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Sample records for azadirachta indica seed

  1. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  2. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    ABSTRACT. Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  4. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  5. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a

  6. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  7. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roop, J.K.; Dhaliwal, P.K.; Guraya, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Mel...

  8. A study of water relations in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed that is characterised by complex storage behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Buitink, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed is reputed to have limited tolerance to desiccation, to be sensitive to chilling and imbibitional stress, and to display intermediate storage behaviour. To understand this behaviour the properties of water in seed tissues were studied. Water sorption isotherms showed

  9. Inhibition of Mild Copper Metal Corrosion in HNO3 Medium by Acid Extract of Azadirachta Indica Seed

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    T. V. Sangeetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of acid extract of dry azadirachta indica seed as corrosion inhibitor for mild copper metal in various concentration of (1 N,2 N and 3N HNO3 medium was investigated in the present study. Experimental methods include weight loss, determination of corrosion rate, inhibition efficiency and phytochemical analysis was studied. The results indicate azadirachta indica seed to be a good corrosion inhibitor of a mixed type and having efficiency as high as 95% at 1% inhibitor concentration in different time duration.

  10. The efficacy of neem seed extract ( Azadirachta indica ) to control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the use of neem seed extract for controlling common cattle ticks of the Ixodidae species. Three bulls and three cows of the Tswana, Brahman and Simmentaler breeds were cleared of ticks using ether and hand-picking techniques. Each animal was then naturally infested with ticks.

  11. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  12. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

    2005-06-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and

  13. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  14. Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) derivatives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is the most potential plant for solving the multidimensional problems of the rural people. Neem, Azadirachta indica and Persian lilac, Melia azedarach, with different formulations were tested against stalk borers on sorghum at Sirinka and Chefa in 2002/03 and 2003/04 cropping seasons.

  15. Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Seed Oils On Alloxan-Induced Diabetes In New Zealand White Rabbits. ... The data suggests that the whole neem seed oil and the acidic portion of the neem seed oil could be of benefit in controlling the blood sugar in subjects presenting with ...

  16. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  17. Effect of Neem Extracts (Azadirachta indica) on Bacteria Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To isolate and characterize bacteria from adult human oral cavity. ii. To test the effect of different neem extracts on the bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample Collection. Samples of four parts of Azadirachta indica i.e. Bark,. Leaves seeds and fruits were collected from shelter belts around Usmanu Danfodiyo ...

  18. Toxic effects of neem products ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. The aim of this work was to evaluate lethal effects of neem products (1% Suneem, formulated neem oil and neem powder) on A. aegypti larvae. Assays ...

  19. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  20. Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem ( Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae. Both extracts were found ...

  1. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    present study, neem oil had been extracted from the ripe seed of Azadirachta indica (A. juss) plant. The oil was ... stability is not a problem for neem oil in a vanishing cream base formulation. Keywords: Neem oil, Stability, Shelf life, ... The containers were covered with filter paper and the solvent was allowed to evaporate.

  2. Evaluation of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, Carcass characteristics and egg quality of Laying hens. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the indigenous tropical plants predominant in Nigeria. It is commonly known as Neem and popularly called ...

  3. contributory pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

  4. et du neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) sur Helicoverpa armigera et les Thrips de la tomate. 8936. Boutaleb J. A., 2010. Synthèse des résultats de recherche sur l'utilisation de quelques biopesticides d'origine végétale sur les cultures.

  5. Physical properties of neem (Azadirachta indica seeds and kernels relevant in the design of processing machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some physical properties of neem seeds and kernels such as axial dimensions, true density, bulk density, surface area, sphericity, moisture content, coefficient of friction, angle of repose and porosity that are relevant in the design of processing machineries. Results shows that the seeds and kernels have major, intermediate and minor diameter values of 13.641.15 mm, 6.800.41 mm and 5.540.44 mm and 9.321.13 mm, 4.320.63 mm and 3.380.35 mm respectively. The true density, bulk density, surface areas and the sphericity determined were 379.0015.16 kg/m3, 39.2930.001 kg/m3, 169.9331.15 mm2, 0.640.043 for the seed while for the kernel were 930.038.53 kg/m3, 534.8910.99 kg/m3, 70.6313.98 mm2, 0.610.044 respectively at an average moisture content of 13.80 % for the seed and 11.9 % for the kernel on wet basis. The coefficient of friction determined on three different structural surfaces namely plywood, glass and mild steel for the seeds were 0.38, 0.42 and 0.33 respectively at an angle of repose of 34.52o while that of the kernels were 0.49, 0.56 and 0.43 respectively at an angle of repose of 42.47°. The mean porosity obtained for the seed and kernel were 89.62 % and 42.47 % respectively.

  6. Synthesis of chitosan incorporated neem seed extract (Azadirachta indica) for medical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, T; Thambidurai, S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, eco-friendly biosynthesis of Chitosan-Neem seed (CS-NS) composite was prepared by co-precipitation method using aqueous neem seed extract. Cotton fabrics were treated with two different crosslinking agents (Glutaraldehyde and Citric acid) then the synthesized composite coated on cotton fabric by chemical linkage between the composite and the cellulose structure. As synthesized composite materials and treated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for functional groups confirmation, X-ray diffraction for crystalline behavior determination, UV-vis spectroscopy analysis for optical property and High resolution scanning electron microscopy for Surface morphological properties. The antibacterial activity of CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric and CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric with crosslinking agents were tested against the gram-positive and gram negative bacteria by agar well diffusion method. The results demonstrated that CS-NS composite with crosslinked coated cotton fabric has higher antibacterial activity than without crosslinked cotton fabric. Thus the chitosan-neem seed composite may be applied to the medical textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta.

  8. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  9. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  10. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  11. from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. indica was found to be dependent on contact time, dye concentration and amount of adsorbent. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of ...

  12. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  13. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  14. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  15. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi: Neem) ofMeliaceae a large evergreen tree with spreading crown and brownish bark is either pLanted or se(f-sown. Leaves are compound and the LeafLets are somewhat oblique with toothed margin. Flowers are small and white and borne on branched ...

  16. Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca dodecandra on Amblyomma ticks in. Ethiopia. Tamirat Siyoum1*, A. K. Basu2, Getachew Tilahun2, and Bersisa Kumsa3. 1Ethiopian instituteof Agricultural research, Holeta Agricultural Research Center, P. o. box 31, Tel. no. +25121010744, Fax. no.

  17. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. Juss) fruit yield determination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined fruit yield of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of 207 stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the ...

  18. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  19. Effects of Dietary Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) Leaf Extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (NLE) on egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood indices of laying hens were investigated. Dry matter content of fresh neem leaves was determined and used to determine the quantity of the fresh leaves to be extracted to correspond with the required ...

  20. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  1. Micromorphological and preliminary phytochemical studies of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach

    OpenAIRE

    JAFARI, Samineh; SAEIDNIA, Soodabeh; ARDEKANI, Mohammad Reza SHAMS; HADJIAKHOONDI, Abbas; KHANAVI, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss. and Melia azedarach L. are 2 closely related species from Meliaceae that are considered noteworthy medicinal plants in the world and have very often been confused with each other. Various evaluations like organoleptic and microscopic characteristics, preliminary phytochemical screening, and fluorescence analysis were carried out on the pulp, husk, leaves, and seeds of both plants in powdered form to establish appropriate data that can aid rapid and easy differentiat...

  2. Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina and Go

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... amygdalina have higher (p<0.05) vitamin C and riboflavin composition. Flavonoids, saponins and polyphenols were significantly predominant (p<0.05) in V. amygdalina relative to A. indica and G. latifolium, whereas alkaloids and HCN were highest (p<0.05) in A. indica. However, G. latifolium had the.

  3. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-07-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  4. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  5. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  6. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  7. Antimicrobial activity screening of isolated flavonoids from Azadirachta indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUDSIA KANWAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of two flavonoids, namely genistein 7-O-glucoside (1 and (–-epi-catechin (2, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem leaves, were evaluated against five fungal species, viz: Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. and Penicillium citrii, and four bacterial species, viz. Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and Bacillus sp. Six concentrations, viz. 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the two flavonoids were employed using malt extract agar medium. All the concentrations of both the test compounds significantly suppressed fungal as well as bacterial growth. The highest concentration (1000 ppm of both fractions 1 and 2 reduced the growth of the different test fungal species by 83–99 % and 82–95 %, respectively. Compound 1 was highly effective against Lactobacillus sp., against which its various concentrations reduced the bacterial growth by 52–99.8 %. Compound 2 was highly effective against A. lipoferum and Bacillus sp., resulting in 94–100 % and 73–99% reduction in bacterial growth, respectively.

  8. Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenso, Ime E

    2004-02-01

    The effects of 350, 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) of crude extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss, on edible tropical land snails Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria aurora (Jay) were determined and compared with control using pawpaw, Carica papaya L as bait. Responses were measured through normal feeding, cessation of food intake, cessation of crawling, mucus secretion, lack of response to mechanical stimuli (mortality) and decomposition. Results showed no effects on the controls or snails exposed to neem seed oil extract. Crude extracts of bark, root and leaf of neem at 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) produced mortality after exposure for 48 h for L aurora and 72 h for A marginata.

  9. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  10. The effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf meal on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the growth performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The neem leaf meal was used in replacing parts of wheat offal in the diets of 192 day-old broiler chickens fed ad libitum at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% levels of ...

  11. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree ( Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) M Shahin-uz-zaman, M Ashrafuzzaman, MS Haque, LN Luna. Abstract. A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem ...

  12. Effect of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and plant ash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp attacked by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with water extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and plant ash separately. The extract was found to exhibit an insecticidal effect. It has an antifeedant and growth regulating effects on the pulse beetle.

  13. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Selma; Khalil, Eltahir A; Khalid, Sami A; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Mohieldein, Abdlmarouf; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Farahna, Mohammed

    2013-08-29

    Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells' fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices.

  14. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  15. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  16. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  17. A Review on Spermicidal Activities of Azadirachta indica

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-01-01

    In recent year, there were various types of contraceptives developed having different mode of action. These contraceptives are prepared from natural as well as synthetic sources. These contraceptives worked by prevent the fusion of sperm into ovum, change female hormonal levels and spermicidal activity. Many compounds with different pharmacological activity have been evaluated in vitro for their spermicidal activity. Azadirachta indicashowed various pharmacological activities and have demonst...

  18. Azadirachtin biosynthesis induction in Azadirachta indica A. Juss cotyledonary calli with elicitor agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell and plant tissues culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances, azadirachtin (AZA, produced by the neem tree (Azadirachta indica, has received considerable attention due to its bioinsecticide action. The main goal of this work was to analyze the AZA levels in neem cotyledonary calli. The calli were grown in agitated Woody Plant Medium (WPM liquid medium, supplemented with glucose (Gl, hydrolyzed casein (HC and methyl jasmonate (MeJ as elicitor agent. An interaction was observed between these substances, depending on in vitro cultivation time with orbital agitation. The highest concentrations (average of 0.2470 µg g-1 of AZA were produced in the first and second weeks of culture when the cell mass was grown in a medium with 2% Gl v/v, 500 mg L-1 HC and 100 µM of MeJ. This corresponded to approximately 57% of the AZA content stored in the donor plants seeds, used as a source of explants to induce in vitro callus formation. It was concluded that the nutrition, as well as the concentration of MeJ as signal transduction of secondary metabolism in neem cells, might influence the AZA content produced in vitro.

  19. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. juss) seedling growth as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), specifically, Glomus moseae and cow dung on the growth of Neem (Azadiracchta indica, A. Juss) seedlings was investigated at the forestry quarters, Lagos Street, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments ...

  20. Effect of lyophilized Azadirachta indica leaf powder on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lyophilized A. indica leaf extract (125, 250 and 375 mg in suspension of 1 mL Propylene Glycol, respectively / kg body weight) on androgen-dependent biochemical parameters such as cholesterol and glycogen in the testis, total protein, total free sugar, enzymes ...

  1. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , (a. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 test samples were used from three trees randomly selected from the study area. Preparations of test samples, actual testing and determination of different properties were carried out following standard methods. All strength property values were adjusted to 12% moisture content. Results showed A. indica to ...

  2. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  3. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  4. Moisture Dependence of physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on the physical properties and specific heat capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss nut kernels. The major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the kernels increased from 1.04 to 1.23cm, 0.42 to 0.6cm, and 0.32 to 0.45cm respectively, as the moisture content increased from 5.2 to 44.9 % (db. The arithmetic and geometric mean diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being higher. In the above moisture range, one thousand kernel weight, true density, porosity, sphericity, roundness and surface area all increased linearly from 0.0987 to 0.1755kg, 632 to 733kgm-3, 6.42 to 32.14%, 41.3 to 47.5%, 22 to 36% and 13 to 24cm2 respectively, while bulk density decreased from 591.4 to 497.4kgm-3 with increase in moisture content. Angle of repose increased from 21.22 to 29.8o with increase in moisture content. The Static coefficient of friction on ply wood with grains parallel to the direction of movement ranged from 0.41 to 0.61, it ranged from 0.19 to 0.24 on on fiber glass, 0.28 to .038 on hessian bag material and 0.25 to 0.33 on galvanized steel sheet. The specific heat of the seed varied from 2738.1- 4345.4J/kg/oC in the above moisture range.

  5. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  6. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disorders, ulcers to malaria. The seeds, bark and Leaves contain compounds called Limonoids with proven antiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and anti-fungal uses. Also, inexpensive, non-toxic pesticides and insect repellents are manufactured from seed oil and biomass of different parts of this tree.

  7. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  8. Antifungal effect of topically administered neem(Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Neem seed oil cream against Pytiriasis versicolour infection of the skin. Fifteen samples of 20 g each i.e. three samples each of concentrations, 2.5% w/w, 5.0% w/w,7.5% w/w/ and10.0% w/w neem seed oil cream and a commercial preparation (Whitfield Ointment) ...

  9. Review Of Usability Of Azadirachta Indica As A Biopesticide For Better Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Rambhau Damal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta Indica Neem has some sort of well-developed root system that may well extract nutrients with lower soil levels which makes a crucial agent with erosion Control because it can be virtually drought-resistant. As these it can be effective as some sort of dune fixation tree. Indian farmers use Neem cake as a natural manure together with soil amendment the idea expands the productivity of nitrogen fertilizers just by limiting the charge of nitrification together with hampering pests these as nematodes fungi together with insects. This paper provides the brief assessment of literature to know the biopesticide benefits together with functions of Neem.

  10. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, S.A.; Wickens, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research into the systems of agriculture based on vegetative fallows should begin from enquiries into the shrubs and trees most efficient in restoring soil productivity and providing essential products. Azadirachta indica, of the semiarid regions is an outstanding example of a species which is not only an efficient soil ameliorant, but also provides products that are highly competitive in price and quality with petroleum-based synthetics. The launching of a research and development programme leading to the exploitation of this tree is proposed. Several projects that could be studied in such a programme are briefly outlined.

  11. Oil and Azadirachtin contents of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the level of Azadirachtin in neem seed kernel from ten ecotypes in Sudan over two seasons and establish relationship to the agro-ecological attributes. Extraction was done in two replicates using 12 g. After extraction, separation and concentration to 10 ml the samples quantified ...

  12. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using any of these aqueous extracts to control these insect pests. Methodology and results: the ... extract were used for tomato foliar treatment (neem and jatropha seeds 80 and 50g/L, neem leaves 67 g/L). The treatments of tomato plant ... taxonomic point of view, it is complex and comprises at least 24 ...

  13. Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel--a 6-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, M Raveendra; Acharya, Leelavathi D; Udupa, N

    2004-01-01

    Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20-30 years over a period of 6 weeks. Present study includes formulation of mucoadhesive dental gel containing Azadirachta indica leaf extract (25 mg/g). A 6-week clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neem extract dental gel with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v) mouthwash as positive control. Microbial evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli species was carried out to determine the total decrease in the salivary bacterial count over a period of treatment using a semi-quantitative four quadrant streaking method. The results of the study suggested that the dental gel containing neem extract has significantly (Pplaque index and bacterial count than that of the control group.

  14. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  15. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  16. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    done using phenolphthalein Monophosphate. (7) method , and histological procedure followed for. (3) the harvested tissues using Carleton's method . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. Biochemical quantitative in vitro determination of the enzymes, were analyzed for statistical significance by one-way ANOVA using the statistical ...

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pragyan; Das, Bhagyalaxmi; Mohanty, Abhipsa; Mohapatra, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was done using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. The flavonoids and terpenoids present in the extract act as both reducing and capping agent. Microbes ( Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria) were isolated from borewell water using selective media. The silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. However the silver nanoparticles were more effective against E. coli as compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Various techniques were used to characterize synthesized silver nanoparticles such as DLS and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorbance peak was in the range of 420-450 nm, that varied depending upon the variation in the concentration of neem extract. This is a very rapid and cost-effective method for generation of silver nanoparticle at room temperature, however, its exact dose in water purification has to be determined.

