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Sample records for azadirachta indica seed

  1. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C. With

  2. ‘ANTIANDROGENIC PROPERTIES OF NEEM SEED OIL (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) IN MALE RAT AND RABBI’

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, J. D.; Jha, R. K.; Gupta, Ira; Jain, Prabha; Dixit, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil brings about a significant diminution in spermatozoan motility and density. It leads to reduction of fertility rate in rats and rabbits. The body weight of the animals remain unaffected but the weights of reproductive oranges declined. Reduction of cauda epididymal protein, sialic acid, acid phosphatase and seminal vesicular fructose concentration in rats and rabbits could bedue to antiandrogenic action of the seed oil as confirmed with the help of bioassay ...

  3. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  4. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

  5. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  6. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  7. Repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica seed oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) seed oil against filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) from Purulia district of the West Bengal state, India. Methods: The repellent activity of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils (using coconut oil base) against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito were evaluated in indoor conditions. Three concentrations, 0%, 50% and 100% (v/v) of both the agents were considered in the studies. The protection percentage was determined, and the protection time was recorded. Results: The test oils showed excellent repellent action against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The A. indica seed oil provided 90.26% and 88.83% protection, and the Eucalyptus oil 93.37% and 92.04%, at concentrations 50% and 100% (v/v), respectively, with the protection time up to 240 min. There was no bite within 120 min and 180 min, respectively, due to the action of Eucalyptus andA. indica seed oil, and thus 100% protection from the bite of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito was achieved. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils as topical repellents against Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  8. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulce

  9. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina Salazar, Daniel Iván; Hoyos Sánchez, Rodrigo Alberto; Fernando OROZCO SÁNCHEZ; Myrtha ARANGO ARTEAGA; Luisa Fernanda GÓMEZ LONDOÑO

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were...

  10. Effort on planting and product development of Azadirachta indica in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-ping; PENG Xing-min; ZHENG Yi-xing; LAI Yong-qi

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four provenances of two species (Azadirachta siamensis and Azadirachta indica) have been introduced to China from South Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa Since 1995. This paper summarizes the researches on the introduction and planting of Azadirachta indica and analyzes the morphological, phenological characteristics, the growth rhythm, pollinating and seed yielding features of the introduced 24 provenances of the two species as well as the variations of filial generation plants. The experiments showed that most of the provenances of A. indica have normal growth and can blossom and fruit in the dry-hot valleys with tropical climate conditions in Yunnan Province, China. The normal regions for A. indica were classified and the selection criteria for superior plants were put forward in this paper, moreover, the major contents of industry planning and technical approaches for A. indica plantation establishment were discussed and the countermeasures to reduce the neem-based pesticide products were also proposed.

  11. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control. PMID:25346198

  12. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  13. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  14. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

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    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  15. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi

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    Esposito Fulvio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality

  16. Antimicrobial Potential Of Azadirachta Indica Against Pathogenic Bacteria And Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Drugs from natural sources are used for treating various diseases since the ancient times. From the literature it is clear that various type of pharmacological and biological activities are associated with Azadirachta indica. Theleave oil of A. indica is known to have good antimicrobial potential. The oil of A. indica leaves, was tested against the different infectious microorganisms [Gram positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria], such as bacterial strains; S. aureus, E. coli, B. cerus, ...

  17. Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajkumar; Prasad, Murari; Sah, Nand K

    2011-09-15

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem. Because of its tremendous therapeutic, domestic, agricultural and ethnomedicinal significance, and its proximity with human culture and civilization, neem has been called "the wonder tree" and "nature's drug store." All parts of this tree, particularly the leaves, bark, seed-oil and their purified products are widely used for treatment of cancer. Over 60 different types of biochemicals including terpenoids and steroids have been purified from this plant. Pre-clinical research work done during the last decade has fine-tuned our understanding of the anticancer properties of the crude and purified products from this plant. The anticancer properties of the plant have been studied largely in terms of its preventive, protective, tumor-suppressive, immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects against various types of cancer and their molecular mechanisms. This review aims at scanning scattered literature on "the anticancer biology of A. indica," related toxicity problems and future perspectives. The cogent data on the anticancer biology of products from A. indica deserve multi-institutional clinical trials as early as possible. The prospects of relatively cheaper cancer drugs could then be brighter, particularly for the under-privileged cancer patients of the world. PMID:21743298

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  19. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Sara J; Boersma, Marelle G; Alink, Gerrit M; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2004-09-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged. PMID:15261960

  20. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry – An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, T.; Krishnan, Vidya; Rajendran, R; Madhusudhanan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research. PMID:26009692

  1. Azadirachta indica : A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research.

  2. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, T; Krishnan, Vidya; Rajendran, R; Madhusudhanan, N

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research. PMID:26009692

  3. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

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    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  4. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Dua Virendra K; Pandey Akhilesh C; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Gupta Ashish; Sharma Trilochan; Dash Aditya P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the l...

  5. Antimicrobial Potential Of Azadirachta Indica Against Pathogenic Bacteria And Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drugs from natural sources are used for treating various diseases since the ancient times. From the literature it is clear that various type of pharmacological and biological activities are associated with Azadirachta indica. Theleave oil of A. indica is known to have good antimicrobial potential. The oil of A. indica leaves, was tested against the different infectious microorganisms [Gram positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria], such as bacterial strains; S. aureus, E. coli, B. cerus, P. vulgaris, S. typhi, K. pneumonae, S. dysenterae and Fungal strains; F. oxysporum, A. flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, C. albicans, Cladosporium sp., M. canis, M. gypseum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, P. notatum and P. citrinum etc.The results showed that level of antimicrobial activities of the A.indica oil depends on both the protein and carbohydrate contents. Generally, the high level of protein and carbohydrate contents of extract had better antimicrobial activities.

  6. A New Sucrase Enzyme Inhibitor from Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Mohamed I. S.; Shaheen, Usama; Bader, Ammar; Youns, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sucrase enzyme inhibitor considered as an oral anti-diabetic therapy that delays the absorption of eaten carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks to reach normoglycemia. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica growing in KSA, followed by in-vitro assay of sucrase enzyme inhibition activity. Results: This investigation led to the isolation of a new remarkable sucrase enzyme inhibitor; 4’-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1) alongside with four known compounds; 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(α/β)-D-4C1-glucopyranose (2), Avicularin (3), Castalagin (4) and Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (5). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including ESI-MS, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC. Conclusion: Under the assay conditions, hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica and compounds 1-5 exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. SUMMARY Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica, led to the Isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside named 4’-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, alongside to other 4 known polyphenols. The hydroalcoholic extract as well as the isolated compounds exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. Abbreviations used: ESI-MS; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, UV; ultraviolet, NMR; nuclear magnetic resonance, 1H-1H COSY; 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, NOESY; nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, and HSQC; heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. A. indica; Azadirachta indica.

  7. Neem (Azadirachta indica: Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

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    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  8. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

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    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  9. REVIEW ON NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA: THOUSAND PROBLEMS ONE SOLUTION

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    Sharma Pankaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem has become important in the global context today because it offers answers to the major concerns facing mankind. Azadirachta indica is a fast growing evergreen popular tree found commonly in India, Africa and America. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activity and its preventive-promotive medicinal uses and applications over all this review also tell you that how the “neem is the one solution of thousand problems”, like Antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities.

  10. Effects of Azadirachta indica on Sheep Infected Naturally with Helminthes

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    F. R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica on natural helminthes infection in lambs. Forty, four-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on pasture, over a 20 week period. They were divided into 4 treatments: Without drenching (ND, 3 g A. indica/animal (A3, 6 g A. indica/animal (A6 and 9 g A. indica/animal (A9 over 5 consecutive days, with an interval of 25 days between drenchings. Faeces were collected weekly and lamb weight and blood collection were carried out fortnightly. Four weeks after the last drenching all lambs were slaughtered, and worm burdens calculated. No significant differences were observed for lamb performance between treatments. Blood parameters highlighted the progress of the worm infections, with sheep on treatments A6 and A9 ending the experiment showing anemia. There was an increase in the total number of worms associated with increasing levels of neem, especially due to the increase in number of H. contortus in detriment to the number of T. colubriformis for highest levels of neem (A6 and A9. The increasing doses of neem did not improve the control of endoparasites in sheep naturally infected.

  11. Analysis of Fruit Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Kernel Oil in Azadirachta indica ×Melia azedarach%杂交楝果实含油量及籽油脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    The fruit oil content of 7-years-old hybrid neem tree which was produced from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Melia azedarach by somatic hybridization technology, and the fatty acid composition of seed kernel oil were analyzed. Results showed lower oil content in fruit peel and fruit pulp, i.e. 1.65 % and 1.53 %, respectively. However, high oil content (39.20 % ) in seed kernel was found. Seed kernel oil was analyzed by GC-MS and six kinds of fatty acids were determined. There were linoleic acid( C18 : 2) 67.00 % , oleic acid ( C18 : 1 ) 18.03 % , palmitic acid ( C16 : 0 ) 8.96 %, stearic acid ( C18 : 0 ) 3.94 %, arachidic acid (C20:0)0.35 % and unknown fatty acid 1.72 %. The content of unsaturated fatty acid of seed kernel oil was 85.03%. Compared with the M. azedarach, the oil content of hybrid neem tree seed kernel was 1.6 percentage points higher.%对印楝和苦楝2个亲本采用体细胞融合技术杂交形成的7年生杂交楝进行了果实含油量测定,并对其籽油进行了脂肪酸组成分析。结果表明:果皮和果肉含油量较低,分别为1.65%和1.53%;种仁含油量较高,为39.20%。种仁经提取获得籽油后进行甲酯化处理,再进行GC—MS分析,共检测出6种脂肪酸。它们是亚油酸(C18:2)67.00%、油酸(C18:1)18.03%、棕榈酸(C16:0)8.96%、硬脂酸(C18:0)3.94%、花生酸(C20:0)0.35%和未知脂肪酸1.72%;其中不饱和脂肪酸占85.03%。杂交楝种仁含油量比苦楝高出1.6个百分点。

  12. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  13. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  15. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  16. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    S S El-Hawary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%, γ- Elemene (9.89%, Germacrene D (9.72%, Caryophyllene (6.8% and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04% mainly attributed to sesquiterpene oxide. On the other hand, flowers oil hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% composed mainly of pentacosane (18.58%, tetracosane (10.65%, β-germacrene (9.73%, β- caryophyllene (5.84% and dodecene (4.54% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%, verdiflorol (5.32%, farnesol (1.63% and α– terpineol (1.51%. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, antifungal and larvicidal activities were promising and in relation with the chemical composition of the essential oils. The results indicated that essential oil of flowers could be especially promising as an inexpensive source of effective antioxidant /antimicrobial /larvicidal agents tantamount to fixed oil of the neem seeds.Industrial relevance. The use of medicinal plants is a universal phenomenon. Natural products from plants are rich source to identify, select and process new drugs for medicinal use. Most of research focused on fixed oil of neem seeds but very little was concerned about volatile oils of leaves and flowers. The diverse biological activities of Neem essential oils can be applied on a large scale as antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal agents comprising many important benefits including their volatility, lower level of risk to the environment than with synthetic ones.Keywords. Azadirachta indica; Neem; essential oil; GC/MS; antioxidant

  17. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  18. Antimicrobial activity screening of isolated flavonoids from Azadirachta indica leaves

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    QUDSIA KANWAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of two flavonoids, namely genistein 7-O-glucoside (1 and (–-epi-catechin (2, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem leaves, were evaluated against five fungal species, viz: Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. and Penicillium citrii, and four bacterial species, viz. Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and Bacillus sp. Six concentrations, viz. 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the two flavonoids were employed using malt extract agar medium. All the concentrations of both the test compounds significantly suppressed fungal as well as bacterial growth. The highest concentration (1000 ppm of both fractions 1 and 2 reduced the growth of the different test fungal species by 83–99 % and 82–95 %, respectively. Compound 1 was highly effective against Lactobacillus sp., against which its various concentrations reduced the bacterial growth by 52–99.8 %. Compound 2 was highly effective against A. lipoferum and Bacillus sp., resulting in 94–100 % and 73–99% reduction in bacterial growth, respectively.

  19. Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica in dentistry

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    Atul Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicine is the study of traditional medicines having relevant written sources (Ayurveda, traditional Chinese Medicine as well as those whose knowledge and practices have been orally transmitted over the centuries. The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica has been known as the wonder tree for centuries in the Indian subcontinent. It has become important in the global context today because it offers solutions to the multiple concerns faced by mankind. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property and the broad range of biologic activities and pharmacologic actions of Neem tree are very well established. Although literature search reveals that Neem tree has multiple potential uses in dentistry, its application is limited in routine dental practice. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on the potential and immense uses of Neem tree products for oral care, which forms a critical issue in both developing countries where professional dental care is limited and in developed nations where populations are aging.

  20. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

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    Imna Trigueros V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline transesterification. Data was statistically analyzed by a completely random procedure and the measurements were compared with the Tukey test(p≤0.05. Results. The greatest weight gain, consumption and best feed conversion were found in the treatment that contains 1% neem seed flour. It also produced the increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (C18:2 Omega-6 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega-3, and the proportion of palmitic acid (C16:0. The consumption of feed diminished when 5% of neem flour was added. Conclusions. It was demonstrated that incorporating 1% neem seed flour in the diet of broiler chicks modifies the consumption of fatty acids without harming its productive behavior.

  1. 印楝种仁5种活性成分纯化与定量分析%Isolation and Structure Identification of the Compounds from the Seeds of Azadirachta indica A. juss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 黄华平; 韩丙军; 何书海; 林靖凌; 蔡春茂

    2007-01-01

    印楝(Azadirachta indica.A.juss)种仁中含有印楝素A(azadirachtin)等活性成分,主要为四环三萜类化合物,对害虫具有显著的忌避拒食作用和生长抑制作用.本研究通过硅胶柱层析和TLC法对印楝活性物质进行分离纯化,得到印楝素A等5种高纯度印楝素同系物,采用LC-MS对其进行定性分析,鉴定5种物质分别为azadirachtin、salannin、nimbin、6-deacetylnimbin、6-deacetylsalannin,并使用HPLC对5种化合物进行定量分析.

  2. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

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    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  3. Screening Azadirachta indica tree for enhancing azadirachtin and oil contents in dry areas of Gujarat, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.K. Tomar; G. Singh; N. Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica seed samples were collected from four different agro-ecological regions (AERs) viz., AER-2, AER-4, AER-5A and AER-5B of Gujarat state, India during 2000 to 2002 with an aim to assess variability in azadirachtin, oil and fatty acids content of the seeds and assess correlation of these parameters with morphological characters.Azadirachtin, oil and fatty acids content indicated significant (p<0.01)variations between years and AERs in Gujarat. The azadirachtin ranged from 142 to 9527 μg·g-1 seed kernel with an average of 2426 μg·g-1 for the state. AER-5B recorded highest azadirachtin and oil content. Fatty acid composition was found to be affected by environmental factors particularly varying degree of annual rainfall and temperature during fruit ripening period. Conclusively trees growing in AER-5B performed better in term of azadirachtin, oil and stearic acid content. Tree girth at breast height showed no significant relation with these biochemicals.

  4. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  5. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

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    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  6. Impact of autovehicular density and bioclimatic conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characters of azadirachta indica a juss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of auto-vehicular pollution on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. growing along different polluted roads of Karachi was evaluated. Reductions in leaves parameters such as leaf area, leaf fresh and dry weight of A. indica were observed at University Campus, University Road, Board Office Road, Shaheed-e-Millat Road and Shahrah-e-Faisal during different seasons of the years from, 2008-2009. Some visual observations as leaf color, fruit and seed production were also recorded periodically, which showed variation at different sites. Results indicated that A. indica at control site were growing as fast as they were given the favorable resources such as bio-climatic factors which include heat index, chill, humidity, temperature and wind speed naturally available to them but road-side pollution stressed the growth. Climatic conditions were comparatively different on the city roads as compared to the University Campus. The automobiles density has significantly (p<0.05) reduced the leaf area of A. indica at Shahrah-e-Faisal in summer season (July, 2008). The soil of the studied area showed a high percentage of CaCO/sub 3/, slightly alkaline pH, electrical conductivity (E.C.), total dissolved salts (T.D.S.) in city roads as compared to University Campus soil. These findings demonstrated that traffic density and harsh bio-climatic conditions showed poor appearance and reduction in the qualitative characters and biomass of A. indica. (author)

  7. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

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    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  8. Azadirachtin biosynthesis induction in Azadirachta indica A. Juss cotyledonary calli with elicitor agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell and plant tissues culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances, azadirachtin (AZA, produced by the neem tree (Azadirachta indica, has received considerable attention due to its bioinsecticide action. The main goal of this work was to analyze the AZA levels in neem cotyledonary calli. The calli were grown in agitated Woody Plant Medium (WPM liquid medium, supplemented with glucose (Gl, hydrolyzed casein (HC and methyl jasmonate (MeJ as elicitor agent. An interaction was observed between these substances, depending on in vitro cultivation time with orbital agitation. The highest concentrations (average of 0.2470 µg g-1 of AZA were produced in the first and second weeks of culture when the cell mass was grown in a medium with 2% Gl v/v, 500 mg L-1 HC and 100 µM of MeJ. This corresponded to approximately 57% of the AZA content stored in the donor plants seeds, used as a source of explants to induce in vitro callus formation. It was concluded that the nutrition, as well as the concentration of MeJ as signal transduction of secondary metabolism in neem cells, might influence the AZA content produced in vitro.

  9. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  10. Azadirachta indica triterpenoids promote osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Priyanka; Khedgikar, Vikram; Haldar, Saikat; Gautam, Jyoti; Mulani, Fayaj A; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-08-01

    Terpenoids were isolated using chromatographic purification through solvent purification technique and identified as Azadirone (1), Epoxyazadiradione (2) Azadiradione (3) Gedunin (4) Nimbin (5) Salannin (6) Azadirachtin A (7) and Azadirachtin B (8) from Azadirachta indica. Out of eight compounds, only three compounds had osteogenic activity and enhanced osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in osteoblast cells. Active compounds stimulated osteogenic genes ALP, RunX-2 and OCN expressions in vitro, but Azadirachtin A had a maximum ability to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and mineralization compared to other two active compounds. For in vivo study, Azadirachtin A injected subcutaneously in pups, which enhanced osteogenic gene expressions and promoted bone formation rate significantly. Here, we conclude that active compounds of Azadirachta indica have osteogenic activity and Azadirachtin A has a beneficial effects on bone. PMID:27317644

  11. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  12. Larvicidal Effects of a Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil Formulation on the Malaria Vector Anopheles Gambiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Knols Bart GJ; Okumu Fredros O; Fillinger Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to...

  13. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Del Serrone; Chiara Toniolo; Marcello Nicoletti

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged ...

  14. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Dutta; Mala Kundabala

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups ...

  15. Antifeedant and allelopathic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Neem (Azadirachta indica leaves Atividades antialimentar e alelopática do extrato hidroalcoólico obtido das folhas de Nim (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Paula da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica, the so-called Neem or Nim, is well-known for its biological activities in many countries. The present study aimed at investigating the antifeedant properties of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Neem on Zabrotes fasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, an insect pest that commonly feeds on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris during seed storage. We observed that the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Neem leaves displayed significant antifeedant activity when it was added to the insect diet via Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of this extract on Phaseolus vulgaris germination and growth were also evaluated, indicating that both seed germination and radicle growth were affected in a concentration-dependent manner.A espécie vegetal Azadirachta indica, popularmente chamada de Nim, é conhecida em muitos países devido a suas inúmeras propriedades biológicas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a propriedade antialimentar do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Nim sobre Zabrotes fasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, um inseto conhecido como carucho-do-feijão e que atua como praga durante o processo de estocagem do feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris. Este inseto provoca danos tais como perda de peso, redução do valor nutritivo e do grau de higiene do feijão. Quando adicionado a sua dieta, usando sementes de Phaseolus vulgaris, o extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Nim demonstrou efeito antialimentar, ocasionando assim, uma significativa redução nos danos. Os efeitos inibitórios deste extrato sobre a germinação e o crescimento de Phaseolus vulgaris também foram avaliados. O extrato de Nim afetou a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das radículas de Phaseolus vulgaris de uma maneira dose-dependente.

  16. Relationships of seeding Azadirachta indica plantations seed yield and quality with foliar nutrient contents in Yuanmou dry-hot valley, China%元谋干热河谷实生印楝人工林产量和品质与叶片养分含量之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑益兴; 吴疆翀; 彭兴民; 张燕平

    2013-01-01

    应用临界值浓度法、DRIS图解法和指数法等叶片营养诊断分析方法,研究了元谋干热河谷地区的实生印楝人工林产量和品质与叶片养分含量之间的关系.结果表明:6月份所采集的印楝叶片其养分含量与印楝产量之间存在显著线性相关;获得印楝高产的叶片全N、全P和全K的临界值分别为15.09、1.22和7.68 g·kg-1,相应的最适范围分别为15.09 ~ 22.68、1.22~1.59和7.68 ~9.17 g·kg-1;低产印楝人工林的叶片养分的DRIS图解法和DRIS指数法诊断结果基本一致,它们对N、P、K的需求次序均为P>N>K,并且这一结果与当地土壤本底肥分检测结果相印证.此外,叶片养分含量与印楝素含量之间不存在相关性,可能与印楝素本身的遗传因素有关,故不能在印楝实生群体中采用叶片营养诊断技术来进行种仁印楝素含量的诊断分析.%By using the foliar nutrient diagnosis methods such as critical concentration value approach (CCVA),graph diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS),and index DRIS,this paper studied the relationships between the seed yield and its azadirachtin content and the foliar nutrient contents of seeding Azadirachta indica plantations in Yuanmou dry-hot valley.There existed significant linear correlations between the nutrient contents of foliages collected in June and the seed yield.In high-yielding plantations,the optimal contents of foliar total N,total P,and total K were 15.09-22.68,1.22-1.59,and 7.68-9.17 g · kg-1,and the critical values were 15.09,1.22,and 7.68 g · kg-1,respectively.In low-yielding plantations,the nutrient diagnosis results from graph and index DRIS were identical,i.e.,the nutrient requirement was P>N>K,which fitted with the background data of the nutrient contents in local soils.There were no correlations between the foliar nutrient contents and seed azadirachtin content,which was possibly due to the genetic factors of A.indica itself

  17. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  18. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  19. In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Paulpandi, Manickam; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission is a serious emergence in urban and semiurban areas worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. Malaria is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The extensive employ of synthetic pesticides leads to negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, plant-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective mosquitocides. In this research, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the Azadirachta indica seed kernel extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The A. indica seed kernel extract was toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC50 were 232.8ppm (larva I), 260.6ppm (II), 290.3ppm (III), 323.4ppm (IV), and 348.4ppm (pupa). AgNP LC50 were 3.9ppm (I), 4.9ppm (II), 5.6ppm (III), 6.5ppm (IV), and 8.2ppm (pupa). The antiplasmodial activity of A. indica seed kernel extract and AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of A. indica seed kernel extract were 63.18μg/ml (CQ-s) and 69.24μg/ml (CQ-r). A. indica seed kernel-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50, of 82.41μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.12μg/ml (CQ-r). However, in vivo anti-plasmodial experiments conducted on Plasmodium berghei infecting albino mice showed moderate activity of the A. indica extract and AgNP. Overall, this study showed that the A. indica-mediated fabrication of AgNP is of interest for a wide array of purposes, ranging from IPM of mosquito vectors to the development of novel and cheap antimalarial drugs.

  20. Neem (Azadirachta indica):Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80%of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  1. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    OpenAIRE

    S S El-Hawary; M E El-Tantawy; M. A. Rabeh; W K Badr

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae) leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%), γ- Elemene (9.89%), Germacrene D (9.72%), Caryophyllene (6.8%) and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23%) while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04%) mainly attributed to sesquiterpene ox...

  2. Bioatividade comparativa entre Melia azedarach (Cinamomo)e Azadirachta indica (Nim)

    OpenAIRE

    Wandscheer, Clarissa Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: No Brasil foram registrados 123.948 casos de dengue em 2003. Melia azedarach (cinamomo ou "santa bárbara") e Azadirachta indica (a árvore nim) são plantas meliáceas originárias da Ásia com futuro promissor para o fito-controle de pragas e de ampla distribuição mundial, sendo a primeira muito comum em todo território brasileiro. Apresentam propriedades bioinseticidas inibindo a alimentação e bloqueando crescimentos de insetos, incluindo a etapa fundamental de quitinogênese ou de formaç...

  3. The Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica Ameliorates Cardioprotection Following Diabetic Mellitus-Induced Microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naveen Kumar; Srivastva, Nidhi; Bubber, Parvesh; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac complications associated with diabetes mellitus have become major cause of concern. Antidiabetic drugs, with varied mode of action, are although available, apprehensions exist for their limited action or side effects upon prolonged use. Efforts are therefore inclined toward finding other alternatives. The present study was, thus, undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica (AI) on microangiopathic changes in rat model of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in male rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Seven days after glucose levels are stabilized, aqueous leaf extract of AI (ALE) (600 mg/kg1 body weight) was administered orally to diabetic animals every day for 7 days. Results: High blood glucose characterizing diabetes in these animals was found to show increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), altered antioxidant biomarkers together with microangiopathic alterations. The treatment of diabetic rats with ALE reduced the levels of blood glucose, LPO, and restored the activities of antioxidant enzyme. Light and transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed reduced necrotic areas and inflammation in tissue architecture of ALE treated heart in comparison to untreated diabetic group. Conclusion: AI provides cardioprotection by ameliorating oxidative stress in rat model of diabetic mellitus. SUMMARY The streptozotocin (STZ) treatment (60 mg/kg body weight) to animals induced diabetic changes such as elevated blood glucose levels, decreased body weight, altered lipid profiles together with development of proxidant state evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and altered antioxidant enzymes with consequent microangiopathic alterations in heart tissue evinced by localization of necrotic and inflamed areas in heart tissueThe treatment of animals with Azadirachta indica leaf extract (ALE) (600 mg

  4. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, S.A.; Wickens, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research into the systems of agriculture based on vegetative fallows should begin from enquiries into the shrubs and trees most efficient in restoring soil productivity and providing essential products. Azadirachta indica, of the semiarid regions is an outstanding example of a species which is not only an efficient soil ameliorant, but also provides products that are highly competitive in price and quality with petroleum-based synthetics. The launching of a research and development programme leading to the exploitation of this tree is proposed. Several projects that could be studied in such a programme are briefly outlined.

  5. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Abreu Mourão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentrações dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim que mataram 50% e 99% dos indivíduos de O. ilicis, após 72 horas de exposição, foram de 0,02, 15,9 e 121,4 mg/mL e de 10,9, 520,9 e 277,4 mg/mL, respectivamente. A taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de O. ilicis diminuiu, linearmente, com o aumento da concentração dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim até 0,075, 15 e 144 mg/mL, respectivamente, a partir das quais as populações desse ácaro foram extintas.The objective of this work was to study the toxicity of extracts of oil cake, seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. Concentration-mortality and instantaneous rate of populational growth were determined for adult females of the red mite on disks of coffee with 3.5 cm diameter, floating on water and impregnated with dry residues of the neem extracts. Concentrations of these extracts which caused 50% mortality of the individuals of O. ilicis were 0.02, 15.9 and 121.4 mg/mL; while 99% mortality of this mite was reached with 10.9, 520.9 and 277.4 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively. The instantaneous rate of populational growth of O. ilicis dropped as the extract doses increased up to 0.075, 15 and 144 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively.

  6. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Chander Gangar; Rajat Sandhir; Durg Vijay Rai; Ashwani Koul

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE)against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice.METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experiment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P+A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P+A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology.RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100%in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4%as observed in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group.Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium.In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice.Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture.CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B(a)P-induced forestomach tumors in

  7. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper p...

