evaluate the anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA in mice. Materials and Methods: The anxiolytic-like effects of aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA were evaluated by using elevated plus maze (EPM, hole board and light/dark exploration models in Swiss albino mice. Control mice were treated with an equal volume of saline, and positive control mice were treated with diazepam (1 mg/kg. Results: GIA administered orally, 30 min before the test in different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, was able to increase significantly (P < 0.05 the time-spent and entries into open arms of the EPM and reduced the time-spent and entries into closed arms versus control. In the hole-board test, treatment with GIA (250 and 500 mg/kg significantly increased the number of head-dips and duration of head dipping (P < 0.05. In the light-dark paradigm test, number of transitions and the time spent in the light box increased with reduction in time spent in the dark box and immobility period significantly (P < 0.05 after treatment with GIA. However, no significant changes in locomotor activity were observed versus control. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA is an effective anxiolytic agent for behavioural models in mice.

  19. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  20. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  1. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation.

  2. TEST OF Morus khunpai AND M.indica HYBRID TOWARDS SILKWORM FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaedah Muin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of silkworm rearing depends on the availability of qualified mulberry plants. The research is aimed to observe the compatibility of hybrid Morus khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm's feeding. It is related to the cocoon and filament quality. KI hybrids are a result of pollination control male parent M.khunpai and female parent M.indica S-54. The research applied a Randomized Complete Design by measuring variables, i.e.: the percentage of cocoon, number of normal cocoon, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length. The result showed that cocoon and filament quality of silkworm fed by mulberry hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI have shown non-significant differences compared with silkworm fed by mulberry parents (M.khunpai and M.indica and the control (M.nigra. This situation showed that there has not been recognised yet as the compatibility of hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm feeding.

  3. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  4. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  5. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

  6. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) density effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan; WU Han-wen; JIANG Wei-li; MA Ya-jie; MA Yan

    2015-01-01

    Goosegrass is one of the worst agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop ifeld wil provide useful information for weed control programs. Field experiments were conducted during 2010–2012 to determine the inlfuence of goosegrass density on cotton growth at the weed densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 plants m–1 of row. Seed cotton yield tended to decrease with the increase in weed density, and goosegrass at a density of 4 plants m–1 of row signiifcantly reduced cotton yields by 20 to 27%. A density of 11.6–19.2 goosegrass plant m–1 of row would result in a 50%cotton yield loss from the maximum yield according to the hyperbolic decay regression model. Bol production was not affected in the early growing season. But bol numbers per plant were reduced about 25%at the den-sity of 4 plants m–1 of row in the late growing season. Both cotton bol weight and seed numbers per bol were signiifcantly reduced (8%) at 4 goosegrass plants m–1 of row. Cotton plant height, stem diameter and sympodial branch number were not affected as much as cotton yields by goosegrass competition. Seed index, lint percentage and lint ifber properties were unaffected by weed competition. Intraspeciifc competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, 142–387 g dry weight by harvest. Goosegrass biomass m–2 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a quadratic response. The adverse impact of goosegrass on cotton yield identiifed in this study has indicated the need of effective goosegrass management.

  7. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  8. Differentiation of Indica-Japonica rice revealed by insertion/deletion (InDel) fragments obtained from the comparative genomic study of DNA sequences between 93-11 (Indica) and Nipponbare (Japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xingxing; LIU Jing; QIU Yinqiu; ZHAO Wei; SONG Zhiping; LU Baorong

    2007-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms from nucleotide insertion/deletions (InDels) in genomic sequences are the basis for developing InDel molecular markers.To validate the InDel primer pairs on the basis of the comparative genomic study on DNA sequences between an Indica rice 93-11 and a Japonica rice Nipponbare for identifying Indica and Japonica rice varieties and studying wild Oryza species,we studied 49 Indica,43 Japonica,and 24 wild rice accessions collected from ten Asian countries using 45 InDel primer pairs.Results indicated that of the 45 InDel primer pairs,41 can accurately identify Indica and Japonica rice varieties with a reliability of over 80%.The scatter plotting data of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that:(i) the InDel primer pairs can easily distinguish Indica from Japonica rice varieties,in addition to revealing their genetic differentiation;(ii) the AA-genome wild rice species showed a relatively close genetic relationship with the Indica rice varieties;and (iii)the non-AA genome wild rice species did not show evident differentiation into the Indica and Japonica types.It is concluded from the study that most of the InDel primer pairs obtained from DNA sequences of 93-11 and Nipponbare can be used for identifying lndica and Japonica rice varieties,and for studying genetic relationships of wild rice species,particularly in terms of the Indica-Japonica differentiation.