  18. Efficacité biopesticide de Hyptis spicigera Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. et Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. sur le niébé Vigna unguculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambara, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticide Efficacy of Hyptis spicigera Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. on Cowpea Insect Pests Controlling. Hyptis spicigera Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. biopesticide trial showed that their efficacy on cowpea insect pests controlling was lesser than deltamethrine. Plots treated with these plants extracts yielded more haulm than grain. Deep research undertaking is necessary to characterize these plants products and may be to enhance their biopesticide virtue.

  19. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera , 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  20. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rahayu Santi; I M, Sukadana; W. Bogoriani

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss) was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nem...

  1. Immunological and physiological parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to Azadirachta indica plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, F A; El-Hommossany, K; Mossalem, H S

    2012-07-01

    Plant molluscicides could be appropriate for snail control measures against schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunological and physiological responses of Biomphalaria (B.) alexandrina snails to the effect of methanol extract of Azadirachta (A.) indica plant. Haemolymph samples were collected from snails treated with LC25 from methanol extract for 1 month and untreated snails. The collected haemolymph samples from treated and untreated snails with tested plant were used for flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle. The obtained results indicated that hemolymph samples from B. alexandrina snails contained two morphologically distinct types of hemocytes, designated as Hyalinocyte and Granulocyte cells. In addition, the number of both snail's hyalinocytes and granulocytes and the mortality rate was significantly increased with treatment with A. indica extract. Phagocytosis in group treated with tested plant was highly significant increased than control one indicating a highly increase response of snail against the treatment. The lipid peroxide and glucose levels in hemolymph of treated snails were elevated while the protein and glycogen contents showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI); glycogenolytic enzymes as glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); gluconeogenic enzymes as fructose-1-6 diphosphatase (F-D-P ase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was also significantly reduced in response to treatment. It was concluded that the application of methanol extracts of A. indica plant may be helpful in snail control as it interferes with the snails'immunology and physiology.

  2. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Black Sigatoka is a major disease of East African highland cooking bananas in Uganda. Aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Capsicum annuum have shown the potential to reduce Black Sigatoka in banana plantlets. The mechanisms by which plant extracts confer protection...... expression was compared in susceptible (cv. Musakala, genomic group AAA-EA) and resistant (cv. Kayinja, genomic group ABB) banana cultivars. Additionally, Musakala treated with A indica extract at 1 day before inoculation (DBI) was tested for induction of defence-related genes at 0, 10 and 20 days after...

  3. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  4. Nematicidal potential and specific enzyme activity enhancement potential of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Arti Shivraj; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Keum, Young Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan; Venkidasamy, Baskar; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar

    2018-02-01

    Nematodes are considered as major plant parasites damaging most of the crops, and neem plant exhibits potential nematicidal and insecticidal properties. This study aimed to check nemato-toxic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) plant using in vitro and in-planta trials against Meloidogyne incognita. The findings suggested that the neem extracts were lethal to second-stage juvenile (J 2 ) and egg hatching with simultaneous enhancement in treated tomato plant growth. The egg numbers of M. incognita found less sensitive to the aqueous and alcoholic extracts than those of J 2 as per LC 50 values. Complete mortality of J 2 s was recorded at 40, 60, and 80% of neem standard extract (SE) dilutions and for undiluted SE of neem. The undiluted SE extract showed 100% inhibition of egg production. The highest reductions in the number of galls/root system, J 2 population, and egg production were observed with 80, 85, and 82% SE as compared control (untreated distilled water). The maximum 250% growth increment was observed in the length of tomato roots supplemented with neem extracts. Resistance-related enzyme [phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POX)] activities in tomato plant have been increased significantly by supplementation with neem extracts. It appears that the aerial parts of neem (A. indica) extracts showed significant and sustainable eco-friendly nemato-toxic potential towards M. incognita growth inhibition and eradication using alcoholic extracts compared to aqueous. From this study, it was concluded that the neem aerial parts were useful for the control of M. incognita and could be a possible replacement for synthetic nematicides in crop protection with utilization in enhancement of specific enzyme activity in tomato plants.

  5. Azadirachta indica mitigates DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity- a biochemical and radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Ashwani; Mohan, Vandana; Bharati, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) was assessed against DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene) treatment (40 mg/kg body weight, ip) to male Balb/c mice resulted in the derailment of liver function as revealed by extremely slow clearance of 99m Tc-mebrofenin from liver, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT), compared to control group. In addition, elevated micronuclei score and high apoptotic index indicated hepatogenotoxicity in DMBA-treated mice. DMBA treatment also upregulated cytochrome P450 (CYP), cytochrome b 5 (Cyt b 5 ) and decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity in hepatic tissue, compared to control group. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels along with decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level were also observed in DMBA group, compared to control group. AAILE co-treatment (200 mg/kg body weight, po, thrice a week) for 8 weeks followed by DMBA injection showed significant improvement in hepatic status, as revealed by normalization of 99m Tc-mebrofenin clearance rate, decreased ALP and ALT levels, reduced genotoxicity in terms of micronuclei score and apoptotic index. Levels of LPO were significantly decreased along with increased hepatic GST and GSH levels in AAILE + DMBA group, compared to DMBA group. However, no significant change was observed in hepatic CYP and Cyt b 5 levels, compared to DMBA group. The results indicated that AAILE effectively ameliorated DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. (author)

  6. Cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Prashee A; Trivedi, Purvi C; Nigade, Prashant B; Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Deshpande, Avinash D

    2008-05-07

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (AI) on the basis of haemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters in isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats and to compare with vitamin E, a known cardioprotective antioxidant. A significant (plevel of cardiac marker enzymes [Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Serum Glutamate Oxalotransaminase (SGOT)] in the heart homogenate with a corresponding increase in their level in serum. In vitamin E control group significant (plevels while decrease in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was observed. On histopathological examination, myocardial damage in isoprenaline control group further confirmed cardiotoxic effect of isoprenaline. Our data showed that AI (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly restores most of the haemodynamic, biochemical and histopathalogical parameters. Finally we concluded that AI leaf extract exerts equipotent cardioprotective activity in the experimental model of isoprenalin induced myocardial necrosis in rats as compared to vitamin E, a known cardioprotective antioxidant.

  7. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  8. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  9. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  10. Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a biosorbent for Ni(II) in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishna G., E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Jyotirekha [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Morigaon College, Morigaon 782105, Assam (India)

    2009-06-15

    Azadirachta indica leaves are converted to a fine powder for use as a biosorbent for the removal of metal ions in aqueous solution. In this work, the adsorptive interactions between Ni(II) and the powder were studied under a variety of conditions involving variations in pH, Ni(II) concentration, biosorbent amount, interaction time and temperature, all in single batch processes. The experimental data have been interpreted on the basis of existing mathematical models of equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics. The biosorption of Ni(II) increased in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 with {approx}92.6% adsorption at pH 5.0 for the highest amount of the biosorbent (4 g/L). The biosorption followed second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was likely to have significant influence in controlling the process. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity varied from 2.4 to 9.1 mg/g and the equilibrium coefficient from 1.09 to 2.78 L/g with strong indication that the Ni(II) ions were held on the biosorbent surface by formation of an adsorption complex. The thermodynamic parameters showed the process to be exothermic in nature supported by appropriate ranges of values of enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs energy change.

  11. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  12. Effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse in plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, K; Vandana, K L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem)-based herbal mouthrinse in improving plaque control and gingival health. Literature search was accomplished using electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) and manual searching, up to February 2015, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting clinical data for efficacy of neem mouthrinses when used alone or as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene as compared to chlorhexidine mouthrinses for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias. Despite the promising results shown in existing randomized controlled trials, the evidence concerning the clinical use of neem mouthrinses is lacking and needs further reinforcement with high-quality randomized controlled trials based on the reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fibroblast and keratinocyte gene expression following exposure to extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Someya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica, local name “Kohomba” in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1, hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2, versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1, collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1, collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, and aquaporin 3 (AQP3. For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1α, cox2, TGF-β, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1, integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6, ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4, filaggrin (FLG, transglutaminase 1 (TGM1, and keratin 1 (KRT1. The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs.

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica aqueous leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rapid, simple approach was applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica aqueous leaf extract. The plant extract acts both as reducing agent as well as capping agent. To identify the compounds responsible for reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in plant extract were investigated by FTIR. Various techniques used to characterize synthesized nanoparticles are DLS, photoluminescence, TEM and UV–Visible spectrophotometer. UV–Visible spectrophotometer showed absorbance peak in range of 436–446 nm. The silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activities against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative (Escherichia coli microorganisms. Photoluminescence studies of synthesised silver nanoparticles were also evaluated. Results confirmed this protocol as simple, rapid, one step, eco-friendly, non-toxic and an alternative conventional physical/chemical methods. Only 15 min were required for the conversion of silver ions into silver nanoparticles at room temperature, without the involvement of any hazardous chemical.

  15. Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vijay C.; Anand, Swechha; Ulrichs, Christian; Singh, Santosh K.

    2013-04-01

    Microbial biofabrication is emerging as eco-friendly, simpler, and reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metals and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing generation of rare geometrical forms such as nanotriangles and nanoprisms. Highly confined nanostructures like triangles/prisms are interesting class of nanoparticles due to their unique optical properties exploitable in biomedical diagnostics and biosensors. Here, we report for the first time a single-step biological protocol for the synthesis of gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic actinomycetes Saccharomonospora sp., isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions (AuCl- 4/1 mM). Thin, flat occasionally prismatic gold nanotriangles were produced when aqueous chloroaurate ions reacted with the cell-free extract as well as with the biomass of endophytic Saccharomonospora. It was evidenced from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis that proteins of 42 and 50 kD were involved in biosynthesis as well as in stabilization of the nanoparticles. The particle growth process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the morphological characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy together with X-ray powder diffractions. Although the exact mechanism for this shape-oriented synthesis is not clear so far, the possibility of achieving nanoparticle shape control in a microbial system is exciting.

  16. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats:Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghatule RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the healing effects of extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Neem tree is known as ‘arishtha ’ in Sanskrit, meaning ‘reliever of sicknesses ’. Methods: 50% ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves was administered orally, once daily for 14 days in rats after the induction of colitis with acetic acid and 500 mg/kg dose of extract was found to have an optimal effect against acetic acid-induced colonic damage score, weight and adhesions (Macroscopic. Effect of Azadirachta indica extract was then further studied on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes, colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (microscopic, antibacterial and biochemical parameters viz. i antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and ii free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (acute inflammatory marker activities in acetic acid-induced colitis. Results: Azadirachta indica extract decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic, mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight. Azadirachta indica extract showed intestinal antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities. Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or other ANS or CNS related adverse effects even with 5.0 g/kg dose (10 times of effective dose indicating its safety. Conclusions: Azadirachta indica seemed to be safe and effective in colitis by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decreasing intestinal bacterial load, free radicals and myeloperoxidase responsible for tissue damage and delayed healing.

  17. Protective effect of Azadirachta indica extract against Eimeria papillata-induced coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Delic, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Coccidiosis in poultry is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which is responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticoccidial properties. Four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with neem extract (500 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with neem extract for 4 days. Paraffin sections from the jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of 6.5 × 10(5) ± 29,753 oocysts per gram feces on day 4 postinoculation. This output is significantly decreased to 2.7 × 10(5) ± 37,341 oocysts in neem-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in the jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium, and destruction of some villi. Also, the neem extract greatly diminished body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly lowered (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, E. papillata enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and jejunum with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Neem induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as the histopathological features of the jejunum. Our study revealed that neem as a natural product has protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis.

  18. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

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    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  19. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

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    Sri Rahayu Santi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nemm leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the antimicrobial soap product is as good as ordinary soap, having full of foam, not hot without iritation, because it is properly laboratory tested. All of participants showed their enthusiasm during activity and they will try to make soap. This was showed by the evaluation report saying that all participants understand about making soap and they want to try at home. This public service made people interested to improve their knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  20. Assessing the Efficacy of Azadirachta indica Seed Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, climate change impacts on agriculture and food security across the globe decreasing crop productivity while extreme weather conditions such as flooding, drought, hurricanes etc. increase disease transmission. Fusarium oxysporum, a soil borne fungus affects banana production, causing vascular wilts and ...

  1. The efficacy of a 10% aqueous Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % water solution) for tick control in goats in the Kilimanjaro area of Tanzania. Eighteen Small East African (SEA) and Toggenburg (TB) female goat kids between 2.5 and 4 months of age were used in the trial. Goats were divided into two similar ...

  2. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ... filter paper and solvent was allowed to evaporate. The weight of the residue was calculated (Weight of the container plus extract minus the weight of the empty container) and the extracts were kept at room temperature. Preparation of Repellant for Testing:- Five different concentrations of neem oil in Vanishing Cream base ...

  3. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory

  4. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  5. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  6. Breaking Seed Dormancy in Tamarind ( Tamarindus Indica ) A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica). Seeds were sown in poly pots under normal environmental condition for germination. Thirty (30) seeds of T. indica (one seed per pot) with ten replicates each were used.

  7. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts

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    Raid Al Akeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease. Regardless of the great advances observed in current medicine in recent decades, plants still make a significant contribution to health care. An alarming increase in bacterial strains resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to or less sensitive to current antibiotics. Anti-bacterial activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark was tested against pathogenic Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhi using various solvent extracts. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed better anti-bacterial activity with zone of inhibition (20–25 mm when compared with other tested extracts and standard antibiotic Erythromycin (15 mcg with zone of inhibition (13–14 mm. Using Fisher’s exact test of significance difference was found between two Salmonella strains sensitivity patterns against tested extracts (P ⩽ 0.035. Extracts of A. indica stem bark also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, thus establishing the extracts as an antioxidant. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the A. indica stem bark for further investigation of compounds and in future could be used as drug.

  8. Propiedades antioxidantes de infusiones de neem (Azadirachta indica encapsuladas con proteína de soya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Reyes Munguía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas contienen fitoquímicos con propiedades curativas, aunque no todas han sido comprobadas científicamente. El neem ( Azadirachta indica es una planta, de la cual se ha reportado que sus hojas tienen actividad antioxid ante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el contenido de polifenoles y la activida d antioxidante de infusiones de neem, así c o mo determinar el tiempo óptimo de la infusión para conservar la actividad antioxidante de los compuestos activos en infusione s de neem fresco y seco usando material de pared para su encapsulación. Método : Para preparar infusiones de 0, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 y 15 minutos se usaron hojas frescas y secas de neem . A las infusiones se les determinaron sólidos totales , pH, intensidad de co lor, contenido de polifenoles por el método de Folin - Ciocalteau y actividad antioxidante m e diante el porcentaje de captación del radical estable 1 , 1 difenil - 1 - picril hidrazilo (DPPH . A las infusiones con mayor contenido de compuestos antiox i dantes, se les añadieron 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 y 3.0% de proteína de soya como material de pared y se almacenaron por 16 días. Cada tercer día se les evaluó el contenido de polifenoles, actividad antioxidante y porcentaje de inhibición. Resultados : La mayor liberación de compuestos activos a partir de las hojas secas de neem se obt u vo a los 8 minutos de infusión. Al usar hojas frescas para las infusiones el tiempo óptimo de éstas fue de 12 minutos, su porcenta je de inhibición fue de 41.09 % , y con l as infusiones de hojas secas, al tiempo 0 y 3 se tuvieron 60.59% y 64.73% de inhibición respectivamente, y a los 15 minutos un 86.81 %. El contenido de compuestos fenólicos , actividad antioxidante y porcentaje de inhibición, fueron menores en las infusione s con material de pared en comparación con las infusiones en las que no se agregó material de p a red. Discusión o Conclusión : L as infusiones de neem a base de hojas secas son una

  9. UJI EFEKTIVITAS LARVASIDA DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica TERHADAP LARVA LALAT Sarcophaga PADA DAGING UNTUK UPAKARA YADNYA DI BALI

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    i wayan karta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cara mengusir lalat daging pada sarana upacara yadnya di Bali belum efektif, sehingga diperlukan cara alternatif menggunakan daun mimba (Azadirachta indica. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas larvasida daun mimba terhadap larva lalat Sarchopaga pada daging yang digunakan sebagai sarana upakara di Bali. Kelompok perlakuan ini yaitu penggunaan daun mimba 25% sebagai larvasida, kelompok kontrol positif yaitu penggunaan minuman bersoda, dan kelompok kontrol negatif yaitu tidak mendapat perlakuan. Hasil uji Kruskal Wallis diperoleh hasil nilai probabilitas p (0,000 < α (0,05 yang menunjukkan adanya perbedaan jumlah kematian larva pada perlakuan rebusan daun mimba 25 %, kontrol negatif dan kontrol positif. Perlakuan daun mimba konsentrasi 25% memberikan jumlah kematian larva yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan terhadap kontrol positif dengan perbedaan persentase sebesar 60%. Daun mimba lebih efektif sebagai larvasida jika dibandingkan dengan minuman bersoda.  Perebusan daging dengan menambahkan daun mimba dapat digunakan untuk menghindari pembusukan yang disebarkan oleh lalat daging (Sarchopaga.