  8. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based ap

  9. Isolation and characterization of glucosamine from Azadirachta indica leaves:An evaluation of immunostimulant activity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; Narenk Nair; Srinivasan Narasimhan; Subramaniam Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential immunostimulant activity of glucosamine from Azadirachtaindica leaves in mice. Methods: The hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves were prepared and its immunostimulant activity was studied. The aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (AEAIL) showed significant (P<0.001) higher immunostimulant activity than other extracts. Hence, isolation of possible phytoconstituent(s) from AEAIL was carried out and glucosamine was isolated. The Azadirachta indica leaves glucosamine (AILG) was administered at 266, 400 and 800 μg/kg of mice, intraperitoneal route weekly for 4 weeks to evaluate immunostimulant activity. The serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) level and histopathological studies on thymus were performed to confirm AILG immunostimulant activity. Results: The administration of above doses of AILG has significantly (P<0.001) increased serum IL-2 levels in mice than control mice. The dose dependent effect on IL-2 was noticed in AILG treated mice. The weight of thymus, liver and kidney were significantly (P<0.001) increased after the AILG treatments compared to control mice. Also, body weight of AILG treated mice showed significant (P<0.001) increment from second week to fourth week than control mice. The proliferation of T-lymphocytes in thymus after the administration of AILG was observed in histopathological study. Conclusion: The glucosamine was isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract and its immunostimulant activity was confirmed in mice.

  10. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behavi

  11. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Shinozaki, Takuro; Tachi, Yosuke; Takagi, Mio; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-04-01

    Six new limonoids, 7-benzoyl-17-epinimbocinol (5), 3-acetyl-7-tigloylnimbidinin (8), 1-isovaleroyl-1-detigloylsalanninolide (15), 2,3-dihydro-3α-methoxynimbolide (16), deacetyl-20,21-epoxy-20,22-dihydro-21-deoxyisonimbinolide (26), and deacetyl-20,21,22,23-tetrahydro-20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxynimbin (27), along with 28 known limonoids, 1-4, 6, 7, 9-14, 17-25, and 28-34, and two known flavonoids, 35 and 36, have been isolated from the extracts of bark, leaves, roots, and seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. Eleven compounds, 1, 2, 4-7, 13, 16, 17, 29, and 30, exhibited potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.3 μM. Compound 16 induced apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis on AZ521 cells revealed that compound 16 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. This suggested that 16 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AZ521. In addition, upon evaluation of all compounds against the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), 20 limonoids, i.e., 1-3, 6, 9-11, 18, 19, 21-29, 32, and 34, and two flavonoids, 35 and 36, exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities, with no, or almost no, toxicities to the cells at lower and/or higher concentrations, which were more potent than the reference arbutin, a known melanogenesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis showed that nimbin (18) reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor

  12. In vitro antifilarial activity of Azadirachta indica aqueous extract through reactive oxygen species enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niladri Mukherjee; Prasanta Saini; Suprabhat Mukherjee; Priya Roy; Santi P. Sinha Babu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate an aqueous preparation from the Azadirachta indica leaves (AEA) against Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a model filarial parasite. Methods:In vitro efficacy of AEA was evaluated against S. cervi through estimation of relative motility value, dye exclusion test and MTT assay. Visible morphological alterations were monitored using conventional microscopic techniques in microfilariae and haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of AEA-treated adults. Results:Enhancement of reactive oxygen species in S. cervi treated with AEA was established through alteration in the activity of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and level of superoxide anion and reduced glutathione. Conclusions:In vitro filaricidal activity of AEA is possibly through disturbing redox homeostasis by down-regulating and altering the level of some key antioxidants and regulatory enzymes like reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase of S. cervi.

  13. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Asma; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Shahzadi, Samar; Rasul, Ijaz; Rehman, Shahid-Ur; Shah, Masaud; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Masoud, Muhammad Shareef

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:24497731

  14. Antiviral phytochemicals identification from Azadirachta indica leaves against HCV NS3 protease: an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Jalil, Asma; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem across the world affecting the people of all age groups. It is the main cause of hepatitis and at chronic stage causes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Various therapeutics are made against HCV but still there is a need to find out potential therapeutics to combat the virus. The goal of this study is to identify the phytochemicals of Azadirachta indica leaves having antiviral activity against HCV NS3 protease through molecular docking and simulation approach. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses good binding properties with HCV NS3/4A protease. It can be concluded from this study that Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin may serve as a potential inhibitor against NS3/4A protease. PMID:26274064

  15. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  16. Biogenic Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots at Ambient Temperature Using Azadirachta indica (Neem) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Chinmay; Mewada, Ashmi; Dharmatti, Roopa; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Sharon, Madhuri

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors.

  17. Evaluation of anti-plaque microbial activity of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) in vitro: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugumari Elavarasu; P.Abinaya; Elanchezhiyan, S.; Thangakumaran,; K Vennila; Naziya, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Probably microbial plaque is the main etiology for periodontal tissue inflammation. Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity. However, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) against plaque formation is considered to be vital, with lesser side effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and prove the a...

  18. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in advanced diabetic foot: an unexpected outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case reporting the results of using an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers. The effective use of this cheap treatment in patients with diabetic lesions on the feet, if confirmed in a wide controlled study, might allow the caregivers to take care of patients at home. PMID:23413284

  19. Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Koech Peter Kiplang’at; Richard W. Mwangi

    2013-01-01

    Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) extracts. Different con...

  20. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rahayu Santi; I M, Sukadana; W. Bogoriani

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss) was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nem...

  1. Investigation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Azadirachta indica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Delowar Hossain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to study total phenolic content and antioxidant property of the crude ethanolic extract of the roots of Azadirachta indica (A. indica. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of the crude extract, some complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay, and ferrous ion chelating ability and determination of total phenolic content were conducted. Results: In DPPH free radical scavenging test, IC50 value of the crude extract was found to be fairly significant (13.81±0.06 μg/ml while compared with that of the reference standards, ascorbic acid and BHA (2.12±0.02 and 4.87±0.05 μg/ml, respectively. In reducing power assay, the maximum absorbance for the extract was found to be 1.523 ±0.026 at 100 μg/ml compared with standard ascorbic acid and BHA (2.811±0.013 μg/ml and 2.031±0.019 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 value of the extract as percentage of Fe++ ion chelating ability was determined as 19.01±0.024 μg/ml where EDTA showed 8.87±0.035 μg/ml. The total phenolic amount was also calculated quite high in the extract (238.81±0.98 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. Conclusion: The assays showed the presence of significant antioxidant properties of the crude sample, which would justify its traditional use. However, it would be very interesting to investigate the possible causes and their mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant property of the plant A. indica.  

  2. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  3. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  4. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo O Omobowale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P 0.05 difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05 decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection.

  5. Comparative analysis of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Jin; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; Tang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is the only source of azadirachtin, which is known for its insecticide activity. Melia azedarach is a related species of A. indica, widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, the leaf transcriptomes of these two Meliaceae plants were sequenced. More than 40 million clean reads were generated from each library. About 80 % of A. indica reads were mapped to the neem genome, while 93 % of M. azedarach reads were mapped to its assembled transcripts and unigenes dateset. After mapping and assembly, 225,972 transcripts and 91,607 unigenes of M. azedarach were obtained and 1179 new genes of A. indica were detected. Comparative analysis of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that all six DEGs involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis were up-regulated in A. indica. Chemical analysis of the two plants revealed A. indica leaves contained 2.45 % total terpenoid and nearly 20-50 µg azadirachtin per gram, whereas azadirachtin was not detected in M. azedarach and total terpenoid content was reached 1.67 %. These results give us a better insight into the transcriptomes differences between A. indica and M. azedarach, and help us to understand the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in vivo. PMID:27390659

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica--a most effective method for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, Lourduraj John; Praba, V Lakshmi; Mani, C; Praveen, M

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes transmit major communicable diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so on. Vector control is important in epidemic disease situations as there is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for non-targeted organisms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), and their effects on mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were assessed. The synthesised AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 442 ± 1.5 nm with an average size of 41-60 nm. The XRD data showed six well-defined diffraction peaks, corresponding to a relative intensity of the crystal structure of metallic silver 36.42, 100.00, 53.70, 14.20, 16.05, and 6.79, respectively. The FT-IR data showed strong prominent peaks in different ranges, reflecting its complex nature. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs synthesized from the neem leaves under investigation (0.07-25 mg/l) for 24 h; this revealed larvicidal activity of AgNPs with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.006 and 0.04 mg/l for A. aegypti, respectively. Further, the LC50 and LC90 values were also identified as 0.047 and 0.23 mg/l for Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The result obtained from this study presents biosynthesized silver nanoparticle from A. indica as the biolarvicidal agent with the most potential for mosquito control.

  7. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azima Laili Hanifah; Siti Hazar Awang; Ho Tze Ming; Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Maizatul Hashima Omar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.Results:Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D.farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies on Modulation of N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Sanjay; Rishi, Parveen; Koul, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed in the present study to obtain information about the molecular composition of hepatic tumor versus hepatic tissue. A hepatic cancer model was developed by administering N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) to male Balb/c mice. The results revealed that NDEA-induced hepatic cancer tumor tissue had altered molecular composition compared with normal liver tissue. Compared with the normal tissue, the saturation level of membrane phospholipids was observed to be decreased in tumors along with an abnormal distribution of protein secondary structures. A significant decrease in glycogen and a significant increase in total nucleic acid content were also observed in tumor cells. The administration of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) prior to NDEA treatment resulted in the normalization of saturation levels in phospholipids and total nucleic acid content and in the distribution of protein secondary structures in tumors. A significant increase in the amount of stored glycogen was observed in AAILE cotreated tumors compared with NDEA-induced tumors, which might indicate that AAILE cotreatment impeded the ability of tumor cells to consume glucose at a faster rate. The normalization of molecular composition upon AAILE cotreatment in hepatic tumors might indicate that AAILE hampered the process of evolution of tumors, which could be responsible for its observed chemopreventive action. PMID:26349605

  9. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC. PMID:26064900

  10. Effect of elicitors and precursors on azadirachtin production in hairy root culture of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2014-02-01

    The present study involved strategies for enhancement in in vitro azadirachtin (commercially used biopesticide) production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica. Improvement in the azadirachtin production via triggering its biosynthetic pathway in plant cells was carried out by the exogenous addition of precursors and elicitors in the growth medium. Among the different abiotic stress inducers (Ag(+), Hg(+2), Co(+2), Cu(+2)) and signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) tested, salicylic acid at 15 mg l(-1) of concentration was found to enhance the azadirachtin yield in the hairy roots to the maximum (up to 4.95 mg g(-1)). Similarly, among the different biotic elicitors tested (filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrates of Phoma herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Myrothecium sp., Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, and Sclerotium rolfsii; yeast extract; and yeast extract carbohydrate fraction), addition of filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrate of C. lunata (1 % v/v) resulted in maximum azadirachtin yield enhancement in hairy root biomass (up to 7.1 mg g(-1)) with respect to the control (3.3 mg g(-1)). Among all the biosynthetic precursors studied (sodium acetate, cholesterol, squalene, isopentynyl pyrophosphate, mavalonic acid lactone, and geranyl pyrophosphate), the overall azadirachtin production (70.42 mg l(-1) in 25 days) was found to be the highest with cholesterol (50 mg l(-1)) addition as an indirect precursor in the medium. PMID:24357500

  11. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  12. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  13. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

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    Arindam Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  14. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

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    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  15. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  16. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  17. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory.

  18. EFECTO ANTIALIMENTARIO DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT OF CELL SUSPENSION EXTRACTS OF Azadirachta indica ON Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Capataz Tafur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica y sus ingredientes activos como la azadiractina, presentan acción antialimentaria e inhibición del desarrollo de muchos insectos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto antialimentario de los extractos de suspensiones celulares de neem elicitadas a diferentes condiciones de luz y temperatura. Los extractos fueron aplicados en discos de hojas de maíz y sometidas a bioensayos en larvas de segundo instar de Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidptera: Noctuidae. Los extractos intracelulares y del medio de cultivo de las suspensiones celulares de A. indica mostraron efecto biológico sobre larvas de S. frugiperda L2, con valores del 100 % de índice antialimentario para los extractos intracelulares de suspensiones de A. indica elicitadas a 15 °C y oscuridad, y del 39,3% para extractos extracelulares (medio de cultivo de suspensiones elicitadas a 35 °C y oscuridad.Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica and their active ingredients as azadirachtin, present an action and inhibition of the development of many insects. In this study, the antifeedant effect of cell suspension extracts elicited to different conditions of light and temperature was examined. The extracts were applied in corn leaves disks and submitted to bioassays in larvae of second instar of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The intracellular extracts and the culture media (supernatant of the cell suspensions of A. indica showed a biological effect on larvae of S. frugiperda L2, with values of the 100 % of antifeeding index for the intracellular extracts of cells elicited to 15 °C and darkness, and 39,3% of antifeeding index for extracellular extracts (medium of cultivation of elicited suspensions to 35°C , and darkness.

  19. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica) to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Abreu Mourão; José Cola Zanuncio; Angelo Pallini Filho; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Adonai Bruneli de Camargos

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim) a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentra...

  20. Atividade do óleo de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro Eucalyptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil activity in the control of Colletotrichum acutatum, in strawberry crop

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira; Lucas da Rocha Ferreira; Jailson de Oliveira Arieira; Edenilson Gonçalves Miguel; Mateus Augusto Donega; Regina Cássia Ferreira Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    A flor-preta é uma das doenças mais importantes do morangueiro e a busca por alternativas de controle tem sido uma constante, principalmente em áreas de cultivo orgânico. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência, in vitro e in vivo, dos óleos de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro. No experimento in vitro determinou-se a inibição do crescimento micelial quando o fungo foi submetido aos extratos nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0...

  1. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Chromolaena Odorata on Post Harvest Spoilage Fungi of Yams in Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Okigbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for control of yam tuber rotcaused mostly by Fusarium oxysporum, Asperigillus niger and Botryodiploidia theobromae which were isolatedfrom rooten tissues of yam tubers obtained from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I Umudike,Nigeria. These organisms were isolated from stored yam tubers. They caused soft rot leading to tissuediscoloration and production of foul smell from the rotted portion of the tuber. Extract used were obtained fromtwo plant materials – leaves of Chromolaena odorata and Azadirachta indica and the extracting solvent wereethanol and water. The extract of the plant material were found to be fungitoxc against the yam rot spoilagefungi that were tested. Azadirachta indica was found to inhibit organisms more than Chromoleana odorata.This study indicated that Azadiracta indica and Chromoleana odorata were able to suppress rot-causing fungiof yam. Therefore, they will serve as a good natural plant fungicide (Protectranct against yam tubers in storage.

  2. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  3. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Anna Korn

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple j...

  4. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn.) SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lucineudo Oliveira de Freire; Gilberto Marinho de Sousa Filho; José Romilson Paes de Miranda; Patrícia Carneiro Souto; Lúcio Valério Coutinho de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica) and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach). The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum), four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil), 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1) and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergenc...

  5. EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss NO CONTROLE DE Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer

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    GIOLO, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sectors of the Brazilian economy is the poultry industry, with high productivity of chicken. However, one of the factors that may affect this branch of production is the presence of pests on the farm, like the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (mealworm, an insect of the family Tenebrionidae, originating from West Africa. From the literature, we observe the insecticidal activity of the leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica in beetles mealworm thus helping to control and reduce this which is one of the major problems of modern poultry production . Neem has been known for over 5,000 years and has the control action of about 430 species of pests that occur in the world. Thus, this study aimed to test different doses of aqueous extract of neem leaves as a natural alternative to control this insect population. The following concentrations were analyzed: 1/20 ( w /v , 1/6 , 67 ( w / v , 1/3 , 33 ( w / v to the dried sheet, the control and treatment of water in concentration of 1/2 ( w / v with fresh leaves, sprayed directly on the insects. Treatments showed no significant differences in mortality of insects except for the 504 hours of the test, showing not technically feasible method to control this pest. Um dos maiores setores da economia brasileira é a avicultura de corte, com alta produtividade de carne de frango. Porém, um dos fatores que podem afetar esse ramo da produção é a presença de pragas da granja, como o besouro Alphitobius diaperinus (cascudinho, um inseto da família Tenebrionidae, originário do oeste africano. A partir da literatura, se observa a ação inseticida do extrato de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica em besouros cascudinhos, portanto ajudando a controlar e reduzir este que é um dos grandes problemas da avicultura moderna. O nim é conhecido há mais de 5.000 anos e apresenta ação no controle de cerca de 430 espécies de pragas que ocorrem no mundo. Dessa maneira, o presente trabalho teve como

  6. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Vepacide (from Azadirachta indica), a neem-based pesticide, on acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatase in different tissues of male and female albino Wistar rats. Subchronic doses of Vepacide in coconut oil (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg; maximum volume of 0.2 mL) were administered orally for 45 or 90 days. The administration of Vepacide resulted in a significant increase in AcP and AkP in serum, kidney, lung, and liver tissue (AkP only in liver), whereas a significant decrease of AcP in liver was observed in male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment with moderate and high doses. The alterations in serum, liver, kidney, and lung tissues of both male and female rats caused by this compound were statistically significant, and the changes were also dose and time dependent. The alterations in male rats were not statistically significant when compared with female rats, indicating that there were no sexual differences. The withdrawal study (28 days post-treatment) revealed significant recovery, indicating reversal of the toxic symptoms once the toxicant was removed. There was a high degree of positive correlation between results for serum as compared to those for kidney, lung, and liver (AkP only for liver). However, there was a high negative correlation between AcP results for serum as compared with those for liver. The alterations in these enzymes indicated that lung tissue was the most susceptible, followed by liver and kidney. AcP and AkP are marker enzymes, and their increase in serum, with parallel increases in different tissues, might be due to the increased permeability of plasma membranes. The decrease in liver AcP may be due to the necrosis of cellular tissues. The changes observed in these enzyme activities could be useful as biomarkers of exposure to Vepacide. PMID:15388273

  7. Production of Limonoids with Insect Antifeedant Activity in a Two-Stage Bioreactor Process with Cell Suspension Culture of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rivera, Andrés; Chicaiza-Finley, Diego; Hoyos, Rodrigo A; Orozco-Sánchez, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) cell suspension culture is an alternative for the production of limonoids for insect control that overcomes limitations related to the supply of neem seeds. To establish conditions for cell growth and azadiracthin-related limonoid production, the effect of different sucrose concentrations, nitrate and phosphate in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and the addition of one precursor and three elicitors was evaluated in shake flasks. The process was scaled up to a 3-l stirred tank bioreactor in one- and two-stage batch cultivation. In shake flasks, more than fivefold increase in the production of limonoids with the modified MS medium was observed (increase from 0.77 to 4.52 mg limonoids/g dry cell weight, DCW), while an increase of more than fourfold was achieved by adding the elicitors chitosan, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid together (increase from 1.03 to 4.32 mg limonoids/g DCW). In the bioreactor, the volumetric production of limonoids was increased more than threefold with a two-stage culture in day 18 (13.82 mg limonoids/l in control single-stage process and 41.44 mg/l in two-stage process). The cultivation and operating mode of the bioreactor reported in this study may be adapted and used in optimization and process plant development for production of insect antifeedant limonoids with A. indica cell suspension cultures.

  8. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

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    Sri Rahayu Santi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nemm leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the antimicrobial soap product is as good as ordinary soap, having full of foam, not hot without iritation, because it is properly laboratory tested. All of participants showed their enthusiasm during activity and they will try to make soap. This was showed by the evaluation report saying that all participants understand about making soap and they want to try at home. This public service made people interested to improve their knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  9. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory a

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  11. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  12. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  13. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  14. Pharmacodynamic evaluation for antiplasmodial activity of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (Neemb) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadhav Priyanka; Lal Hingorani; Kshirsagar Nilima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of plants selected based on the symptomology mentioned in Ayurveda. Methods: The aqueous extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (H. antidysentrica) (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (Neemb) for their antiplasmodial potential in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice was assessed using Peters four day suppressive test. Both the extracts were administered at 2 dose levels, full dose (1 000 mg/d) and minimized dose (200 mg/d). 106 P. berghei infected RBCs were injected on day ’0’ and treated from day ’0’ till day ’3’ post-infection. Tail blood smears were collected, giemsa stained and analyzed. The mice were observed for survival and parasitemia was assessed till 50% of mice in control survived. Results: It was observed that the percentage of parasitemia increased gradually in all the groups, with maximum in control group (Day 3-35, Day 9-46.98) and minimum in Chloroquine arm (Day 3-14.06, Day 9-19.92). The percentage of parasitemia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test depicting that all test groups exhibited reduction in parasitemia as compared to control (P-value<0.002 for all groups). These groups showed similar percentage of survival as Chloroquine. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrated the anti-plasmodial effects of H. antidysentrica and A. indica, which are two most commonly used medicinal plants in Ayurved for treatment of fever.

  15. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  16. Optimisation des paramètres d'extraction à froid de l'huile d'Azadirachta indica A. Juss et effets sur quelques caractéristiques chimiques de l'huile extraite

    OpenAIRE

    Nitièma-Yefanova, S.; Son, G. van; Yé, S.; Nébié, RHC.; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the parameters of cold extraction of the oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and effects on some chemical parameters of the extracted oil. Azadirachta indicaA.Juss (neem) is a tropical tree, popular for its multiple possible uses. The oil extracted from neem kernels is used in cosmetics, as medicines, as insecticides and for energy needs (biofuel). The oldest oil extraction method is cold pressing. However, the optimal parameters of extraction and the quality of extracted oil ar...

  17. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosaEfeito alelopático de extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. em alface, soja, milho, feijão e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Maria Pilatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Meliaceae has been identified as one of the most promising for biological control, as most species have biologically active compounds. Among the species, the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is that stands out most for its efficiency and low toxicity, and it is utilized to control insects, fungi and nematodes. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic potential of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Neem on germination of lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosa, as a way to control this weed. The extract was obtained by grinding 200g/L of fresh leaves of the Neem (considered extract 100% and diluting in distilled water at concentrations of 80, 60, 40, and 20%, and a control with only water. The seeds were kept in the germination chamber at a temperature of 25°C, with photoperiod of 12 hours of light. The aqueous extract affected the germination percentage and average length root of lettuce, with values of 1% and 0.1, cm respectively. For the soybeans, the extract influenced negatively the average time of germination and average speed of germination. There was a drastic reduction of the average root length at higher concentration for soybean, corn and beans. For Bidens pilosa all the parameters analyzed were negatively affected, which means sensitivity to the extract. The bioassay performed in the laboratory showed that the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica has allelopathic effect on all species.A família Meliaceae foi identificada como um dos grupos mais promissores para o controle biológico, pois a maioria das espécies possui compostos biologicamente ativos. Dentre as espécies, o Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. é a que mais se destaca pela sua alta eficiência e baixa toxidade, empregada no controle de insetos, fungos e nematóides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de Nim sobre a germinação de alface, soja, milho, feij

  18. Elemental contents in leaves and bark of neem (Azadirachta Indica) - a versatile medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Azadirachta Indica, commonly known as neem touches the daily life of every Indian as all of its parts are widely used. Neem leaves are used as insecticide and antiseptic whereas its extracts and oil are clinically effective in curing eczema and other skin diseases. Fresh leaves and bark of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) collected from different locations in Roorkee were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Ca, CI, K, Mg, Na and P) and 15 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by short (1 min) and long (7 h) neutron irradiation neutron followed by high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Also Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). P was determined by counting the β-activity from 32P using an end-window GM counter. Peach leaves (SRM 1547) from NIST, USA and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) from INCT, Poland were analyzed for data validation. Most elemental contents varied in a wide range. However, mean and median values in most cases are comparable. Elemental contents of V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn in leaves have been particularly attributed to its use in the treatment of diabetes. Linear correlations were observed between K and CI (r =0.96) and Rb and Cs (r = 0.97) in Neem leaves. Leaves were particularly enriched in K, Mg, Zn and Rb whereas bark was enriched in Ca, Mn and Fe. Petroleum ether extract of dried Neem leaves was analyzed for organic constituents; 1,1,2,3-tetramethyl cyclopropane, methyl phenyl sulfone, n-hexanedecanoic acid and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal in soluble fraction and bicyclo octa 1,3,5 triene 7-(3-butenyl) and 2-hydroxymethyl 1-methoxy 9,10 anthracenediene in insoluble fraction. Compounds were separated by column and thin layer chromatography and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

  19. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  20. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  1. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22739123

  2. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies.

  3. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use.

  4. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  5. Azadirachta indica A. Juss ekstraktlarının Patates böceği[Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Col.: Chrysomelidae)]'ne beslenme engelleyici etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Pervin; TOROS, Seval

    2010-01-01

    Two commercially available neem insecticides, Neem Azal T/S and Neemix, were tested as antifeedant against larval and adult stages of Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. Azadirachta indica A. Juss preparations were used to be alternatively to chemical insecticides to control L. decemlineata. Leaf dipping method was used under laboratory conditions. This purpose, third instar 5-10 days old and about 30-35 mg weight chosen. Adult 5-10 days old were also used. For the bioassays le...

  6. Effectivity of probiotic, micromineral enriched yeast and their combination with Azadirachta indica leaves containing tannin on fermentability and digestibility of Pennisetum hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sofyan; A. A. Sakti; M. F. Karimy; H. Julendra; L. Istiqomah; H. Herdian; E. Damayanti Mail; A. E. Suryani Mail

    2015-01-01

    Organic additive for animal had been explored to replace antibiotic growth promoter. Probiotic from lactic acid bacteria was widely used to support the microbial balances in digestive tract, while organic mineral was added into diets to improve bioavailability for preventing mineral deficiency disorders. This experiment was aimed to assess probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici RS2) and micromineral enriched yeast (MEY) combined with tannin from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves containing tannin...

  7. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elumalai, K. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: drvelmurganphy@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics (FEAT), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  8. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration

  9. Evaluation of Antibacterial activity of Acacia catechu willd, Azadirachta indica, Aryctostaphylos Uva ursi against Lactobacillus Acidophilus ?An in vitro Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio López De León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to examine the in vitro antibacterial potential of methanolic and acetone leaf extracts of Acacia catechu willd, Azadirachta indica ,Aryctostaphylos Uva ursi against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic and acetone extract of three herbal extracts was tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus by using the broth dilution method. Results: The methanolic extract of Acacia catechu willd exhibited antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus with minimum bactericidal concentration of 1mg/ml, and appreciable activity with Azadirachta indica methanolic extract at a concentration of 10mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic and acetone extract of the herbal extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antibacterial action . Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Acacia catechu willd was found to be bactericidal in action when compared to the other herbal extracts tested . Clinical Significance: Acacia catechu willd methanolic leaf extract is proved to be an potent antibacterial herb against lactobacillus acidophilus and can be recommended to treat dental caries when compared to Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem which is commercially obtained in the market.