  9. Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae, a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pavetta indica is a massive bloomer for a brief period in May.  The flowers are hermaphroditic, strikingly protandrous, self and cross-compatible, nectariferous and psychophilous.  They possess secondary pollen presentation mechanism as a device to avoid autonomous autogamy but it does not prevent geitonogamy.  The fruit set largely occurs through geitonogamy and xenogamy.  Butterflies, especially papilionids, pierids, nymphalids, and sphingid hawk moth pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar.  Honey bees and blue-banded digger bees feed on pollen and effect only accidental pollination.  The nectar is sucrose-rich and contains essential and non-essential amino acids.  Birds are seed dispersal agents. Seeds are non-dormant and germinate readily during rainy season but their continued growth and establishment is subject to the availability of soil moisture and nutrients.  The plant is not able to populate itself in its natural area.  The local uses of different parts of the plant have been found to be affecting its reproductive success and natural regeneration rate.  Therefore, regulation of the uses of this plant is recommended for its survival and restoration of its population size in the natural areas due to its role as a keystone species for bees and butterflies during dry season. 

  10. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  11. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  12. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  13. Effect of Tamarindus indica. L on the bioavailability of ibuprofen in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, M; Yakasai, I A; Bakare, M T; Munir, H Y

    2003-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of Ibuprofen tablets 400 mg dose when given concurrently was studied in 6 healthy human volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of Ibuprofen and its metabolites hydroxy-ibuprofen and carboxy-ibuprofen respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the ibuprofen tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The C(max), AUC(0-6 hr) and Ka for ibuprofen increased from 38 +/- 0.70 microg/ml to 42 +/- 0.98 microg/ml (p > 0.05); and 28.03 +/- 2.40 microg/ml x hr to 56.51 +/- 0.16 microg/ml x hr (p Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of Ibuprofen.

  14. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A; Yakasai, I A; Aguye, I A

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of aspirin tablets 600 mg dose was studied in 6 healthy volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the aspirin tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The Cmax, AUC0-6h and t1/2 for aspirin increased from 10.04 +/- 0.1 mg/ml to 28.62 +/- 0.21 mg/ml (P Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of aspirin.

  15. Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

    2000-07-01

    In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production.

  16. Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Investigation of Mangifera indica L. var. Kesar leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological and microscopical characters of Mangifera indica L. leaf collected from Gujarat region and its phytochemical and physicochemical analysis. Methods: Microscopic characters and powder analysis was done under microscope. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, pH, solubility and extractive values of M. indica were carried out. Results: The upper epidermis was irregular, wavy with thick epidermal layer;and prismatic, rosette and cluster types of calcium oxalate crystals were found. In phytochemical analysis, cardiac glycosides and tannins showed maximum amounts. Conclusions: The present study provides pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical details of the M. indica leaf which are useful in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeia parameters.

  17. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  18. INFLUENCE OF STORAGE METHODS ON STORAGE QUALITY OF INDICA BROWN RICE%不同储藏方式对籼糙米储藏品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童茂彬; 李岩; 董晓欢; 张来林; 古争艳

    2013-01-01

    We studied the storage quality indicators of Indica brown rice under conventional storage and controlled atmosphere storage at different temperatures. The results showed that: the viability, germination rate, and catalase activity of the Indica brown rice decreased gradually, and the fatty acid value, conductivity and MDA content increased gradually as the storage time prolonged and the storage temperature rose. At low temperature, no large difference in the quality of Indica brown rice existed between the two storage methods; but the quality indicators except for the viability and the germination rate of Indica brown rice under controlled atmosphere storage changed slowly in comparison with the conventional storage as the temperature rose. After storage at 35 ℃ for 120 days, the conductivity of Indica brown rice under conventional storage increased from 46.3 μS/cm to 97.6 μS/cm, and the conductivity of Indica brown rice under controlled atmosphere storage increased to 88.4 μS/cm. Accordingly, low temperature could well keep the quality of Indica brown rice, and controlled atmosphere storage could effectively suppress the influences of high temperature on the quality of Indica brown rice, but was not suitable for seed grains.%不同温度下,对常规储藏和气调储藏的籼糙米各项储藏品质指标的研究表明:随着储藏时间的延长和储藏温度的升高,籼糙米的生活力、发芽率、过氧化氢酶活动度逐渐降低;脂肪酸值、电导率和丙二醛含量逐渐升高.低温时,两种储藏方式对籼糙米品质影响区别不大,但随着温度的升高,除生活力和发芽率比常规储藏降低较快之外,充氮气调的其余指标均比常规储藏的变化缓慢.35℃下储藏120 d后,常规储藏糙米的电导率已由46.3 μS/cm增至97.6 μS/cm,而气调储藏仅增至88.4 μS/cm.因此,低温可较好地保持籼糙米的品质,充氮气调可以有效减缓高温对籼糙米品质的影响,但不适用于种子粮的储藏.