  10. COMPARACIÓN DEL EFECTO HIPOGLICEMIANTE DE LAS PLANTAS Azadirachta indica Y Eucalyptus camaldulensis EN CÉLULAS SANGUÍNEAS HUMANAS | COMPARISON OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT BETWEEN THE PLANTS Azadirachta indica AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis IN HUMAN BLOOD CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubilde Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most widely used medicinal plants by people are those that possess hypoglycemic effect, such as Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which are widely distributed in Venezuela. The purpose of this research was to compare the hypoglycemic effect of A. indica and E. camaldulensis using aqueous solutions of each plant, in human blood cells in a normoglycemic medium. Aqueous solutions were used in concentrations of 6.4% m / v, in dosages of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL, for each plant, and the concentration of glucose was measured at 0, 90, 210, 300 and 600 sec. Insulin (Humulin® in concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 nM, was used as a control to compare its effect against aqueous solutions. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and comparison of means by the Tukey test. The results indicated that there was a greater hypoglycemic effect for the A. indica aqueous solution compared to the control (p = 0.0074, this effect was shown to be significant (p = 0.0349 in the higher doses 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL. Additionally, there was a notable increase hypoglycemic effect from 210 sec-600 sec (p < 0.0001. The aqueous solution of E. camaldulensis showed erratic behavior and lower effect than the control, without evidence of hypoglycemic effect. It is concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extracts of A. indica was evidenced while was not observed in those of E. camaldulensis.

  11. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of ...

  12. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  13. ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE Nicotiana tabacum E Azadirachta indica SOBRE Helicoverpa armigera Hübner,1908 (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae

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    Cristhian Eliseo Durán Aguirre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa Helicoverpa armigera Hübner,1908 (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae, mais conhecida como lagarta-do-algodoeiro, quando atingi o nível de controle passa a ser uma praga agressiva e de rápido crescimento populacional. O principal método de controle tem sido por meio de inseticidas químicos sintéticos, cujo efeito pode ser comprometido pelo desenvolvimento de populações resistentes da praga. No intuito de propiciar uma alternativa no manejo da praga em questão, objetivou-se avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos vegetais em lagartas de primeiro instar de H. armigera. Com isto, avaliou-se a toxicidade aguda dos extratos vegetais, pela contagem de lagartas mortas após 72 horas de tratadas. Os extratos vegetais de Nicotiana tabacum e Azadirachta indica apresentaram mortalidade de 11,31 e 16,80% respectivamente, diferindo estatisticamente. Logo, o produto que apresentou maior valor de mortalidade foi o extrato de A. indica.   Palavras-chaves: Controle biológico, inseticidas botânicos, mortalidade

  14. The estradiol 17-β concentration in mice after treated with ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (neem)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitasiwi, Agung Janika; Isdadiyanto, Sri; Mardiati, Siti Muflichatun

    2017-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) on plasma estradiol 17-β synthesis in mice. Thirty virgin female mice (Swiss Webster strain) between 2.5 and 3 months old (25 ± 2.5 g body weight) were used as the experimental sample. The mice were divided into five groups: K-group were administered tap water; K+ group were administered contraceptive pills; P1 to P3 group were administered orally with ethanolic A. indica leaf extract at doses of 8.4, 11.2, and 14 mg/animal/day, respectively. The regularity of the estrous cycle was monitored during treatment. The mice were sacrificed after being treated orally for 21 days and blood was collected by cardiac puncture under chloroform anesthesia. The estradiol concentration was measured by ELISA. Ovaries were processed with the paraffin method and HE staining. Our results showed that the estrous cycle irregularity of treated groups was higher than K-group. The estradiol concentration was significantly different (p0.05) between the treated groups. The atresia follicle number was significantly different (p<0.05), not compared to the control group but between treated groups also. It can be concluded that Neem extracts disrupt the estradiol 17-β concentration by interference with follicle development in the ovaries so that the regularity of estrous cycle was disrupted.

  15. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H 2 O 2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration

  16. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elumalai, K. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: drvelmurganphy@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics (FEAT), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  17. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti pupae to neem seed kernal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater.

  18. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  19. Gedunin and Azadiradione: Human Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Inhibiting Limonoids from Neem (Azadirachta indica as Anti-Diabetic Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ponnusamy

    Full Text Available Human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower postprandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica known for their therapeutic potential were screened for pancreatic α-amylase inhibition, a known anti-diabetic target. Studies were carried out to reveal their mode of action so as to justify their hypoglycemic potential. Of the nine limonoids isolated/semi-synthesized from A.indica and screened for α-amylase inhibition, azadiradione and exhibited potential inhibition with an IC50 value of 74.17 and 68.38 μM, respectively against HPA under in vitro conditions. Further screening on AR42J α-amylase secretory cell line for cytotoxicity and bioactivity revealed that azadiradione and gedunin exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 of 11.1 and 13.4μM. Maximal secreted α-amylase inhibition of 41.8% and 53.4% was seen at 3.5 and 3.3μM, respectively. Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggested a mixed mode of inhibition with maltopentaose (Ki 42.2, 18.6 μM and starch (Ki' 75.8, 37.4 μM as substrate with a stiochiometry of 1:1 for both azadiradione and gedunin, respectively. The molecular docking simulation indicated plausible π-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl interactions between the aromatic amino acids and inhibitors. Fluorescence and CD confirmed the involvement of tryptophan and tyrosine in ligand binding to HPA. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that binding is enthalpically and entropically driven with ΔG° of -21.25 kJ mol-1 and -21.16 kJ mol-1 for azadiradione and gedunin, respectively. Thus, the limonoids azadiradione and gedunin could bind and inactivate HPA (anti-diabetic target and may prove to be lead drug candidates to reduce/control post-prandial hyperglycemia.

  20. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Azadirachta Indica Extract and Iodide Ions on the Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, S. T.; Al- Turkustani, A. M.; Al- Dhahiri, R. H. [King Abd El- Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-06-15

    The synergistic action caused by iodide ions on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium (Al) in 0.5 M HCl in the presence of Azadirachta Indica (AZI) plant extract has been investigated using potintiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques. It is found that AZI extract inhibits the corrosion of aluminium in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in AZI extract concentration, until 24% v/v of AZI extract, then Inh.% is decreased with father increase in AZI extract concentration. The adsorption of this extract in the studied concentration is found to obey Frewendlish adsorption isotherm. The addition of iodide ions enhances the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The increase in Inh.% values in presence of fixed concentration of iodide ions indicates that AZI extract forms an insoluble complex at lower AZI extract concentrations by undergoing a joint adsorption. But at higher concentrations of AZI extract, competitive adsorption is found between iodide ions and the formed complex leading to less Inh.%. The Inh.% decreased in presence of iodide ions with AZI extract than in presence of AZI extract alone at all studied iodide concentrations. The synergism parameter S {sub θ} is defined and calculated from surface coverage values. This parameter in the case of AZI extract is found to be more than unity, indicating that the enhanced inhibition efficiency caused by the addition of iodide ions.

  2. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  3. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Studies on the acaricidal mechanism of the active components from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-zhen; Deng, Yun-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Wei, Qin; Li, Mei; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Li, Li; Song, Xu; Liang, Xiao-xia; Shu, Gang; He, Chang-liang; Gu, Xiao-bin; Lv, Cheng; Yin, Lizi

    2014-08-29

    Octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester, isolated from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, exhibited potent acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. In this paper, the acaricidal mechanism of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated based on pathologic histology and enzyme activities. The results showed that after compound treatment for 24h at a concentration of 20mg/mL, the lesions of mites were prominent under transmission electron microscopy. The lesions consisted of the lysis of dermis cell membranes and cell nuclear membranes, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities, the drop of spinal disorders, and mitochondrial vacuolization. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs), and Ca(2+)-ATPase of mites significantly changed after treatment with octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester compared with the control group. The activities of SOD, POD, and Ca(2+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed, whereas that of GSTs was activated. These results indicated that the mechanism of the acaricidal activity of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester was mainly achieved through interference with the energy metabolism of mites, thus resulting in insect death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Zoology University of Ekpoma, Edo state were used for this study. They were weighed at intervals of five days before and after the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups (A. – D) of two rabbits each. The chloroquine and aqueous extract of A. indica leaf was administered to the animals orally ...

  6. Desarrollo de un producto a base de neem (Azadirachta indica) para el control de Varroa destructor.

    OpenAIRE

    González Gómez, Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto del extracto oleoso de neem (A. indica) en el control de V. destructor. La investigación estuvo encaminada a explorar los efectos que causa el neem tanto a V. destructor como a Apis mellifera, donde la colonia de abejas se observó como un superorganismo. En la primera parte de la investigación se corroboraron en laboratorio los efectos de toxicidad y repelencia del neem en el ácaro, observados en estudios previos; se observó que 2.64, 5.28, 10.56 y 21.12% de extracto de n...

  7. Evaluation Of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica ) Seed Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Tamarind seeds were used to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor ...

  8. potential use of mangifera indica seed kernel and citrus aurantiifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    *Corresponding author tel: + 234 – 803 – 823 – 1628, currently a doctoral student at the Department of Civil. Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GHANA. POTENTIAL USE OF MANGIFERA INDICA SEED KERNEL AND CITRUS. AURANTIIFOLIA SEED IN WATER DISINFECTION.

  9. Adsorption characteristics of mango ( magnifera indica ) seed shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption characteristics of mango (Magnifera indica) seed shell activated carbon for phenol rem-oval from wastewater were examined by experimental single stage batch operation. Contact time, stirring rate, adsorbent dose, pH, initial phenol concentration, carbon particle size and impregnation ratio of ZnCl2 to the seed ...

  10. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  11. Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuzul Hoque, M D; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, S

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria monocytogenes (five strains), Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (six strains), Salmonella Enteritidis (four strains), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, P. putida, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Aeromonas hydrophila (two strains). Guava and neem extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria except for V. parahaemolyticus, P. aeroginosa, and A. hydrophila. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol extracts of guava showed the highest inhibition for L. monocytogenes JCM 7676 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2151 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2179 (0.1 mg/mL), and V. parahaemolyticus IFO 12711 (0.1 mg/mL) and the lowest inhibition for Alcaligenes faecalis IFO 12669, Aeromonas hydrophila NFRI 8282 (4.0 mg/mL), and A. hydrophila NFRI 8283 (4.0 mg/mL). The MIC of chloroform extracts of neem showed similar inhibition for L. monocytogenes ATCC 43256 (4.0 mg/mL) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 49594 (5.0 mg/mL). However, ethanol extracts of neem showed higher inhibition for S. aureus JCM 2151 (4.5 mg/mL) and S. aureus IFO 13276 (4.5 mg/mL) and the lower inhibition for other microorganisms (6.5 mg/mL). No significant effects of temperature and pH were found on guava and neem extracts against cocktails of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The results of the present study suggest that guava and neem extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can potentially be useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms.

  12. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACADEMIC

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... maíz Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith JE) In: Memorias de IV. Simposium Internacional y V Reunión Nacional sobre Agricultura. Sostenible SOMAS y Colegio de Postgraduados Morelia Michoacán. México pp. 295-306. Sagar SK, Sehgal SS (1997). Toxicity of neem seed coat extract against mosquitoes.

  13. Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md Razibul; Rahman, Md Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav

    2011-06-01

    Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (poccidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.

  14. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis

  15. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com

    2005-10-17

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  16. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  17. Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three experiments were conducted in a glasshouse and a laboratory to provide information on the effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on, seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of goosegrass (Eleucine indica (L.) Gaertn) and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn), Glyphosate sprayed ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. seeds against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. seeds was done against 41 clinically isolated and 20 standard bacterial strains. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different ...

  19. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  20. Efeito de Extratos Aquosos de Azadirachta indica na Sobrevivência de Diatraea saccharalis e do Parasitóide Cotesia flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mazzonetto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica na sobrevivência de Diatraea saccharalis e do parasitóide Cotesia flavipes. Para a obtenção do extrato vegetal de A. indica, as folhas secas em estufa de circulação forçada de ar (40oC durante 48h, posteriormente trituradas em moinho de facas até obtenção do pó. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir da adição de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 5,0g do pó vegetal em 100ml de água destilada formando respectivamente as concentrações. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (testemunha, 0,5%, 1%, 2%, 3% e 5% de extrato aquoso de A. indica e 40 repetições. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se o método de Kaplan-Meier e o teste de Log-Rank na obtenção e comparação das curvas de sobrevivência. Já para a análise dos dados de emergência de adultos do parasitóide C. flavipes foi utilizado o teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.  As lagartas D. saccharalis apresentaram um menor tempo de sobrevivência quando expostas as dietas artificiais contendo as diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso de A. indica.  A utilização de extrato aquoso de A. indica afetou negativamente a emergência de adultos de C. flavipes, importante parasitóide de D. saccharalis, quando submetidos ao parasitismo de lagartas tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas deste vegetal.

  1. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  2. Anti-plasmodial effects of Azadirachta indica in experimental cerebral malaria: Apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells of mice as a marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahna, Mohammed; Bedri, Selma; Khalid, Sami; Idris, Mustafa; Pillai, C Radhakrishna; Khalil, Eltahir A

    2010-11-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world, but treatment of malaria is becoming more difficult due to increasing drug resistance. Therefore, the need for alternative drugs is acute. This study investigated the antiplasmodial and protective effect of an ethanolic extract of the leaves from a traditionally used medicinal plant, Azadirachta indica (Neem) in a mouse model of malaria. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10×10(6)Plasmodium berghei ANKA, a rodent malaria parasite. The presence of parasites was checked by microscopic examination of blood samples daily. Ethanolic extracts of Neem at 300, 500 and 1000 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally daily for five days from the day parasitaemia reach 5% of parasite inoculation. Intraperitoneal chloroquine and artemether were used as standard drug treatment controls. Symptoms of neurological or respiratory disorder, mortality, weight and temperature were recorded. Histological sections of brain were prepared and examined after staining with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry for apoptotic cells. All Neem treatment groups displayed parasitaemia that gradually increased during treatment, and showed signs of terminal illness (i.e. hypothermia, ptosis and convulsions) within 2-4 days post-treatment. In contrast, the chloroquine and artemether groups showed no cerebral malaria symptoms and no deaths. Apoptosis in Purkinje cells, cerebral haemorrhage and oedema were found in some of the mice treated with Neem and chloroquine. Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract was not protective against malaria symptoms and signs in this mouse model. However, a difference in the number of apoptotic Purkinje cells between the untreated control group and Neem treatment at 500 mg/kg suggests that Neem may have some neuronal protective effect.

  3. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  4. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-03-28

    High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%-0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamte, Stephane L Ngahang; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Campagnaro, Gustavo Daniel; Nya, Prosper C Biapa; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Ta, Léon Azefack; Giordani, Cristiano; Barboni, Luciano; Benelli, Giovanni; Cappellacci, Loredana; Hofer, Anders; Petrelli, Riccardo; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-07-06

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants ( Azadirachta indica , Aframomum melegueta , Aframomum daniellii , Clausena anisata , Dichrostachys cinerea , and Echinops giganteus ) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica , A . daniellii , and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  6. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane L. Ngahang Kamte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  7. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: a step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A.indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region.

  8. Preconditioning with Azadirachta indica ameliorates cardiorenal dysfunction through reduction in oxidative stress and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Together, A. indica and vitamin C prevented IRI-induced cardiorenal dysfunction via reduction in oxidative stress, improvement in antioxidant defence system and increase in the ERK1/2 expressions. Therefore, A. indica can be a useful chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-01-01

    Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-parti...

  10. Biosorptive behaviour of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for Hg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Cd{sup 2+} toxic ions from aqueous solutions: a radiotracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Diwakar; Mishra, Shuddhodan P. [Nuclear and Radiochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Mishra, Manisha; Dubey, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biosorption of Hg{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} on dead biomass Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark has been assessed at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions employing the 'radiotracer technique'. A high level of uptake of metal ions on these solid surfaces occurs within ca. 4 h of contact time reaching apparent saturation. The increase of sorptive concentration (10{sup -8} to 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}), temperature (293-323 K) and pH (ca. 3 to 10) favoured the removal process of these ions; but in the case of Hg{sup 2+} on Neem bark, there was seemingly no temperature effect. The uptake process follows first order rate law and obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Added anions and cations in the bulk solution inhibit to some extent the removal of these toxic ions. Similarly the inhibition in the uptake was also observed when both biomasses were irradiated by neutron and {gamma}-rays prior to being employed as sorbents. No significant sorption of Cd{sup 2+} was observed on these dead biomass solid surfaces under various physical-chemical conditions.