  10. Efeito dos extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae] na produção de patulina em maçãs contaminadas por Penicillium expansum Effect of aqueous and oily extracts of Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae] on patulin production in apples contaminated with Penicillium expansum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Arroteia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Sul do Brasil é grande produtora de maçã, sendo 80% destinada ao consumo in natura. As micotoxinas são metabólitos secundários de fungos presentes na cadeia alimentar como contaminantes, causando diversos efeitos toxicológicos e imunológicos. Considerando que a patulina seja uma micotoxina produzida por Penicillium expansum, principal contaminante da maçã propôs-se investigar a ação de extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim (Azadirachta indica em maçã artificialmente contaminada. Foram testados dois tipos de extratos: o extrato aquoso obtido de maceração de folhas de Nim nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 30%, e o extrato oleoso comercial (DalNeem®, obtido de sementes de Nim, nas concentrações de 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2 e 5%. Os extratos aquosos não alteram a produção da patulina em maçãs contaminadas artificialmente por P. expansum, mas o extrato oleoso obtido das sementes da planta diminuiu acentuadamente a produção de patulina, inclusive em concentrações inferiores a 0,5%.The South region of Brazil is a major apple producer, where 80% is destined to the "in natura" consumption. The mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites present as contaminants in the food chain, causing several toxicological and immunological effect. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium expansum and well known as the main contaminant in apples. Due to this contamination, the aim of this work was to access the effect of Neem extract (Azadirachta indica on artificially contaminated apples. Two types of Neem extracts were tested: the aqueous extracts of Neem leafs at 5, 10, 20 and 30% concentrations, and commercial seed oil of Neem (DalNeem® at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% in water. Although the addition of Neem aqueous extracts in artificially contaminated apples with P. expansum was unable to affect the patulin production, the Neem seed oil extract at concentrations as lower as 0.5%, caused a pronounced diminution over

  11. EXTRATO AQUOSO DE FOLHAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss NO CONTROLE DE Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Toller Borsonaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to test different dosages of aqueous extract of leaves of neem(Azadirachta indica as natural alternative and of easy application in the control of Sitophilus zeamais in grains of corn, seeing it is one of main stored corn pests. Were evaluated the following concentrations: 10%, 20%, 30% and witness. They were applied directly on the mass of grains and the insects with a pressurized pulverizer model Guarany PCP-1P in the dosage of 0,56 mL for dish. The treatments did not present significant difference as the reduction of weight of grains, but there was significant difference in relation to the population control. As for this parameter, the aqueous extract of leaves of neem in concentration 30,3%, can be considered an alternative treatment against S. zeamais in stored corn grains.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo testar diferentes dosagens de extrato aquoso de folhas de Nim (Azadirachta indica A Juss como alternativa natural e de fácil aplicação no controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae em grãos de milho (Zea mays L., visto que esta é uma das principais pragas do milhoarmazenado. Avaliaram-se as seguintes concentrações: 10%, 20%, 30,3%, além do tratamento testemunha. Foram aplicados diretamente sobre a massa de grãos e sobre os insetos com um pulverizador pressurizado modelo Guarany PCP-1P na dosagem de 0,56 mL por placa. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa quanto à redução de peso de grãos, mas houve diferença significativa em relação ao controle populacional. Quanto a este parâmetro, o extrato aquoso de folhas de Nim na concentração 30,3%, pode ser considerado um tratamento alternativo no controle de S. zeamais em grãos de milho armazenado.

  12. Studies on the acaricidal mechanism of the active components from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-zhen; Deng, Yun-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Wei, Qin; Li, Mei; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Li, Li; Song, Xu; Liang, Xiao-xia; Shu, Gang; He, Chang-liang; Gu, Xiao-bin; Lv, Cheng; Yin, Lizi

    2014-08-29

    Octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester, isolated from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, exhibited potent acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. In this paper, the acaricidal mechanism of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated based on pathologic histology and enzyme activities. The results showed that after compound treatment for 24h at a concentration of 20mg/mL, the lesions of mites were prominent under transmission electron microscopy. The lesions consisted of the lysis of dermis cell membranes and cell nuclear membranes, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities, the drop of spinal disorders, and mitochondrial vacuolization. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs), and Ca(2+)-ATPase of mites significantly changed after treatment with octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester compared with the control group. The activities of SOD, POD, and Ca(2+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed, whereas that of GSTs was activated. These results indicated that the mechanism of the acaricidal activity of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester was mainly achieved through interference with the energy metabolism of mites, thus resulting in insect death. PMID:24974121

  13. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork. PMID:26184255

  14. Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koech Peter Kiplang’at

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum, Neem (Azadirachta indica and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora extracts. Different concentrations of the extracts were tested for mosquito repellency on rabbit skin as the host of Aedes aegypti. Laboratory reared starved females were used for the tests and data collection was done by observational parameters based on frequency of mosquito landing and blood engorgement. Synergised Crude oleoresin extract of Pyrethrum and Ballet mosquito repellent® were included as positive test controls and Vaseline pure petroleum jelly® as a negative test control. The results showed that synergised Pyrethrum oleoresin showed complete protection at 0.1% as compared to Lemon Eucalyptus oil and Sweet Basil oil at 2% and 3% respectively (p<0.05. Neem oil and Ballet did not provide complete protection. The mean percent repellency of 5% Neem oil was 84.21 and that of Ballet was 66.84 (p<0.05. Sweet basil and Lemon Eucalyptus oils can be alternative to Pyrethrum as natural mosquito repellents from plant origin.

  15. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

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    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Azadirachta Indica Extract and Iodide Ions on the Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synergistic action caused by iodide ions on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium (Al) in 0.5 M HCl in the presence of Azadirachta Indica (AZI) plant extract has been investigated using potintiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques. It is found that AZI extract inhibits the corrosion of aluminium in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in AZI extract concentration, until 24% v/v of AZI extract, then Inh.% is decreased with father increase in AZI extract concentration. The adsorption of this extract in the studied concentration is found to obey Frewendlish adsorption isotherm. The addition of iodide ions enhances the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The increase in Inh.% values in presence of fixed concentration of iodide ions indicates that AZI extract forms an insoluble complex at lower AZI extract concentrations by undergoing a joint adsorption. But at higher concentrations of AZI extract, competitive adsorption is found between iodide ions and the formed complex leading to less Inh.%. The Inh.% decreased in presence of iodide ions with AZI extract than in presence of AZI extract alone at all studied iodide concentrations. The synergism parameter S θ is defined and calculated from surface coverage values. This parameter in the case of AZI extract is found to be more than unity, indicating that the enhanced inhibition efficiency caused by the addition of iodide ions

  17. COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE COMBINED CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT OF BIXA ORELLANA, AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND OCIMUM SCANTUM

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    B.UttamKumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of Bixa orellana, Azadirachta indica & Ocimum scantum were investigated for their invitro antimicrobial properties. Fresh leaves were collected randomly from Bhimavaram region, India. Plants were compared with voucher specimens deposited by Dr. B. Sarveswara Lingam at Department of Botany, K.G.R.L College (Autonomous, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. The aim of study was to scientifically test whether plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infection showed antibacterial activity. Extracts of sample of 3 species traditionally used as antibacterial were screened for activity against Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Staphylococcus aurues. The study confirms that simple laboratory methods are very well suited to assess the efficacy of traditionally used medicinal plants to inhibit bacterial growth. A comparison to the traditional uses also indicate that local knowledge can give important leads for the development of new treatments. Further tests, especially with regards to toxicity, are needed to verify the safety of the traditional preparations.

  18. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  19. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  20. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  1. Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals.

  2. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

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    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  3. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera and Azadirachta indica against some pathogenic microbes: A comparative study

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    Anupama Priadarshini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of petroleum ether and chloroform leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera were studied against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae for varying concentration of extracts of 200mg/ml, 150mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml, using disc diffusion method. It was compared with gentamycin 150mg/ml as standard. The petroleum ether extract showed maximum and equal inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, followed by Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli in a descending order in both the extracts. Salmonella typhimurium was found to be resistant to petroleum ether extract of both plants. The chloroform extract showed maximum inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and equal zone of inhibition was shown by Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium where as minimum zone of inhibition was recorded in Escherichia coli. Overall chloroform leaf extract exhibited better antimicrobial potential against pathogens. Results indicate the potential of these plants for further work on isolation and characterization of the active principle responsible for antibacterial activity and its exploitation as therapeutic agent

  4. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

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    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  5. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis pre

  6. Crescimento de plantas jovens de Nim-Indiano (Azadirachta indica a. juss. - Meliaceae sob diferentes regimes hídricos Growth of the neem (Azadirachta indica a. juss. - Meliaceae seedlings under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Martins

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento de plantas jovens de nim-indiano (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. submetidas a diferentes regimes hídricos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos (100, 80, 60, 40 e 20% da capacidade de pote, suspensão de rega e reirrigado. Avaliaram-se, semanalmente, a altura, número de folhas e diâmetro do caule. Ao final do experimento, as plantas tiveram seus órgãos separados e levados à estufa para obtenção da matéria seca das folhas, caule, raízes e total e, ainda, alocação de biomassa nas folhas, caule e raízes. Também foram calculadas a área foliar, a razão de área foliar e a área foliar específica. O déficit hídrico diminuiu a altura, número de folhas e diâmetro do caule das plantas nos tratamentos mais severos. Os efeitos do estresse também foram observados na redução da matéria seca das folhas, caule, raízes e total e na alocação de biomassa para as folhas. A área foliar também apresentou reduções, mas a razão de área foliar e a área foliar específica não diferiram entre os tratamentos. As plantas reirrigadas mostraram recuperação, principalmente evidenciada pela emissão de novas folhas. Desse modo, sugere-se que para máximo crescimento o nim deve ser cultivado, na fase inicial de desenvolvimento, com 80% da capacidade de pote.This work was performed aiming to evaluate the growth of neem seedlings (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. under water deficit. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with seven treatments (100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% of field capacity, without water and re-watering. The height, number of leaves and stem diameter were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, dry matter of the leaves, shoots, roots, root to shoot ratio and biomass allocation in leaf, stem and roots were determined. Leaf area, leaf area ratio and specific leaf area were also calculated. Water stress reduced the height, number

  7. Atividade do óleo de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro Eucalyptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil activity in the control of Colletotrichum acutatum, in strawberry crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor-preta é uma das doenças mais importantes do morangueiro e a busca por alternativas de controle tem sido uma constante, principalmente em áreas de cultivo orgânico. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência, in vitro e in vivo, dos óleos de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro. No experimento in vitro determinou-se a inibição do crescimento micelial quando o fungo foi submetido aos extratos nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5%. No campo, avaliou-se o controle da doença com a aplicação dos óleos nas concentrações de 0, 0,5 e 1,0%, pulverizados em intervalos de 7, 15 e 30 dias, em plantas inoculadas com suspensão de 10(6 conídios/mL. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, observando-se a ocorrência e tamanho de lesões no pedúnculo e nos frutos, abortamento floral, produtividade, e ocorrência natural da doença. In vitro todos os tratamentos apresentaram redução significativa do crescimento micelial do fungo quando comparados ao controle. No campo, apenas o óleo de nim apresentou efeito significativo, reduzindo o abortamento floral e a ocorrência de frutos doentes advindos de flores inoculadas. Porém, maior ocorrência natural de doença foi observada quando a dosagem de 1,0% foi aplicada semanalmente.Anthracnose is one of the most important diseases in strawberry crop, and the search for control alternatives has been frequent, especially in organic cultivation areas. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of Eucaliptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil on the control of Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry. In the in vitro experiment, mycelial growth inhibition was determined when the fungus was subjected to extracts at the following concentrations: 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5%. In the field, the disease control was evaluated through oil spraying at 0, 0.5 and 1.0% concentrations at intervals of

  8. Neem (Azadirachta Indica) effect in gastrointestinal nematodes control in supplemented sheep during dry season grazing
    Efeito do neem (Azadirachta Indica) no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais em ovinos suplementados a pasto no período seco

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Nobuyuki Miyashita Piona; Milena Campos Ferreira Almeida; Zaori Marques Rodrigues; Yuri Miranda; Felipe Camargo Bucci; Daniel Guedes Carvalho; Michelle Igarashi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluated the effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) extracts upon the productive response and control of gastrointestinal nematodes in Santa Inês sheep during the dry season grazing. Twenty four sheep, were divided in three groups according to the following treatments: SP – Control (Animals receiving protein supplement); SP- Oil (Animals receiving protein supplement and Neem oil extract) and SP – Leaf (Animals receiving protein supplement and Neem dry leaves). The a...

  9. De novo adventitious root formations in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica in response to different rooting media and auxin treatments

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    Gehlot A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is a multipurpose Indian tree important to local economy. Conservation of the genetic resources of neem is essential for the adaptability of this tree species to projected climate change impacts. Here, the effect of type and concentration of auxins in different rooting media on adventitious root formation (ARF in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica is depicted. Three different rooting media (i.e., sand, vermiculite and soil were used, and the experiment was established using three types of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA and 6 concentration treatment combinations (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1, in a complete randomized block design (CRBD. Significant effects of different auxin types, concentration treatments and rooting media on adventitious root formation of neem mini-cuttings were observed. Mini-cuttings were assessed for rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and number of leaves. IBA resulted in higher rooting percentage (90%, number of roots (149.56, root length (14.83 cm and number of leaves per rooted mini-cuttings (12.78, when growing in sand. The determination of proper rooting protocols and the use of mini-cuttings were proved important for improving mass propagation of A. indica.

  10. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  11. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  12. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant.

  13. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  14. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety.

  15. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice

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    Fauziah Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Azadirachta indica (Neem has been used traditionally for many centuries.Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeuticeffect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purposeof the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extractin an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice.Materials and Methods: A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups consisting of 12 mice pergroup. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 inphosphate buffer saline (PBS (NC, 250 mg/kg Neem (N250 or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500.The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS(CC, and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, 250 mg/kg Neemleaf extract (CN 250 or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were used to evaluate apoptosis(cell death in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statisticalanalysis. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Non parametric analysis ofvariance (ANOVA was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays.Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA.Results: TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidenceof apoptosis compared with the cancer controls.Conclusion: The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breastcancer BALB/c mice.

  16. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant. PMID:24477588

  17. Sustainable production of azadirachtin from differentiated in vitro cell lines of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mithilesh; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachtin has high industrial demand due to its immediate application as an ecofriendly, biodegradable biopesticide and also due to its various other significant bioactivities. To date, the only commercially feasible way to produce azadirachtin is extraction from seeds, but their availability is very limited as the tree flowers only once a year and only one-third of the fruits are collected due to operational problems. Further, due to the strict out-breeding nature of the plant, the seeds ...

  18. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  19. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  20. In vitro and in vivo effects of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) products on larvae of the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L. Díptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Palacios, R; Servín, R; Ramírez-Orduña, J M; Ascencio, F; Dorchies, P; Angulo-Valadez, C E

    2014-02-24

    Two studies were carried out in order to test the effects of neem tree extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on sheep bot fly larvae (Oestrus ovis L. Diptera: Oestridae). First, aqueous extracts from neem seeds (ASNE) at 0, 5 y 10% (w/v) concentrations were tested on larval mortality in vitro. In a second study, the effect of oral administration with neem seed meal (0, 100 y 200mg/kg) and neem leaves (1% of diet) on number of larvae found at necropsy and larval development was evaluated in experimentally O. ovis-infected sheep. Results in Experiment 1 showed a significant (P<0.05) effect of ASNE on time to L1 mortality in a dosis-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, oral administration of seeds or leaves did not affect the number of larvae found at necropsy of the sheep, but interfered with larval development and there was a tendency to reduce larval weight at the end of the infection period (55d).

  1. ESTABLECIMIENTO DEL SISTEMA DE REGENERACION POR EMBRIOGÉNESIS SOMÁTICA DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Maria D. Artigas R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica, es una planta con múltiples aplicaciones tanto forestal como farmacológica. Por ende, el establecimiento del sistema de cultivo in vitro por embriogénesis somática ofrece diversas y variadas ventajas, tales como obtener plantas altamente productivas en metabolitos. En este estudio, se utilizaron secciones foliares y cotiledonares, inducidas en medios MS (1962 suplementados con: BAP sólo y combinado con ANA/2,4-D, TDZ sólo y con ABA. La regeneración fue con MS sólo o con K + AIA y BAP + AIA. Como resultado se estableció un sistema eficiente con secciones de cotiledones, observándose organogénesis a bajas concentraciones de BAP, mientras a altos niveles de BAP (2,5 mg.L-1, así como  con TDZ + ABA (0,02 + 1mg.L-1 respectivamente favorecieron la embriogénesis somática primaria y secundaria en un 96 % y 71 % respectivamente. La regeneración fue 71 % con MS, mientras que el enraizamiento fue de 86,67 % con MS½, obteniéndose plantas completas a corto plazo. ABSTRACTAzadirachta indica, is a plant with multiple forest and pharmacological application. Therefore, the establishment of in vitro culture system for somatic embryogenesis offers several distinct advantages such as obtaining highly productive plant metabolites. In this study, were used sections cotyledon and leaf, induced on MS medium (1962 supplemented with: BAP alone and combined with NAA / 2,4-D, TDZ alone and ABA. Regeneration was with MS alone or with K + BAP + IAA and IAA. As a result was established an efficient system with cotyledon sections, being observed organogenesis at low concentrations of BAP, while high levels of BAP (2.5 mg.L-1 with 96 % and TDZ + ABA (0.02 + 1mg.L-1 with 71 %, favoring the primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis. Regeneration was 71 % with MS; rooting was 86.67 % with MS½, presenting whole plants obtained short term.RESUMOAzadirachta indica, é uma planta com várias aplicaçãos florestas e farmacológicas. Por

  2. Neem (Azadirachta indica in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

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    C. Devakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK, cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatile fraction (NIM-76, bitter fraction, neem isoprenoids containing 10% azadirachtins and a novel neem bitter formulation at 1 per cent concentration were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. (Holliday and Punithalingam, 1970, the pycnidia stage of Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub. Butl. the causal agent of charcoal rot/stem blight, seed rot, pre and post-emergence damping off. M. phaseolina is responsible for causing extensive global losses to various crops. The pathogen is both seed- and soil-borne. Among the enriched fractions, both NIM-76 and neem bitter fraction had shown higher efficacy over the parent coldpressed neem oil. The highest percent of inhibition was observed in case of the formulation NEEM 5 EC (91.87% followed by azadirachtin (81.25%, neem bitters (75.0, NIM-76 (61.25, HENSK (43.12, odourfree neem oil (56.25%, cold pressed unsaturated oil (50%, saturated fat (25%, lipid associates (56.25%. Thus the formulation NEEM 5 EC, azadirachtin and the odour-free neem bitter could find application in seed treatment to control a very common pathogen in tropics.

  3. Neem (Azadirachta indica) in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

    OpenAIRE

    C. Devakumar; Usha Dev

    2011-01-01

    (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010)   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK), cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatile fract...

  4. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

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    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  5. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com

    2005-10-17

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  6. Combined effect of Azadirachta indica and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri against subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

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    Kadarkarai Murugan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory study has been conducted on the bioactivities of entomopathogenic nematodes and neem seed kernel extract (NSKE against worker termites of Reticulitermes flavipes. Neem at various concentrations did not affect the survivability of nematodes, whereas neem had considerable impact on the survivability of worker termites and this may be due to the presence of active neem compounds (Azadirachtin, salanin etc.. Mortality was 40% on 4th day at lower concentration of 1.0% NSKE treatment; whereas mortality has been increased to 70% at higher concentration (4.0% on 4th day. There was 100% mortality after the combined treatment with 4.0% NSKE + 600 infective juvenile Steinernema glaseri, even at the first day of the experiment. In the present experiment, neem extract does not affected the survival of the nematodes. Hence, nematode and neem extract can be used for soil-insect control particularly for the subterranean termites.

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal.

  8. Efeito dos extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)] na produção de patulina em maçãs contaminadas por Penicillium expansum Effect of aqueous and oily extracts of Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)] on patulin production in apples contaminated with Penicillium expansum

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Cristina Arroteia; Carlos Kemmelmeier; Miguel Machinski Junior

    2007-01-01

    A Região Sul do Brasil é grande produtora de maçã, sendo 80% destinada ao consumo in natura. As micotoxinas são metabólitos secundários de fungos presentes na cadeia alimentar como contaminantes, causando diversos efeitos toxicológicos e imunológicos. Considerando que a patulina seja uma micotoxina produzida por Penicillium expansum, principal contaminante da maçã propôs-se investigar a ação de extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim (Azadirachta indica) em maçã artificialmente contaminada. Foram tes...

  9. 印楝Azadirachta Indica A.Juss的冷驯化与抗冻蛋白的研究%On Cold-Acclimation and Antifreeze Proteins of Azadirachta Indica A.Juss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 杨光伟

    2012-01-01

    The micropropagation system has been established through plant tissue culture technology with traditional herbal plant Azadirachta Indica A. Juss as material before cold acclimation process is carried out; in vivo antifreeze proteins of neem have been investigated and analyzed. The main results are as follows: ①After cold acclimation, total amount of neem protein increases and several new proteins produce. However, with the cold treatment for too long a time, amount of the neem cold-induced proteins decrease, and even some of them are degradated. ②The stability of antifreeze proteinfrom neem is related to the time of cold treatment in cold acclimation. The shortest time for antifreeze protein production is two weeks in 5℃ , and the cold resistant limit of neem is in 5℃ for 20 days. When the temperature drops below 0℃ , AFPs are accumulated in the first days of cold treatment(0~ 15 d). However, while the treatment time i.s prolonged, Antifreeze protein are degradated and dismissed on the 30th day. ③ Purified antifreeze protein is obtained, and the relative molecular mass is around 36 KD.%采用木本植物材料——印楝,通过组织培养建立快繁体系,然后对其进行冷驯化处理,并分析检测印楝植物体内抗冻蛋白.主要结果如下:①冷驯化处理后印楝的总蛋白一些表现为量的增加同时会有新的蛋白产生.但脱驯化或处理时间过长时,抗冻蛋白在量的表达上会有逐渐减少或消失的现象.②在对印楝的冷驯化中,发现不同的温度处理后蛋白稳定存在的时间不同.抗冻蛋白出现的最早时期为5℃处理2周左右,印楝能耐受的稳定最低温为5℃,所持续的最长时间约为20 d.在0℃低温处理后,虽然在处理初期(0~15 d)也有抗冻蛋白的产生,但随处理时间的延长,这种差异逐渐减少,在处理30 d时完全消失.③得到了分离纯化的抗冻蛋白,其相对分子质量约为3.6×104.

  10. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  11. Anti-juvenile activity of Azadirachta indica extract on the development and morphometry of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, Chand N

    2009-10-01

    Efficacy of extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Argemone mexicana, and Azadirachta indica were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Petroleum ether extracts of A. conyzoides and A. mexicana with LC(50) values 425.60 and 267.90 ppm and 140.15 and 137.70 ppm after a period of 24 and 48 h, respectively, were found effective. However, the methanol extract of A. indica with LC(50) values 21.95 and 11.30 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively, was the most competent larvicide. The methanol extract of A. indica, being the most potent extract was therefore studied for its impact on the developmental scenario of the mosquito. It had a significant effect on the life cycle of the vector, C. quinquefasciatus. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced compared to control. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period. Disrupted egg shells, dechitinized body walls, and distorted intestines were observed, indicating clearly the anti-juvenile potential of the extract. The growth index was considerably reduced.

  12. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  13. TETRANORTRITERPENOIDS FROM INSECTICIDAL FRACTION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA%印楝提取物的杀虫活性及其中四降三萜研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓东; 吴少华; 马云保; 吴大刚

    2001-01-01

    从印楝(Azadirachta indica)种仁的提取物中分离得到10个四降三萜化合物,通过波谱方法鉴定,它们分别是nimbin(1),deacetylnimbin(2),salannolide(3),azadirachtin(4),vepaol(5),isovepaol(6),3-tigloyl-azadirachtol(7), 1 -tigloyl- 3-acetyl-azadirachtinin (8), 3-tigloyl-azadirachtinin (9), 1 - tigloyl- 3-acetyl- 11- hydrox-ymeliacarpinin(10).此外,还得到β-谷甾醇、豆甾醇、胡萝卜甙和硬脂酸.含印楝素(azadirachtin)为0.5%的印楝提取物在稀释150~800倍时对小菜蛾和菜粉蝶有较强的防治作用.

  14. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

  15. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  16. Comparative immunomodulation potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F., Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill and Tinospora cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkhede, A N; Jagtap, S D; Kasote, D M; Kulkarni, O P; Harsulkar, A M

    2014-08-01

    Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp. was assessed by checking humoral and cell mediated immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion tests on albino Wistar rats using Guduchi-Satwa, a well known dosage form. Results revealed that Neem-guduchi possesses higher immunomodulatory potential at the dose of 300 mg/kg, po and validated the traditional claim. Hence, Neem-Guduchi can be employed in immunomodulatory formulation prepared using guduchi. PMID:25141544

  17. Bio-green synthesis of Ag-GO, Au-GO and Ag-Au-GO nanocomposites using Azadirachta indica: its application in SERS and cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareesh, K.; Williams, J. F.; Dhole, N. A.; Kodam, K. M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    Silver-graphene oxide, Gold-graphene oxide, Silver-Gold-graphene oxide nanocomposites were synthesized from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) extract using a bio-green one-pot method. The synthesized bio-green nanocomposites were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffractogram, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated the decoration of ˜10 nm of silver, ˜20 nm of gold and ˜15 nm of silver-gold nanoparticles on a graphene oxide sheet. The synthesized nanocomposites showed enhancement in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy with alizarin and also enhancement in cell viability of Chang liver cell lines which may be due to a synergetic effect of nanoparticles and graphene oxide.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  19. AN IN-VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED BALB/c MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Oseni* and G.M. Akwetey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infections in the tropical regions of the world. The increased resistance of the parasite to many available antimalarials backs the need to develop novel antimalarial drugs with effective mode of action. Several plants with antiplasmodial properties have been proved as sources for novel antiplasmodial compounds. Azadirachta indica has widely been reported for its medicinal properties. The leaf extract is used in folklore medicine to treat malaria. Previous in vitro studies has shown that the leaf extract of A. indica possess antiplasmodial properties. In the current research, the antiplasmodial activity of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. indica (ALEAI and ELEAI respectively were studied in vivo using Plasmodium berghei infected BALB/c mice at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day dosages. The extracts were also screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids and polyphenols in both extracts. Both ELEAI and ALEAI demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activity in vivo against plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner. During early infection, oral administration of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day dosages of ELEAI caused chemosuppression of 56.96, 63.15 and 69.60% respectively on day four and a chemosuppression of 69.65, 75.76 and 78.32 % respectively on day six. Similar dosages of ALEAI respectively caused chemosuppression of 56.96, 59.89, 69.49% on day four and 64.42, 70.23 and 77.41% on the sixth day. These values were statistically significant (P < 0.001 as compared to negative control. The LD50 of the ELEAI was found to be greater than 1g/kg body weight of naive mice. Results from the present study therefore confirm that A. indica leaf contains active antiplasmodial compounds and therefore can be very useful in the search for new antimalarial drugs.

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  1. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: a step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

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    K. Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A.indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region.

  2. Nutrient dynamics associated with leaf litter decomposition of three agroforestry tree species (Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sissoo, and Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Hossain; Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique; Md. Saidur Rahman; Md. Zaber Hossain; Md. Mahedi Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss,Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.,and Melia azedarach L.are little studied species in nutrient return capabilities from leaf litter decomposition to maintenance of the soil fertility despite their importance in agroforestry practices of Bangladesh.A leaf litter decomposition experiment was conducted using a litterbag technique to assess the nutrient return efficiency of these species.The decomposition rate of leaf liter was highest for M.azedarach and lowest for D.sissoo.Rainfall and temperature of study sites showed a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship with the rate of leaf litter decomposition.The highest decay constant was observed for M.azedarach (6.67).Nitrogen and Phosphorus concentration in leaf litter showed a decreased trend sharply at the end of the first month,whereas rapid decrease of Potassium concentration was reported within 10 days.Conversely,higher concentration of nutrient was observed at the later stages of decomposition.All three species showed a similar pattern of nutrient release (K > N> P) during the decomposition process of leaf litter.Among the studied species,D.sissoo was best in terms of N and P return and A.indica was best in terms of K return.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-01-01

    Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-parti...

  4. To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica (neem, a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect. Materials and Methods: Forty five subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were selected for the study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I patients were asked to rinse with 15 ml of neem mouthwash twice daily, group II with 15 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily, and group III with 15 ml of saline twice daily. The three groups were asked to perform the routine oral hygiene procedures thought out the study period. Bleeding on probing and gingivitis were evaluated by Muhlemann and Son′s Sulcus bleeding index (1971 and Loe and Sillness gingival index (1963, respectively, at base line, after every week till one month. Results: Our result showed that an A. indica mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 21 days as compared to placebo. Conclusion: A. indica-based mouth rinse is equally efficacious with fewer side effects as compared to chlorhexidine and may be used as an adjunct therapy in treating plaque induced gingivitis.

  5. Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h.