  19. Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, E; González, M; Lobo, M G; Laich, F

    2015-11-26

    The antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (Mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. Nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. Significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera Candida, Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. All mango extracts showed antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were lower for seed than for peel extracts. MICs and MFCs ranged from values 30 mgGAE/mL, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between antifungal activity, the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and total phenol content. These properties were associated with high levels of proanthocyanidins, gallates and gallotannins in the extracts.

  20. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. (1) H and (13) C NMR characterization of new cycloartane triterpenes from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Martínez, Carolina; Concepción Lozada, M; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Villarreal, María Luisa; Gnecco, Dino; Enríquez, Raúl G; Reynolds, William

    2012-01-01

    From the stem bark of Mangifera indica, seven cycloartane-type secondary metabolites were isolated. Compound 1 has been isolated for the first time from M. indica, whereas compounds 2 (2a and 2b, as an epimeric mixture), 3, and 4 are new triterpenoid-type cycloartanes. Unambiguous (13) C and (1) H NMR assignments for these compounds and the known compounds mangiferonic acid (compound 5), isomangiferolic acid (compound 6), ambolic acid (compound 7), and friedelin (compound 8) are reported; the latter because full NMR data for these compounds are not available in the literature.

  2. Mantis indica Mukherjee, 1995: a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870 (Insecta: Mantodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 was erected on the basis of some distinctive characters. Based on morphological characters, it was supposed to belong to the genus Statilia (Roy (1999: 163. However, in the absence of the knowledge of the structure of genitalia, its species status remained confusing. A further study on the structure of genitalia revealed that Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 is undoubtedly a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870. A table is provided to compare significant features of related species. Colour photographs of holotype and genitalia of comparable species are also provided.

  3. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A M; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  4. Systematyc notes and a Detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L) Mill. (CACTACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Antonio Reyes-Agüero; J. Rogelio Aguirre-Rivera; Hernández, Héctor M.

    2005-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is the cactus species with the highest economic importance worldwide. It is cultivated for its fruits, forage, or as host of the cochineal insect, but only in México their young cladodes are consumed as vegetables. The main goals of this study were: a) to integrate systematic notes about its common nomenclature, origin, reproductive biology and ploidy levels of O. ficus-indica; b) to present a complete botanical description based on specimens collected in north-central Mé...

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  6. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Visser, Marco D.; Kays, Roland; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  7. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  8. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  9. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  10. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: A promising natural excipient for pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshny Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural polymers always have exceptional properties which make them distinct from the synthetic polymers and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for a wide range of applications. TSP is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the seeds of Tamarindus indica, recently gaining a wide potential in the field of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Its isolation and characterisation involve simple techniques resulting in cost-effective yield in its production. TSP shows uniqueness in its high drug holding capacity, high swelling index and high thermal stability, especially necessary for various novel drug delivery systems. It also plays the role of stabiliser, thickener, binder, release retardant, modifier, suspending agent, viscosity enhancer, emulsifying agent, as a carrier for novel drug delivery systems in oral, buccal, colon, ocular systems, nanofabrication, wound dressing and is also becoming an important part of food, cosmetics, confectionery and bakery. Various studies and experiments have been carried out to prove its multi-functional potentiality, from which it can be concluded that TSP can be a promising natural polysaccharide having enormous applications. This review focuses on the diversity of applications of TSP.

  11. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthiphong Soradech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (% and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  12. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soradech, Sitthiphong; Petchtubtim, Intira; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu; Muangman, Thanchanok

    2016-03-22

    In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range extract (TSCH) was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  13. Genetic and genotype × environment interaction effects for the content of seven essential amino acids in indica rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. G. Wu; C. H. Shi; X. M. Zhang; T. Katsura