  11. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Eficiência do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss como barreira natural ao ataque de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King The efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss as natural barrier to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on the Brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clese Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência da espécie Azadirachta indica como barreira natural ao ataque da Hypsipyla grandella sobre o mogno em diferentes arranjos e densidades de plantio foi, avaliada. O estudo foi realizado numa área de pastagem degradada em Vigia, PA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco repetições, sendo as formas de cultivo do mogno as parcelas, e as épocas de avaliação (meses as subparcelas. A barreira natural formada pelo nim não evitou o ataque de H. grandella sobre o mogno, mas retardou e minimizou o ataque em plantios mistos. Para o maior controle do ataque de H. grandella, o mogno não deve ser plantado simultaneamente com o nim, mas um ano após o plantio do nim, quando este apresenta mais de três metros de altura, formando uma barreira natural mais eficaz ao ataque desta praga.The efficiency of Azadirachta indica as natural barrier against the attack by Hypsipyla grandellaon mahogany in different arrangements and planting densities was evaluated. The study was carried out in degraded pasture in Vigia, Pará. The experimental design was a randomized block in split plot in time with five replications, the forms of cultivation of mahogany as plots and the evaluation periods (months as the subplots. The natural barrier formed by neem did not prevent the attack of H. grandella on mahogany, but delayed and minimized the attack in mixed plantings. It is recommended that mahogany should not be planted simultaneously with the neem, but a year after planting the neem, when it has more than three meters in height, forming a natural barrier more effective to pest attack.

  13. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique.

  14. Study of tissue free water tritium and tissue bound tritium in neem tree leaves (Azadirachta indica) around Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulasi Brindha, J.; Rajaram, S.; Kannan, V.; Hegde, A.G.; Kher, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium, one of the isotopes of hydrogen, is a pure beta emitter and is released as HTO through 100 metre stack during the operation of Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam, located in Tamilnadu state. Depending on the proximity and wind direction, the released tritium activity in the atmosphere gradually decreases with distance due to dilution and dispersion and has the ability to exchange with nearby surface soil water, vegetation etc. In the vegetation, tritium is present in two forms namely Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) and Tissue Bound Tritium (TBT). This paper presents the level of TFWT and TBT in the neem tree leaves (Azadirachta indica) of Kalpakkam. Specific activity ratio (SAR) of TBT and TFWT for neem tree leaves was computed and is presented in this paper. It was mainly observed in the present study that high tritium activity in ground water plays a major role for the contribution of TBT. It was observed that SAR was greater than unity in a location where the ground water tritium was comparatively higher than atmospheric tritium, which may be due to dynamic tritium environment in both ground water as well as in atmosphere. In other locations where there was less or negligible tritium activity in the ground water, the observed SAR was less than 1 irrespective of atmospheric moisture tritium. (author)

  15. Azadirachta indica acts as a pro-oxidant and modulates cell cycle associated proteins during DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, N; Bansal, M P; Koul, A

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the modulatory effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) on cell cycle-associated proteins during two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice. Considering the dual role of reactive oxygen species in cancer and its chemoprevention, the levels of lipid peroxidation (index of peroxidative damage) were also determined. Skin tumours were induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as a carcinogen followed by the repetitive application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. Skin tumours obtained in the DMBA/TPA group exhibited enhanced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, index of proliferation), p21 and cyclin D1, with no alterations in p53 expression in comparison to the control group. Tumours in AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited low PCNA and cyclin D1 expression and enhanced expression of p53 and p21 in comparison to the DMBA/TPA group. The skin tumours obtained in the AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited high lipid peroxidation levels in comparison to the tumours obtained in the DMBA/TPA group. The observations of the present study suggest that AAILE behaves as a pro-oxidant in the tumours, thereby rendering them susceptible to damage, which eventually culminates into its anti-neoplastic action. Also, cell cycle regulatory proteins may be modulated by AAILE and could affect the progression of cells through the cell cycle. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  17. Azadirachta indica plant-assisted green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles: Excellent thermal catalytic performance and chemical sensing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra Kumar; Srivastava, Pratibha; Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Singh, Gurdip; Yadava, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    The leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) plant was utilized as reducing agent for the green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The crystalline analysis demonstrated the typical tetragonal hausmannite crystal structure of Mn3O4, which confirmed the formation of Mn3O4 NPs without the existence of other oxides. Green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs were applied for the catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and as working electrode for fabricating the chemical sensor. The excellent catalytic effect for the thermal decomposition of AP was observed by decreasing the decomposition temperature by 175 °C with single decomposing step. The fabricated chemical sensor based on green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs displayed high, reliable and reproducible sensitivity of ∼569.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with reasonable limit of detection (LOD) of ∼22.1 μM and the response time of ∼10 s toward the detection of 2-butanone chemical. A relatively good linearity in the ranging from ∼20 to 160 μM was detected for Mn3O4 NPs electrode based 2-butanone chemical sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  19. Rendimento e Características Físicas dos Óleos de Nim (Azadirachta indica e Mamona (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar o rendimento e a viscosidade de óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e mamona (Ricinus communis. Os frutos de nim foram coletados no Núcleo de Pesquisa do Semiárido, em Patos, Paraíba, e os de mamona, às margens do Rio Espinharas, Patos e em Igaracy, Paraíba. Os frutos foram beneficiados no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Produtos Florestais, em Patos. Foram retiradas amostras de sementes para a determinação do teor de umidade e do rendimento em óleos. Os óleos foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo de soluções com os óleos de nim e mamona. Determinaram-se a densidade e a viscosidade das soluções. A mamona teve menor teor de umidade e rendimento em óleo que o nim. A densidade e a viscosidade do óleo de nim foram menores que o da mamona. Uma maior quantidade de óleos de mamona proporcionou aumento na densidade e na viscosidade das soluções preparadas.

  20. Dinámica de nutrientes en plantaciones forestales de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae establecidas para restauración de tierras degradadas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Flórez-Flórez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Nim ha sido ampliamente empleada en procedimientos de restauración, por lo tanto se evaluó el potencial de sus plantaciones para restaurar tierras secas degradadas por sobrepastoreo, vía reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico. En 20 parcelas de 250m², se instalaron trampas de hojarasca y litter-bags. Se tomaron muestras de hojas maduras y de suelos dentro y fuera de las plantaciones, y se determinaron sus contenidos elementales. Fueron monitoreados la caída de hojarasca, la descomposición de hojarasca y la reabsorción de nutrientes foliares durante un año. Los aportes anuales de hojarasca fina representaron 557.54kg/ha (33% hojas de Nim. Los mayores retornos potenciales de nutrientes vía foliar fue- ron de Ca (4.6kg/ha y N (2.4kg/ha y los menores de P (0.06kg/ha. El 68% del material se descompuso tras un año. La mayor liberación de nutrientes fue de K (100% y la menor de N (40%. El P fue el nutriente más limitante, con baja disponibilidad edáfica y alta eficiencia en su uso según el Índice de Vitousek (IEV=3 176 y la reabsorción foliar (35%. Estas plantaciones juveniles demostraron efectividad en la reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico, que mejoraron parámetros edáficos, según incrementos de materia orgánica, P y K; 72%, 31% y 61%, respectiva- mente. Además mejoraron la estabilidad de agregados y las tasas de respiración microbiana.

  1. Nano-microencapsulados de extrato de Azadirachta indica usando ligninas do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: estabilidade e eficácia contra insetos pragas

    OpenAIRE

    Eveline Soares Costa

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de um bioinseticida modelo para controle de insetos-pragas formulado com extrato vegetal de Azadirachta indica (nim), microencapsulado, utilizando como polímero natural ligninas extraídas do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar. Foram realizados diferentes métodos de extração e modificação química da lignina no intuito de comparação de rendimento, custo, vantagens ambientais e eficácia biológica. Entre as modificações químicas propostas as principa...

  2. EFECTO DE LA RELACIÓN AGITACIÓN-AIREACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO CELULAR Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AZADIRACTINA EN CULTIVOS CELULARES DE AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS AGITATION-AERATION RELATION EFFECTS ON CELL CULTURE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS NEEM ON AZADIRACHTIN PRODUCTION IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Bedoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de azadiractina a partir de células de Azadirachta indica A. Juss, establecidas en un biorreactor sometido a variaciones en la velocidad de agitación y el caudal del aire suministrado al medio de cultivo. Además, se determinó el efecto del oxigeno disuelto en el medio de cultivo, sobre el crecimiento celular y la producción del metabolito, mediante la estimación del coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno (kLa, la velocidad de transferencia de oxígeno (OTR, la velocidad de consumo de oxígeno (OUR y el consumo celular específico de oxígeno (SOUR. Los resultados mostraron que el crecimiento celular y la producción de azadiractina, están fuertemente influenciados por las condiciones de mezclado presentes en el biorreactor, indicando un alto grado de sensibilidad de las células al estrés hidrodinámico. Por otra parte, se evidenció que los valores de kLa y OTR aumentaron al incrementar la velocidad de agitación y aireación, lo que favoreció la transferencia de masa, mientras que ocurrió lo contrario con la OUR y la SOUR, posiblemente debido a la pérdida de la viabilidad celular, al incrementar los esfuerzos cortantes dentro del biorreactor.It was evaluated the production of azadiractin from cells of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, established in a biorreactor submitted to variations in the speed of agitation and the air flow provided to the culture medium. Besides, it was determined the effect of the oxygen dissolved in the culture medium, on cellular growth and production of the metabolite, by means of estimating the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa , oxygen transfer rate (OTR, oxygen uptake rate (OUR, and the cellular specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR. The results showed that the cellular growth and azadiractin production, are strongly influenced by the mixed conditions in the biorreactor, indicating a high degree of sensitivity of cells to the hydrodinamic stress. On the other hand, it was evident that k

  3. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  4. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (seed predators and secondary dispersers for 1-4 months. Using a model built on this experiment, we estimated that seed predation by small seed predators (most likely ants and termites) destroys between 82.9% and 96.4% of seeds in elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  5. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a tr

  6. Stress, storage and survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display

  7. Optimisation des paramètres d'extraction à froid de l'huile d'Azadirachta indica A. Juss et effets sur quelques caractéristiques chimiques de l'huile extraite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitièma-Yefanova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the parameters of cold extraction of the oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and effects on some chemical parameters of the extracted oil. Azadirachta indicaA.Juss (neem is a tropical tree, popular for its multiple possible uses. The oil extracted from neem kernels is used in cosmetics, as medicines, as insecticides and for energy needs (biofuel. The oldest oil extraction method is cold pressing. However, the optimal parameters of extraction and the quality of extracted oil are poorly known. The purpose of this research was to identify the optimal extracting parameters of neem oil by cold pressing and to characterize the extracted oil. The results showed that at 25 °C, the optimum yield by pressing of whole kernels was obtained with a pressure of 30.4 MPa ± 4.1 and a maximum degree of filling of the pressing cage. We showed that maintaining this pressure for 6 min could lead to an extraction rate of 40.1% ± 1.1. The oil yield increased with the speed of kernel compression. Reducing the particle size had a positive effect on oil yield when the cage load did not exceed half of the cage capacity. The best oil yield of 40.3% ± 0.0 for ground kernels was obtained with a pressure of 33.7 MPa ± 2.9 and a cage filled in the quarter of its capacity. The content levels of water, iron, copper and phosphorus in the oil extracted by pressing were respectively 0.14%; 11.8; 0.1 and 17 ppm. These characteristics indicate, inter alia, that neem oil obtained by cold pressing is of appropriate quality for use in biodiesel production.

  8. Dinámica de nutrientes en plantaciones forestales de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae establecidas para restauración de tierras degradadas en Colombia Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae established for resto- ration of degraded lands in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Flórez-Flórez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Nim ha sido ampliamente empleada en procedimientos de restauración, por lo tanto se evaluó el potencial de sus plantaciones para restaurar tierras secas degradadas por sobrepastoreo, vía reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico. En 20 parcelas de 250m², se instalaron trampas de hojarasca y litter-bags. Se tomaron muestras de hojas maduras y de suelos dentro y fuera de las plantaciones, y se determinaron sus contenidos elementales. Fueron monitoreados la caída de hojarasca, la descomposición de hojarasca y la reabsorción de nutrientes foliares durante un año. Los aportes anuales de hojarasca fina representaron 557.54kg/ha (33% hojas de Nim. Los mayores retornos potenciales de nutrientes vía foliar fue- ron de Ca (4.6kg/ha y N (2.4kg/ha y los menores de P (0.06kg/ha. El 68% del material se descompuso tras un año. La mayor liberación de nutrientes fue de K (100% y la menor de N (40%. El P fue el nutriente más limitante, con baja disponibilidad edáfica y alta eficiencia en su uso según el Índice de Vitousek (IEV=3 176 y la reabsorción foliar (35%. Estas plantaciones juveniles demostraron efectividad en la reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico, que mejoraron parámetros edáficos, según incrementos de materia orgánica, P y K; 72%, 31% y 61%, respectiva- mente. Además mejoraron la estabilidad de agregados y las tasas de respiración microbiana.Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m² plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall

  9. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  10. Controlling bruchid pests of stored cowpea seeds with dried leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal activities of dried Artemisia annua L. leaves were evaluated against bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) pests in comparison with those of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum and a conventional grain storage insecticide, Actellic® 2% dust. Each treatment was added to a mixture of 250 g cowpea seeds ...

  11. Aqueous extracts effects of seeds of Thevetia peruviana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate, the impact of aqueous extracts of seeds of “yellow oleander” Thevetia peruviana (AETP), Azadirachta indica (AEAI) “neem” and Ridomil Gold Plus 66WP in black pod disease in Cameroon during two consecutive years. Methodology and results: A completely randomize ...

  12. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  13. Evaluation of the fatty acid composition of the seeds of Mangifera indica L. and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhsien; Tokuda, Megumi; Kashiwagi, Ayaka; Henmi, Atsushi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Tachibana, Shinya; Nomura, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), an edible fruit, is one of the main agricultural products in many tropical regions. Mango varieties differ in not only fruit shape but also aroma, which is an important characteristic. Although the fruit has many uses, the seeds are discarded as waste. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the fatty acid content of seed oil of mangoes from different cultivation areas (Miyazaki, Japan, and Taiwan), and to evaluate their application in cosmetics. Five fatty acids were identified in the mango seed oil. Oleic acid and stearic acid were the principal components of mango seed oil obtained from Miyazaki (46.1% and 39.8%, respectively) and Taiwan (43.7% and 40.1%, respectively). As a cosmetic ingredient, mango seed oil showed good deodorizing effect on both 2-nonenal and isovaleric acid. The results indicated the potential applications of mango seed oil in the cosmetic industry.

  14. Mineral composition ofTamarindus indicaLINN (tamarind) pulp and seeds from different agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Jaspher; Okullo, John B L; Eilu, Gerald; Nyeko, Philip; Obua, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Mineral composition of dry Tamarindus indica LINN pulp and seeds was evaluated on samples collected from three different agro-ecological zones of Uganda (Lake Victoria Crescent, and Eastern and West Nile). The objective of the study was to evaluate the mineral composition of T. indica pulp and seed samples from across Uganda's different agro-ecological zones and land use types. Separately grounded samples of T. indica pulp and seeds were analyzed for Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Na, K, and Ca. The univariate analysis of variance in the General Linear Model was used to compare differences in mineral composition. Treatment means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) in Post Hoc Tests. The results showed that there were significant differences ( p  ≤ 0.005) in mineral composition levels of T. indica pulp and seed samples between the different agro-ecological zones with the exception of P and Na (for pulp). The T. indica pulp and seeds samples from the Lake Victoria Crescent zone and wild land use type had generally higher mineral levels than T. indica samples from other agro-ecological zones and different land use types. As mineral composition levels were generally higher in the seed than the pulp samples, consumption of T. indica seeds should be promoted. There is also need to conserve individual species both on-farm and in the wild population, but T. indica mineral concentrations (both pulp and seeds) were higher in the samples from the wild population, making them good for human and animal diets.

  15. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  16. Chemical characterization of xyloglucan obtained from Tamarindus indica seeds from the semi arid northeastern (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Silva, Sarah M.F.; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de

    2015-01-01

    Playing an important role in food, seeds are sources of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, so they have been explored for a long time by the food industry. For this reason, the objective of present work is to obtain and characterize xyloglucan obtained from tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica). In order to assess possible industrial applications of the polysaccharide, it was characterized by Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Search results showed that it was possible to perform xyloglucan extraction but the process still requires improvements in order to increase the extraction yield. FTIR, NMR and TGA results were similar to those found in literature. (author)

  17. Antifungal Activities of Some Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of leaf extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), lemon grass (Cymbopogen citratus), neem (Azadirachta indica) and paw-paw (Carica papaya) on major seed-borne fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium moniliforme of African yam ...