  6. Eficiência do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss como barreira natural ao ataque de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King The efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss as natural barrier to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on the Brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clese Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência da espécie Azadirachta indica como barreira natural ao ataque da Hypsipyla grandella sobre o mogno em diferentes arranjos e densidades de plantio foi, avaliada. O estudo foi realizado numa área de pastagem degradada em Vigia, PA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco repetições, sendo as formas de cultivo do mogno as parcelas, e as épocas de avaliação (meses as subparcelas. A barreira natural formada pelo nim não evitou o ataque de H. grandella sobre o mogno, mas retardou e minimizou o ataque em plantios mistos. Para o maior controle do ataque de H. grandella, o mogno não deve ser plantado simultaneamente com o nim, mas um ano após o plantio do nim, quando este apresenta mais de três metros de altura, formando uma barreira natural mais eficaz ao ataque desta praga.The efficiency of Azadirachta indica as natural barrier against the attack by Hypsipyla grandellaon mahogany in different arrangements and planting densities was evaluated. The study was carried out in degraded pasture in Vigia, Pará. The experimental design was a randomized block in split plot in time with five replications, the forms of cultivation of mahogany as plots and the evaluation periods (months as the subplots. The natural barrier formed by neem did not prevent the attack of H. grandella on mahogany, but delayed and minimized the attack in mixed plantings. It is recommended that mahogany should not be planted simultaneously with the neem, but a year after planting the neem, when it has more than three meters in height, forming a natural barrier more effective to pest attack.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  8. Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Opender Koul; Gurmeet Singh; Rajwinder Singh; Jasbir Singh; W M Daniewski; Stanislaw Berlozecki

    2004-12-01

    Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 g/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% in S. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of the H. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

  9. Morphological and biochemical changes in Azadirachta indica from coal combustion fly ash dumping site from a thermal power plant in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Sami Ullah; Raja, Vaseem; Siddiqui, Weqar A

    2016-07-01

    The foliar and biochemical traits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss from fly ash (FA) dumping site in Badarpur thermal power plant (BTPP) New Delhi, India was studied. Three different experimental sites were selected at different distances from the thermal power plant. Ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal index (SI), stomatal conductance (SC), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration [CO2]i, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrogen, nitrate, nitrate reductase activity, proline, protein, reducing sugar and sulphur content were measured. Considerable reduction in pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and total chlorophyll was observed at fly ash dumping site. Fly ash stress revealed the inhibitory effect on Nitrate reductase activity (NRA), Nitrate, soluble protein, and reducing sugar content, whereas stimulatory effect was found for the stomatal index, nitrogen, proline, antioxidants and sulphur content in the leaves. Under fly ash stress, stomatal conductance was low, leading to declining in photosynthetic rate and increase in the internal CO2 concentration of leaf. Single leaf area (SLA), leaf length and leaf width also showed a declining trend from control to the polluted site. Antioxidant enzymes increased in leaves reflecting stress and extenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27077968

  10. Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Pu, Zhong-Hui; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu-Qun; Lu, Yang

    2008-10-20

    The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively. PMID:18752898

  11. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection.

  12. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica on c-MycOncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Pei Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250, and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500. In situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue.Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05 suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group.Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolicneem leaf extract.

  13. In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

    2012-08-13

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae.

  14. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  15. Efecto del Nim (Azadirachta indica) (A. Juss) en el desarrollo biológico y el metabolismo del gusano cogollero (Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en maíz

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez García, Socorro del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    En el gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) está documentado que los efectos subletales que Azadirachta indica ocasiona en poblaciones de este insecto ha sido la inhibición de la alimentación, efectos en el metabolismo del insecto y alteraciones en el desarrollo biológico; sin embargo, no está cuantificado en qué magnitud ocurren estas alteraciones (Li, et al. 2003). Con el presente estudio se planteó dar respuesta a estas interrogantes, a partir de los siguientes objetivos: 1) An...

  16. INIBIÇÃO DO CRESCIMENTO MICELIAL E GERMINAÇÃO DE Colletotrichum gloeosporioides NA SERINGUEIRA PELO ÓLEO DE NEEM (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Rosemeire Alves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The oil extracted from Azadirachta indica has been recently used as insecticide, fungicide andfertilizer. This study was evaluate the antifungal effect of Neem Oil ISLA in mycelial growth and conidialgermination inhibition, in vitro, using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as an alternative to control anthracnose inrubber. Five treatments were used: 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200μg/ml of Neem Oil. The isolates were obtained fromthe RIIM 600 variety, from Santa Clara, SP. To evaluate the mycelial sensitivity, it was joined the oil to themedium culture according to the concentrations. Active mycelium disks (4mm of Colletotrichum were placed inPetri dishes (25 ° C, 12/12 h for 7 days. The mycelial growth was evaluated in 4 perpendicular directions. It wasused a conidia suspension with 5x104 spore in distilled water + oil. The samples had 15μl of oil solution + 15μlof spore suspension, placed in excavated plates, incubated at 20 ° C under continuous light for 12 hours. Thegermination of 100 conidia for each repetition was determined. The best result was using the concentration of200mg, with 60% of mycelial inhibition and 53.8% of germination inhibition.O óleo extraído da árvore Nim (Azadirachta indica tem sido usado recentemente como inseticida,fungicida e adubo orgânico. O trabalho avaliou o efeito fungitóxico do óleo de Neem (Neem ISLA, na inibiçãodo crescimento micelial e germinação de conídios in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, como formaalternativa de controle da antracnose em seringueira. Os tratamentos testados foram: 0, 10, 50, 100 e 200μg/ml deingrediente ativo Azadiractinia. Os isolados foram obtidos da variedade RRIM 600 da Fazenda Santa Clara, SP.Para avaliar a sensibilidade micelial incorporou-se o óleo de Neem ao meio de cultura BDA de acordo com asconcentrações, mais um disco de 4 mm de micélio ativo do fungo por placas de Petri (25ºC, 12/12h por 7 dias.Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em 4 sentidos

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of azadirachtin from dried entire fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) and its determination by a validated HPLC-PDA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Brito, Lucas Ferreira; Caetano, Karen Lorena Ferreira Neves; de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss., also known as neem, is a Meliaceae family tree from India. It is globally known for the insecticidal properties of its limonoid tetranortriterpenoid derivatives, such as azadirachtin. This work aimed to optimize the azadirachtin ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and validate the HPLC-PDA analytical method for the measurement of this marker in neem dried fruit extracts. Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the UAE. Three independent variables, including ethanol concentration (%, w/w), temperature (°C), and material-to-solvent ratio (gmL(-1)), were studied. The azadirachtin content (µgmL(-1)), i.e., dependent variable, was quantified by the HPLC-PDA analytical method. Isocratic reversed-phase chromatography was performed using acetonitrile/water (40:60), a flow of 1.0mLmin(-1), detection at 214nm, and C18 column (250×4.6mm(2), 5µm). The primary validation parameters were determined according to ICH guidelines and Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrated that the optimal UAE condition was obtained with ethanol concentration range of 75-80% (w/w), temperature of 30°C, and material-to-solvent ratio of 0.55gmL(-1). The HPLC-PDA analytical method proved to be simple, selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The experimental values of azadirachtin content under optimal UAE conditions were in good agreement with the RSM predicted values and were superior to the azadirachtin content of percolated extract. Such findings suggest that UAE is a more efficient extractive process in addition to being simple, fast, and inexpensive. PMID:26717816

  18. Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer.

  19. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  20. Effectivity of probiotic, micromineral enriched yeast and their combination with Azadirachta indica leaves containing tannin on fermentability and digestibility of Pennisetum hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sofyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic additive for animal had been explored to replace antibiotic growth promoter. Probiotic from lactic acid bacteria was widely used to support the microbial balances in digestive tract, while organic mineral was added into diets to improve bioavailability for preventing mineral deficiency disorders. This experiment was aimed to assess probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici RS2 and micromineral enriched yeast (MEY combined with tannin from neem (Azadirachta indica leaves containing tannin on king grass (P. hybrid fermentability using in vitro gas production technique. Treatments consisted of P0 (control/forage without additive, P1 (P0+MEY; P2 (P0+MEY+crude tannin; P3 (P0+Probiotic; P4 (P0+Probiotic+MEY, and P5 (P0+Probiotic+MEY+crude tannin. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications in each treatment. Probiotic, MEY or tannin supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05 gas production without affecting volatile fatty acid, protozoa numbers, methane production and in vitro digestibility of forage. The highest cumulative gas production was found in forage treated by P4 followed by P5, P1, P5, P2, P3 and control. Kinetic of gas production was significantly affected by treatments after 8 h incubation. Although the treatments were only significantly affected gas production kinetic (b, c and total gas, the hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that some parameters consisted of acetate, propionate, in vitro digestibility, protozoa numbers, and methane production were closely correlated to the gas production kinetic parameters. It was concluded that either organic mineral supplementation or its combination with probiotic, and probiotic+tannin improved fermentabilty of forage without negative effect on in vitro digestibility.

  1. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (elephants as dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  2. EFECTO DE LA RELACIÓN AGITACIÓN-AIREACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO CELULAR Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AZADIRACTINA EN CULTIVOS CELULARES DE AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS AGITATION-AERATION RELATION EFFECTS ON CELL CULTURE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS NEEM ON AZADIRACHTIN PRODUCTION IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Bedoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de azadiractina a partir de células de Azadirachta indica A. Juss, establecidas en un biorreactor sometido a variaciones en la velocidad de agitación y el caudal del aire suministrado al medio de cultivo. Además, se determinó el efecto del oxigeno disuelto en el medio de cultivo, sobre el crecimiento celular y la producción del metabolito, mediante la estimación del coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno (kLa, la velocidad de transferencia de oxígeno (OTR, la velocidad de consumo de oxígeno (OUR y el consumo celular específico de oxígeno (SOUR. Los resultados mostraron que el crecimiento celular y la producción de azadiractina, están fuertemente influenciados por las condiciones de mezclado presentes en el biorreactor, indicando un alto grado de sensibilidad de las células al estrés hidrodinámico. Por otra parte, se evidenció que los valores de kLa y OTR aumentaron al incrementar la velocidad de agitación y aireación, lo que favoreció la transferencia de masa, mientras que ocurrió lo contrario con la OUR y la SOUR, posiblemente debido a la pérdida de la viabilidad celular, al incrementar los esfuerzos cortantes dentro del biorreactor.It was evaluated the production of azadiractin from cells of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, established in a biorreactor submitted to variations in the speed of agitation and the air flow provided to the culture medium. Besides, it was determined the effect of the oxygen dissolved in the culture medium, on cellular growth and production of the metabolite, by means of estimating the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa , oxygen transfer rate (OTR, oxygen uptake rate (OUR, and the cellular specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR. The results showed that the cellular growth and azadiractin production, are strongly influenced by the mixed conditions in the biorreactor, indicating a high degree of sensitivity of cells to the hydrodinamic stress. On the other hand, it was evident that k

  3. Stress, storage & survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display intermediate or recalcitrant s

  4. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  5. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  6. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  7. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    OpenAIRE

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying and subsequent dry storage. Seeds col...

  8. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a tr

  9. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  10. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  11. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  12. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. PMID:23561175

  13. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods.

  14. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  15. Optimisation des paramètres d'extraction à froid de l'huile d'Azadirachta indica A. Juss et effets sur quelques caractéristiques chimiques de l'huile extraite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitièma-Yefanova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the parameters of cold extraction of the oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and effects on some chemical parameters of the extracted oil. Azadirachta indicaA.Juss (neem is a tropical tree, popular for its multiple possible uses. The oil extracted from neem kernels is used in cosmetics, as medicines, as insecticides and for energy needs (biofuel. The oldest oil extraction method is cold pressing. However, the optimal parameters of extraction and the quality of extracted oil are poorly known. The purpose of this research was to identify the optimal extracting parameters of neem oil by cold pressing and to characterize the extracted oil. The results showed that at 25 °C, the optimum yield by pressing of whole kernels was obtained with a pressure of 30.4 MPa ± 4.1 and a maximum degree of filling of the pressing cage. We showed that maintaining this pressure for 6 min could lead to an extraction rate of 40.1% ± 1.1. The oil yield increased with the speed of kernel compression. Reducing the particle size had a positive effect on oil yield when the cage load did not exceed half of the cage capacity. The best oil yield of 40.3% ± 0.0 for ground kernels was obtained with a pressure of 33.7 MPa ± 2.9 and a cage filled in the quarter of its capacity. The content levels of water, iron, copper and phosphorus in the oil extracted by pressing were respectively 0.14%; 11.8; 0.1 and 17 ppm. These characteristics indicate, inter alia, that neem oil obtained by cold pressing is of appropriate quality for use in biodiesel production.

  16. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 2. Influence of seed supplemented diet on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-11-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate some biological parameters in rats fed with a supplemented diet with Opuntia ficus indica powder seeds. Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noticed between the different diets. The results indicated a significant decrease in body weight of rats receiving a diet partially substituted with O. ficus indica powder seeds, probably due to a significant decrease in serum-free thyroxin (FT(4)) compared to the control group. In the treated group, a decrease of glucose concentration in blood and an increase of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle were noticed. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was noted in the group receiving the supplemented diet with O. ficus indica powder seeds. These results suggest that O. ficus indica seeds can be used as a healthy food.

  17. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  18. Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC, protein content (PK. Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01 in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01 as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.

  19. Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  1. Cold tolerance in rice germinating seeds revealed by deep RNAseq analysis of contrasting indica genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametto, Andressa; Sperotto, Raul A; Adamski, Janete M; Blasi, Édina A R; Cargnelutti, Denise; de Oliveira, Luiz F V; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Mariath, Jorge E A; da Cruz, Renata P; Margis, Rogério; Fett, Janette P

    2015-09-01

    Rice productivity is largely affected by low temperature, which can be harmful throughout plant development, from germination to grain filling. Germination of indica rice cultivars under cold is slow and not uniform, resulting in irregular emergence and small plant population. To identify and characterize novel genes involved in cold tolerance during the germination stage, two indica rice genotypes (sister lines previously identified as cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive) were used in parallel transcriptomic analysis (RNAseq) under cold treatment (seeds germinating at 13 °C for 7 days). We detected 1,361 differentially expressed transcripts. Differences in gene expression found by RNAseq were confirmed for 11 selected genes using RT-qPCR. Biological processes enhanced in the cold-tolerant seedlings include: cell division and expansion (confirmed by anatomical sections of germinating seeds), cell wall integrity and extensibility, water uptake and membrane transport capacity, sucrose synthesis, generation of simple sugars, unsaturation of membrane fatty acids, wax biosynthesis, antioxidant capacity (confirmed by histochemical staining of H2O2), and hormone and Ca(2+)-signaling. The cold-sensitive seedlings respond to low temperature stress increasing synthesis of HSPs and dehydrins, along with enhanced ubiquitin/proteasome protein degradation pathway and polyamine biosynthesis. Our findings can be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to cold tolerance in indica rice. PMID:26259169

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of seeds oils and fruit juice of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia Dillenii from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Z.; Ramdani, M.; M. Tahri; Rmili, R.; Elmsellem, H.; El Mahi, B.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    This study provides basic information on the mineral composition of the seeds and antioxidant activity in seeds oils and fruit juices of cactus belonging to two species Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii, from Morocco (Oujda), in order to evaluate the nutritional value of the Opuntia extracts. Minerals determined from dry seeds of Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii were: calcium 480.93 and 408.28; phosphorus 1417.59 and 970.15; potassium 304.51 and 201.96; magnesium: 316.59 and ...

  3. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  4. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-04-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an approximately 34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 A.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Uchoa; P.A.S. Souza; R.M.L. Zarate; E. Gomes-Filho; F.A.P. Campos

    1998-01-01

    We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae). This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this pro...

  6. Characterization of Some Antimicrobial Substances from Seed Coat of Tamarindus indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. W aghmare

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is a well known fruit used widely in India, as it forms a seasoning in many foods. However, its preservative nature is very short lived as both malate and tartarate can be easily metabolized by many microorganisms. In this study an attempt has been made to investigate the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract prepared in methanol, ethanol and acetone which showed the presence of other substances like furfural and its derivatives, levuglucosan, tetrazene, cyclohexasiloxane, dioxalene, etc. The microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  8. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  9. 不同林龄杂交楝(Azadirachta indica× Melia azedarach)人工林土壤水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation Functions of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach Plantation at Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成向荣; 虞木奎; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    为了明确林龄对杂交楝(印楝×苦楝)人工林土壤水土保持功能的影响,通过测定土壤持水能力、渗透能力和抗蚀能力来综合评价不同林龄杂交楝人工林保持水土功能.结果表明,随着杂交楝林龄增加,林地土壤孔隙结构得到改善、持水性能增加、渗透能力增大,提高了土壤水稳性指数,增加了土壤抗蚀性,土壤水土保持功能得到增强.3年生杂交楝林分的土壤持水性能、渗透能力和抗蚀性与1年生林分之间无显著差异,5年生杂交楝林地各指标均比1年生和3年生林分有显著提高.5年生杂交楝林地的土壤最大持水量、总孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度、平均渗透速率和水稳性指数分别比1年生林地增加18.6%、11.4%、19.8%、45%、30.1%.因此,种植杂交楝可以在短期内提高林分的土壤水土保持功能,在山地丘陵地区值得大力发展杂交楝.%In order to evaluate the effect of forest age of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach (hybrid neem tree) plantation on soil and water conservation function, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity and erosion resistance of hybrid neem plantation in different ages were studied. The results showed that soil pore structure, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance increased with the increase of hybrid neem stand age, soil and water conservation function was further enhanced. Soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance were not significant difference between 3-year-old and 1-year-old hybrid neem stands, however, these variables of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand were significantly higher than that of 1-year-old and 3-year-old stands. Compared to 1-year-old stand, maximal soil water-holding capacity, total porosity, non-capillary porosity, the average infiltration rate and water stability index of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand increased by 18.6%, 11.4%, 19.8%, 45

  10. Preliminary investigation on the antibacterial activity of mango (Mangifera indica L:Anacardiaceae) seed kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasminder Kaur; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Khoo Miew Leng; Rajasekaran Ayyalu; Kathiresan S; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera indicaL.) seed kernel.Methods: Chokanan mango seed kernel and seed kernels from assorted mango varieties were collected, cleaned, dried and powered. Crude methanolic extracts of mango seed kernel were analyzed for the phytochemical constituents. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion assay with three medically important bacterial pathogens such as methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)(MRSA),Escherichia coli (E. coli) andVibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus).Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of important phytochemical compounds such as glycosides, saponins, flavanoids, tannins and alkaloids. There was no significant difference in the phytochemical content between the single and assorted mango seed kernels. However, the free radical scavenging study indicated that the assorted mango kernels showed slightly higher activity than the single species (P<0.05). The crude methanolic extract of mango seed kernel at a concentration of100 mg/mL is found to have potential antimicrobial activity againstMRSA and E. coli compared toV. vulnificus. Study on the antibacterial activity also indicated that there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the single and assorted mango seed kernel extracts.Conclusions: The present study conclusively demonstrates the free radical scavenging activity and antibacterial activities of mango seed kernel. In addition, the results also indicated that there is no significant difference in the phytochemical content and biological activity of mango kernels from single and assorted mango varieties.

  11. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical.

  12. Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

    2009-07-01

    Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

  13. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on incision and excision wound models in Wister albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Nagesh

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed promising wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of A. indica and provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use in the management of wounds. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1178-1182

  14. Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaroen, Y; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Changbumrung, S; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2005-11-01

    Although it is already known that Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds contain phenolic substances, the individual components of the seeds have not been fully identified and quantitated, and in the case of Tamarind pericarp not reported. Therefore, major polyphenolic compounds were extracted using organic solvents and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), nano-electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and where possible by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H and 13C NMR. Quantitative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in Tamarind seeds and pericarp was conducted by analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), calculated against standard curves of authentic compounds. The yields of total phenolic compounds after Soxhlet extraction with methanol were 6.54 and 2.82 g/kg (dry weight) in the seeds and pericarp respectively. The profile (%) of polyphenolics in Tamarind pericarp was dominated by proanthcyanidins (73.4) in various forms (+)-catechin (2.0), procyanidin B2 (8.2), (-)-epicatechin (9.4), procyanidin trimer (11.3), procyanidin tetramer (22.2), procyanidin pentamer (11.6), procyanidin hexamer (12.8) along with taxifolin (7.4), apigenin (2.0), eriodictyol (6.9), luteolin (5.0) and naringenin (1.4) of total phenols, respectively. The content of Tamarind seeds comprised only procyanidins, represented (%) mainly by oligomeric procyanidin tetramer (30.2), procyanidin hexamer (23.8), procyanidin trimer (18.1), procyanidin pentamer (17.6) with lower amounts of procyanidin B2 (5.5) and (-)-epicatechin (4.8). Extraction of Tamarind pericarp and seeds using acetone:methanol:acetic acid gave only procyanidin oligomers, but in much higher yield and variety. The antioxidant capacities of the Soxhlet methanolic extracts were determined, and indicates that Tamarind may be an

  15. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  16. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  17. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  18. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest in many countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Although straight vegetable oils can be used in diesel engines, their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of various derivatives. Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. In this study, Mahua oil (Madhuca indica seed oil) was trans esterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain mahua oil methyl ester. This biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, constant speed, compression ignition diesel engine (Kirloskar) to evaluate the performance and emissions. (Author)

  19. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhan, Sukumar; Vedaraman, N.; Ram, Boppana V.B. [Central Leather Research Inst., Chemical Engineering Div., Chennai (India); Sankarnarayanan, G.; Jeychandran, K. [Anna Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai (India)

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in many countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Although straight vegetable oils can be used in diesel engines, their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of various derivatives. Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. In this study, Mahua oil (Madhuca indica seed oil) was trans esterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain mahua oil methyl ester. This biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, constant speed, compression ignition diesel engine (Kirloskar) to evaluate the performance and emissions. (Author)

  20. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity.

  1. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-particles were done using UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier- Transform infrared spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles prepared using aqueous neem extract was investigated using disc diffusion method. Result: UV- Vis spectroscopy of prepared nano-particles was done which gave a peak at about 550 nm for gold nano-particles and around 430 nm for silver nano-particles. FTIR of collected nano-particles gave an idea about the type of bio-molecules which helped in the reduction of auric and silver salts into corresponding nano-particles. Anti-microbial activity of silver nano-particles showed that the nano-particles have better anti-microbial activity than 2% silver nitrate solution (kept as standard when experiments were performed under similar conditions. Conclusion: Gold and silver nano-particles were successfully synthesized using greener approach and anti-microbial activity of silver nano-particles prepared using aqueous neem extract was estimated against 2% AgNO3 solution. Nano-particles gave better anti-microbial activity than Silver nitrate solution.

  3. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected. PMID:19427016

  4. Effect and Mechanism of Cold Tolerant Seed-Coating Agents on the Cold Tolerance of Early Indica Rice Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-qing; ZOU Ying-bin; XIAO Guo-chao; XIONG Yuan-fu

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the effect and mechanism of cold tolerant seed-coating agents on the cold tolerance of rice seedlings,the physiological and biochemical effects of four cold tolerant seed-coating agents (HET, YKJ, YKZYJ, and the ABA seed coating agents) on two early indica rice varieties were studied under chilling stress. The results showed that the rice seedlings treated with cold tolerant seed-coating agents under chilling stress maintained dramatically higher root vigor,POD, CAT and SOD activities, and chlorophyll content, had lower MDA content and electrolyte leakage, and accumulated more soluble sugar and free proline, when compared with the control without the treatment, and finally showed lower plant injury rate. It was indicated that the cold tolerant seed coating agent improved the ability of rice seedlings in resisting to chilling stress. YKZYJ was ranked the first in terms of the efficiency in cold tolerance among the four cold tolerant seed-coating agents tested.

  5. FIELD EFFICACY OF NEEM ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) BASED BIOPESTICIDES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF INSECT - PESTS OF COTTON IN NORTHERN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Nboyine JA; Abudulai M; Opare - Atak ora DY

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important fiber crop grown in northern Ghana. Its cultivation is beset with numerous insect pest problems. Current pest management practices in cotton fields are based on the use of chlorpyrifos and lamda cyhalothrin based synthetic insecticides which is unaffordable to most peasant cotton farmers. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the field efficacy of neem based biopesticides like neem seed kernel extract (NSK E) and neem seed oil (NSO) as an alternative fo...

  6. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  7. Toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica) against the larvae of amblyomma variegatum a three-host tick in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumu, P A; George, J B; Choudhury, M K

    1999-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica, family: Meliaceae, 'Dogon yaro' in Hausa -language) was tested against the larvae of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum (family: Ixodidae or hard tick) parasitic to cattle commonly found in Nigeria. Undiluted neem oil (100% concentration) was found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 48 h. The toxicity was concentration and time dependent. PMID:10479769

  8. FIELD EFFICACY OF NEEM ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss BASED BIOPESTICIDES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF INSECT - PESTS OF COTTON IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nboyine JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important fiber crop grown in northern Ghana. Its cultivation is beset with numerous insect pest problems. Current pest management practices in cotton fields are based on the use of chlorpyrifos and lamda cyhalothrin based synthetic insecticides which is unaffordable to most peasant cotton farmers. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the field efficacy of neem based biopesticides like neem seed kernel extract (NSK E and neem seed oil (NSO as an alternative for the management of insect pests of cotton in northern Ghana. The treatments were 2% NSO, 5% NSO, 5% NSKE, 10% NSKE, chlorpyrifos alternated with lamda cyhalothrin and untreated control. The results showed that 10% NSKE significantly ( P <0.05 reduced the abundance of bollworms, aphids and white flies to 0.75, 3.71 and 3.29 respectively while for the untreated control they were as high as 3.07, 14.14 and 6.75 respectively. The neem was non - toxic to the natural e nemies. Seed cotton yield were between 52.20% and 90.82% higher in the neem treated plots than the untreated control while yield loss was 64.79% lower on the 10% NSKE treated plots than the untreated control plots

  9. Correlation Between Parents and F1 and Combining Ability of Parents on Seed Dormancy in indica Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bao-qin; LU Zuo-mei

    2009-01-01

    Dormancy indices of hulled and dehulled seeds were investigated by using 19 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, 9 restorer lines and their 109 F1 hybrids of indica hybrid rice. The seeds of each F1 and the parents were harvested on 35 days after flowering. Combining ability was analyzed in 25 combinations made by 5 CMS lines and 5 restorer lines (North Carolina II mating design). The seed dormancy index of F1 was positively and highly significantly correlated with those of their parents and mid-parent value. Out of the 109 combinations, 82 combinations showed mid-parent heterosis, and 43 heterobeltiosis. Seed dormancy indices of F1s and their parents declined dramatically in dehulled seeds compared with hulled seeds, indicating that the hull played an important role in seed dormancy. However, the trends were similar in hulled seeds and dehulled seeds in terms of relationships between the seed dormancy indicices in F1 and their parents. The influence of hull on seed dormancy mainly depended on F1 genotype, not on the hull from maternal parent. The variances of general combining ability (GCA) in female and male parents occupied 59.2% and 31.1% of total variance, respectively. The variance of specific combining ability (SCA) in combinations occupied 9.7% of total variance, indicating that gene additive effects were principal. Among the 5 CMS lines, II112A had the highest GCA effect for seed dormancy, followed by D62A. Among the 5 restorer lines, IR112 had the highest GCA effect for seed dormancy, followed by 2786. These lines are elite parental materials for breeding F1 hybrid rice with stronger seed dormancy.

  10. Mutagenic effect comparison of different different spacecrafts on aboarded Indica rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10 kinds of indica rice seeds were carried by three spacecrafts, i.e. Shenzhou No.4 manned spacecraft, recoverable satellite, and Shijian No.8 satellite for plant breeding, and the characters of SP1-SP3 generations were studied. The results showed that the germination rate and seedling rate of SP1 generation by Shijian No.8 satellite were lower than those by recoverable satellites, and those by Shenzhou No.4 manned spacecraft was the lowest. The variation of growth duration,plant height and other traits were found in SP2 generation, and Shijian No.8 satellite had the widest and the highest variation frequency: the variation frequency of 5 varieties ranged from 0.24%-7.23%, and the average was 3.38%. The variation frequency of varieties carried by recoverable satellites ranged from 1.06%-1.37%, and the average was 1.24%. The variation frequency of Zhongzao 22 carried by Shenzhou No.4 manned spacecraft was 2.79% in SP2 generation. It was found that 17.65%-30.0% of maturity variations and 12.5%-30.0% of plant height variations were not inheritable in SP3 generation, and 6.75%-23.53% of maturity and 14.28%-18.75% of plant height variations were segregated. (authors)

  11. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and ...