    2004-08-01

    It is necessary for rice breeders to understand the genetic basis of nutrient quality traits of rice. Essential amino acids are most important in determining the nutrient quality of rice grain and can affect the health of people who depend on rice as a staple food. In view of the paucity of genetic information available on essential amino acids in indica rice, we estimated the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects on the content of essential amino acids. Nine cytoplasmic male sterile lines as females and five restorer lines as males were introduced in a North Carolina II design across environments. Estimates of the content of the essential amino acids valine, methionine, leucine and phenylalanine showed that they were mainly controlled by genetic main effects, while the contents of threonine, cysteine and isoleucine were mainly affected by G × E effects. In the case of genetic main effects, both cytoplasmic and maternal genetic effects were predominant for all essential amino acids, indicating that selection for improving essential amino acid content based on maternal performance would be more effective than that based on seeds. The total narrow-sense heritabilities were high and ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. Since general heritabilities for these essential amino acids (except for cysteine) were found to be much larger than G × E interaction heritability, the improvement of content of most essential amino acids under selection would be expected under various environments. Rice varieties such as Zhenan 3, Yinchao 1, T49, 26715, 102 and 1391 should be selected as optimal parents for increasing the content of most essential amino acids, while the total genetic effects from Zhexie 2, Xieqingzao, Gangchao 1, V20, Zuo 5 and Zhenshan 97 were mainly negative and these parents could decrease the contents of most essential amino acids.

  14. Projeto de caixa de madeira para manga (Mangifera Indica L. Project of wooden boxes for mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Janet Teruel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As perdas de produtos hortícolas no Brasil são significativas e dentre as causas cita-se o uso de caixas inadequadas e ausência da cadeia do frio. Propõe-se um método de projeto de caixas, baseado em simulação computacional, otimização e validação experimental, minimizando o volume de madeira, associado a aspectos estruturais, ergonômicos e distribuição da área de aberturas. Foram projetados e construídos três protótipos de caixas (ripas retas com diferentes configurações e área efetiva de abertura de 54% e 36%. A eficiência do resfriamento de mangas variedade Tommy Atkins (Mangifera Indica L., foi avaliada determinando o tempo de resfriamento, acondicionando as frutas nas caixas de madeira desenvolvidas e de papelão usadas comercialmente, resfriadas com ar forçado à temperatura de 6ºC e umidade relativa média de 85,4±2,1%. Foi aplicado o Método de Elementos Finitos, para dimensionamento e otimização estrutural do modelo com melhor comportamento durante o resfriamento. Todas as caixas de madeira foram submetidas a ensaios de vibração, por duas horas (freqüência de 20 Hz. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento das frutas nas caixas de madeira (38,00±1,70 min, no entanto houve diferença significativa nas caixas de papelão (82,74±29,58 min. O modelo submetido à otimização estrutural (6% área efetiva e duas ripas laterais teve diminuição de volume de 60% e 83% de redução da seção transversal das colunas, com relação às condições iniciais. Não houve incidência de danos de mecânicos nas frutas após a vibração. A simulação computacional e estrutural pode ser ferramenta de apoio para desenvolver projetos de caixas, com grande aproximação, atendendo a critérios geométricos, ergonômicos e térmicos.Losses of horticulture product in Brazil are significant and among the main causes are the use of inappropriate boxes and the absence of a cold chain. A project for boxes

  15. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  16. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  18. Effect of endophytic fungi Pirifomospora indica on some physiologic traits of strawberry under hydroponic culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Rahmani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which are considered as the most important soil microorganisms, increase the yield of their host plants by creating changes in their genetic, physiological and ecological traits. Pirifomospora indica fungus is a member of Sebacinales order, which increases plant biomass and resistance to living and non-living stresses. In this study, effect of different concentrations [0 (control, 80, 160, 250 and 330 spores/ml of endophytic fungus P. indica on plant height, chlorophyll indicator and branching of strawberry, under hydroponic culture, was examined in a completely randomized design with 28 replications. P. indica was inoculated by injecting around roots of strawberry plants. Two months after fungal inoculation, plant height and chlorophyll content was measured by using coulisse and SPAD, respectively. Results showed that maximum chlorophyll content, branching and plant height belongs to 330 spores/ml treatment with 15%, 30% and 24.5% increase as compared to control, respectively. Also, there was no significant difference among 80, 160 and 250 spores/ml treatments, while 330 spores/ml treatment was significantly different from other treatments (P≤ 0.01. Therefore, it can be concluded that high concentrations of fungus P. indica can affect the abovementioned traits and thus could have a positive effect on strawberry plant's growth and yield.

  19. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  20. Agglutination of pYV+ Yersinia enterocolitica strains by agglutinin from Mangifera indica.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Agglutination of 271 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species grown at 37 degrees C by a 0.01% dilution of the agglutinin from Mangifera indica was correlated with the presence of the virulence plasmid. The study of YadA mutants suggested that the YadA protein is the target of the plant agglutinin.