  18. Effect of Neem Seed Kernel Extracts in the Management of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Stem borers are economic pests of rice and its management through conventional methods has not given the desired results. Hence in this study field experiments were conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of neem seed kernel extracts. (Azadirachta indica; (Neem) and synthetic insecticide ...

  19. Eficácia acaricida de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica, no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos de seis animais cada. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento, enquanto que o grupo tratado recebeu a formulação em teste, contendo 10% de Nim, borrifando ambos os condutos auditivos, uma vez ao dia, por sete dias consecutivos. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente para observação de possíveis efeitos adversos do produto. Nos dias +3, +7, +14,+21, +28 e +35 foi coletado material de todos os animais para avaliação da presença de ácaros vivos. Os coelhos do grupo controle apresentavam ácaros em ambos os condutos auditivos em todos os dias de observação. O grupo tratado apresentou eficácia de 41,7% no dia +3 e 100% a partir do dia +7 até o dia +35. O produto demonstrou ser eficaz no tratamento da sarna psoróptica em coelhos. Entretanto, todos os animais tratados apresentaram reações dermatológicas, tais como alopecia e hiperemia no local de aplicação do produto, variando de baixa a média severidade.

  20. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

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    Anggit Listyacahyani Sunarwidhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extract s in alloxan - induce d diabetic rats. Metho ds : Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens w ere performed by TLC - densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study . Results: A. i ndica contained 2. 90 ±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica : 112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68 . 74±4 . 83% (preprandial and 73 . 9 1 ±3 . 18% (postprandial. Histolog ical studies indicated that this combination improved the mor ph ology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated - glucose concentrations . Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens . Combination of both extracts was potential to develo p as a blood glucose - lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  1. Cold tolerance in rice germinating seeds revealed by deep RNAseq analysis of contrasting indica genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametto, Andressa; Sperotto, Raul A; Adamski, Janete M; Blasi, Édina A R; Cargnelutti, Denise; de Oliveira, Luiz F V; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Mariath, Jorge E A; da Cruz, Renata P; Margis, Rogério; Fett, Janette P

    2015-09-01

    Rice productivity is largely affected by low temperature, which can be harmful throughout plant development, from germination to grain filling. Germination of indica rice cultivars under cold is slow and not uniform, resulting in irregular emergence and small plant population. To identify and characterize novel genes involved in cold tolerance during the germination stage, two indica rice genotypes (sister lines previously identified as cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive) were used in parallel transcriptomic analysis (RNAseq) under cold treatment (seeds germinating at 13 °C for 7 days). We detected 1,361 differentially expressed transcripts. Differences in gene expression found by RNAseq were confirmed for 11 selected genes using RT-qPCR. Biological processes enhanced in the cold-tolerant seedlings include: cell division and expansion (confirmed by anatomical sections of germinating seeds), cell wall integrity and extensibility, water uptake and membrane transport capacity, sucrose synthesis, generation of simple sugars, unsaturation of membrane fatty acids, wax biosynthesis, antioxidant capacity (confirmed by histochemical staining of H2O2), and hormone and Ca(2+)-signaling. The cold-sensitive seedlings respond to low temperature stress increasing synthesis of HSPs and dehydrins, along with enhanced ubiquitin/proteasome protein degradation pathway and polyamine biosynthesis. Our findings can be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to cold tolerance in indica rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-04-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an approximately 34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 A.

  3. Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on physical properties and specific heat capacity of Tamarindus indica seed. Physical properties investigated were axial dimensions, one thousand seed weight, bulk and true densities, porosity, roundness and sphericity, surface area, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction. The thermal property determined was the specific heat. These properties of Tamarindus indica seed were investigated within the moisture content range of 7.55 - 10.47% (d.b. The length, width and thickness increased from 9.979 to 10.634mm, 8.909 to 10.089mm and 5.039 to 5.658mm, respectively in the above moisture range. One thousand seed weight, surface area, seed volume, true density and porosity, increased from 388.4 to 394.8g, 86.916 to 87.58cm2, 0.353 to 0.366cm3, 1217.5 to 1287.00kg/m3 and 28.22 to 33.87%, respectively, as moisture content increased in the above range, while bulk density decreased from 873.9 to 851.4kg/m3. Roundness and sphericity, and angle of repose also increased from 41 to 42.4% and 73.7 to 76.3% and 36.1 to 38.93o, respectively. Specific heat capacity values increased linearly from 589.00J/kgK to 638.61 J/kgK in the above moisture range.

  4. Green synthesis of Ag-Cr-AC nanocomposites by Azadirachta indica and its application for the simultaneous removal of binary mixture of dyes by ultrasonicated assisted adsorption process using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Muhammad; Tahir, Hajira; Ali, Duaa

    2017-09-01

    In the present studies the Ag-Cr-AC nanocomposites were synthesized by Azadirachta indica leaves extract. They were inoculated on the amorphous surface of activated carbon. The surface morphology and structural identification was determined by SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The simultaneous removal of binary dye system of Reactive Red and Crystal Violet were performed by ultrasonicated assisted adsorption process utilizing Ag-Cr-AC nanocomposites. Central Composite Design (CCD) having 5 factors of time, pH, amount of Ag-Cr-AC (adsorbent), concentrations of Reactive Red (RR) and Crystal Violet (CV) was employed. Response Surface Methodology was applied to study the Optimum Operating Parameters (OOP) for the adsorption process. The current studies showed that they can be efficiently employed to remove the coloured effluent from aqueous media as the simultaneous removal of dyes was observed to be 64.92% and 82.47% for RR and CV dyes respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was studied by Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Harkins-Jura Isotherm Models. The Langmuir isotherm was observed to be followed by the RR-Ag-Cr-AC system while CV-Ag-Cr-AC followed Harkins-Jura Isotherm model. For the binary system, the removal of CV and RR dyes by the nanocomposites obeyed Harkins-Jura model at temperature of 40°C. Thermodynamics studies affirmed the spontaneous nature of adsorption process. pH pzc was evaluated to be 6.29. The purification cost per cubic meter of the effluent was evaluated to be US$ 85.08. The proposed method might prove to be an efficient and cost effective way to eradicate color from the binary mixture of RR and CV dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of Malachite Green Dye by Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dilbagh; Sowmya, V.; Abinandan, S.; Shanthakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, batch experiments were carried out to study the adsorption of Malachite green dye from aqueous solution by Mangifera indica (mango) seed kernel powder. The mango seed kernel powder was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Effect of various parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was observed and the optimized condition for maximum dye removal was identified. Maximum percentage removal of 96% was achieved with an adsorption capacity of 22.8 mg/g at pH 6 with an initial concentration of 100 mg/l. The equilibrium data were examined to fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process were also calculated.

  6. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical.

  7. Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaroen, Y; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Changbumrung, S; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2005-11-01

    Although it is already known that Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds contain phenolic substances, the individual components of the seeds have not been fully identified and quantitated, and in the case of Tamarind pericarp not reported. Therefore, major polyphenolic compounds were extracted using organic solvents and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), nano-electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and where possible by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H and 13C NMR. Quantitative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in Tamarind seeds and pericarp was conducted by analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), calculated against standard curves of authentic compounds. The yields of total phenolic compounds after Soxhlet extraction with methanol were 6.54 and 2.82 g/kg (dry weight) in the seeds and pericarp respectively. The profile (%) of polyphenolics in Tamarind pericarp was dominated by proanthcyanidins (73.4) in various forms (+)-catechin (2.0), procyanidin B2 (8.2), (-)-epicatechin (9.4), procyanidin trimer (11.3), procyanidin tetramer (22.2), procyanidin pentamer (11.6), procyanidin hexamer (12.8) along with taxifolin (7.4), apigenin (2.0), eriodictyol (6.9), luteolin (5.0) and naringenin (1.4) of total phenols, respectively. The content of Tamarind seeds comprised only procyanidins, represented (%) mainly by oligomeric procyanidin tetramer (30.2), procyanidin hexamer (23.8), procyanidin trimer (18.1), procyanidin pentamer (17.6) with lower amounts of procyanidin B2 (5.5) and (-)-epicatechin (4.8). Extraction of Tamarind pericarp and seeds using acetone:methanol:acetic acid gave only procyanidin oligomers, but in much higher yield and variety. The antioxidant capacities of the Soxhlet methanolic extracts were determined, and indicates that Tamarind may be an

  8. Toxicity of fixed oil and crude extract from sa-dao-thiam, Azadirachta excelsa (Jack seed kernel to Aedes aegypti (L.

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    Ekkarat Kaewnang-O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of various concentrations of fixed oil and crude extract from sa-dao-thiam, Azadirachta excelsa(Jack seed kernel was assayed on an Aedes aegypti (L. test population under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrationlevels of responses at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs were evaluated. The LC50 values of the fixed oil and the crude extract were403.6 and 518.7 ppm, respectively. One hundred percent mortality in 24 hrs-post treatment was achieved at 2,000 and 4,000ppm for the oil and crude extract, respectively. It suggested that the oil is more toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae than the crudeextract. Further investigation suggested the occurrence of molting inhibition of Ae. aegypti larvae by the fixed oil and crudeextract as indicated by the small number of emerged adults. In addition, histological study suggested that damages on theepithelial cells of the midgut could result from the effects of the oil and crude extract. Hypertrophy and degeneration of theepithelial cells were observed, resulting in a presence of some cytoplasmic material in the alimentary canal. Further studiesshould be taken into account to identify their stability and residual activity of these products under field conditions.

  9. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  10. Características dendrométricas de um povoamento de nim indiano (Azadirachta indica A. Juss no semiárido paraibano

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    Francisco Tibério de Alencar Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O Nim (Azadirachia indica A. Juss é uma espécie de múltiplo uso que pertence a família Meliaceae. Por possuir múltiplos usos, o nim tem despertado a atenção e seus produtos têm sido cada vez mais utilizados na área de agricultura. No entanto, aspectos dendrométricos relacionados ao crescimento da espécie ainda são escassos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento da espécie nim plantada em região semiárida do Nordeste brasileiro em dois diferentes espaçamentos. A coleta de dados foi realizada em duas áreas localizadas na Fazenda Laranjeiras, localizada no município de São José de Espinharas, Estado da Paraíba. No plantio-1 o espaçamento usado foi de 5 m x 5 m semeado no ano de 1996, em uma área de 2100 m2 e no plantio-2 o espaçamento usado foi de 4 m x 4 m em 1998, em uma área de 1600 m2. As variáveis medidas foram: DNB-Diâmetro a 0,30 cm do nível do solo (cm, HF-Altura do fuste comercial (m, HT-Altura total (m e DC-Diâmetro de copa (m. A partir destes dados foram calculados o volume cilíndrico (m3/ha, volume real (m3/ha, volume empilhado (st/ha e a área basal (m2/ha. O crescimento do nim indiano na região semiárida paraibana apresentou comportamento semelhante ao de outras áreas experimentais estudadas. Quando se pretende produzir madeira com finalidade energética o espaçamento mais indicado, entre os dois avaliados, é o de menor espaçamento.

  11. Fabrication of Tamarindus indica seeds extract loaded-cream for photo-aged skin: Visioscan® studies

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    Muhammad Khurram Waqas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress triggered by free radicals promotes skin aging, which is designated by atypical pigmentation and wrinkles. The consumption of antioxidants is an efficacious measure to avert symptoms involved in skin aging. Aim: The current research was commenced to explore the anti-aging potential of antioxidants present in Tamarindus indica seeds extract. Material and methods: Tamarindus indica seeds extract was obtained by concentrating the ethanolic extract of seeds. The antioxidant activities of the extract were measured by nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Formulation comprising 4% of the concentrated extract of seeds was formulated by loading it in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil (W/O cosmetic emulsion. The base, used as control, consisted of the same emulsion but without loading Tamarindus indica seeds extract. The cosmetic emulsions were applied to the cheeks of 11 healthy male volunteers for duration of 12 weeks. Both base and formulation were assessed for their antioxidant effects on different skin parameters i.e. skin moisture contents, elasticity and surface evaluation of living skin (SELS. Results: The formulation showed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 and the base showed insignificant (p > 0.05 effects on skin elasticity and skin moisture contents. There is a significant decline in SELS, skin scaliness (SEsc, skin wrinkles (SEw, skin smoothness (SEsm, and skin roughness (SEr parameters after application of the formulation. Conclusions: Topical application of the cosmetic emulsion entrapped with Tamarindus indica seeds extract containing various antioxidants exerts potential skin antiaging effects.

  12. field assessment of the nematicidal properties of neem (azadirachta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    AZADIRACHTA INDICA) ... yield of treated tomato plants. Key Words: Neem, Nematicidal Properties, Root Knot Nematode, Tomato. .... Means with the same letter in the same column do not differ significantly at P = 0.05 according to Duncan`s multiple ...

  13. administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and. Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the.

  14. Influence of extraction methods on the hepatotoxicity of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of extraction methods: Cold aqueous (CA) hot aqueous (HA) and alcoholic extraction (AE) methods on the hepatotoxic effect of Azadirachta indica bark extract (ABC) was investigated using albino rats. A total of forty eight rats were divided into three groups of sixteen rats equally for the extraction methods.

  15. Effects Of Exposure To Sublethal Concentrations Of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiological impairment on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentrations of Azadirachta Indica was investigated. The fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 ML -1 for the period of 12 weeks. The crude protein content decreased with increased concentration ...

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica), FALSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    associated with cowpea over other arable crops render all parts of the plants susceptible to insect pests (Profit, 1997), being attacked by pests from. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 Supplement 2013. Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

  17. Carbohydrate content and antioxidative potential of the seed of three edible indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sanyal, Saptadwipa; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains or seeds are known to lose much of their nutrient and antioxidant contents, following polishing. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the carbohydrate content and antioxidant parameters in the unpolished and polished seeds of three edible indica rice cultivars, namely Swarna (SW), the most popular indica rice cultivar in India and aromatic or scented cultivars Gobindobhog (GB) and Pusa Basmati (PB). While both the sucrose and starch content was the maximum in PB seeds (both unpolished and polished), the amylose content was the highest in SW polished seeds. SW polished seeds were superior as compared to GB and PB cultivars in terms of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation potential, as well as the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition or H2O2 scavenging potential, probably due to the maximum accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids, the two important antioxidants. The reducing power ability was, however, identical in both SW and GB polished seeds. The PB polished seeds were more potent in superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging, whereas GB in nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. The common observation noted after polishing of seeds was the reduction in the level of carbohydrates and antioxidant potential, though the extent of reduction varied in the three cultivars. The only exception was GB, where there was no alteration in NO scavenging potential even after polishing. Our study showed the better performance of SW polished seeds with respect to higher amylose content and majority of the tested parameters governing antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging potential, thus highlighting the greater dietary significance of SW over the other two cultivars.

  18. 'Geed-hindi' - Melia azadirachta l. - a most common cultivated tree in Somalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmi, S.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    M. azadirachta (Azadirachta indica), also known as 'meri-meri', a straight-stemmed evergreen exotic which grows to 18 m height, tolerates 250 mm annual rainfall and dry or saline soils. Primary uses are in shelterbelts and as a soil binder; the timber is used for building, fuelwood (at 10 yr old) and charcoal; the fruits (from 5 yr old) yield oil; and the tree has medicinal uses.

  19. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

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    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  20. Eficácia acaricida de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados Miticidal efficacy of an emulsion containing 10% neem (Azadirachtaindica oil for control of Psoroptes ovis in naturally infested rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio I. Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma emulsão contendo 10% de óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica, no controle de Psoroptes ovis em coelhos naturalmente infestados. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos de seis animais cada. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento, enquanto que o grupo tratado recebeu a formulação em teste, contendo 10% de Nim, borrifando ambos os condutos auditivos, uma vez ao dia, por sete dias consecutivos. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente para observação de possíveis efeitos adversos do produto. Nos dias +3, +7, +14,+21, +28 e +35 foi coletado material de todos os animais para avaliação da presença de ácaros vivos. Os coelhos do grupo controle apresentavam ácaros em ambos os condutos auditivos em todos os dias de observação. O grupo tratado apresentou eficácia de 41,7% no dia +3 e 100% a partir do dia +7 até o dia +35. O produto demonstrou ser eficaz no tratamento da sarna psoróptica em coelhos. Entretanto, todos os animais tratados apresentaram reações dermatológicas, tais como alopecia e hiperemia no local de aplicação do produto, variando de baixa a média severidade.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an emulsion containing 10% of neem (Azadirachta indica oil on the control of Psoroptes ovis in naturally infested rabbits. Twelve rabbits were randomly divided in two groups of six animals. The control group remained without treatment; while animals in the other group were treated with the 10% neem extract formulation by spraying both ears daily for seven consecutive days. The animals were evaluated daily for the presence of adverse effects. Material from ears all animals was collected on days +3, +7, +14, +21, +28 and +35, and evaluated for the presence of living mites. Animals from control group presented mites in both ears along all days of observation. The treated group presented an efficacy of 41.7% on day +3

  1. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein.