  12. 氮素对印楝愈伤组织和悬浮细胞培养的影响%Effects of Nitrogen on Azadirachta indica A. Juss Callus and Suspension Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广建; 李兴林; 别振宇; 张国运

    2015-01-01

    通过改变印楝组织培养基中硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比,并与培养物的生物量、可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素、柠檬苦素含量相关联,探讨了 MS 培养基中氮素对印楝愈伤组织和悬浮细胞培养的影响.实验结果表明:在印楝的愈伤组织培养过程中,当硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比为 4:1 时,生物量、可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素以及柠檬苦素含量均达到最大积累量;在悬浮细胞培养的过程中,当硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比为 3:1 时,可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素以及柠檬苦素含量达到最高,而在 2:1 时生物量达到最大.因此,印楝组织培养的不同阶段应该采用不同形式氮素比例的培养基,只有这样才能获得最佳的目标培养物.%To study the effects of nitrogen in MS medium on neem(Azadirachta indica A. Juss)tissue culture,we deter-mined the biomass,soluble protein content,azadirachtin and limonoid contents of neem callus and suspension cells in the end of their cultures by changing the ratio between nitrate and ammonium. The results indicate,that while culturing callus, the four measurement indicators reached the maximum accumulation when the ratio of nitrate to ammonium was 4:1;while culturing suspension cells,the soluble protein contain,azadirachtin and limonoids contains got their maximum whenthe ratio of nitrate to ammonium was 3:1,but the maximum biomass was obtained when the ratio was 2:1. In conclusion,the ratio between nitrate and ammonium in the MS medium should be corresponded with the objects being cultured at different peri-ods.Only in this way,can we get the best target cultures.

  13. Eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) e mamona (Ricinus communis L.) na resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaerth.) a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Ademilson Daniel de Souza; Carlos Roberto de Lima; Pierre Farias de Souza

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986627A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica) e de mamona (Ricinus communis) na melhoria da resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra) a fungos xilófagos em simulador de campo. Os óleos de nim e de mamona foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo das soluções preservativas. Amostras de madeira com dimensões de 1,5 x 0,5 x 15 cm (radial x tangencial x longitudinal) foram tratadas para ati...

  14. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  15. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  16. Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi; Ganiyu Oboh; Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi; Aline Augusti Boligon; Margareth Linde Athayde

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity ofMangifera indica (M. indica) and Mucuna urens (M. urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro. Methods: Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against α-amylase andα-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and ρ-nitrophenylglucopyranoside as their respective substrates. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme; inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.Results:The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner, having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>α-glucosidase>α-amylase. With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase, M. indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M. urens. Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern, with M. indica being more potent than M. urens.Conclusions:The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M. indica and M. urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications

  17. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein.

  18. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khanittha Chawananorasest; Patsuda Saengtongdee; Praphakorn Kaemchantuek

    2016-01-01

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernata...

  19. Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-07-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%.

  1. Anti-enteric bacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of the seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica Linnaeus againstShigella dysenteriae (Shiga, corrig.) Castellani and Chalmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial efficacy of the seed kernel extract ofMangifera indica (M. indica) against the enteropathogen,Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae), isolated from the diarrhoeal stool specimens.Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Cold extraction method was employed to extract the bioactive compounds from mango seed kernel. Disc diffusion method was adopted to screen antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by agar dilution method. The crude extracts were partially purified by thin layer chromatography(TLC) and the fractions were analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography(HPTLC)to identify the bioactive compounds.Results:Phytochemical scrutiny ofM. indica indicated the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, gums, flavanoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and xanthoproteins. Antibacterial activity was observed in two crude extracts and various fractions viz. hexane, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water.MIC of methanol fraction was found to be (95±11.8) μg/mL. MIC of other fractions ranged from130-380 μg/mL.Conclusions: The present study confirmed that each crude extracts and fractions ofM. indica have significant antimicrobial activity against the isolated pathogenS. dysenteriae. The antibacterial activity may be due to the phytochemical constituents of the mango seed kernel. The phytochemical tannin could be the reason for its antibacterial activity.

  2. Eficácia acaricida de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados Miticidal efficacy of an emulsion containing 10% neem (Azadirachtaindica oil for control of Psoroptes ovis in naturally infested rabbits

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    Julio I. Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica, no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos de seis animais cada. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento, enquanto que o grupo tratado recebeu a formulação em teste, contendo 10% de Nim, borrifando ambos os condutos auditivos, uma vez ao dia, por sete dias consecutivos. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente para observação de possíveis efeitos adversos do produto. Nos dias +3, +7, +14,+21, +28 e +35 foi coletado material de todos os animais para avaliação da presença de ácaros vivos. Os coelhos do grupo controle apresentavam ácaros em ambos os condutos auditivos em todos os dias de observação. O grupo tratado apresentou eficácia de 41,7% no dia +3 e 100% a partir do dia +7 até o dia +35. O produto demonstrou ser eficaz no tratamento da sarna psoróptica em coelhos. Entretanto, todos os animais tratados apresentaram reações dermatológicas, tais como alopecia e hiperemia no local de aplicação do produto, variando de baixa a média severidade.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an emulsion containing 10% of neem (Azadirachta indica oil on the control of Psoroptes ovis in naturally infested rabbits. Twelve rabbits were randomly divided in two groups of six animals. The control group remained without treatment; while animals in the other group were treated with the 10% neem extract formulation by spraying both ears daily for seven consecutive days. The animals were evaluated daily for the presence of adverse effects. Material from ears all animals was collected on days +3, +7, +14, +21, +28 and +35, and evaluated for the presence of living mites. Animals from control group presented mites in both ears along all days of observation. The treated group presented an efficacy of 41.7% on day +3

  3. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

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    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  4. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rajkumar; Das, Uttam Kumar; Ghosh, Debidas

    2005-07-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were divided into mild diabetic (MD) and severe diabetic (SD) on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. Diabetes was confirmed here by intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT), biochemical assay of glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, glucose-6-phosphatase activity in liver, and serum insulin levels. Hyperlipidemia developed in these experimental diabetic rats was assessed by quantification of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and triglyceride (TG) in serum. Aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica was given to MD and SD rats at the dose of 80 mg and 120 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight/d respectively for 14 d. Significant attenuation of hyperglycemia was indicated by measuring FBG, glycogen level and glucose-6-phosphatase activity along with monitoring of intravenous GTT and serum insulin level. Similarly, correction of hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats after this extract supplementation was confirmed by significant reduction in the levels of above-mentioned hyperlipidemic indicators. Intravenous GTT was performed that highlights the antidiabetic action of this extract is not due to its effect on the intestinal rate of glucose absorption but may be due to modulation of intracellular glucose utilization in target organs. This study focus the efficacy of this extract for the management of experimental diabetes in rat model which may shed some light on the scientific basis of ancient herbal therapy in this line using this seed.

  5. Single-seeded InDel fingerprints in rice: An effective tool for indica-japonica rice classification and evolutionary studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LIU; Xing-Xing CAI; Bao-Rong LU

    2012-01-01

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.),an important cereal crop worldwide,was domesticated from its wild ancestor 8000 years ago.During its long-term cultivation and evolution under diverse agroecological conditions,Asian cultivated rice has differentiated into indica and japonica subspecies.An effective method is required to identify rice germplasm for its indica and japonica features,which is essential in rice genetic improvements.We developed a protocol that combined DNA extraction from a single rice seed and the insertion/deletion (InDel)molecular fingerprint to determine the indica and japonica features of rice germplasm.We analyzed a set of rice germplasm,including 166 Asian rice varieties,two African rice varieties,30 accessions of wild rice species,and 42 weedy rice accessions,using the single-seeded InDel fingerprints (SSIF).The results show that the SSIF method can efficiently determine the indica and japonica features of the rice germplasm.Further analyses revealed significant indica and japonica differentiation in most Asian rice varieties and weedy rice accessions.In contrast,African rice varieties and nearly all the wild rice accessions did not exhibit such differentiation.The pattern of cultivated and wild rice samples illustrated by the SSIF supports our previous hypothesis that indica and japonica differentiation occurred after rice domestication under different agroecological conditions.In addition,the divergent pattern of rice cultivars and weedy rice accessions suggests the possibility of an endoferal origin (from crop) of the weedy rice included in the present study.

  6. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

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    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  7. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  8. Prevention of High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Male Wistar Rats by Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus Indica Seed

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    Ahamd Reza Shahraki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01 when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01 compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01 while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  9. Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel; Anyachukwu; Irondi; Ganiyu; Oboh; Afolabi; Akintunde; Akindahunsi; Aline; Augusti; Boligon; Margareth; Linde; Athayde

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica(M.indica) and Mucuna urens(M.urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes(-amylase,-glucosidasc and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro.Methods:Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against-amylase and-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and p-nitrophenylglucopyranosidc as their respective substrates.Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme;inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate.Results:The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance,including gallic acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,ellagic acid,catechin,rutin,quercitrin.quercetin and kaempferol.Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited-amylase,-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner,having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>-glucosidase>-amylase.With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations(IC50)against-amylase,-glucosidase,and aldose reductase,M.indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M.urens.Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern,with M.indica being more potent than M.urens.Conclusions:The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M.indica and M.urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2diabetes.

  10. EFICIÊNCIA DOS ÓLEOS DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. E MAMONA (Ricinus communis L. NA RESISTÊNCIA DA MADEIRA DE SUMAÚMA (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. A FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS EM SIMULADORES DE CAMPO

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica and castor oil plant (Ricinus communis oils for the improvement of Ceiba pentandra wood resistance to xilophagous fungi in soil bed condition (field simulator. The neem and castor oil plant oils were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol and employed in the preparation of oil solutions. Wood samples with dimensions of 1.5 x 0.5 x 15 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal were treated to reach a nominal retention of 10 to 16 kg of solution/m³ of wood. The samples were submitted to the action of natural micro-flora of three soils; forest, agricultural use and natural pasture soils, for 180 days. Among the tested soils, the agricultural presented greater biological activity, which damaged the samples even more. Among the tested solutions, the pure neem oil provided increased protection to samples. The prepared solutions using neem and castor oil plant oils did not protect the wood from the attack of xylophagous fungi existing in the ground.

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawananorasest, Khanittha; Saengtongdee, Patsuda; Kaemchantuek, Praphakorn

    2016-06-15

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by ¹H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A), a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B) and the export tamarind powder industry(C) gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm(-1), 2920.76 cm(-1), 1018.85 cm(-1) and 555.16 cm(-1). The ¹H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50-4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  12. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

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    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  13. A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fook, J M S L L; Macedo, L L P; Moura, G E D D; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Queiroz, A F S; Sales, M P

    2005-05-01

    Proteinaceous inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were found in seeds of the Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). A serine proteinase inhibitor denoted PG50 was purified using ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatographies. Inhibitor PG50 showed a Mr of 14.9 K on Sephadex G-50 calibrated column and a Mr of 11.6 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PG50 had selective activity while cysteine proteinases (papain and bromelain) and serine proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin) were not inhibited, it was strongly effective against serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin and isolated human neutrophil elastase. The IC50 value was determined to be 55.96 microg.mL-1. PG50 showed neither cytotoxic nor haemolytic activity on human blood cells. After pre-incubation of PG50 with cytochalasin B, the exocytosis of elastase was initiated using PAF and fMLP. PG50 exhibited different inhibition on elastase release by PAF, at 44.6% and on release by fMLP, at 28.4%. These results showed that PG50 preferentially affected elastase release by PAF stimuli and this may indicate selective inhibition on PAF receptors.

  14. Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2011-12-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media.

  15. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

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    Samuel Olubodun Obasa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  16. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

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    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  17. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectiv...

  18. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  19. Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunayana Rathi; K. Pathak; R. N. S. Yadav; B. Kumar; R. N. Sarma

    2014-04-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean $r^2$ and $D'$ value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations $(P \\lt 0.01)$, with the $R^2$ values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), -amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, α-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, -amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization.

  20. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

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    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  1. Intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae Poisoning in swine from the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae seeds

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    Fabiano N. Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    avermelhamento transmural da parede do intestino e conteúdo intestinal sanguinolento nos Suínos C-E. Um hematoma foi observado no pulmão do Suíno C. Os achados histopatológicos no encéfalo dos suínos alimentados com as maiores concentrações (20% de sementes de A. indica (C-E consistiram em áreas focais e simétricas de congestão, edema, hemorragia e tumefação do endotélio vascular em diversos núcleos e no córtex telencefálico. Nos Suínos A e B, que receberam menores concentrações das sementes de A. indica, e no Suíno F, caso espontâneo da doença, as alterações histológicas no encéfalo consistiam de áreas bem definidas de malacia focal simétrica; nessas áreas a neurópila normal era obliterada por numerosos macrófagos espumosos dispostos em estreita aposição, astrocitose e capilares com endotélios tumefeitos. Os focos de malacia focal simétrica em suínos intoxicados com sementes de A. indica afetavam os núcleos cerebelares e vestibulares, a substância negra, o putâmen e os núcleos mesencefálicos, oculomotor e núcleo vermelho. Esses dados indicam que a ingestão de sementes de A. indica é responsável por essa condição neurológica, que a doença pode ser fatal e que parece afetar igualmente suínos jovens e adultos. O desenlace clínico e as alterações patológicas são dependentes da dose e as lesões encefálicas progridem de danos vasculares a edema vasogênico, hemorragia e malacia.A spontaneous outbreak of a neurological disease in swine caused by the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica seeds and the reproduction of the disease in the same animal species are reported. The natural outbreak occurred in a pig-raising facility in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. On the premises there were 100 pigs (20 breeding sows and 80 young weaned pigs from several categories that were fed a ration made by mixing 50% of corn bran, 25% of soybean bran, 5% of a commercial mix of vitamins and minerals, and 20% of broken

  2. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals.

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) leaf on oocyte maturation, oviposition, reproductive potentials and embryonic development of a freshwater fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirban; Manna, Subha; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In present study, a microcosm experiment is carried out to investigate the efficacy of 120 and 250-ppm crude aqueous extract of Azadirachta leaf on oocyte maturation, oviposition, embryonic development and hatching of the eggs of a fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis. Relative abundance of different maturing oocyte stages in the ovary of the parasite from different age groups was enumerated, and marked variations were obtained. Significant depletion in the abundance of pre-vitollogenic, vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic oocytes was recorded, which indicates impairment in maturation. Chromatin condensation of the oocytes of treated parasite indicates apoptosis of oogenic cells. Strong oviposition deterrence was evident by the elevated oviposition deterrence index of 0.18 and 0.52 at respective toxin levels. The treated parasites invested less number of eggs per oviposition, and hatching percentage of the eggs reduced markedly. In vitro treatment of eggs within 70 min of incubation exhibited coagulation of yolk material and subsequent reduction in hatching percentage. However, treatment applied after this critical period, hatching was not significantly altered. In vitro treatment of eggs at 80 min of incubation resulted in normal development. It signifies that azadirachtin affects the early developmental events but not the later. Presumably, azadirachtin either affects early gene expression of the embryo or antagonizes any of the substances of the zygote required for sustaining early developmental process. The result of the present experiment suggests that azadirachtin could be a promising agent to control argulosis through inhibition of the reproductive maturity of the parasite as well as through interference of its embryonic development. PMID:25270235

  4. Eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. e mamona (Ricinus communis L. na resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986627A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e de mamona (Ricinus communis na melhoria da resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra a fungos xilófagos em simulador de campo. Os óleos de nim e de mamona foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo das soluções preservativas. Amostras de madeira com dimensões de 1,5 x 0,5 x 15 cm (radial x tangencial x longitudinal foram tratadas para atingir uma retenção nominal de 10 a 16 kg de solução/m³ de madeira. As amostras permaneceram por 180 dias sob ação da microflora natural existente em três tipos de solos: de floresta, de uso agrícola e de pastagem natural. Entre os solos testados, o de uso agrícola apresentou maior atividade biológica, deteriorando mais as amostras. Dentre as soluções testadas, o óleo de nim puro proporcionou maior proteção à madeira. As soluções preparadas com os óleos de nim e mamona não protegeram bem a madeira do ataque de fungos xilófagos naturalmente existentes no solo de uso agrícola.

  5. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Jamal; Dushyant Singh; Pandey, Prabhash K.

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme...

  6. Studies on Application of the Extract from Azadirachta indica A.Juss for Control of Plutella xylostella L.Larvae%印楝素对小菜蛾幼虫的防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春萍; 李琪; 程晋伟; 陈洁; 宗浩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究无公害生物农药对小菜蛾的防治效果,采用固-液连续萃取法提取印楝(Azadirachta india A.Juss)种仁的活性物质,减压浓缩后得到粗提物,得率13.8%;应用高效液相色谱测得浸膏中楝素的含量为17 mg/g.室内毒力测定结果表明该提取物对小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella L.)幼虫具有较强的毒杀作用;用不同稀释倍数的种仁甲醇粗提物对小菜蛾幼虫进行了拒食作用的测定,试虫的拒食率分别达到37.5%、47.6%和61.9%.结果表明印楝提取物对小菜蛾幼虫具有较好的防治效果.%The toxieity of the extract from neem tree (Azadiachta Mica A.Juss) to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L. ) was evaluated in laboratory to study the application of the pollution-free biological pesticides. The extracting rate of the methanol extract from neem kernel was 13.8 % ,and the azadiraehtin obtained was 17 mg/g by HPLC. In a laboratory study, the methanol extract was effective against the diamondback moth larvae. The antifeedant effect of the diamondback moth larvae on the extract from neem tree was determined. The antifeedant rate of the different concentrations against the diamondback moth larvae were 37.5 %, 46.7 % and 61.9 %, respectively, 24 h after treated by feeding method. The results showed that the extract from the neem had strong control of the diamondback moth.

  7. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS EM FUNÇÃO DO TIPO DE COLETA E DA COLORAÇÃO DOS FRUTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDROSO, Luciana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The neem tree is a species belonging to the family Meliaceae, whose seed, under normalconditions, have low longevity. This study aimed to evaluate the germination of seeds of neem depending on thetype of collection of its fruits, if the ground or in the tree and depending on the colour. The treatments were: T1-giving tree in green tint, T2-giving flesh on the floor; T3-on the floor with remnants of flesh; T4-the tree of yellow;T5-the tree in different colours. The moisture content fruit and seeds were determinate. The germinated test ingerminator the alternating temperature of 20-30ºC was conducted. It was used four replicates of twenty seeds pertreatment, except for treatment of yellow that owned four replicates of fifteen seed. The characteristics wereevaluated percentage and speed of emergence index (IVE and percentage of normal seedlings. The results showedthat the seeds of the neem fruits collected from the ground, that were partially with pulp, showed greaterphysiological quality.O nim é uma espécie arbórea pertencente à família Meliaceae, cujas sementes, em condições normais,apresentam baixa longevidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes de nim emfunção do tipo de coleta de seus frutos, se no chão ou na árvore, e em função da coloração. Os tratamentos foram:T1- na árvore apresentando coloração verde; T2- no chão, apresentando polpa; T3- no chão com resquícios de polpa;T4- na árvore de coloração amarela; T5- na árvore em diferentes colorações. Foram determinados os teores de águados frutos e sementes e, posteriormente, realizado o teste de germinação à temperatura alternada de 20-35ºC.Utilizaram-se quatro repetições de vinte sementes por tratamento, com exceção do tratamento de coloração amarelaque possuiu quatro repetições de quinze sementes. As características avaliadas foram percentagem e índice develocidade de emergência (IVE, e percentagem de pl

  8. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Daniel T. Gungula

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  9. A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita

    2010-10-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats.

  10. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. PMID:26040115

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production. PMID:19167450

  12. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27001282

  13. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  14. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

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    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  15. Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T T

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC(50) of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4(+) T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs.

  16. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera.

  17. Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T T

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC(50) of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4(+) T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

  18. Antitumor and Immunopotentiating Activity of Polysaccharide PST001 Isolated from the Seed Kernel of Tamarindus indica: An In Vivo Study in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC50 of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4+ T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs.

  19. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  20. Eco-dyeing using Tamarindus indica L. seed coat tannin as a natural mordant for textiles with antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed coat tannin was extracted and its tannin class was determined. The extracted tannin was employed as a natural mordant alone and in combination with metal mordant namely copper sulphate for cotton, wool and silk fabrics and dyed using natural dyes namely turmeric and pomegranate rind. The colour strength, colour coordinates, wash and light fastness were evaluated and compared for all the three fabrics with and without mordanting. The pre-mordanted fabrics on dyeing gave better colour strength, wash and light fastness than those dyeing obtained without mordanting. The total phenolic content of the extract was calculated and minimum inhibition concentration was 1% against both the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The mordanted and dyed fabrics resulted in good antibacterial activity up to 20 washes, when natural mordant was used along with 0.5% and 1% copper sulphate mordant and dyed with natural dyes.

  1. BINDING TO AND RETENTION BY MUCOSAL CELLS OF THE TAMARINDUS INDICA SEED POLYSACCHARIDE: VISUAL EVALUATION BY MEANS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Braga*, M. Dal Sasso, M. Culici

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using inorganic and organic markers to visualize the ability of the transparent polysaccharide (TSP polymer isolated from the endosperm of the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica, a tree that mainly grows in India and South-East Asia, to bind to human mucosal cells. A layer of human buccal cells was prepared on slides and overlaid by 0.2 ml of 0.6, 0.3, 0.15 and 0.075 % TSP solutions in phosphate buffer and then colloidal carbon black particles were deposited on the slides. The unbound colloidal carbon black particles were cleared by thoroughly washing the slides. The slides were then examined by means of Nomarski interference contrast microscopy in order to visualize the degree of surface retention of the black particles by the buccal cells. The same procedure was followed using Escherichia coli as organic markers. The clearly visible binding of black carbon particles to the cells treated with polymer revealed the presence of a thin layer of TSP covering the cells (untreated cells had no black carbon particles binding. The presence of the TSP has also been confirmed by a significant reduction in bacterial adhesiveness. Both markers made it possible to visualize the binding of the thin transparent layer of TSP and its retention, which was proportional to the degree of dilution. Using Escherichia coli it has been observed the possibility of counteracting the lock-and-key mechanism of micro-organism adhesion using the bioadhesive properties of this polymer to prevent possible contact between microorganism adhesins and complementary receptors.

  2. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1×10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50 of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50 was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants.

  3. Negative effects of a nonhost proteinase inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica seeds on developmental physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 4.1 × 10(-10) M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  4. High-yielding Seed Production Technologies for Indica TGMS Line 6311S%籼稻温敏核不育系6311S的高产繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄培英; 王际凤; 施文娟; 王成招; 陆作楣

    2011-01-01

    Rice variety 6311S is a new indica TGMS line, which needs low fertility transition temperature, and has high combining ability and fine grain quality. High-yielding seed production technologies of TGMS 6311S were studied by different sowing dates, ratooning rice experiment in high altitude area, and large-scale seed production experiment to accelerate its implementation and application in hybrid rice breeding. High-yielding seed production technologies of indica TGMS line 6311S in Hainan and high altitude areas in Guiyang was proposed in this paper.%6311S是新育成的优质籼型温敏核不育系,其育性转换临界温度较低,配合力高.为加快6311S的推广,促进6311S在杂交水稻育种上的应用,采用分期播种、高海拔地区再生稻试验以及大面积繁殖试验等方法研究了温敏核不育系6311S的繁殖技术,提出了温敏核不育系6311S在海南和贵阳高海拔地区的配套高产繁殖技术措施.

  5. Effects of Different Chemical Agents Treatments on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growing of Lagerstroemia Indica%不同化学药剂对紫薇种子萌发和幼苗长势的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宽莹; 陈彦; 邢柱东; 曲宇杰

    2011-01-01

    紫薇结实率虽高,但容易产生烂种,发芽率较低,成长为健壮幼苗比较困难.本实验采用不同浓度SA和GA处理紫薇种子,在模拟自然环境和恒温25℃全光照两个不同的自然条件下,研究了紫薇种子的发芽力和幼苗的株高、鲜重、叶面积的变化.结果表明:1~15 mg/L范围内SA处理的种子发芽力较低和幼苗长势较弱.1 000 mg/L GA处理的种子在模拟自然环境条件下发芽力较高,但是幼苗长势差于1 500 mg,/L GA的处理.恒温25℃条件下,1 500 ms/L处理的种子总体效果最好.%Lagerstroemia indica has highly rate of seeds, but easy to rot and difficult to grow strong and healthy seedlings.Lagerstroemia indica seeds were processed by different levels of SA and GA3 in this experiment.This experiment studied Lagerstroemia indica seed germination ability, seedling height, fresh weight and leave area in simulateded environment,25 ℃ constant temperature and all light condition.The result showed that the seed genninating ability and seedling growth were weak when SA concentration was 1 - 1.5 mg/L.In simulated environment,when GA3 concentration was 1 000 mg/L, seed germination ability was relative high, but seedling growth vigour was weaker than that of 1 500 mg/L GA3.In a word, seed treatment effect was the best in constant temperature and 1 500 mg/L GA3 condition.

  6. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  7. MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SOME STORED SEEDS AND THEIR CONTROL BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKARIA A. M. BAKA*, MAMDOUH S. SERAG AND TAREK A. KARDOSHA

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne fungi associated with some seeds collected from Egypt markets during storage and the possibility of their control by medicinal plant extracts. The studied seeds were Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, Lens esculentus, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea and Vicia faba. Thirteen fungal species were isolated from those Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most prevalent. Sixteen medicinal plants named Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Mentha basilicum, Musa acuminate, Eucalptus rostrata, Datura stramonium, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbia peplis, Ocimum basilicum, Carum carvi, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum and Citrullus colocynthis were screened for their antifungal activities. Aqueous plant extracts of all mentioned plants were tested against the most prodomonant fungal species. Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis exhibited the highest antifungal activity within all plants tested. Treated seeds by plant extracts showed an increase of the percentage of their germination and reduction of seed-borne fungal infection. Mycotoxins of infected seeds and fungal pathogens were also determined.

  8. Effects of Different Growth Substance Treatments on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growing of Lgerstroemia indica%不同生长物质对紫薇种子萌发和幼苗长势的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宽莹; 陈彦

    2011-01-01

    Lagerstroemia indica seeds were processed by different levels of SA,TDZ,6-BA and GA3 in this experiment.During the 25 ℃ light conditions,we researched seeds germinate and shoots,fresh,leaf area of Lagerstroemia indica.The result showes that there is lower sprout power and weaker growing within 1-15 mg/L of SA.Compared with others the young plants are growing best in deal with GA3 the better than TDZ.It has the best overall effect of the seeds which was dealed with 1 000 mg/L GA3 in the 25 ℃ conditions.%本实验采用不同浓度SA、TDZ、6-BA和GA3处理紫薇种子,在恒温25℃全光照的条件下,研究了紫薇种子的萌发情况和幼苗的株高、鲜重、叶面积.结果表明:恒温25℃条件下,1-15mg/L范围内SA处理的种子发芽力较低,幼苗长势较弱.四种植物生长物质对比得出GA3处理的种子总体效果最好,其次是TDZ处理的种子效果明显.尤其1 000mg/L GA3的浓度下处理的种子效果最佳.

  9. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  10. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  11. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  12. Effects of combined leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica on hepatic morphology and hepatotoxicity markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats%扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病大鼠肝脏形态学及肝毒性标志物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwole Busayo Akinola; Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso; Oluwafunmike Sharon Akinola; Olufunke Olubusola Dosumu; EstherTomiAdewoye

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病大鼠肝脏形态学、肝脏氧化性应激标志物及部分肝脏酶类的影响.方法:大鼠腹腔注射链脲佐菌素致糖尿病.不同治疗组大鼠分别口服扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物(500mg/kg)或二甲双胍(150 mg/kg),疗程8周,每周测量大鼠的血糖水平及体质量变化.8周后麻醉处死大鼠.取肝组织制成切片,希夫染色法染色,并测量肝匀浆中丙二醛和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶的含量;下腔静脉采血,分离血浆,检测血浆中丙氨酸氨基转移酶和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的活性.结果:二甲双胍及植物提取物均能显著改善糖尿病大鼠的血糖水平,且与糖尿病模型组相比,治疗组的体质量明显增加(P<0.05).光学显微镜下,各组大鼠的肝脏形态学无明显差别.植物提取物治疗组大鼠的血浆丙氨酸氨基转移酶及天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的活性与正常对照组相比无明显变化(P>0.05),而丙二醛含量明显下降(P<0.05).结论:扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对糖尿病大鼠有明显的降糖作用,而肝脏形态学及肝毒性标志物没有明显变化.%Objectives: In this work,we studied liver morphology,markers of hepatic oxidative stress and some liver enzymes in diabetic rats treated with the combined leaf extract (CLE) of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (neem).Methods: Diabetes was induced in fasted male Wistar rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ).Oral CLE (500 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (150 mg/kg body weight) were administered to different groups of diabetic rats for eight weeks.Blood glucose and change in body weight were estimated weekly.All animals were sacrificed under anaesthesia after eight weeks.Hepatic sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff.Liver samples were homogenized and assayed for contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and

  13. 啮齿动物对印度栲种子扩散的效率%Effectiveness of small rodents dispersing seeds of Castanopsis indica in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林; 郭聪

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of Castanopsis indica seed dispersal was studied in the tropical rain forest in the Xishuangbanna region,Yunnan Province,China.We experimentally tracked the fate of 600 tagged nuts of C.indica under three focal trees (200 nuts for each tree) each year from November 2007 to November 2009.We investigated the proportion of experimental nuts moved away from the seed stations,the proportion of cached nuts buried beneath leaf litter or in soil,the number of nuts per cache,the distance that nuts were transported,and finally the proportion of nut surviving after being removed by rodents.Our results show that 69.3% of the tagged C.indica nuts under focal trees were dispersed by rodents,18% of which were cached.All cached nuts were buried beneath leaf litter or in soil,and most caches contained only one nut,which may benefit nuts germination and seedling establishment.The dispersal distance of cached nuts averaged 7.1 m,ranging from 0.5 to 43.8 m,and there was no significant difference in distance variation among these three years.No nut survived to the end of the experiments in 2007 (when seeds were less abundant and rodents were more abundant),whereas 0.3% and 1.5% nuts survived to the end of the experiments in 2008 and 2009 ( years with high seed abundance and fewer rodents).Overall,our results suggest that rodents are effective dispersers of C.indica,but the dispersal effectiveness is largely dependent on the relative abundances of rodents and available seeds.%从2007年11月到2009年11月,在西双版纳热带雨林中选取三棵母树,在每棵树下每年释放标记印度栲种子200粒(三年共计1800粒),并追踪其命运.通过调查啮齿动物搬运和分散贮藏印度栲种子的比例,以及调查贮藏种子的微生境、贮藏点大小和扩散距离,分析贮藏种子的存活情况,进而评估啮齿动物对印度栲种子扩散的效率.结果表明,啮齿动物搬运了69.3%的印度栲种子,被搬运的种子中18

  14. 两系中籼徽两优6号制种技术操作规程%Seed Production Techniques Operating Rules of Two-line Medium Indica Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Huiliangyou No.6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨联松; 白一松; 钱征; 陈文彬; 郑立平; 周守年

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose was to confirm seed production techniques operating rules for high yield of two- line medium indica rice Huiliangyou No. 6, and provide a reference for seed production unit. [Method] Preliminary preparation work, seedling technology, field management, forecast and control of flowering stage, removing impurity and harvest of seed production operating rules for high yield of Huiliangyou No. 6 were introduced, [Result] Preliminary preparation work includes selecting seed production place, and satisfied meteorologic condition of seed production place, and confirming sowing time. Seedling technology includes choosing and arranging seedling bed, preparing seeds, confirming seeds sowing amount, appropriate different time of sowing, seedling quality and age, fertilizer and water management, and disease and insect pests defense and control. Field management includes filed preparing, transplanting, fertilizer and water management, and disease and insect pests defense and control. Forecast and control of flowering stage includes using hormone correctly and pollen microscope examination. Based on these works, it is necessary of strictly removing impurity and timely harvesting and air-drying. [ Conclusion] The study provides a seed production basis for Huangliangyou No. 6 s broad application.%[目的]制定两系杂交中籼徽两优6号(Oryza sativa L.)的高产制种操作规程,为制种单位提供参考.[方法]对徽两优6号高产制种的前期准备、育秧技术、大田管理、花期预测及调节、去杂及收获工作进行了规范.[结果]前期准备工作包括制种基地的选择、制种基地应满足的气象条件、播种期的确定.育秧技术包括苗床的选择、苗床整理、种子准备、播种量、适宜的播差期、秧苗素质及秧龄、肥水管理及病虫害防治.大田管理包括大田准备、移栽、肥水管理、病虫草害防除.花期预测及调节包括正确使用激素和花粉镜检.在

  15. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  16. Nim (Azadirachta indica): uma alternativa no controle de moscas na pecuária Neem (Azadirachta indica): an alternative for controlling flies associated with animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Sayão R. Deleito; Gonzalo E. Moya Borja

    2008-01-01

    As moscas Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax e Musca domestica, estão entre as mais importantes pragas da pecuária causando miíases e como portadoras de microrganismos patogênicos. O propósito deste estudo foi testar a eficácia de várias concentrações do óleo de nim sobre pupas das moscas mencionadas em condições de laboratório e de campo. A redução da emergência das moscas das pupas tratadas com 0,6 por cento de óleo de nim foi de 95,6 por cento em condições de l...

  17. Nim (Azadirachta indica: uma alternativa no controle de moscas na pecuária Neem (Azadirachta indica: an alternative for controlling flies associated with animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sayão R. Deleito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax e Musca domestica, estão entre as mais importantes pragas da pecuária causando miíases e como portadoras de microrganismos patogênicos. O propósito deste estudo foi testar a eficácia de várias concentrações do óleo de nim sobre pupas das moscas mencionadas em condições de laboratório e de campo. A redução da emergência das moscas das pupas tratadas com 0,6 por cento de óleo de nim foi de 95,6 por cento em condições de laboratório e 94,5 por cento quando aplicado ao solo onde descansam os animais durante a noite. A aplicação do óleo de nim a 0,6% no solo é uma alternativa viável para controle das pupas de L. cuprina, C. megacephala, C. hominivorax e M. domestica.Flies Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax and Musca domestica, are among the most important arthropod pests of livestock, which produce myiasis and carry pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to test of efficacy of various concentrations of neem oil on pupae of the above mentioned flies under laboratory and in field conditions. Reduction of fly emergence from treated pupae with 0.6 per cent of neem oil was 95.6 per cent under laboratory conditions and 94.5 per cent when applied on the soil, where the cattle rest during the night. The application of neem oil at 0.6 per cent on the soil is a viable alternative for controlling pupae of L. cuprina, C. megacephala, C. hominivorax and M. domestica.

  18. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products.

  19. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products. PMID:27386100

  20. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-06-10

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention.

  1. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  2. 紫薇杂交亲和性和杂交优势的早期选择%Cross-compatibility and Heterosis for Seed-traits in Lagerstroemia indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞文; 杨彦伶; 张军围; 李振芳

    2012-01-01

    The cross-compatibility and heterosis for seed-traits in Lagerstroemia indica were studied.The results were as follows.Firstly,the cross-compatibility was obviously different among species,individuals in the same species,mating systems and cross in mating systems.So the cross-compatibility should be considered in parent selection of cross breeding.The two cross systems of M×B and M×M had higher cross-compatibility,which could be used in hybrid production.In addition,reciprocal cross had different cross-compatibility,so it was important to select suitable parents in hybrid production.Secondly,compared with the germination rate of the mating systems of M×S and M×M,the average germination rate of the mating system of M×B increased by 20%-45%,while the average germinating energy increased by 44%-226%.These phenomena could be considered as early manifestation caused by self-depressing.%研究了紫薇杂交亲和性及杂种优势在种实性状上的表现,结果表明:不同杂交系统间及同一种源内不同杂交组合亲和力不同,授粉结实率应作为亲本选择的重要依据,其中以杂种紫薇做母本、保康紫薇做父本的杂交系统以及杂种紫薇内个体间的杂交具有较高的亲和性,在杂交制种时可加以利用;正反交具有不同亲和性,在杂交时应合理选择父母本;与杂种紫薇和四川紫薇杂交系统(M×S)及杂种紫薇种源内杂交(M×M)相比,杂种紫薇和保康紫薇杂交系统(M×B)平均发芽率提高20%~45%,平均发芽势提高44%~226%,这些都可以看做杂交优势的早期表现形式。

  3. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. PMID:26852009

  4. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides.

  5. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azima Laili Hanifah

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  6. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

  7. Coating of Prilled Urea with Neem (Azadirachta Indica Juss) Oil for Efficient Nitrogen Use in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.; Singh, S.; Saxena, V. S.; Devkumar, C.

    A field study made with rice at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, showed that coating urea with neem oil, neem cake or neem oil microemulsion improved rice growth and resulted in more grain and straw than did commercial prilled urea.

  8. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219

  9. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Del Serrone; Chiara Toniolo; Marcello Nicoletti

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived extracts (PDEs) are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO) as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm) ranged from 18.83 ±...

  10. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Method

  11. Pretreatment and Process to Control Mycotoxin in Sustainable Feed Production Using Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Idayu Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By some recent estimates, mycotoxins affect as much as 25% of the world’s food crops each year. These highly toxic, naturally occurring compounds are by products (metabolites of the growth of fungi or moulds. Mycotoxins can result in significant economic loss for crop producers and broiler producers since it represent an ongoing risk to profitability. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. This paper highlights the use of naturally derived aflatoxin inhibitors from Azadirachtin compound of neem oil, and tray drying in controlling moisture content to inhibit the aflatoxin contamination in pretreated soy based animal feed. High moisture content found in soy based animal feed increases the risk of fungal growth during storage. Neem extract has shown potential as an effective feed additive to minimize the growth of fungi and possibly reduce the risk of toxic effects from mycotoxin production. Preservation methods by means of tray drying have also shown positive results towards the control of fungal growth.

  12. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  13. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  14. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  15. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors.

  16. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive control, and negative control. Data collection to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was done by comparing the clarity of culture in TSB medium 2% on a variety of different concentrations, the positive control and a negative control. Determination MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration was done by looking at the presence or absence and the number of colonies of bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus that appears in the subculture medium TSA 2% after 24 h incubation. The results showed that the value of MIC was 5%, as shown by the tube began to clear. Value of MBC of neem leaf extract against Vibrio alginolyticus was characterized by a concentration of 12.5% has been no emergence of bacterial colonies Vibrio alginolyticus. Based on the research, it concluded that neem leaf extract can provide antibacterial effect against bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in vitro.

  17. Influence of physicochemical parameters of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oils on nitrification inhibition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Sharma, Vandana; Kakkar, Garima; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P

    2007-02-21

    The technology for the production of neem oil coated urea (NOCU) developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute is in the pipeline for adaption by several Indian fertilizer industries. Use of nitrification inhibitors is one of the methods of improving the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture. However, standard specifications for the neem oil as a raw material of NOCU are desired. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate 25 samples of neem oils comprising 11 samples of expeller grade (EG) oils, 8 samples of cold-pressed (CP) oils, 3 samples of solvent-extracted oils, and 2 commercial formulations. NOCU was prepared using these oils (5000 ppm of urea-N). The soils fertilized with NOCUs (200 ppm of urea-N) were incubated at 27 degrees C and 50% water-holding capacity for a period of 15 days. Nitrapyrin (0.5% of N) coated urea served as the reference and prilled urea as control. Samples were analyzed for NH4+-N, NO2--N, and NO3--N using standard methods. The percent nitrification inhibition (NI) was calculated, and the results revealed that all of the neem oils caused NI ranging from 4.0 to 30.9%. Two samples of EG oils and two commercial formulations were found to be the best, causing 27.0-30.9% NI. Iodine, acid, and saponification values and meliacin content of all of the oils were analyzed and correlated with NI. The results revealed the direct influence of meliacin content of the neem oils on NI, which, however, was found to be negatively correlated with saponification and iodine values. There is, therefore, a need to introduce new Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specifications for neem oils as raw materials of NOCU. PMID:17263551

  18. Sequence Determination of a Novel Tripeptide Isolated from the Young Leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswari Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neem tree has long been recognized for its unique properties, both against insects and in improving human health. Every part of the tree has been used as a traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments, from antiquity. Although the occurrence of various phytochemicals in neem has been studied, we have identified the presence of a novel tripeptide in the young leaves of neem using a simple and inexpensive paper chromatographic method, detected by Cu(II-ninhydrin reagent. The peptide nature of the isolated compound is confirmed by spectral studies. The sequence of the peptide is determined using de novo sequencing by tandem MS after purification.

  19. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sujanya; B Poornasri Devi; Isha Sai

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of nutritional alteration on biomass content and azadirachtin production in cell suspensions of the elite neem variety crida-8. Variations in total nitrogen availability in the medium in terms of different ratios of nitrate:ammonium showed that the ratio 4:1 revealed a profound effect, leading to a 1.5-fold increase in the total extracellular azadirachtin production (5.59 mg/l) over the standard MS medium. Reduction in sucrose (15 mg/l) in the medium exhibited a reduction in biomass and absence of azadirachtin, whereas total phosphate reduction raised intracellular azadirachtin production (6.98 mg/l). An altered medium with a nitrate:ammonium ratio of 4:1 coupled with complete elimination of phosphate enhanced biomass by 36% (59.36 g/l).

  20. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kumar; O P Luthra; V Chawla; N R Yadav; R Kumar; A Khar

    2003-03-01

    Embryos excised from seeds of six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) of a cross WH 283 × WH 533 were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia indica. Significant variations for callusing response (CR) (54.55–75.55%) were observed among generations but the presence or absence of N. indicia did not affect callusing response. A clear inhibition zone (IZ) was formed around each embryo showing callusing. The diameter of IZ varied significantly among generations and was maximum in the resistant genotype, WH 283 (3.60 cm). Fresh weight and dry weight of calli, initiated from embryo cultured and inoculated with N. indica, varied significantly among generations. Coefficient of infection as well as percentage of infection reflected the overdominance of susceptibility. Generation mean analysis showed that the three parameter model was adequate for diameter of IZ only. Six-parameter model showed that additive (in presence of N. indica), additive and additive × dominance (in absence of N. indica) effects were also significant. Complementary type of epistasis for fresh weight of calli and dominance, and dominance × dominance effects for dry weight of calli were observed in the presence of N. indica. Magnitude of additive effects was higher for diameter of IZ in three parameter model. Therefore, selection might assist in improving this trait and thus indirectly help in attaining the resistance towards N. indica.

  1. 紫外线B辐射增强对杂交稻籼型恢复系结实率和千粒重的影响%Effect of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Seed Setting Rate and 1 000-grain Weight of Indica Hybrid Rice Restorer Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况浩池; 曾祥瑞; 罗俊涛; 曾正明; 杨扬; 陈光珍; 何兴材; 付均

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to investigate the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight of hybrid rice combinations.[Method] The seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight of 10 new sterile indica restorer lines planted in pots under enhanced UV-B radiation and fluorescent lamps (control) were respectively measured,and the differences were compared.[Result]The enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced the seed setting rate of indica restorer lines,and the differences between that UV-B radiation treatment and control all reached extremely significant level.In addition,the enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the 1 000-grain weight of most indica restorer lines,and compared with that of control the difference achieved significant or very significant level.However,the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight differed to different indica restorer lines,and the differences among restorer lines tested were significant or very significant,which indicated the possibility to screen antiUV-B radiation rice materials and combinations.Finally,the indica restorer lines 09R-14,Luhui 37 and 10R-7703 which were strongly resistant to UV-B radiation were screened out.[Conclusion] This study laid foundation for breeding hybrid rice varieties resistance to UV-B radiation.%[目的]研究UV-B辐射增强对杂交稻组合及亲本的影响.[方法]通过盆栽和增强UV-B辐射试验,研究了UV-B辐射增强对10个新育籼型恢复系结实率和千粒重的影响.[结果]UV-B辐射增强导致籼型恢复系结实率明显下降,与对照相比差异全部达到极显著水平;UV-B辐射增强导致绝大多数籼型恢复系千粒重下降,与对照相比差异达到显著或极显著水平.但UV-B辐射增强对不同籼型恢复系结实率和千粒重的影响程度差异较大,参试恢复系之间达到显著或极显著差异水平,这一结果预示着筛选抗UV-B辐射的杂交水稻育种材料和

  2. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  3. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  4. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the...

  5. 杂交稻新品种Ⅱ优5928亲本特征特性及高产制种技术%Parent Characteristics and High-yield Seed Production Techniques for New Late Indica Hybrid Rice Combination , Ⅱ you 5928

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 徐淑英

    2012-01-01

    Ⅱ You 5928 is a late indica hybrid rice combination derived from CMS line Ⅱ-32A and restore line longhui 5928 by Longyan Agricultural institution,Fujian province,and authorized by the Fujian Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in 2008.The characteristics of the combination was high yield,disease resistance,wide adaptability,high seed production.The parental characteristics and seed production techniques were summarized in the paper.%Ⅱ优5928是福建省龙岩市农科所用不育系Ⅱ-32A与自育恢复系龙恢5928配组育成的晚籼杂交稻新品种,2008年通过福建省农作物品种审定。具有产量高、抗病性强、广适性好、制种产量高等特色优势性状。概括了Ⅱ优5928亲本的特征特性,总结了该品种的高产制种技术。

  6. Mangifera Indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  7. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  8. CRESCIMENTO DE NIM (Azadrachta indica A Juss EM PLANTIO PURO E CONSORCIADO NO NORTE DE MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Lúcio Carneiro Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever o crescimento em Azadirachta indica e ajustar um modelo matemático para a estimativa do seu volume. Os dados para análise do crescimento foram obtidos mediante a análise de tronco completa em árvores de um plantio puro e outro consorciado. Por meio de regressão linear foram testados e ajustados 6 modelos para a estimativa do volume. As médias para o diâmetro, altura e volume foram 7,64 cm e 6,35 cm; 6,34 m e 6,3 m; 0,017990m³ e 0,001480m³, respectivamente para os plantios puro e consorciado. Na variável diâmetro, as curvas de ICA e IMA para o plantio puro e consorciado se interceptaram aos 4,5 e 5 anos respectivamente, enquanto que para a variável altura os incrementos se cruzam aos 2 anos de idade. Para variável volume, não houve o cruzamento dos incrementos, ou seja, não ocorreu a máxima produção física. A estimativa do volume da espécie pode ser obtida com boa precisão pelo modelo de Meyer apresentando R²aj 0,923 e Syx 18,02%. Conclui-se que Azadirachta indica, possui um crescimento considerado lento quando comparado a outros plantios para fins comerciais. Palavras-chave: incremento corrente anual, análise de tronco completa, equações de volume. NEEM (Azadrachta indica A. Juss GROWTH IN PURE AND INTERCROPPED PLANTING IN NORTHERN MATO GROSSO ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to describe the growth in Azadirachta indica and fit a mathematical model to estimate its volume. Data for growth analysis were obtained by analysis of the complete tree trunk in pure and another consortium plantation. By means of linear regression, were tested and adjusted six volume estimating models. The averages for diameter, height and volume were 7.64 cm and 6.35 cm, 6.34 m and 6.3 m; 0.017990 and 0.001480 m³, respectively, for the pure and intercropped plantations. In diameter variable, the ICA and IMA curves for pure and intercropping planting intercepted in 4.5 and 5 years respectively, while

  9. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Gwaram Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  10. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp) dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    OpenAIRE

    Husen Asbanu; Sam Herodian; Sutrisno

    2012-01-01

    The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp) as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of sli...

  11. Desenvolvimento e mortalidade larval de Spodoptera frugiperda em folhas de milho tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica Larval development and mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda fed on corn leaves treated with aqueous extract from Azadirachta indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Viana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso de folhas de nim sobre o desenvolvimento e a mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Para constatação do efeito de contato e de ingestão, as lagartas foram pulverizadas e as folhas de milho submersas no extrato (10 mg.mL-1 em laboratório e/ou pulverizadas no campo com um pulverizador de CO2. Partes de folhas de milho tratadas foram colocadas em copos plásticos para alimentar as lagartas e trocadas a cada dois dias. Adjuvantes foram adicionados ao extrato visando melhorar sua aderência às superfícies tratadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a mortalidade e o desenvolvimento larval. As folhas de milho submergidas e pulverizadas com o extrato causaram elevada mortalidade (100% e prejudicaram o desenvolvimento das lagartas sobreviventes. Na avaliação realizada 10 dias após a aplicação, o espalhante adesivo e o óleo de soja misturados ao extrato melhoraram a eficiência deste. A mortalidade das lagartas ocorreu três dias após a aplicação do extrato e a sua pulverização diretamente sobre o inseto não prejudicou o desenvolvimento larval. O extrato aquoso de nim mostrou-se com potencial para o controle de S. frugiperda.The effect of aqueous extracts from neem leaves and spraying adjuvants were evaluated on development and mortality of neonate S. frugiperda larvae. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extract (10 mg.mL-1 in the laboratory and/or sprayed in the field with a CO2 sprayer and placed in plastic cup for larvae rearing. The treated corn leaves were replaced every other day. Corn leaves submerged and sprayed with the extract caused high larval mortality (100% and showed a negative effect on the larval development. The spreading agent and soybean oil mixed with neem extract improved larval mortality at the end of the 10-day period. The aqueous extract caused lethal effect on S. frugiperda larvae after three days of the application and sprayed directly on the larvae did not inhibit the larval development. The neem aqueous extract showed good potential to be used as a control agent for S. frugiperda.

  12. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Chromolaena Odorata on Post Harvest Spoilage Fungi of Yams in Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Okigbo, R. N.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for control of yam tuber rotcaused mostly by Fusarium oxysporum, Asperigillus niger and Botryodiploidia theobromae which were isolatedfrom rooten tissues of yam tubers obtained from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike,Nigeria. These organisms were isolated from stored yam tubers. They caused soft rot leading to tissuediscoloration and production of foul smell from the rotted portion of the tuber. Ex...

  13. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  14. The neem [Azadirachta indica a: juss (meliaceae)] oil reduction in the in vitro production of zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Regina Ferreira Geraldo; Christiane Luciana da Costa; Carla Cristina Arrotéia; Carlos Kemmelmeier

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, including F. graminearum, triggers reproduction disorders in certain animals and hyperestrogen syndromes in humans. Current research investigates three concentrations of neem oil extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5%) in reducing the production of zearalenone. Neem oil extract decreased zearalenone amount in the three concentrations but highest inhibition (59.05%) occurred at 0.1%.

  15. The neem [Azadirachta indica a: juss (meliaceae] oil reduction in the in vitro production of zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Ferreira Geraldo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, including F. graminearum, triggers reproduction disorders in certain animals and hyperestrogen syndromes in humans. Current research investigates three concentrations of neem oil extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% in reducing the production of zearalenone. Neem oil extract decreased zearalenone amount in the three concentrations but highest inhibition (59.05% occurred at 0.1%.

  16. The neem [Azadirachta indica a. juss (meliaceae)] oil reduction in the in vitro production of zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo, Márcia Regina Ferreira; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, including F. graminearum, triggers reproduction disorders in certain animals and hyperestrogen syndromes in humans. Current research investigates three concentrations of neem oil extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5%) in reducing the production of zearalenone. Neem oil extract decreased zearalenone amount in the three concentrations but highest inhibition (59.05%) occurred at 0.1%.

  17. [Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nilce M; Tucci, Edna C; Guastalli, Elizabeth A L; Yajima, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite. PMID:19265573

  18. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated.

  19. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  20. The neem Azadirachta indica as a means to control soil nematodes and its application in vegetable cultures in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin, JE.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neem extracts for pest control is less common in nematology than in entomology. The purpose of this paper is to make a short review of the agronomical potential of the neem tree, with particular emphasis on its role for the control of deleterious nematodes. A specifie case for the control of Meloidogyne, which was carried out in Benin, is presented.

  1. Optimization of Extraction and Purification of Flavoinds from the Tamarind Indica Lin Seed%罗望子果实黄酮类物质的提取纯化工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 杜阳吉

    2011-01-01

    The conditions for isolation and purification of total flavonoids from Tamarindlndica Lin seed were optimized by orthogonal design.The result showed that the crude flavonoids was obtained by twice extraction of the guava leaves in 75% ethanol-water solvent for 2 hours at 80 ℃,with the ratio of the solvent and the tamarind seed being of 30:1 (m/m). The crude flavonoids was further purified by ethanol extraction and macroporous absorption resin (Diaion HP-20) absorption and the maximum extract yield of crude flavonoids was 1.03%. The content of flavonoids of final product was 90.43%.%为了筛选出罗望子果实中黄酮类化合物的最佳分离纯化工艺,本文了采用正交设计试验筛选罗望子果实中黄酮类化合物的提取的最佳工艺.结果表明罗望子果实中黄酮类化合物最佳提取工艺为:使用75%乙醇溶液按1:30的料水比进行加热,在80℃恒温下2h回流提取,重复2次.罗望子果实中粗黄酮的进一步的精制方法为醇沉法和Diaion HP-20大孔吸附树脂吸附法.结果表明通过醇沉法以及Diaion HP-20大孔吸附树脂吸附法相结合的纯化过程对罗望子果实中粗黄酮纯化效果良好,使用该方法罗望子果实中黄酮的最大收率为1.3%,且能够得到纯度为90.43%的总黄酮.

  2. High Yield Seed Production Techniques for Medium Indica Hybrid Rice Wanyou No.2%杂交中稻万优2号高产制种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严明建; 黄文章; 吕直文; 雷树凡; 黄成志; 胡景涛

    2011-01-01

    万优2号是用恢复系万恢355与宜香1A配组而成的籼型杂交中稻组合,该组合具有品质优、产量高、适应性广等特点.制种应在3月份播种,培育多蘖壮秧,合理密植,科学管理肥水,做好花期预测,巧施"九二○",抓好病虫害防治,严格进行田间除杂等.%Wanyou No.2 is a hybrid combination of restorer line Wanhui 355 and male sterility line Yixiang 1A, which came from Chongqing Three Gorges Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Yibin Academy of Agricultural Sciences respectively. It has the characteristics of good grain quality, high yield and wide adaptability. Its key seed production technologies include raising strong seedlings with more tillers, rational planting density, proper prediction of flowering date, skillful use of "920",effective control of diseases and insect pests, and careful removal of weeds.

  3. Quality of Vegetable Seeds Collected from Mymensingh Region in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain; Dey, P; K. Dilruba

    2014-01-01

    Seed quality and health status of 11 vegetable crop seeds of viz. Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), Indian cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. indica), Indian spinach (Basella alba), Spinach (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis), Red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), Bitter gourd (Momordic acharantia), Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata), Carrot (Daucuscarrota var. sativa), Radish (Raphanus sativus), and Turnip (Brassica rapa) collected from the greater Mymen...

  4. Mutagenic effects on indica rice carried by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried seeds of four indica rice varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijia No.8, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the seeds vigor and agronomic traits in the SP1 generation, and on the agronomic traits, amylose conent and bacterial resistance in the SP2 generation were studied. The results showed that the space condition slightly damaged rice seeds, with the physiological damage rate of germination rate, bud length, plant height and seed-setting rate in the SP1 ranged from 0 to 26.9%. Different varieties responded differently to the space conditions, and the order from strong to weak was Gui 99, Hanghui 7, R998, Jinhang 138. Compared with the control, no trait showed segregation in the SP1 generation. Some traits appeared larger segregation in the SP2 generation, and the mutants of plant height, number of tillers, weight of grain, amylose content and bacterial blight resistance were isolated in the SP2 generation, and these mutation traits could be inherited the SP3 generation. Space conditions not only produced mutants of rice agronomic traits, but also produced mutants of rice quality and disease resistance. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  6. Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimple B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Tamarindus indica Linn (Caesalpiniaceae was evaluated by intoxicating the rats with paracetamol (1 g/kg p.o. for seven days. The aqueous extracts of different parts of Tamarindus indica such as fruits, leaves (350 mg/kg p.o. and unroasted seeds (700 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 9 days after the third dose of paracetamol. Biochemical estimations such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein were recorded on 4 th and 13 th day. Liver weight variation, thiopentone-induced sleeping time and histopathology were studied on 13 th day. Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard. A significant hepatoregenerative effect was observed for the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds (p< 0.05 as judged from the parameters studied.