  2. Hypnotic Effect and GC-MS Analysis of Seeds Extracts From Algerian Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Kenza BENATTIA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sleep disorders are a frequent symptom that requires prior to any prescription medication, an etiological check to eliminate any organic or psychiatric pathology that is under other treatments and that could worsen under hypnotics.The phytochemical study of Nopal affirm to be an excellent source of natural oligoelements which may improve human health and nutrition Aims: The objective of this work is to extract and analyze the lipid fraction of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus–indica. L, and to determine their hypnotic activity in order to achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in these extracts (aqueous, hydro-ethanol. Methods: GC-MS analysis of seed oil extracted by soxhlet method, and the pharmacology experiment was performed on white mice from a Swiss race Balb/cby calculating the sleep time. Results: The oil of seeds is rich in fatty-acids poly-unsaturates, Main fatty acids identified were linoleic (C18:2, oleic (C18:1, and palmitic (C16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1 acids with respective contents 81.25%, 3.70%, and 15.03%. The extract hydro-ethanolic at the 500mg / kg dose has a moderate hypnotic effect Conclusion: This study proves that the food quality of prickly pear seeds is very important and its natural source of edible oil containing of the essential fatty-acids, and can be a base for a promising work to highlight the bioactive moleculeswithhypnotic effects, myorelaxant and tranquillizing.

  3. Antidiabetic potential of polyphenolic-rich fraction of Tamarindus indica seed coat in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Ravi Pratap Singh; Sahu, Sanjeev Kumar; Patel, Jay Ram

    2018-01-26

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the India, Sudan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and entire subcontinent. Hydroethanolic seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica (HETI) was assessed for presence of phytoconstituents and selection of optimum dose through acute and sub acute toxicity study. The single and multidose (14 days) study were conducted to evaluate antidiabetic potential of HETI in alloxan induced rats via determine of blood glucose level, body weight, hematological profile, extra-pancreatic glucose utilization of isolated rat hemi-diaphragm as well as histopathology of rat pancreas. Phytochemical analysis of HETI showed the presence of polyphenol like flavonoids. Single and multidose of HETI significantly (p<0.05; p<0.001) reduced blood glucose level in normoglycaemic, glucose loaded and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic animals. HETI exerts the protective effect on pancreatic β-cells as per results obtained from histopathology of animals. Moreover, HETI increased glucose uptake in isolated rat hemi-diaphragm and prevents decrease in body weight along with recovery of altered hematological parameters. The study revealed that HETI have potent hypoglycaemic action by virtue of its phytoconstituents and it can be used as a herbal medicine for diabetes.

  4. EFICIÊNCIA DOS ÓLEOS DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. E MAMONA (Ricinus communis L. NA RESISTÊNCIA DA MADEIRA DE SUMAÚMA (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. A FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS EM SIMULADORES DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica and castor oil plant (Ricinus communis oils for the improvement of Ceiba pentandra wood resistance to xilophagous fungi in soil bed condition (field simulator. The neem and castor oil plant oils were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol and employed in the preparation of oil solutions. Wood samples with dimensions of 1.5 x 0.5 x 15 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal were treated to reach a nominal retention of 10 to 16 kg of solution/m³ of wood. The samples were submitted to the action of natural micro-flora of three soils; forest, agricultural use and natural pasture soils, for 180 days. Among the tested soils, the agricultural presented greater biological activity, which damaged the samples even more. Among the tested solutions, the pure neem oil provided increased protection to samples. The prepared solutions using neem and castor oil plant oils did not protect the wood from the attack of xylophagous fungi existing in the ground.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-07-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%.

  6. Chemical characterization of xyloglucan obtained from Tamarindus indica seeds from the semi arid northeastern; Caracterizacao quimica de xiloglucana obtida a partir de sementes de Tamarindus indica oriundas do semi arido nordestino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Silva, Sarah M.F.; Gallao, Maria Izabel, E-mail: izagalao@gmail.com [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia; Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Playing an important role in food, seeds are sources of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, so they have been explored for a long time by the food industry. For this reason, the objective of present work is to obtain and characterize xyloglucan obtained from tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica). In order to assess possible industrial applications of the polysaccharide, it was characterized by Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Search results showed that it was possible to perform xyloglucan extraction but the process still requires improvements in order to increase the extraction yield. FTIR, NMR and TGA results were similar to those found in literature. (author)

  7. Chemical characterization of xyloglucan obtained from Tamarindus indica seeds from the semi arid northeastern (Brazil); Caracterizacao quimica de xiloglucana obtida a partir de sementes de tamarindus indica oriundas do semi arido nordestino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Silva, Sarah M.F.; Gallao, Maria Izabel, E-mail: izagalao@gmail.com [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Forteleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia; Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortalea, CE (Brazil); Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Playing an important role in food, seeds are sources of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, so they have been explored for a long time by the food industry. For this reason, the objective of present work is to obtain and characterize xyloglucan obtained from tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica). In order to assess possible industrial applications of the polysaccharide, it was characterized by Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Search results showed that it was possible to perform xyloglucan extraction but the process still requires improvements in order to increase the extraction yield. FTIR, NMR and TGA results were similar to those found in literature. (author)

  8. Anti-enteric bacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of the seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica Linnaeus against Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga, corrig.) Castellani and Chalmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial efficacy of the seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) against the enteropathogen, Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae), isolated from the diarrhoeal stool specimens. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Cold extraction method was employed to extract the bioactive compounds from mango seed kernel. Disc diffusion method was adopted to screen antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by agar dilution method. The crude extracts were partially purified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the fractions were analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to identify the bioactive compounds. Phytochemical scrutiny of M. indica indicated the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, gums, flavanoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and xanthoproteins. Antibacterial activity was observed in two crude extracts and various fractions viz. hexane, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water. MIC of methanol fraction was found to be (95±11.8) μg/mL. MIC of other fractions ranged from 130-380 μg/mL. The present study confirmed that each crude extracts and fractions of M. indica have significant antimicrobial activity against the isolated pathogen S. dysenteriae. The antibacterial activity may be due to the phytochemical constituents of the mango seed kernel. The phytochemical tannin could be the reason for its antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  10. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawananorasest, Khanittha; Saengtongdee, Patsuda; Kaemchantuek, Praphakorn

    2016-06-15

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by ¹H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A), a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B) and the export tamarind powder industry(C) gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm(-1), 2920.76 cm(-1), 1018.85 cm(-1) and 555.16 cm(-1). The ¹H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50-4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  12. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  13. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  14. Intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae Poisoning in swine from the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano N. Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    avermelhamento transmural da parede do intestino e conteúdo intestinal sanguinolento nos Suínos C-E. Um hematoma foi observado no pulmão do Suíno C. Os achados histopatológicos no encéfalo dos suínos alimentados com as maiores concentrações (20% de sementes de A. indica (C-E consistiram em áreas focais e simétricas de congestão, edema, hemorragia e tumefação do endotélio vascular em diversos núcleos e no córtex telencefálico. Nos Suínos A e B, que receberam menores concentrações das sementes de A. indica, e no Suíno F, caso espontâneo da doença, as alterações histológicas no encéfalo consistiam de áreas bem definidas de malacia focal simétrica; nessas áreas a neurópila normal era obliterada por numerosos macrófagos espumosos dispostos em estreita aposição, astrocitose e capilares com endotélios tumefeitos. Os focos de malacia focal simétrica em suínos intoxicados com sementes de A. indica afetavam os núcleos cerebelares e vestibulares, a substância negra, o putâmen e os núcleos mesencefálicos, oculomotor e núcleo vermelho. Esses dados indicam que a ingestão de sementes de A. indica é responsável por essa condição neurológica, que a doença pode ser fatal e que parece afetar igualmente suínos jovens e adultos. O desenlace clínico e as alterações patológicas são dependentes da dose e as lesões encefálicas progridem de danos vasculares a edema vasogênico, hemorragia e malacia.A spontaneous outbreak of a neurological disease in swine caused by the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica seeds and the reproduction of the disease in the same animal species are reported. The natural outbreak occurred in a pig-raising facility in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. On the premises there were 100 pigs (20 breeding sows and 80 young weaned pigs from several categories that were fed a ration made by mixing 50% of corn bran, 25% of soybean bran, 5% of a commercial mix of vitamins and minerals, and 20% of broken

  15. Evaluation of Structure and Assembly of Xyloglucan from Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indicaL.) with Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł, Arkadiusz; Cybulska, Justyna; Pieczywek, Piotr M; Zdunek, Artur

    The role of xyloglucan (XG) in the cell wall of plants and its technological usability depends on several factors, pertaining to molecular structure. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the nano-structure and self-assembly of XG by atomic force microscopy (AFM). As the model, a non-modified xyloglucan from a tamarind seed ( Tamarindus indica L.) was used. Samples were minimally processed, i.e., treated with low-power ultrasound and studied on the surface of mica in ambient butanol. AFM topographic images revealed rod-like nanomolecules of xyloglucan with a mean height of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm and mean length of 640 ± 360 nm. The AFM study also showed that XG chains possessed a helical structure with a period of 115.8 ± 29.2 nm. This study showed possible-bending of molecules with a mean angle of 127.8 ± 25.6°. The xyloglucan molecules were able to aggregate as cross-like and a parallel like assemblies, and possibly as rope-like structures. The self-assembled bundles of xyloglucan chains were often complexed at an angle of 114.2 ± 36.3°.

  16. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  17. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals.

  18. (CI 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. Many industries like plastics, paper, textile and cosmetics use dyes to color their products. ... dye wastewater owing to low biodegradability of dyes. They are usually treated by physical or chemical ... and biodegradable effective adsorbents. They were ob- tained from natural resources for ...

  19. Efficacy of two selected plant extracts Azadirachta indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the study showed that Ageratum conizoides at 100g with 100cl of water had the best performance while the control had the least performance in terms of insect density, number of insect perforations and plant weight of both vegetables. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that there was no significant ...

  20. Effect of water treated and urea treated neem ( Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the carcass haematological and biochemical characteristics of broiler birds fed graded levels of water and urea-treated neem kernel cake (NKC), 300 day-old broilers (Cobb, 500) were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments for 56 days. Water and feed were fed adlibitum. The diets were ...

  1. Toxic effects of neem products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... δ-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar israelensis in the midgut of Simulium pertinax larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae). Mem Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 99(5): 493-498. El Hag EA, El Nadi AH, Zaitoon AA (1999). Toxic and growth retarding effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae ...

  2. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... tabaci en Mesoamérica. Manejo Integrado de. Plagas (Costa Rica), 35 :46-54. Islam MD, Latif MA, Begum R, Razzaque MA, Akhtar. Akhy A, 2007. Effect of neem oil on food consumption, growth and development of Jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua (Walker). Int. J. Sustainable Agric. Technol., 3(4):1-5.

  3. Investigation of seed damaging pathogens associated with wheat crop in bhimber azad kashmir, pakistan and their managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Ishtiaq, M.; Azam, S.; Maqbool, M.; Mushtaq, W.

    2017-01-01

    Mycopathogens were explored from wheat germplasm cultivars from District Bhimber of Azad Kashmir. In this study, 10 different seed-borne pathogens were isolated from District of Bhimber, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Agar Plate Method (APM) and Towel Paper Method (TPM) were used for detection of seed borne pathogens. The disease incidence (percentage) and disease severity of fungi varied with respect to type of pathogen and seed sampling sites. Kernel bunt caused by Tilletia indica showed highest incidence (67.25%) and severity (7.0) on 0-9 rating scale. Fusarium graminearum showed the highest infection rate in three sub-divisions of district Bhimber as compared to others. The fungal attacking pathogens on wheat crop were control through fungicides treatment and treatments with plant extracts. Maximum germination rates were calculated in three sub-divisions of Bhimber after treatment of Tilt fungicide. As 86% germination rate in Samahni, 87.5% in Bhimber and 84.5% in Bernala was calculated. Antifungal activity of five plant extracts (Acacia nilotica L., Azadirachta indica L. Juss., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Ficus bengalensis L. and Allium sativum L.) were evaluated in four different solvents. Highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated of all plants in methanolic extracts. Maximum MIC (57.38 mcg/ml) exhibited by extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves against ten fungi. Azadirachta indica extracts in different solvents against wheat-seed fungal pathogens was shown more antimicrobial activity as compared to other four plants. Azadirachta indica extract in methanol showed the highest mean of antifungal activity (62.20 mcg/ml) against ten different fungal pathogens. Antimicrobial activity (MIC) of Ficus bengalensis in different solvents against nine wheat-seed fungal pathogens was also investigated. Highest MIC was measured against B. graminis (57.50 mcg/ml) and S. macrospora (57.00 mcg/ml) by using methanolic extract of Ficus bengalensis

  4. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production.

  6. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  8. Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO(2) flow rate = 15 mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2): 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2): 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2): 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C).

  9. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  10. Study of Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Mangifera Indica Seed (Mango in Presence of Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by pyrolysis of seeds mango in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities. Seeds mango from Colombian Mango cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of NaOH and KOH following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 3:1 (weight terms. Activation was carried out under argon flow by heating to 823 K with 1 h soaking time. The porous texture of the obtained ACs was characterized by physical adsorptions of N2 at 77 K and CO2 at 273 K. The impregnation ration and hydroxide type had a strong influence on the pore structure of these ACs, which could be easily controlled by simply varying the proportion of the hydroxides used in the activation. Thus, the development of porosity for precursors with low structural order (high reactivity is better with NaOH than KOH, whereas the opposite is observed for the highly ordered ones. Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. In general, KOH produces activated carbons with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH.

  11. (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from two indigenous wild trees namely Adansonia digitata (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were analyzed. From this study, the protein contents were observed to be 24.98% and 17.99 % for baobab and tamarind respectively. These values are fairly high compared to cereals and root crops such as whole ...

  12. Rheological properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed mucilage obtained by spray-drying as a novel source of hydrocolloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpizar-Reyes, Erik; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Gallardo-Rivera, Raquel; Varela-Guerrero, Victor; Cruz-Olivares, Julian; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2018-02-01

    Tamarind seed mucilage (TSM) was extracted and obtained by spray drying. The power law model well described the rheological behavior of the TSM dispersions with determination coefficients R 2 higher than 0.93. According to power law model, non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and temperatures (25, 30, 40, and 60°C) studied. Increasing temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior index, opposite effect was observed when increasing the concentration. The temperature effect was more pronounced at 2.0% TSM concentration with an activation energy of 20.25kJ/mol. A clear dependence of viscosity on pH was observed, as pH increased from acidic to alkaline conditions, the viscosity increased. It was found that the rheological properties of TSM were affected by the sucrose and salts and their concentrations as well due to the addition of ions (or sucrose) decreases repulsion and allows molecule expansion promoting a significant reduction in viscosity. These results suggest that TMS could be applied in the production of foods that require additives with thickening capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1×10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50 of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50 was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants.

  14. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  15. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  16. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  17. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  18. Studies on convective drying of `Ameclyae' Opuntia ficus-indica seeds and its effect on the quality of extracted oil based on its α-tocopherol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Lamine; Bettaieb, Emna; Motri, Samia; Desmorieux, Hélène

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to model the thin layer convective drying kinetics of `Ameclyae' prickly pear seed variety and to evaluate the effects of drying conditions on the quality of extracted seed oil, specifically α-tocopherol content. Drying experiments were carried on following a full 23 factorial design using a vertical drying tunnel. The study is restricted to a particular particle size and a particular seed bed of height 0.5 cm, of effective porosity around 0.4 and of initial moisture content on dry basis equal to 1.2 (± 0.01) kg/kg. The temperature range was 45 to 70 °C, relative humidity range was 15-30% and air velocity was 1 and 2 m/s. The experimental drying curves were fitted to different semi-theoretical drying models proposed in the literature. The Midilli-Kucuk model was found with satisfaction describing the seed air drying curves with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a standard error of 0.01. For each drying condition, the extraction of fixed oil seeds was performed at cold using liquid/solid separation method. The oil quality was evaluated on the basis of the α-tocopherol content. The α-tocopherol was identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). According to the experimental results, it was found that drying air velocity is the most important factor influencing the concentration of α-tocopherol, whereas the effects of temperature and relative humidity were lower. The increase of the velocity from 1 m/s to 2 m/s reduced the α-tocopherol concentration by about 25%. The convective drying of thin layer of seeds at soft air conditions, drying temperature of 45 °C, relative humidity of 15% and air velocity of 1 m/s give the optimal quality of extracted oil in terms of α-tocopherol content. Characterization of the morphologic structure of seeds was also performed by SEM.

  19. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  20. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products.