  7. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  8. TAMARIND SEEDS CARBON: PREPRARTION AND METHANE UPTAKE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Munusamy; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4) and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C) were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray ...

  9. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness. PMID:27072926

  10. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  11. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  12. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of a polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, T T; Vijayakumar, T; Ankanthil, R; Vijayan, K K; Nair, M K

    1993-04-01

    A polysaccharide isolated and purified from Tamarindus indica shows immunomodulatory activities such as phagocytic enhancement, leukocyte migration inhibition and inhibition of cell proliferation. These properties suggest that this polysaccharide from T. indica may have some biological applications.

  14. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  15. Effect of oxidative damage induced by γ irradiation on germination potentials of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ irradiation, for accelerated aging, of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds, with and without intact hull, was carried out. At an irradiation dose of 20 kGy, all of the varieties with intact hull had lower electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values compared to those irradiated after dehulling. At a lower dose of 10 kGy, rice seeds irradiated with intact hull had higher germination potentials, while the ones irradiated after dehulling had lower germination abilities. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in the case of Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system in Indica rice hull offered better protection to rice seeds in overcoming the oxidation stress than in Japonica rice hull

  16. Garcinia indica as an Environmentally Safe Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminium in 0.5 M Phosphoric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Prabhu; Padmalatha Rao

    2013-01-01

    The Inhibitive and adsorption properties of aqueous extract of seeds of Garcinia indica extract (GIE) have been studied for corrosion control of aluminium in 0.5 M phosphoric acid solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques at 30∘C to 50∘C. The effects of inhibitor concentration on the inhibition action were investigated. Polarization measurements showed that the GIE acted as mixed inhibitor and the inhibitor molecules followed chemi...

  17. Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Chandra, Vikas

    2009-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of T. indica fruit pulp (100 mg/kg body weight) and M. oleifera seeds (50 mg/kg body wight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity.

  18. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  19. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

  20. Variation in Seedling Growth of Tamarindus indica (L.: A Threatening Medicinal Fruit Tree Species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Salim Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth is a precondition for conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources which depends upon understanding of breeding system, genetic inconsistency, and evolutionary forces in forest tree improvement. The aim of this study was to determine variation in seedling growth and age-age correlations of Tamarindus indica at population level in Bangladesh. The study revealed significant (P<0.05 differences of seasonal variation in seedling growth. Height and collar diameter growth showed significant (P<0.05 positive correlation with mean monthly rainfall. The study also revealed significant difference (P<0.05 of seedling growth among T. indica population. PCA illustrated rainfall, height growth, and diameter growth as the main characters in this study which defined drought as an additive character for this species. Cluster analysis of similarity showed how seedlings from 22.67°N latitude (origin separated from others. An increasing trend of age-age correlation was identified in both cases of shoot height and diameter growth. The study concluded that seed collection for either ex situ conservation or seedling production can be done from 22.67°N latitude as seedlings from that area performed better than others, and early clonal selection of T. indica can be done at the age of 9 months.

  1. Breeding, characterization and application of a new early season indica rice variety Zhefu 910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new early season indica rice variety, Zhefu 910, was officially registered by the Municipal Crop Variety Registration Committee of Xiangtan, Hunan Province in 1999, and the Provincial Crop Variety Registration Committee of Zhejiang Province in 2000, respectively. It was bred by pedigree selection of a cross between an early season indica variety Zhefu 219 and a late season indica rice variety Chang-si-ruan-zhan. The F, dried seeds of this cross were treated with 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 300 Gy before germination. In regional yield trials Zhefu 910 gained yield increase of 5.5% - 6.4% (significant at 5% probability) and 6.9%-9.8% over control in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Biochemical analysis revealed that the crude protein content of brown rice of Zhefu 910 was as high as 13.2%. Therefore, Zhefu 910 could be also regarded as a high protein content rice variety. The main characteristics of Zhefu 910 and its cultivation techniques are described in this paper

  2. Atividade inseticida in vitro do óleo de sementes de nim sobre Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae In vitro insecticidal activity of seed neem oil on Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline V. Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis é o principal vetor da Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo de sementes de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre ovos, larvas e adultos do vetor. Os insetos foram capturados no campo e mantidos no laboratório a ± 27 °C e 80% de umidade relativa. Cinco tratamentos com diferentes concentrações foram realizados, usando-se dois controles negativos, um com água destilada e outro com Tween 80 (3% e um controle positivo com cipermetrina. Os ovos foram borrifados com o óleo em diferentes concentrações e avaliou-se o número de larvas eclodidas por 10 dias consecutivos. A mortalidade das larvas foi observada até a pupação, e a mortalidade dos adultos foi observada após 24, 48, e 72 horas. A análise estatística foi feita pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. No teste com ovos, a maior concentração obteve 65,16 ± 3,24% de eficácia. O teste com larvas apresentou 67,75 ± 2,21% de eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1. Com adultos, a eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1 foi de 96,64 ± 4,11%, após 24 horas. A análise fitoquímica revelou a presença de triterpenos. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial uso desse óleo no controle deste vetor.Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the effect of oil from (Azadirachta indica neem seeds on eggs, larvae and adults of the vector. The insects were captured in the field and kept in the laboratory at ± 27 °C and 80% relative humidity. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed using two negative controls (distilled water and Tween 80 and a positive control. The eggs were sprayed with the oil at different concentrations and the number of hatched larvae evaluated for 10 days. Mortality of larvae was observed to pupation and adult mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed by Tukey test

  3. Cytotoxic prenylated flavonoids from Macaranga indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-Song; Peng, Wei-Bing; Yang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Ke-Chun; Li, Xiao-Li; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2015-06-01

    Three new prenylated flavonoids, macarindicins A-C (1-3), as well as seven known compounds (4-10) were isolated from the twigs of Macaranga indica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic interpretation. Compounds 2 and 3 enriched the diversity of prenyl moiety in genus Macaranga especially in the aspect of various lengths of prenyl chain. All the known compounds were isolated from M. indica for the first time and this plant was found to contain large number of ellagic acid. Compounds 1-10 were tested for their cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Hep G2, Hela and P388) and showed IC50 values in the range of 2.61-20.35 μg/mL. PMID:25861749

  4. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745

  5. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal Manoj; Pareek Anil; Batra Nikhil; Nagori Badri Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae) is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities w...

  6. Antibacterial activity of polyphenols of Garcinia indica

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi, C.; K Akshaya Kumar; T J Dennis; T. S. S. P. N. S. Sanath Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration...

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenols of Garcinia Indica

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi, C.; Kumar, K. Akshaya; T J Dennis; Kumar, T. S. S. P. N. S. Sanath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration...

  8. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  9. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar; Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus[Tamarindus indica L.(T.Indira)],belongs to the family Leguminosae(Fabaceae),commonly known as Tamarind tree,is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine.The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T.indir.a.Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google.The keywords Tamarind,T.indica were used for search.Only the health related articles selected.Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent,Africa,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nigeria and most of the tropical countries.It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain,diarrhea and dysentery,some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,wound healing,constipation and inflammation.It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals,and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antimicrobial,antivenomic,antioxidant,antimalarial,cardioprotective,hepatoprotective,antiasthmatic,laxative and anti-hyperlipidemir activity.T.indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases.It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  10. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  11. The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Rao, Usha Anand

    2005-12-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. No plant materials have been investigated for its activity against B. pseudomallei. Therefore, a preliminary study was carried out using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods to evaluate the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of five Indian medicinal plants documented to have been used for several ailments in the ancient Indian scriptures. The leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and the seeds of Vigna radiata were prepared using methanol as solvent. The disc diffusion and MIC methods were used to assess the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of the plants tested. Only methanol leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity starting from disc concentrations of 150 mug by the disc diffusion method. The other plants failed to show any zone of inhibition. MIC assay revealed that the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for B. pseudomallei were 125 mug/ml. Our preliminary finding showed that methanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under in vitro conditions. Extensive animal studies may be required before investigating the role of Tamarindus indica for treating melioidosis.

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, S.M.; Singh, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract...

  13. Seed proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  14. Use of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil in The Control of Musca domestica L.(Diptera:Muscidae) in Poultry Breeding Farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Flávia S Rovida; Karina Midori Endo; Andressa Domingos Polli; Ligia Maria Cruvelatti Bulla; Elton Luiz Scudeler; Jéssica Aline Soares de Abreu; Hélio Conte

    2015-01-01

    Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it ...

  15. Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunxia; Shi, Dongxia; Yin, Zhongqiong; Guo, Jianhong; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Lv, Cheng; Fan, Qiaojia; Liang, Xiaoxia; Shi, Fei; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    The petroleum ether extract of neem oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography was diluted at different concentrations with liquid paraffin. The acaricidal bioassay was conducted using a dipping method. The results indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (at the concentration of 500.0ml/l) was 70.9ml/l, 24h after treatment. At concentrations of 500.0, 250.0, 125.0, 62.5 and 31.2ml/l, the median lethal times (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract were 8.7, 8.8, 10.8, 11.5 and 13.1h, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the petroleum ether extract of neem oil separated into four fractions (F1-F4). Acaricidal activity of 68.3% and 100.0% in the F2 and F4 was confirmed. These results suggest that petroleum ether extracts of neem oil and its four fractions possess useful acaricidal activity in vitro. PMID:22349080

  16. Efficacy of 10% whole Azadirachta indica (neem) chip as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study

    OpenAIRE

    K Vennila; Elanchezhiyan, S.; Sugumari Ilavarasu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anti-microbial therapy is essential along with conventional therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Instead of systemic chemical agents, herbal products could be used as antimicrobial agents. Herbal local drug delivery systems are effective alternative for systemic therapy in managing the chronic periodontal disease. In this study, 10% neem oil chip was used as a local drug delivery system to evaluate the efficacy in the periodontal disease management. Materials an...

  17. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries. PMID:24560939

  18. In silico evaluation of inhibitory potential of triterpenoids from Azadirachta indica against therapeutic target of dengue virus, NS2B-NS3 protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dhar Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The findings attained through this study on the molecular interaction mode of three neem triterpenoids and DENV NS2B-NS3 pro can be considered for further in vitro and in vivo validation for designing new potential drugs for DENV infection.

  19. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Mel

  20. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. PMID:20304561

  1. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries.

  2. 印楝扦插繁殖技术研究%Study on the Cutting Propagation of Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪香; 苏海; 廖仿炎; 徐金柱; 陈贰

    2006-01-01

    2002~2005年,开展了印楝扦插繁殖试验,对影响生根成活率的基质、插穗材料、生根剂、扦插季节、扦插后管理等因子进行了研究.结果表明,较佳的扦插技术组合为:塑料杯育苗以无菌黄心土∶河沙(3∶1)作为基质,苗床育苗以等量的黄心土和河沙混合为基质,扦插前一天用10 g/L高锰酸钾液消毒,在春季和夏季采集当年生刚木质化或半木质化枝条和萌芽条作为插穗,用1 g/L吲哚丁酸生根粉处理插条后扦插,插后育苗床注意保温保湿,生根率可达80%以上.

  3. Study on the Rapid Tissue Culture Propagation of Neem (Azadirachta indica)%印楝快繁技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华; 何雪香; 王振师; 龚峥

    2006-01-01

    试验以印楝实生苗的嫩枝为材料,对印楝的初代培养、丛生芽诱导和生根、再生植株炼苗等进行系统研究,通过单因素和正交试验筛选出各阶段的最适培养条件:(1)初代培养基为MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L;(2)丛生芽诱导培养基为MS改+6-BA 0.4~1.0 mg/L+KT 0.5~1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05~0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L;(3)生根培养基为1/2 MS+IBA 0.3 mg/L+PG 3 μmol/L+糖20 g/L.

  4. The Antidiabetic Efficacy of Combined Extracts from Two Continental Plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss (Neem and Vernonia amygdalina (Del. (African Bitter Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ekong Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyherbal therapy is said to be a current pharmacological principle having the advantage of producing maximum therapeutic efficacy with minimum side effects. We assessed the antidiabetic efficacy and hence the impact on biochemical indices of toxicity by a combination of extracts from neem and bitterleaf. Thirty rats, 25 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic rats, were used for the study. The diabetic rats were divided equally into five groups and respectively treated: saline (diabetic control, extracts from neem and bitterleaf combined, neem only, bitterleaf only and chlorpropamide for a 24 day period. After oral administration of the first dose of extract (400 mg kg-1 b.w. and chlorpropamide (4.286 mg kg-1 b.w., blood glucose was monitored in vivo at various time intervals for 9 h, thereafter daily administration continued for 24 days. Whereas single dose treatment with neem only showed peak reduction (28.56% an hour after, treatments with combined extracts, bitterleaf and chlorpropamide had their peak reductions all at the 7th hour (24.78, 47.31 and 60.51%, respectively. Percentage reductions in blood glucose relative to their initial values at the end of treatment were 71.05, 44.95, 88.63 and 75.83 for combined extract, neem, bitterleaf and chlorpropamide respectively. The decrease in blood glucose for the groups treated with combined extracts and bitterleaf only compared well (p<0.01 with chlorpropamide and non diabetic control, but not with neem alone. Determination of markers of hepatotoxicity in serum including GPT and GOT activities, total protein, albumin and urea indicated that, of the four treatments, neem provides the best protection against hepatic dysfunction. In the group treated with combined extracts these alternate selective advantages of neem and bitterleaf were expressed as a positive synergy, hence more beneficial than individual treatments.

  5. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  6. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it faile...

  7. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Mel

  8. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  9. Use of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil in The Control of Musca domestica L.(Diptera:Muscidae in Poultry Breeding Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Flávia S Rovida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it there is production of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. Damage caused by use of synthetic insecticides reactivated studies with bioinsecticides for being one of the most selective options in pest control. Furthermore, they do not cause environmental alterations such as food, soil, water poisoning and they are practically nontoxic to mammals. Among vegetable species with insecticidal activities that have been used a lot, we have neem, subtropical plant that shows low residual power and lower risk of intoxication for mammals and poultry. Thus the objectives that guided this work, was the observation of morphological alteration in M. domestica larvae and malformation of pupae after the use of neem, powder and emulsifiable oil at different concentrations (0,5%, 1%, 1,5% were tested. Following, after the applications, the midgut of flies in larval stage was isolated, processed and analyzed under light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in most dipterous, the cell types found were columnar cells and regenerative cells, which showed alterations such as: coalescing vacuoles, intercellular spaces, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, broken microvilli, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilated mitochondria. The statistical analysis registered for pupa malformation showed significant results in comparison to control, but there was no difference among treatments. The different concentrations of neem oil contributed in altering morphological and ultrastructurally the midgut in M. domestica larvae, interrupting its development. These results showed that in poultry breeding farms, neem oil can be a pratical alternative to the control of M. domestica.

  10. 印楝素与印楝渣配合使用对大棚瓜苗害虫的防治效果及瓜苗生长的影响%Pests Controlling Effect of Azadirachtin and Azadirachta Residue and Their Influnce on Melon Grouth in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金光; 孙玉宏; 窦宝旗; 王萍; 辛福林; 王宏太; 苏可先; 黄昌华

    2012-01-01

    0.3%印楝素EC配合印楝渣使用对静水温泉水蝇(Scatella tenuicosta)和瓜苗蕈蚊(Lycoriella pleuroti)有一定的防效.其中印楝渣与基质体积比为1∶4,并结合喷施0.3%印楝素EC 600倍稀释液的处理防治效果可达69.1%.印楝渣与0.3%印楝素EC配合使用对西瓜苗生长有明显的促进作用,苗高及苗叶数增加,瓜苗长势比纯育苗基质(对照)的好.特别是1∶2比例处理的瓜苗比对照高8.18 cm,西瓜苗叶片数平均增加0.93片;但该处理的瓜苗颜色明显比其他处理的偏黄.%The use of 0.3% azadirachtin EC and Azadirachta indica residue had control effect on Scatella tenuicosta Bennison and Lycoriella pleuroti Yang et Zhang. Matrix in which the volumn ratio of A. indica residue to base was 1:4, combined with 0.3% azadirachtin EC 600 times spraying had a prevention effect up to 69.1%. Application of 0.3% azadirachtin EC and A. indica residue played a significant role in promoting the growth of watermelon seedlings. Seedling height and leaf number was increased compared with the control. Especially the 1:2 ratio treated seedling was 8.18 cm higher than the control while the average number of watermelon leaves was increased by 0.93; but the 1 '2 ratio treatment was significantly yellower than other treatment.

  11. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  12. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-yuan; TAN Xiao; LU Wen-jie; YA Qi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica.Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate (1),monotetracontane (2),taraxerol (3),stigmasterol (4),stearic acid (5),heptatriacontanoic acid (6),arachidic acid (7),ursolic acid acetate (8),quercetin (9),myricetin (10),myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (11),and rutoside (12).Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  14. Genome Polymorphisms Between Indica and Japonica Revealed by RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Song-wen; LIU Xia; XU Cai-guo; SHI Li-li; ZHANG Xin; DING De-liang; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Revealing the genome polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies; RFLP markers, which are located across 12 chromosomes of rice, were used to analyze indica-japonica differentiation in different rice varieties. At the same time, genome sequence variations of screened loci were analyzed by bioinformatics method. Twenty-eight RFLP probes, which can classify indica-japonica rice, were confirmed. Subspecies genome polymorphisms of screened loci were found by analyzing the publication of the genome sequences data of rice. The study indicated that these screened markers can be used for classifying indica-japonica subspecies. With the publication of the genome sequences of rice, marker polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies can be revealed by genome differentiation.

  15. The susceptibility of Tatera indica, Nesokia indica and Bandicota bengalensis to three anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, J H; Rehman, A B

    1977-02-01

    Three South-Asian rodent past species were tested for susceptibility to anticoagulant rodenticides. Wheat fluor containing 0-025% warfarin 0-0375% coumatetralyl or 0-005% difenacoum was fed to 260 Tatera indica, 140 Nesokia indica and 81 Bandicota bengalensis for 1-56 days. Tatera was about as susceptible to anticoagulants as Rattus has been reported to be. Nesokia and Bandicota were extremely variable: though the majority were highly susceptible, the slopes of the dose-mortality curves were close to zero. The difenacoum diet appeared to be more toxic than the warfarin diet to all three species, but less toxic than the coumatetralyl diet to Tatera and Nesokia. All of the anticoagulants were eventually lethal to all of the animals tested. PMID:264500

  16. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  17. Thermal Hardening: A New Seed Vigor Enhancement Tool in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad FAROOQ; S. M. A. BASRA; Nazir AHMAD; K. HAFEEZ

    2005-01-01

    In a laboratory study, indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were exposed to thermal hardening (heating followed by chilling followed by heating; chilling followed by heating followed by chilling; heating followed by chilling or chilling followed by heating). In indica rice, heating followed by chilling followed by heating resulted in decreased mean germination time, time to start germination, electrical conductivity of seed leachates, and time to 50% germination, as well as increased germination index, energy of germination, radicle and plumule length, root length, root/shoot ratio, root fresh and dry weight, radicle and plumule growth rate, and shoot fresh weight. In japonica rice, chilling followed by heating followed by chilling performed better than all other treatments, including control.

  18. COMPORTAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PALMA (Opuntia ficus-indica l. SUBMETIDAS À FERMENTAÇÃO E SECAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage cactus is cultivated of extensive form as a producing species of fruits and fodder plant in many countries. The extensive culture if bases on the vegetative propagation, that is preferred, had its easiness. The propagation for seeds can come to be a useful tool for ends of genetic improvement, then, in this work forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L. seeds were submitted to different fermentation periods (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 hours and were dried or not, before sowing. It was evaluated the physiological quality of the seeds through the determination of the moisture content, emergence percentage and speed of seedling emergency. It was used an entirely randomized experimental design 5x2 (period of fermentation and drying. The practical one of the fermentation is efficient in the elimination of the sarcotesta in palm seeds, occurring bigger vigor in the seeds without drying and submitted the 55 hours of fermentation, as well as, the drying of the seeds, after the first periods of fermentation promotes reduction of the physiological quality, with reflected right-handers in the vigor.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Manoj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities were attributed to the presence of a variety of active ingredients including triterpenoidal saponins , flavonol glycosides, ursolic and oleanolic acids either alone or with their derivatives. A comprehensive account of the morphology, photochemical constituents, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

  20. Pemanfaatan Sirup Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisa Amilum Dari Biji Mangga Arumanis (Mangifera indica Linn) Sebagai Pemanis Pada Pembuatan Manisan Dari Buah Kedondong (Spondias dulcis Forst )

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Herty Dita Utami

    2011-01-01

    A research was done to know the content of starch on the seed of arumanis mango (Mangifera indica Linn), that can made as glucose syrup by hydrolyzing the starch with HCl 3%. Sample taken by using simple random sampling. Sample that was the starch of the seed of arumanis mango hydrolyzed by HCl 3% to produce the glucose syrup. The content of glucose was analyzed by Nelson-Somogyi method with regression analysis. The result of this research showing the content of glucose on glucose syrup are 3...

  1. Quality of Vegetable Seeds Collected from Mymensingh Region in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality and health status of 11 vegetable crop seeds of viz. Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata, Indian cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. indica, Indian spinach (Basella alba, Spinach (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis, Red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor, Bitter gourd (Momordic acharantia, Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, Sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata, Carrot (Daucuscarrota var. sativa, Radish (Raphanus sativus, and Turnip (Brassica rapa collected from the greater Mymensingh region of Bangladesh were tested. The germination percentage of seeds of the collected samples ranged from 11 to 100. The highest germination was recorded in indian cabbage (100% followed by carrot (92% and radish (90%, while the lowest was recorded in indian spinach seeds (11%. Altogether 10 fungi were found associated with the seeds which were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Chaetomium funicola, Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Phoma spp. and Rhizopus spp.. The highest total seed-borne fungal infection was found in bottle gourd (155% followed by sweet gourd (145%. The lowest infection was found in turnip seeds (6%. The maximum number of dead seeds was found in indian spinach (89% and no dead seed was found in indian cabbage. Among the vegetables seed samples, seedling vigour ranged from 59 to 3083, where the highest seedling vigour was observed in sweet gourd (3083 and the lowest was in indian spinach (59.

  2. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye onto Tamarind Seed Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Patel; R. T. Vashi

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation describes adsorption of crystal violet dye from its aqueous solution onto tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell powder. Initial concentration, agitation speed and pH with various temperature have been studied, in which pH was found to be most effective. The adsorption data were mathematically analyzed using adsorption isotherm like Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm to study adsorption mechanism of crystal violet onto this seed powder. Freundlich isotherm was found ...

  3. Effects of pre-harvest chemical application on rice desiccation and seed quality*

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Yong-qi; CHENG, Jin-ping; Liu, Liang-Feng; Li, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Hong-sheng; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2015-01-01

    Pre-harvest desiccation may increase the efficiency of seed production. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of diquat, paraquat, and ethephon applications on grain moisture, grain weight, and seed germination of hybrid rice Yanliangyou 88 (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) and conventional rice Wuyunjing 7 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). In 2013, we tested 12 treatments applied at four weeks (Yanliangyou 88) and six weeks (Wuyunjing 7) after heading. Results showed that reductions in ...

  4. HONEY BEES–POTENTIAL POLLINATORS IN HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION OF SUNFLOWER

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rajasri; K. Kanakadurga; V.Durga Rani; Ch. Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out the role of honeybees on pollination, seed setting and seedquality of hybrid sunflower. The foraging behavior of natural bee visitants was studied on the parental lines ofsunflower hybrid NDSH1 during the flowering period. Most predominant bees observed are Rock bees, Apisdorsata, European bee, Apis mellifera,Indian bee, Apis cerana indica and Stingless bees, Trigona irridipenis.Bee visitants are more on R line compared to A line. The seed setting percentage ...

  5. Effect of seed soaked with urea solution on the cold tolerance of rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANWenchao; QIUBoqin; JINQingsheng; LUORubi

    1996-01-01

    In the Yangtze river aera, the first crop of indica rice is sown in fate Max to eariy Apt and transplanted in early May. Usually, seedlings perish when abnormal low temperature of 6-10℃ lasted for 3 d or longer. The effect of socking seed with urea solution on increasing the cold tolerance at the seedling stage was studied.

  6. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of cactus pear seed oil in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Berraaouan, Ali; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Sindic, Marianne; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)) is a medicinal plant widely used to treat diabetes. This work investigates the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of cactus pear seed oil (CPSO), its mechanism of action, and any toxic effects. Peer reviewed

  7. Studies on the Growth Habits and Characteristics of Two Polyploid Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice with Powerful Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-jian; DU Chao-qun; DAI Bing-cheng; CHEN Dong-ling; CHEN Jian-guo; CAI De-tian

    2007-01-01

    Based on a series of polyploid indica-japonica hybrid plant lines obtained from a new breeding strategy of using double predominance of wide cross and polyploidization to breed super rice, two polyploid indica-japonica hybrids, PSR073 and PSR120 were studied in their growth periods to show the powerful heterosis in a larger scale and to study the characteristics of polyploid indica-japonica hybrids more elaborately. The leaf age, tiller growth, flowering habits, and agronomic traits of them were observed to analyze their growth habits and characteristics. The results showed that the.agronomic traits of PSR073 and PSR 120, such as the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, and 1000-grain weight, all acquired obvious predominance of polyploidy, and that the seed setting rate was more than 83%. No significant difference was observed between the two tetraploids and common diploids in the leaf age, tiller growth, and flowering habits. It was concluded that the characteristics of the two powerful heterosis polyploid hybrids were different from those of the polyploid rice reported earlier. Wide cross and polyploidization had no negative effects on their growth habits and characteristics; on the contrary these had powerful heterosis. This had provided theoretic and practical evidences for their application to agricultural production.

  8. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  9. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Rani Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS on high fat diet (HFD induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  10. MADHUCA INDICA: A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpendra K. Patel*, Narendra K. Prajapati and B.K. Dubey

    2012-01-01

    Medicines obtained from plant source are known as an herbal medicine, and the herbal medicine are one which make human healthy without causing any of harmful effect. Madhuca Indica is a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic potential but is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Madhuca Indica has several pharmacological activity, and potential to provide health to the society. It is used as Anti diabetic, antiulcer, hepato protect...

  11. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tripathi

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  13. Piriformospora indica confers cadmium tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Feiqiong; Liu, Jian; Gao, Qikang; Lou, Binggan

    2015-11-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to confirm the influence of P. indica on growth, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll, and cadmium (Cd) amounts in Nicotiana tabacum under Cd stress, hydroponics, pot and field trials were conducted. The results showed that P. indica can store Cd in plant roots and reduce leaf Cd content, reduce the concentration of MDA, and increase the proline and chlorophyll content and the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase under hydroponic Cd stress. RT-PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of genes Gsh2, TaPCS1, oas1, GPX, and Hsp70 in colonized plants was 4.3, 1.4, 2.9, 1.7, and 6.9 fold higher than in un-colonized plants respectively. Cd exposure significantly reduced un-colonized plants' agronomic traits compared to P. indica-colonized ones. Our results suggested that P. indica can sequester Cd in roots, so that much less cadmium was transported to leaves, and the increased concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, pigments and proline contents, as well as the higher expression of stress-related phytochelatin biosynthesis genes in P. indica-inoculated plants, may also serve to protect N. tabacum plants against oxidative damage, enhancing Cd tolerance. PMID:26574103

  14. Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K Nitharwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP, an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg. Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity.

  15. Bioatividade do extrato aquoso de sementes de nim sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em três formas de aplicação Bioactivity of aqueous neem seeds extract on the Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in three ways of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Gonçalves-Gervásio

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliaram-se as atividades translaminar, sistêmica e de contato do extrato aquoso de sementes de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Foram realizados três experimentos envolvendo extratos aquosos de sementes de nim em concentrações de 0,5; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 g por 100 mL de água. Esses extratos foram aplicados no solo, na superfície adaxial de folíolos de tomateiro e diretamente sobre as lagartas. Quando os extratos foram aplicados no solo, em vasos contendo plantas de tomate, houve mortalidade de 48,3 a 100,0% das lagartas, indicando que foram absorvidos e translocados na planta. Também ocorreu mortalidade larval de 57,0 a 100,0% quando os extratos foram aplicados na superfície adaxial do folíolo, evidenciando o efeito translaminar. Quando foi aplicado diretamente sobre lagartas com seis dias de idade, observou-se mortalidade de 52,4 a 95,4%, demonstrando a ação de contato do composto e seu potencial para controle da traça-do-tomateiro.This work, aimed to study the translaminar, systemic and contact action of aqueous neem seeds extracts on the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. Three experiments with aqueous neem seeds extracts at concentrations of 0.5; 1.0; 5.0 and 10.0g/100 mL of water were conducted. These extracts were applied in the soil, in adaxial surface of the tomato plant foliole and directly over the insect. When the extracts were applied in the soil of pots containing tomato plants, the larval mortality rate was 48.3% to 100.0%, indicating that the extracts were absorbed and transferred inside the plant. There was also a larval mortality of 57.0% to 100.0% when the extracts were applied over the foliole adaxial surface, which shows the translaminar action. When the extracts were applied directly over larvae six days old, the larval mortality rate was 52.4% to 95.4%, which shows the action of contact of the extracts and its potential to control the

  16. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  17. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica) Growth, esporulation and viability of entomopathogenic fungi under mediums with differents Nim oil (Azadirachta indica) concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Paro Marques; Antonio Carlos Monteiro; Gener Tadeu Pereira

    2004-01-01

    A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO) sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim,...

  18. Controle da infestação por Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini e Fanzago, 1877 (Acari: Macronyssidae em poedeiras comerciais utilizando extrato de Azadirachta indica Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877 (Acari: Macronyssidae infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce M. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia de um produto à base de extrato de nim, no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum em poedeiras comerciais. O experimento foi realizado observando-se a eficácia do extrato de nim a 2% após duas, três e quatro aplicações com intervalo de sete dias. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o extrato de nim a 2% é efetivo no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum, sendo necessárias pelo menos três pulverizações semanais do produto para que haja o controle efetivo do parasito.This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2"% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite.

  19. Controle da infestação por Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini e Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) em poedeiras comerciais utilizando extrato de Azadirachta indica Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract

    OpenAIRE

    Nilce M. Soares; Edna C. Tucci; Elizabeth A. L. Guastalli; Helena Yajima

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia de um produto à base de extrato de nim, no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum em poedeiras comerciais. O experimento foi realizado observando-se a eficácia do extrato de nim a 2% após duas, três e quatro aplicações com intervalo de sete dias. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o extrato de nim a 2% é efetivo no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum, sendo necessárias pelo menos três pulverizações semanais do produto para...

  20. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly hatched larvae (ca. 0-24 h old were more susceptible to 5 and 10 mL or g/L of Neemseto® and Xentari® as compared with 10 days old larvae. With the increase of insecticide concentration, the effects on the pupa weight and pupa viability were also greater on larvae of 0-24h old.

  1. Tamarindus indica L.: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Caluwé, Emmy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind (Tamarindus indica, Fabaceae, a tropical fruit found in Africa and Asia is highly valued for its pulp. Tamarind fruit pulp has a sweet acidic taste due to a combination of high contents of tartaric acid and reducing sugars. The pulp is used for seasoning, in prepared foods, to flavour confections, curries and sauces, and as a major ingredient in juices and other beverages. Commercial tamarind-based drinks are available from many countries. Vitamin B content is quite high; carotene and vitamin C contents are low. Presence of tannins and other dyeing matters in the seed testa make the whole seed unsuitable for consumption, but they become edible after soaking and boiling in water. Tamarind kernel powder is an important sizing material in textile, paper and juteindustries. Seeds are gaining importance as an alternative source of proteins, and are besides rich in some essential minerals. Seed pectin can form gels over a wide pH range. Leaves and flowers can be eaten as vegetables, and are prepared in a variety of dishes. They are used to make curries, salads, stews and soups. Tamarind leaves are a fair source of vitamin C and α-carotene; mineral content is high, particularly P, K, Ca and Mg. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-fungal activity has been documented from several plant parts. Tamarind is also extensively used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses, its phytochemistry and pharmacognosy is reviewed to provided with a particular orientation to its value in sub-Sahara Africa.

  2. Distribution of the Classification Traits in the F2 Progeny of Two Crosses of indica/japonica in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zai-jun; LIANG Cheng-ye; ZHU Ying-guo

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of seed setting rate, plant height and Cheng's morphological traits were made between the F2 progeny of indica-japonica hybrids, 02428/Pei'ai 64 and Taichung 65/Teqing. There existed resemblance normal distribution in plant height, and the distribution had no relationship with the seed setting rate and plant height in F1 progeny, suggesting that there were no gametic selection for the plant height in the F2 progeny of indica-japonica hybrids. An average seed setting rate of the F2 was equal to the F1 populations in the recombination of 02428/Pei'ai 64 in which there was an excellent cross compatibility, but the remarkable increase in the seed setting rate from the F1 to F2 in Taichung 65/Teqing, indicating that gametic selection only took place in the indica-japonica crosses with low cross compatibility while null or little in the hybrids with high compatibility. There were many intermediate types among the leaf pubescence, color of hull at heading, and length of the first and second panicle internode, and these Cheng's morphological traits was distributed normally; there were also a little intermediate types in hull hairness and phenol reaction with bi-peak distribution; while length to width ratio of grain was inclined to the japonica types obviously showing a skewed distribution in the F2 population. Although Cheng's morphological traits in F2 populations had inconsistent distribution types, Cheng's morphological traits index showed normal distribution, which suggested that intermediate types, i.e. indicalinous or japonicalinous, were primary in F2 population.

  3. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF AN INDIAN FRUIT: DILLENIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Munmee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of DiIlenia indica has been an integral part of the Assamese cuisine and it is claimed that this fruit can control blood sugar when consumed on a regular basis. A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 patients in Government Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. The study revealed the hypoglycemic activity of Dillenia indica in type 2 diabetes patients, following standardized approach. The fruit powder of Dillenia indica used in this trial showed significant hypoglycemic effect (p < 0.001. The result of the clinical trial has been highly encouraging with the mean blood sugar both FBS and PPBS of the patients being reduced gradually overtime without any unwanted effect.

  5. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Kumar; V Kumar; Om Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Methods: Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. Results: The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Conclusions: The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.

  6. The mutation reversion of induced waxy gene of rice in Indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some induced waxy gene lines such as Nanhui 175wxR, Xianghui 288wxR, Minghui 86wxR, Shuhui 527wxR, Minghui 63wxR, II-32wxB, Longtepu wxB and D62wxB, which developed through irradiation induction of the parents of hybrid rice in indica, were selected as the materials, and the properties of endosperm of their inbred descendant brown rice were identified by visual estimation and by the method of 1% KI-I2 determination. It was the first time to discover the reversion of induced waxy mutants (waxy endosperm reversed to non-waxy ones) in rice, and the reversion frequency was between 0 to 6.34 x 10-5, with a average of 3.74 x 10-5 Genetic analysis indicated that induced waxy mutants reversion gene was dominant. Except for 1000-grain weight, no significant difference in other traits was found among the induced waxy mutants, the waxy mutants reversion and the wilds. A new core seed production and seed purity control techniques of the parents of waxy hybrid rice was also put forward in this paper. (authors)

  7. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  8. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  9. Effects of Seed Maturity of Turf-Type Tall Fescue on the Seed Vigor and the Optimal Harvesting Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong; HAN Jian-guo

    2003-01-01

    By assay of accelerated aging germination, germination index, vigor index, seedling length,seedling weight, electric conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, ATP content and acid phosphoesterase activityduring seed development of turf-type tall fescue, the seed vigor of tall fescue were studied. Combining withseed moisture content and yield, the optimal harvesting time of tall fescue was determined. The results indica-ted that the seed vigor increased continuously along with seed maturity, and the higher seed vigor was achievedat 19th day after perk anthesis and maintained continuously until 31st day after peak anthesis. At 25th day af-ter peak anthesis, the highest yield of 3 533 kg ha-1 and the good quality of seeds of tall fescue were harvestedwith 32.19% moisture content. From 22nd to 31st day after peak anthesis, the seed yield of 3 300 kg ha-1 andthe good quality seeds of tall fescue were harvested with 40 -12.43% moisture content, and the span was theoptimal harvesting time.

  10. Genetic dissection of seed storability using two different populations with a same parent rice cultivar N22

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Qiuyun; Wang, Wenyan; Ren, Yakun; Jiang, Yimei; Sun, Ailing; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Yifei; He, Niqing; Hang, Ngo Thi; Liu, Zhou; Li, Linfang; Liu, Linglong; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Seed storability in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important agronomic trait. Two segregating populations with N22 (indica) as a common parent, viz. a set of 122 backcross-inbred lines (BILs) derived from the backcross Nanjing35 (japonica)/N22//Nanjing35 and another population comprising 189 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross of USSR5 (japonica) and N22, were studied to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed storability. Germination percentage (GP) was used to evaluat...

  11. Origin of seed shattering in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongwei; Griffith, Megan E; Li, Xianran; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubing; Fu, Yongcai; Zhang, Wenxu; Wang, Xiangkun; Xie, Daoxin; Sun, Chuanqing

    2007-06-01

    A critical evolutionary step during rice domestication was the elimination of seed shattering. Wild rice disperses seeds freely at maturity to guarantee the propagation, while cultivated rice retains seeds on the straws to make easy harvest and decrease the loss of production. The molecular basis for this key event during rice domestication remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the seed shattering is controlled by a single dominant gene, Shattering1 (SHA1), encoding a member of the trihelix family of plant-specific transcription factors. SHA1 was mapped to a 5.5 kb genomic fragment, which contains a single open reading frame, using a backcrossed population between cultivated rice Teqing and an introgression line IL105 with the seed shattering habit derived from perennial common wild rice, YJCWR. The predicted amino acid sequence of SHA1 in YJCWR and IL105 is distinguished from that in eight domesticated rice cultivars, including Teqing, by only a single amino acid substitution (K79N) caused by a single nucleotide change (g237t). Further sequence verification on the g237t mutation site revealed that the g237t mutation is present in all the domesticated rice cultivars, including 92 indica and 108 japonica cultivars, but not in any of the 24 wild rice accessions examined. Our results demonstrate that the g237t mutation in SHA1 accounts for the elimination of seed shattering, and that all the domesticated rice cultivars harbor the mutant sha1 gene and therefore have lost the ability to shed their seeds at maturity. In addition, our data support the theory that the non-shattering trait selection during rice domestication occurred prior to the indica-japonica differentiation in rice evolutionary history. PMID:17216230

  12. Indica genome blast search result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f data contents Results of blastn searches against indica genome sequences (top hits only) Data file File na...e sequences of indica rice used for the searches were obtained from the BGI-RIS. ...Data analysis method Performed blastn (blast 2.2.12) searches against the indica rice genome sequences. The

  13. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Vishesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  14. Piriformospora indica enhances plant growth by transferring phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Ruby; Singh, Archana; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonized monocot as well as dicot. P. indica has been termed as plant probiotic because of its plant growth promoting activity and its role in enhancement of the tolerance of the host plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. In our recent study, we have characterized a high affinity phosphate transporter (PiPT) and by using RNAi approach, we have demonstrated the involvement of PiPT in P transfer to the host plant. When knockdown strains ...

  15. Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nisha; Anitha, M G; Bala, T S L; Sivakumar, S M; Narmadha, R; Kalyanasundaram, M

    2009-04-01

    Screening of natural products for mosquito larvicidal activity against three major mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi resulted in the identification of three potential plant extracts viz., Saraca indica/asoca, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea for mosquito larval control. In the case of S. indica/asoca, the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and the chloroform extract of the bark were effective against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with respective LC(50) values 228.9 and 291.5 ppm. The LC(50) values of chloroform extract of N. arbor-tristis leaves were 303.2, 518.2, and 420.2 ppm against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The methanol and chloroform extracts of flowers of N. arbor-tristis showed larvicidal activity against larvae of A. stephensi with the respective LC(50) values of 244.4 and 747.7 ppm. Among the methanol extracts of C. ternatea leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds, the seed extract was effective against the larvae of all the three species with LC(50) values 65.2, 154.5, and 54.4 ppm, respectively, for A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Among the three plant species studied for mosquito larvicidal activity, C. ternatea was showing the most promising mosquito larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis of the promising methanolic extract of the seed extract was positive for carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and proteins. In conclusion, bioassay-guided fractionation of effective extracts may result in identification of a useful molecule for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:19039604

  16. Estimated Longevity of Tilletia indica Teliospores in Field Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of decline of teliospore viability over a 7-year period was determined for teliospores of Tilletia indica, the causal agent of Karnal bunt of wheat, in field plots in Tucson, AZ. During the study, polyester mesh bags, each containing 3 g teliospore-infested soil, were received from Marylan...

  17. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  18. Some factors involved in microprojectile-mediated indica rice transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUERui; QIUXiaohui; YANMeixian; HUANGDanian; CAOShouyun; TIANWenzhong

    1997-01-01

    Immature embryos and calli derived from immature or mature embryos of the 16 indica rice varieties have been transformed by using particle bombardment. To improve growth state of subcultured calli, we set up a variety of parameters to optimize the important tactors involved in Biolistic system, and added various hormones, mannitol, and MES to CC or NB medium.

  19. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations. PMID:11495286

  20. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  1. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana en vue de leur rajeunissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age of the rootstock (two to six weeks depending on species, the level of grafting (on hypocotyl instead of epicotyl and the origin of the scion (apex have higher growth after micrografting than axillary buds. The method developed was applied to the restoration of juvenile traits of adult trees. The main criterion is the rooting ability of microcuttings sampled on scions, after micrografting. Rooting competence restoration depends on the species, the nature of the first copy of the donor tree and the number of cycles of micrografting. The rejuvenation was more definite for F. albida, mobilised by root cuttings. In this case, one third of the microcuttings rooted after the first cycle of micrografting and 75 % after the second. For 2. Mauritiana mobilised by horticultural budding, 25 % of microcuttings were rooted after the second successive micrograft. No restoration of rooting competence was obtained with A. senegal and T. indica mobilised by cutting.

  2. Establishment of an Efficient Regeneration System Amenable to Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Two Elite Indica Rice Varieties of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohitosh Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient plant regeneration system from embryogenic callus of two elite indica rice (Oryza sativa spp. indica varieties of Northeast India, Ketokijoha and Monoharsali is established. The effect of auxin, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D on callus induction was optimized. Friable, nodular and creamish-white embryogenic calli were induced from mature seeds on NB medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D. Plants were regenerated from 40-50 days old embryogenic callus on NB medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.25 mg/l ABA (abscisic acid. Regenerated plants with multiple tillers were rooted on half strength MS medium and rooted plants were acclimatized with 94% survival rate. Higher frequency of callus induction as well as plant regeneration was recorded in Ketokijoha as compared to Monoharsali. The calli of both the varieties were found amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as evident from strong GUS (β-glucuronidase expression. The results may find wide application for genetic improvement for valuable traits these elite indica rice varieties of Northeast India.

  3. TAMARIND SEEDS CARBON: PREPRARTION AND METHANE UPTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Munusamy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC from tamarind (Tamarindus indica seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4 and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The potential of TSC to be used as a methane storage material was tested and compared with a commercial activated carbon. The highest methane adsorption capacity obtained for TSC was ca. 32.5 cm3/g at 30 °C and 1 bar. The maximum methane storage capacity achieved was 180 cm3/g at 30 °C and 35 bars.

  4. Factors Influencing the Outcrossed Seed-Setting Obstacles of Photo-thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiong-hui; WANBang-hui; PENGHai-feng; LUYan-peng; LIAYGKe-qin; ZHAOJing

    2004-01-01

    Using photo-thermo sensitive genic male rice (PTGMS) Pei' ai 64S, W7415S, W6154S, N26S, Annong S, Nongken 58S,7001S and 5088S as female parents and conventional indica lines 8258 and U89 as male parents, the factors affecting outcrossed seed-setting were analyzed. The PTGMS had obstacles in outcrossed seed setting influenced by inheritance and environment at varying degrees. Environmental temperature was regarded as the main factor that resulted in the outcrossed seed-setting obstacles.The sensitive stage was at the early stage of grain filling for outcrossed seed setting. There existed remarkable differences at the sensitivity stage, the duration of sensitive period, the sensitive level and the effective level of outcrossed seed-setting obstacles caused by environmental temperature among different PTGMS lines. Therefore, attention should be paid to outcrossed seed-setting obstacles in selection and utilization of PTGMS lines.

  5. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  6. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  7. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widely distributed from Southern Asia to Northern Oceania. The plant parts are enriched with various bioactive compounds such as gallic acid, quercitrin, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and lupeol, etc. Traditionally, it is used to treat itchy skin, fever, diarrhea, and body aches. The current review attempts to encompass the available literature on Leea indica with respect to its phytochemistry, traditional uses and gist of its various pharmacological activities.

  8. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Toxqui-López; Ana L. Padilla-Velasco; Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and ex...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz; Renato Péres-Roses; Imilci Urdaneta-Laffita; Miladis Isabel Camacho-Pozo; Jesús Rodríguez-Amado; Irina Licea-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona ae...

  10. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Mohd Adil Tahseen

    2016-01-01

    Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widel...

  11. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  12. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  13. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  14. MADHUCA INDICA: A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K. Patel*, Narendra K. Prajapati and B.K. Dubey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicines obtained from plant source are known as an herbal medicine, and the herbal medicine are one which make human healthy without causing any of harmful effect. Madhuca Indica is a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic potential but is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Madhuca Indica has several pharmacological activity, and potential to provide health to the society. It is used as Anti diabetic, antiulcer, hepato protective, anti pyretic, anti fertility, analgesic, anti oxidant, swelling, inflammation, piles, emetic, dermatological, laxative, tonic, anti burn, anti earth worm, wound healing headache and many more problems. Here is a misconception about mahua tree that it is used as liquor and harmful for health, but this is what after the fermentation process, so the present review deals with the general and chemical profile of Madhuca Indica and its economic importance including medicinal and other uses, and tried to emphasize the most potent activity.

  15. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services.

  16. Induced mutation studies with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. and some indica rice varieties from Ceylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-imbibed seeds of Brachiaria brizantha were irradiated with doses of 60Co gamma rays ranging from 7.5 to 75 kR and fresh stem cuttings containing three nodes were irradiated with doses ranging from 7.5 to 45 kR. Chromosome counts were made using the Carnoy method. There was no germination at 75 kR, and 18% germination at 60 kR with no survival of the seedlings. At the other doses germination and seedling survival decreased from 56% and 100% respectively for the control to 42% and 46% respectively at 45 kR. There were no chlorophyll mutants at 7.5 kR, while a few were observed among seedlings at the higher doses. In the stem cuttings establishment was poor and morphological variations were observed at all doses above 15 kR. A mutant of desirable plant type was obtained from the 45-kR seed treatment with an erect growth habit, reduced pubescence, short internodes, profuse tillering and rapid regrowth compared with the parent. Four indica rice varieties, H-4, H-8, H-7 and Pachchaiperumal 2462/11 (PP 2462/11), were subjected to gamma rays, neutrons and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) treatments. The LD50 level for gamma rays was 50 to 60 kR, for neutrons 1600 R and for EMS 0.4%. Germination and final plant stand in the M1 generation were affected only slightly by the neutron treatments, but were greatly reduced by EMS, and gamma irradiation above 35 kR. The final plant stand of the variety PP 2462/11 was most reduced by all the mutagens. In the M2 generation there was segregation for chlorophyll mutants, of the albina, chlorina, xantha, virescens and zebrina types. Other macro-mutations observed were for grain size and shape, plant height, flowering date and sterility. Grass clump types were found occasionally. (author)

  17. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  18. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  19. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  20. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline augmentation in scented indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties through Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikavoosi, Kayghobad; Kad, Trupti D; Zanan, Rahul L; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2015-12-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been identified as a principal aroma compound in scented rice varieties. Δ(1)-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene is reported to regulate the proline synthesis in plants and acts as the precursor of 2AP. Two scented indica rice varieties, namely Ambemohar 157 and Indrayani, were subjected to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation containing P5CS gene. Overexpression of P5CS led to a significant increase in proline, P5CS enzyme activity and 2AP levels in transgenic calli, vegetative plant parts, and seeds over control in both the varieties. 2AP level increased more than twofold in transgenic seeds in both varieties. This is the first report of enhancement in 2AP content through overexpression of using P5CS gene, indicating the role of proline as a precursor amino acid in the biosynthesis of 2AP in scented rice.

  1. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using...

  2. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.......To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  3. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality......To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Contents of Some Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica in Kaduna Metropolis-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarkiyayi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three varieties of mangoes (Mangifera indica namely; Adansonia digitata (Durshea big seed, Durio zubethinus murr (Peter middle seeded, Foetide lour (Julie collected within Kaduna metropolis were subjected to proximate analysis. Analysis of the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the three varieties of mangoes revealed that moisture content, crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fat, ash content and vitamin c were 79.17, 1.97, 7.16, 1.89, 9.81 and 34.12% respectively for Durshea variety. The findings revealed that Peter (Middle Seeded mango proximate values for all the nutrients analyzed were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the values obtained from Durshea result. The Julie (Small Seeded mango’s moisture content (72.04% and carbohydrate contents (16.59 mg/100 g were significantly (p<0.05 different from Durshea and Peter varieties. The findings also revealed that calcium contents were 0.15, 0.10 and 0.13% for durshea, peter and Julie, respectively. Iron and magnesium contents were present in small amount for all the three variaties. The contents of cyanogenic glycosides (0.28 mg/100 g, oxalates (1.60 mg/100 g and phytate (0.62 mg/100 g for durshea were not significantly different from peter and jullie varieties of the mango. The findings revealed that the three varieties of mango contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that the body required for its normal metabolic functions .The anti nutrients contents is negligible. The Durshea variety is the most recommended for human consumption because of its high lipids and calcium contents.

  5. EXTRATO DE NEEM E CRAVO DA ÍNDIA NO CONTROLE DE ZABROTES SUBFASCIATUS (BOHEMAN) (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE) EM SEMENTES DE FEIJÃO ARMAZENADO

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; Ceci Castilho Custódio; Nelson Barbosa Machado Neto; Aleandro Santana Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    The bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus) is considered the principal storage pest of beans. The objective of this work was the study of alternatives to control the Zabrotes subfasciatus in beans, using neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extract and Indian spice (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). Four treatments were used: control; 1% aqueous neem solution (0,5ml neem oil .Kg-1 of bean seed), 25g of spice in one kg of bean seed and Gastoxin (0,011g aluminum phosphet.Kg-1 of bean seed). The experiment w...

  6. HONEY BEES–POTENTIAL POLLINATORS IN HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION OF SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajasri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the role of honeybees on pollination, seed setting and seedquality of hybrid sunflower. The foraging behavior of natural bee visitants was studied on the parental lines ofsunflower hybrid NDSH1 during the flowering period. Most predominant bees observed are Rock bees, Apisdorsata, European bee, Apis mellifera,Indian bee, Apis cerana indica and Stingless bees, Trigona irridipenis.Bee visitants are more on R line compared to A line. The seed setting percentage and seed yield weresignificantly increased when the honeybees were supplemented to the open pollination. The yields weredrastically reduced when the crop was covered with insect proof net. In addition, increased seedling vigour,germination%, field emergence, oil content and quality of seed was observed with the deployment of honey beescoupled with supplemental hand pollination.

  7. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh A. Kuravadi; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, HB; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D.; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, BN; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To...

  8. Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da ação inseticida The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Rossi Forim; Andréia Pereira Matos; Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva; Quézia Bezerra Cass; Paulo Cezar Vieira; João Batista Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluat...

  9. Laboratory evaluation of some indigenous plant extracts as toxicants against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    OpenAIRE

    Mamum, M.S.A; Shahjahan, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the toxicity of six botanicals, Bazna (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Ghora-neem (Melia sempervirens), Hijal (Barringtonia acutangula), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Mahogoni (Swietenia mahagoni) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Leaf and seed extracts were prepared by using acetone, methanol and water as solvents. The results showed that extracts of all the six plants had direct toxic effect on red flour beetle. A...

  10. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L...

  11. Environ: E00793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00793 Neem Margosa Medicinal herb Oleic acid [CPD:C00712] [DR:D02315], Octadecanoic acid [CPD:C01530] [DR:D00119], Azadirachtin [CPD:C08748], Epigallocatechin [CPD:C12136], Margocin, Sitosterol [CPD:C01753] Azadirachta indica [TAX:124943] Meliaceae Neem seed Major component: Oleic acid [CPD:C00712] [DR:D02315] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Meliaceae (mahogany family) E00793 Neem ...

  12. Ecosystem manipulation for increasing biological N2 fixation by blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA) in lowland rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Grant; Roger, Pierre-Armand; Watanabe, I

    1986-01-01

    An introduction to the soil/floodwater ecosystem of lowland rice fields is given. Two primary consumers are particularly important in limiting the growth and N2-fixing activities of blue-green algae in irrigated rice ; the OSTRACODA (Class CRUSTACEA) and the PULMONATA (MULUSCA). Control of grazing by neem seeds AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss and cultural practices enhanced BGA biomass and increased N2-fixation ten fold. Significant increases in rice grain protein occur if heterocystous algae bloo...

  13. Protective potential of Tamarindus indica against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Azam Khan, Mir; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-13

    Abstract Context: Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, its clinical applications are often limited due to nephrotoxic effects. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) fruits against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. Materials and methods: A daily dose of 200 mg/kg of 70% aqueous-ethanol extract derived from T. indica was employed in male rabbits as a co-therapy with gentamicin (80 mg/kg) for a period of three weeks. Serum and urinary renal function parameters and histological assessments were carried out and compared with one way analysis of variance (Graphpad prism version 5.00, Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: The results showed that gentamicin-treated animals had significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen (54.1 ± 2.6 mg/dl), serum creatinine (4.0 ± 0.1 mg/dl), serum uric acid (2.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and urinary protein excretion (3.8 ± 0.3 mg/dl) with a fall in body weight (10 ± 1%), creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.09 ml/min), serum potassium (3.4 ± 0.1 mEq/l), serum calcium (7.6 ± 0.2 mg/dl), urinary volume (126 ± 9 ml/24 h) and urinary lactate dehydrogenase secretion (103.1 ± 4.2 U/l). However, animals treated by co-therapy with gentamicin and T. indica had significantly improved renal structure and function. Discussion and conclusion: Co-therapy of 200 mg/kg/d of T. indica for a period of three weeks successfully prevented functional and morphological derangements caused by gentamicin as assessed by different renal function parameters and histological examinations.

  14. New guaian-type sesquiterpene from Wikstroemia indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mamoru; He, Yu-Min; Dibwe, Dya Fta; Li, Feng; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, we isolated a new guaian-type sesquiterpene (1) and two known guaian-type sesquiterpenes [oleodaphnal (2), 1alpha,7alpha,10alphaH-guaia-4,11-dien-3-one (3)], together with twelve known compounds: (+)-arctigenin, (+)-matairesinol, (+)-trachelogenin, (+)-nortrachelogenin, (+)-hinokinin, (+)-kusunokinin, 7-methoxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin (umbelliferone), daphnogitin, daphnoretin, salicifoliol, and (-)-pinoresinol. The structure of compound 1 was determined to be 4,10,11-guaiatrien-3-one-14-oic acid, by the analyses of spectral data. PMID:24660446

  15. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

    OpenAIRE

    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández; Senovio Avellaneda Saucedo; Armando Cuéllar Cuéllar; Beatriz Romeu Álvarez; Daysi Lugo Moya

    2009-01-01

    Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae) y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae). En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos prep...

  16. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  17. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  18. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit.

  19. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P sterols, respectively. The amino acid score of CWR was 66.6, which was significantly higher than N22. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  20. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.