  1. An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of whole plants from mature seeds of a high yielding Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety PAU 201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Shabir H; Sanghera, Gulzar S; Gosal, Satbir S

    2011-07-01

    Tissue culture is one of the tools necessary for genetic engineering and many other breeding programs. Moreover, selection of high regenerating rice varieties is a pre-requisite for success in rice biotechnology. In this report we established a reproducible plant regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis. The explants used for regeneration were embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds cultured on callus induction media. For callus induction mature seeds were cultured on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose combined with 560 mg/l proline and 1.5-3.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5-1.5 mg/l Kin. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose, supplemented with 1.0-3.0 mg/l BAP, 0.5-1.5 mg/l Kin and 0.5-1.5 mg/l NAA. The highest frequency of callus induction (44.4%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/l Kin, 560 mg/l proline and 30 g/l sucrose. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (42.5%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l Kin. The plantlets were hardened and transferred to soil in earthen pots. The developed method was highly reproducible. The in vitro developed plants showed normal growth and flowering under glasshouse conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effet de L'hyptis ( Hyptis suaveolens ), du Neem ( Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most damaging pests to vegetables cropping. In order to find alternative means for chemical control of these parasites, the nematicidal effect of aqueous extracts from fresh and dried leaves, as well as stems and roots of 4 local plants varieties : hyptis (Hyptis ...

  3. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem were cultured on Murashige and. Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP (0.0, ...

  4. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, ... animals orally via a cannula inserted through the oral cavity. .... oral cavity. The experiment commenced by administration of 15 mg kg. -1 of chloroquine sulphate to each rabbit orally. This dosing was based on the 15mg kg. -1.

  5. Effect of Tillage Practices and Neem Leaves(Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites have been identified as one of the major pests of cassava in Nigeria especially on infested soils. Effect of different tillage practices and rates of neem leaves on the incidence and severity of termites on cassava field was investigated in this study. Field experiment was conducted in 2007 at the teaching and research ...

  6. Inhibition of Citrinin Production in Penicillium citrinum Cultures by Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kemmelmeier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO DE SEMILLA DE NEEM (Azadirachta indica COMO GARRAPATICIDA EN BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Hurtado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer el efecto garrapaticida del extracto acuoso de la semilla de Neem (EASN, se seleccionaron 28 terneros (lactantes mestizos, con fines de doble propósito, del hato bovino de la ESPAM MFL; estos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos a los cuales se les aplicó los siguientes tratamientos (T: 4% de EASN (T1, 5% EASN (T2, 6% EASN (T3 y Amitraz 1 mL/L (T4, siendo este el control. Para la obtención del biopreparado (EASN se aplicó los procesos de: molienda, pesaje, preparación y colado. Se utilizó el diseño completamente al azar, teniendo como factor único el efecto de tratamientos, con una prueba de medias de Tukey al 5%, para conocer las diferencias estadísticas entre estos. La variable de respuesta (cantidad de garrapatas se cuantificó mediante observación directa del número de garrapatas vivas antes de aplicarse y tres días post aplicación del EASN. Los resultados demostraron un efecto significativo entre los tratamientos con un comportamiento similar de efectividad en T2 y T3 con respecto al control (T4. La relación costo-beneficio más acorde se obtuvo en los T1 y T2. Se concluye que el EASN al 5% puede ser utilizado como control biológico efectivo de la garrapata en terneros, que además de presentar un bajo costo económico también representa una nula incidencia de contaminación ambiental.

  8. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive control, and negative control. Data collection to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was done by comparing the clarity of culture in TSB medium 2% on a variety of different concentrations, the positive control and a negative control. Determination MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration was done by looking at the presence or absence and the number of colonies of bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus that appears in the subculture medium TSA 2% after 24 h incubation. The results showed that the value of MIC was 5%, as shown by the tube began to clear. Value of MBC of neem leaf extract against Vibrio alginolyticus was characterized by a concentration of 12.5% has been no emergence of bacterial colonies Vibrio alginolyticus. Based on the research, it concluded that neem leaf extract can provide antibacterial effect against bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in vitro.

  9. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  10. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  11. Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuf traitements ont été comparés : un témoin non traité, un témoin traité avec un insecticide homologué à base de cartap, six traitements avec trois différentes doses d'extraits de neem et de papayer et un traitement avec un extrait de graines de neem. L'extrait de graines de neem a été très efficace, tout comme le produit ...

  12. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  13. Biochemical characterisation of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds and its efficacy in reducing plasma leptin in an experimental model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Amanda Fernandes de; Costa, Izael de Sousa; Carvalho, Fabiana Maria Coimbra de; Kiyota, Sumika; Souza, Beatriz Blenda Pinheiro de; Sifuentes, Daniel Nogoceke; Serquiz, Raphael Paschoal; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; Santos, Elizeu Antunes Dos; Morais, Ana Heloneida de Araújo

    2018-12-01

    A trypsin inhibitor isolated from tamarind seed (TTI) has satietogenic effects in animals, increasing the cholecystokinin (CCK) in eutrophy and reducing leptin in obesity. We purified TTI (pTTI), characterised, and observed its effect upon CCK and leptin in obese Wistar rats. By HPLC, and after amplification of resolution, two protein fractions were observed: Fr1 and Fr2, with average mass of [M + 14H] +  = 19,594,690 Da and [M + 13H] +  = 19,578,266 Da, respectively. The protein fractions showed 54 and 53 amino acid residues with the same sequence. pTTI presented resistance to temperature and pH variations; IC 50 was 2.7 × 10 -10  mol.L -1 and Ki was 2.9 × 10 -11  mol.L -1 . The 2-DE revealed spots with isoelectric points between pH 5 and 6, and one near pH 8. pTTI action on leptin decrease was confirmed. We conclude that pTTI is a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor with possible biotechnological health-related application.

  14. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-06-10

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention.

  15. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  16. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  17. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  18. Mangifera indica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Nucellar embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in monoembryonic and polyembryonic mango. (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. Manish Shukla, Khair Tuwair Al-Busaidi*, Ghaya Sultan Al-Blushi, Abdullah Hamed Al-. Burashdi, Hamoud Darwish Al-Hasani, Mohammed Hamed Al-Jabri and. Basem Saif AL- ...

  19. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  20. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  1. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok) ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

  2. High frequency plant regeneration from desiccated calli of indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is required to achieve high frequency transformation from transformed calli. We report here high frequency plant regeneration from mature seed derived embryogenic calli of two recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126 after partial desiccation treatment. Embryogenic and ...

  3. [In vitro insecticidal activity of seed neem oil on Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Michelline V; Morais, Selene M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Silva, Rafaella A; Barros, Renata S; Sousa, Raimundo N; Sousa, Lindemberg C; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Brito, Edy S; Souza-Neto, Manoel A

    2010-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the effect of oil from (Azadirachta indica) neem seeds on eggs, larvae and adults of the vector. The insects were captured in the field and kept in the laboratory at +/- 27 °C and 80% relative humidity. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed using two negative controls (distilled water and Tween 80) and a positive control. The eggs were sprayed with the oil at different concentrations and the number of hatched larvae evaluated for 10 days. Mortality of larvae was observed to pupation and adult mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed by Tukey test at 5% probability. The highest oil concentration of eggs obtained 65.16 +/- 3.24% efficacy for reducing egg hatching. The test with larvae showed 67.75 +/- 2.21% efficacy at a concentration of 100 mg.mL⁻¹. In adults, the efficacy of the 100 mg.mL⁻¹ concentration was 96.64 +/- 4.11% after 24 hours. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of triterpenes. These results demonstrate the potential use of this oil in the control of this vector.

  4. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium to Potassium ratio (Na/K) was 0.1 and 0.09 while Calcium to Phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) was 0.39-1.24, with calorie values of 2 10.90 and 122.41 kcal/100g for whole seeds and seed nuts respectively. The length of pod (LOP) was 7.30 ± 1.31 cm (n=50), breadth of pod (BOP) was 3.05 ± 1.20 cm. T. indica seed nuts ...

  5. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-09-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N(2)-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  6. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  7. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  8. The neem Azadirachta indica as a means to control soil nematodes and its application in vegetable cultures in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin, JE.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neem extracts for pest control is less common in nematology than in entomology. The purpose of this paper is to make a short review of the agronomical potential of the neem tree, with particular emphasis on its role for the control of deleterious nematodes. A specifie case for the control of Meloidogyne, which was carried out in Benin, is presented.

  9. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  10. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K K; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7(th) day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 10(7) colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  11. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  12. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut...

  13. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  14. Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air Ripening Storage of Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Fruits Grown in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  15. Effect of X-rays on germination of some wild papilionaceous seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghtai, S.A.; Khan, S.S.; Sultan, Suman

    1978-01-01

    Dry seeds of Aeschynomene indica Linn., Alysicarpus rugosus, Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC., three species of Indigofera Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. and Zorniagibbosa were irradiated with 1500r dose of X-rays for breaking their dormancy. Whereas none of the seeds of Alysicarpus rugosus, Indigo fera enneaphylla, I.linifolia and Zornia gibbosa could germinate. 23%, 10%, 3% and 2% germination was recorded for the seeds of Indigofera hirsuta sansu Baker, Tephrosia purpurea Aeschynomene indica and Desmodium gangeticum respectively. (author)

  16. effect of seed extracts of azadirachta ind/ca a. juss on the tra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    0.22 or 0.45um (Pore size millipore membrane filer equipped !h a S'<\\i!::le~ er adaptor. lfe Brown cultivar of cowpea ... Cowpea test crops raised in 2-litre pots containing sterilized soil were kept in insect - poof cases. Ten-day-old seedlings were .... Practice - Oriented results on u.-.e and production of neem ingredients and ...

  17. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  18. The Using Of Fenolic Compounds Of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Leaves Extracts As A Bioinsecticide And Bioherbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Pluchea indica (L.) Less. produces secondary metabolites such as lignans, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, benzoids, tannins, flavonoids, and hydroquinone phenols, used to protect plants against various herbivores, and pathogenic microorganisms, and are used as bioherbicides for weed control. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of phenolic compounds of leaf extract of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. to the mortality of Spodoptera litura (LC 50 and LC 80) and its effect for seed germination inhibitor of Amaranthus spinosus. The research design was Randomized Completely Design (RCD) with one factor i.e concentration.Test of methanol extract bioactivity on instar two S. litura using five levels of concentrations 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%, whereas in plants Amaranthus spinoususe lower concentrations 0%, 0,125%, 0,50% and 1%. The parameters measured the mortality of S. litura and the seed germination of A. spinosus which included percentage of germination and germination rate. The results show that the biopesticide developed from plants Pluchea indica can result in mortality 81.90% of S. litura at a concentration of 12%, with LC 50 of 4.00 ± 0.60 % and LC 80 of 9.88 ± 0.61% . As for the seed germination of plants, the higher concentration of P. indica leaf extract resulted higher inhibition on seed germination of Amaranthus spinosus

  19. Antidermatophytic properties of formulated ointments containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant derived medicines have over the years made massive contributions to the well-being of humans. Azadirachta indica (A.indica) is traditionally being exploited in the treatment of diseases such as eczema, ringworm, sore throat, respiratory tract infection and scabies. The seed oil is used in unspecified quantities without ...

  20. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana) en vue de leur rajeunissement

    OpenAIRE

    Danthu, P.; Hane, B.; Touré, M.; Sagna, P.; Sagna, M.; Bâ, S.; de Troyer, MA.; Soloviev, P.

    2001-01-01

    Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana) with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length) and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age o...

  1. Variation in Fruit Yield and Correlations between Seed Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interest in tomato is determined by colour, shape and size, therefore (apart from ... Key Words: Seed quality, seedling emergence, fruit yield, heritability, tomato ...... (1986); Correlation and Path-. Coefficient analysis in Potato,. Solanum tuberos um Acta Bot. Indica 14: 61-67. Black. J . N.1959. Seed size in herbage legumes.

  2. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  3. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  4. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  5. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  6. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Maize (Zea mays L.) seed samples were collected from three markets in Minna, Niger State to investigate the effect of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf ethanolic extract on germination of the seeds and seedling vigour. Among the fungi genera isolated from the ...

  7. Cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica ) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reported in this paper the requirement of the extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) for regulating unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes and maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where many proteins are synthesized and sorted to ...

  8. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... We reported in this paper the requirement of the extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) for regulating unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes and maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where many proteins are synthesized ...

  9. Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum grattissimum leaf extracts in the control of yam rot. ... Fusarium oxysporium, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicilluim notatum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the rotted yams. Both fresh and dry extracts of the leaves had significant effects ...

  10. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  11. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  12. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  13. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  14. IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI SECARA KLT-BIOAUTOGRAFI TERHADAP BAKTERI Stahpylococcus aureus DAN Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfijrin Ramadhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rendahnya kesadaran masyarakat dan kurangnya sarana kesehatan membuat penyakit infeksi semakin meningkat. Pengobatan secara alami sekarang menjadi pilihan baru sebagai antibakteri, salah satunya adalah mimba. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa daun mimba dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri, akan tetapi belum diketahui senyawa apa yang berperan sebagai antibakteri tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui di dalam daun mimba senyawa yang berperan sebagai antibakteri. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode KLT Bioautografi langsung, dimana hasil maserasi esktrak etanol daun mimba yang telah dielusi ditempelkan ke media yang telah ditanami bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Zona hambat yang terbentuk dilakukan identifikasi senyawa dengan menggunakan pereaksi semprot Dragendorf, FeCl3, Sitroborat, Lieberman Bouchardat, dan SbCl3. Hasil uji KLT-Bioautografi menunjukkan bahwa daun mimba dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri yang ditandai dengan terbentuknya zona bening masing-masing dengan Rf 0,4 pada bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Senyawa yang berperan sebagai antibakteri terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli diduga adalah senyawa saponin dimana terbentuk warna ungu dengan pereaksi SbCl3.

  15. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  16. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  17. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP), a marker protein for the differentiation of Oryza sativa subspecies indica and japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Keming; Min, Chao; Xia, Hengchuan; Yang, Yanhua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Keping

    2014-04-29

    Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP), which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.

  18. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP, a Marker Protein for the Differentiation of Oryza sativa Subspecies indica and japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP, which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.

  19. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  20. Atividade inseticida in vitro do óleo de sementes de nim sobre Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae In vitro insecticidal activity of seed neem oil on Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline V. Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis é o principal vetor da Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo de sementes de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre ovos, larvas e adultos do vetor. Os insetos foram capturados no campo e mantidos no laboratório a ± 27 °C e 80% de umidade relativa. Cinco tratamentos com diferentes concentrações foram realizados, usando-se dois controles negativos, um com água destilada e outro com Tween 80 (3% e um controle positivo com cipermetrina. Os ovos foram borrifados com o óleo em diferentes concentrações e avaliou-se o número de larvas eclodidas por 10 dias consecutivos. A mortalidade das larvas foi observada até a pupação, e a mortalidade dos adultos foi observada após 24, 48, e 72 horas. A análise estatística foi feita pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. No teste com ovos, a maior concentração obteve 65,16 ± 3,24% de eficácia. O teste com larvas apresentou 67,75 ± 2,21% de eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1. Com adultos, a eficácia na concentração de 100 mg.mL-1 foi de 96,64 ± 4,11%, após 24 horas. A análise fitoquímica revelou a presença de triterpenos. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial uso desse óleo no controle deste vetor.Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the effect of oil from (Azadirachta indica neem seeds on eggs, larvae and adults of the vector. The insects were captured in the field and kept in the laboratory at ± 27 °C and 80% relative humidity. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed using two negative controls (distilled water and Tween 80 and a positive control. The eggs were sprayed with the oil at different concentrations and the number of hatched larvae evaluated for 10 days. Mortality of larvae was observed to pupation and adult mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed by Tukey test

  1. Seed dispersal potential of Asian elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna C.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Roberts, John E.; Savini, Chution; Bauer, Jan M.; Savini, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut passage times (GPT). In total, 1200 ingested and non-ingested control seeds were planted in soil and in elephant dung to quantify differences in germination rates in terms of GPT and dung treatment. We used survival analysis as a novel approach to account for the right-censored nature of the data obtained from germination experiments. The average seed survival rate was 79% and the mean GPT was 35 h. The minimum and maximum GPT were 20 h and 72 h, respectively. Ingested seeds were significantly more likely to germinate and to do so earlier than non-ingested control seeds (P = 0.0002). Seeds with the longest GPT displayed the highest germination success over time. Unexpectedly, seeds planted with dung had longer germination times than those planted without. We conclude that D. indica does not solely depend on but benefits from dispersal by elephants. The declining numbers of these mega-faunal seed dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species.

  2. Variation in Seedling Growth of Tamarindus indica (L.: A Threatening Medicinal Fruit Tree Species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Salim Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth is a precondition for conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources which depends upon understanding of breeding system, genetic inconsistency, and evolutionary forces in forest tree improvement. The aim of this study was to determine variation in seedling growth and age-age correlations of Tamarindus indica at population level in Bangladesh. The study revealed significant (P<0.05 differences of seasonal variation in seedling growth. Height and collar diameter growth showed significant (P<0.05 positive correlation with mean monthly rainfall. The study also revealed significant difference (P<0.05 of seedling growth among T. indica population. PCA illustrated rainfall, height growth, and diameter growth as the main characters in this study which defined drought as an additive character for this species. Cluster analysis of similarity showed how seedlings from 22.67°N latitude (origin separated from others. An increasing trend of age-age correlation was identified in both cases of shoot height and diameter growth. The study concluded that seed collection for either ex situ conservation or seedling production can be done from 22.67°N latitude as seedlings from that area performed better than others, and early clonal selection of T. indica can be done at the age of 9 months.

  3. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word “Tamar-I-hind,” meaning date of India. Its name “Amlika” in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  4. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  5. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: A promising natural excipient for pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Joshny Joseph; S N Kanchalochana; G Rajalakshmi; Vedha Hari; Ramya Devi Durai

    2012-01-01

    The natural polymers always have exceptional properties which make them distinct from the synthetic polymers and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for a wide range of applications. TSP is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the seeds of Tamarindus indica, recently gaining a wide potential in the field of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Its isolation and characterisation involve simple techniques ...

  6. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds from kernel seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Mangifera indica kernel seed cake inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by NMR, UV and mass spectrometry as methyl gallate, gallic acid and penta-O-galloylglucose. The

  7. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition.

  8. Source and Inheritance of the Within Cultivar Residual Variation Detected in an indica Variety IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-li WU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypically uniform indica variety IR64 was chosen for study of the source and inheritance of within cultivar residual variation using a set of SSR markers. Residual heterogeneity in IR64 was identified on the short arm of chromosome 2 involving at least 5 SSR loci spanning nearly 30 cM. The SSR variations originated from the parental lines of IR64 (IR5657-33-2/IR2061-465-1-5-5 and were segregating in the selfed bulk seed stock in a Mendelian manner for more than 20 years. This study verified that the within cultivar variations of SSR in a morphologically uniform variety IR64 of a selfing crop came from its parental lines, which has immediate and commercial applications including test of hybrid seed purity, varietal fingerprinting, and curation and propagation of germplasm collections.

  9. Antibacterial properties of Mangifera indica on Staphylococcus aureus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk diffusion, agar and broth dilution methods. In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the susceptibility of S. aureus to the extracts. The results showed that the stem-bark extracts of M. indica have antimicrobial ...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  11. Study on Seed Morphogenesis of Orobanchaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jao-Shien Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed morphogenesis of Orobanchaceae was not completely investigated previously. Here, we observed seed development of Orobanchaceous species in Taiwan using light and scanning electron microscopies. Results indicated that seeds of Aeginetia indica, Boschniakia himalaica, and Orobanche caerulescens all consisted of embryo, endosperm and testa. Ontogeny of the embryo in A. indica was Solanad type, while in both B. himalaica and O. caerulescens was Onagrad type. The mature embryos of the three species lacked embryonic organs, and their endosperm development was the cellular type and, at maturity, appeared as several cell layers of storage tissue. Ontogeny of the testa was all non-multiplicative, with the residues of the outermost cell layer and reticulately-thickened secondary walls of its cells at maturity. Mature seeds of A. indica and O. caerulescens were ovate whereas those of B. himalaica were oblate. As for Christisonia hookeri, due to lack of samples, only the cellular-typed endosperm was determined. The comparative development of Orobanchaceous seeds was discussed.

  12. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during gamma irradiation of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Namiki, M.; Kawakishi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerated aging effects, induced by y irradiation, were investigated on the fatty acid composition of lipids and on the content of endogenous antioxidants of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds with and without intact hull. While the linoleic acid content of the phospholipids decreased gradually with the increase in irradiation doses, there was a corresponding increase in the linoleic acid content of the free fatty acids. Such changes were drastic, especially in the case of Japonica rice seeds irradiated without intact hull. However, the neutral lipids were found to be resistant to γ irradiation. The α-tocopherol content was found to decrease (markedly) in rice seeds irradiated with or without hull, especially in the Japonica rice seeds. At a dose of 15 kGy only traces of a-tocopherol could be detected in Japonica and Indica rice seeds irradiated with and without intact hull. Oryzanol, a relatively weaker anti-oxidant, was found to be more resistant to oxidative damage than a-tocopherol. At 15 kGy, the oryzanol content ranged from 59 μg to 170 μg/g lipid in rice seeds irradiated with intact hull, while the corresponding value for rice seeds irradiated without hull was 52 μg to 153 μg/g lipid. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system offered better protection in overcoming oxidative stress in Indica rice hull than in Japonica rice hull

  13. Animal Research International - Vol 8, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel methanolic and aqueous extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. VS Njom, EDN Umeh, CS Eze, 1392-1397 ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 270 ... Vol 7, No 3 (2010), In vitro permeation studies of diclofenac diethylamine from newly developed oleogel bases, Abstract. DC Goupale, B Rajkapoor ... Vol 14, No 1 (2017), Antidermatophytic properties of formulated ointments containing Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed oil extract, Abstract. H.Y. Ungo-Kore ...

  15. Efficacité des extraits aqueux d'amande de neem et de feuilles d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of two botanical extracts has been tested. On the one hand, neem seeds extract (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) concentrated at the rate of 500 g for 10 litters water per hectare and at the other hand, aqueous Hyptis leaves extract (Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.) at the rate of 15Kg leaves for 10 litters water per ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alabi, RO. Vol 9, No 1 (1998) - Articles Effect of seed extracts of Azadirachta indica a. Juss on the transmission of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus by Myzus persicae suiz (Hemiptera; Aphididae) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 01891731. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 3, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed raw and heat-treated neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernals · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Prevalence of echinococcosis in dogs slaughtered at mammy market in Sokoto, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Neem, False Sesame and the Physic Nut in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica, False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in the ...

  19. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 33, No 2 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein requirements of growing indigenous chickens during the 14-21 weeks growing period · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... The efficacy of a 10% aqueous Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small East African and Toggenburg female goat kids in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Seed Oils On Alloxan-Induced Diabetes In New Zealand White Rabbits Abstract · Vol 13, No 2 (2011) - Articles Assessment of H1N1 influenza: A swine flu vaccination in Kumasi, Ghana Abstract · Vol 14, No 1 (2012) - Articles Possible mechanism ...

  1. Evaluation of the Insecticidal Potentials of Some Indigeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulverized plant materials of Eugenia aromatica (Baill) (seeds), Aristolochia ringes (Varl) (roots), Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterman (roots) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss (stem bark) were evaluated for their insecticidal activities against the warehouse moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) reared on cocoa beans.

  2. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  3. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  4. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  5. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  6. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K.; Anjum, Naser A.; Sharma, Krishna K.; Ansari, Mohammed W.; Ansari, Abid A.; Johri, Atul K.; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production. PMID:27047458

  7. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  8. Pembentukan Embrio Endospermik Sekunder Mangga (Mangifera indica L. Gedong Gincu Klon 289

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irni Furnawanthi Hindaningrum

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe improvement of Mangifera indica L. by conventional breeding approaches has been confounded by the long generation cycle, low fruit set, single seed per fruit and high degree of cross pollination. Biotechnology complements conventional breeding and expedite the mango improvement programs. Endosperm culture is a direct method to produce triploid plants. This study aimed  to obtain embryo from endosperm culture. The system of secondary somatic embriogenesis in mango described here represents a source of embryogenic material may be used for mass propagation and genetic manipulation of this crop. The method consisted of induction, proliferation, maturation, germination, and histological analysis of the obtaimed embryos. A protocol for plantlet regeneration was developed for Gedong Gincu mango clone 289 through secondary somatic embryogenesis. Primary somatic embryos (proembryo and cotyledonary embryos were cultured in induction medium to induce the secondary somatic embryos. The best proliferation rate was 0.22 in medium with 1 g L-1 Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP for multiplication of secondary somatic embryos. Maturation of inoculum derived from the proliferation medium supplemented with 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal on medium containing 0.4 mg L-1 BAP provides the average 2.39 embryo formation of cotyledonari phase. The highest germination frequency (20% was obtained in media with GA3 1.5 mg L-1.Keywords: endosperm, Gedong Gincu, Mangifera indica L, secondary endospermic embrio

  9. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  10. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  11. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  12. Antifungal Quinoline Alkaloids from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretton, Sylvian; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Azzollini, Antonio; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Voinesco, Francine; Michellod, Emilie; Sanglard, Dominique; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2016-02-26

    Chemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of five polyhydroxymethoxyflavonoids, namely, oxyanin A (1), vitexicarpin (3), chrysosplenol E (4), flindulatin (5), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6), and six quinolone alkaloids, waltheriones M-Q (2, 7, 8, 10, 11) and 5(R)-vanessine (9). Among these, compounds 2, 7, 8, 10, and 11 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY NMR experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by ECD. The isolated constituents and 10 additional quinoline alkaloids previously isolated from the roots of the plant were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and 10 compounds (7, 9, 11-16, 18, 21) showed growth inhibitory activity on both planktonic cells and biofilms (MIC ≤ 32 μg/mL). Their spectrum of activity against other pathogenic Candida species and their cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells were also determined. In addition, the cytological effect of the antifungal isolated compounds on the ultrastructure of C. albicans was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  14. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  15. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  16. Response of Albino Rats to Dietary Levels of Mango Seed Cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangifera indica (Mango) seed kernel from Nigeria containing about 44% moisture, 6% Protein, 12.8% fat, 32.8% carbohydrate, 2% ash and 0.39% tannin, was defatted by petroleum ether, detoxified by ethanol, thoroughly sundried, then ground and used as supplementary animal diet ingredient. Feed conversion ratio of ...

  17. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a diverse genetic basis of seed dormancy across subpopulations in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwa, Risper Auma; Zhao, Hu; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-25

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait employed by flowering plants to avoid harsh environmental conditions for the continuity of their next generations. In cereal crops, moderate seed dormancy could help prevent pre-harvest sprouting and improve grain yield and quality. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) for dormancy, based on seed germination percentage (GP) in freshly harvested seeds (FHS) and after-ripened seeds (ARS) in 350 worldwide accessions that were characterized with strong population structure of indica, japonica and Aus subpopulations. The germination tests revealed that Aus and indica rice had stronger seed dormancy than japonica rice in FHS. Association analysis revealed 16 loci significantly associated with GP in FHS and 38 in ARS. Three out of the 38 loci detected in ARS were also detected in FHS and 13 of the ARS loci were detected near previously mapped dormancy QTL. In FHS, three of the association loci were located within 100 kb around previously cloned GA/IAA inactivation genes such as GA2ox3, EUI1 and GH3-2 and one near dormancy gene, Sdr4. In ARS, an association signal was detected near ABA signaling gene ABI5. No association peaks were commonly detected among the sub-populations in FHS and only one association peak was detected in both indica and japonica populations in ARS. Sdr4 and GA2OX3 haplotype analysis showed that Aus and indica II (IndII) varieties had stronger dormancy alleles whereas indica I (IndI) and japonica had weak or non-dormancy alleles. The association study and haplotype analysis together, indicate an involvement of independent genes and alleles contributing towards regulation and natural variation of seed dormancy among the rice sub-populations.

  18. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Kumar, V; Prakash, O M

    2011-10-01

    To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.

  19. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  20. Neoteric trends in tissue culture-mediated biotechnology of Indian ipecac [Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Kundu, Suprabuddha

    2017-07-01

    Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an ethno-pharmacologically important perennial climber of Asclepiadaceae, is commonly known as Antamul or Indian ipecac. It is essentially accredited for its medicinal properties owing to its wide range of alkaloids in the form of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tylophorine, tylophorinine, and tylophorinidine. Accelerated mass propagation of Tylophora is challenging because of its reduced seed germination frequency that consequently headed the pursuit for efficient protocols on in vitro propagation for the large-scale regeneration, conservation as well as sustainable supply of quality propagules. Ample tissue culture-mediated biotechnological investigations have been carried out on this medicinal plant till date and several micropropagation protocols have been standardized as well. The present review compares between several typical methods as well as factors, involving on direct and indirect organogenesis of Tylophora along with various up-to-date and modified techniques such as somatic embryogenesis, protoplast culture, synthetic seed production, genetic transformation, and in vitro interventions for the secondary metabolite production that have been reported in last two decades. This compilation will allow assessing the achievements and trends of Tylophora research so far, as well as will advance the research more rapidly, since many aspects, basic and applied, have yet to be explored.

  1. Highly efficient protocol for callogenesis, somagenesis and regeneration of Indica rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y; Mahmood, Maziah; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abiri, Rambod; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we have reported a simple, fast and efficient regeneration protocol using mature embryos as explants, and discovered its effective applicability to a range of Indica rice genotypes. We have considered the response of six varieties in the steps of the regeneration procedure. The results showed that calli were variably developed from the scutellar region of seeds and visible within 6-20 days. The highest and lowest calli induction frequency (70% and 51.66%) and number of induced calli from seeds (14 and 10.33) were observed in MR269 and MRQ74, respectively. The maximum and minimum number (7.66 and 4) and frequency of embryogenic calli (38.33% and 20%) were recorded in MR219 and MRQ74, respectively. However, the highest browning rate was observed in MR84 (87%) and the lowest rate in MRQ50 (46%). The majority of plants regenerated from embryogenic calli were obtained from MRQ50 (54%) and the minimum number of plants from MR84. In this study, the maximum numbers of plantlets were regenerated from the varieties with highest rate of embryogenic calli. Also, various varieties, including MRQ50, MR269, MR276 and MR219, were satisfactorily responding, while MRQ74 and MR84 weakly responded to the procedure. Such a simple, successful and generalized method possesses the potential to become an important tool for crop improvement and functional studies of genes in rice as a model monocot plant. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  3. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  4. Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and characterization of major fragrance gene by microsatellite markers. ... At some SSR loci, new/recombinant alleles were observed, which indicate the active recombination between genomes of two rice varieties and can be used for linkage mapping once ...

  5. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    Flowers are red to yellow with a dark center containing short peduncles. The flowers have both male and female organs. Seedpods are enclosed in their red, fleshy calyces which are commonly used for making food and tea. 6 . The current study sets to determine dough rising ability of ;. Tamarindus Indica, Citrus limon and.

  6. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) serves as a source of food, feed, as well as a means of additional income to the people in northern Ethiopia. The species has different varieties with varied rate of productivity and palatability. This study was conducted to assess the food and feed value of the Cactus Pear varieties in ...

  7. Transient expression of β-glucuronidase gene in indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    glucuronidase gene into embryogenic callus cultures of indica rice variety Basmati 370 (Minhas et al., 1996) and suspension cells of Pusa Basmati 1 (Jain et al., 1996) have been reported. The objectives of the present study were to optimize the parameters of Biolistic™ PDS-. 1000/He driven particle delivery system for co-.

  8. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  9. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized in glass jars by hurdle technology during storage. José Armando Ulloa1*, Héctor Escalona2 and Lourdes Díaz2. 1Centro de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura, ...

  10. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium guajava L. (Guava) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) grown in Trikania around the industrial area, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The differences in the bioaccumulation of the ...

  11. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  12. EFFECTS OF EDTA ON LEA indica) SEEDLINGS REPLANTE ECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. This research investigates the effects of E indica) seedlings grown in hydroponic sol collected from the garden of the Departme. Science and Technology Wudil, replanted in and EDTA. All plants grown in treated hydro time varied highly significantly (Pr < 0.00 values of treated hydroponics were signific.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn | Doughari | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Tamarindus indica is a plant that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cold, fever, stomach disorder, diarrhea and jaundice and as skin cleanser. To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of the plant, the antimicrobial activities of extracts of the stem bark and leaves were evaluated against some ...

  14. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper ... treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high turbidity raw water samples (i.e. 478 NTU) using T. indica CPE of concentrations ranging from 500 to 3000 mg/L as natural coagulant, using jar tests.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica | Shaheen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive compounds of fruits of Coccinia indica were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The aqueous extracts did not show much significant activity, while the organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity against the test bacteria. The activity was more ...

  16. Heavy metal contents of Azidirachta indica collected from Akungba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the recovery test and the reproducibility of the method were found satisfactory to validate the experimental protocol. Concentration of heavy metals in plant samples. The concentration (mean ± SD) in ppm of Cd, Co, Fe,. Pb and Zn in the roots, stems and leaves of Azidirachta indica are respectively presented in ...

  17. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  18. Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica is a domesticated species of high economic value for the Sahel region. Despite this importance, very few data is available on its diversity as well as its structure leading to controversial discussions on its origin. Thus it is questionable whether the knowledge of its genetic diversity and organisation may ...

  19. mediated transformation in two indica rice ( Oryza Sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA 1301 was used for transformation in two economically important highly recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126. High concentrations of acetosyringone in the agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium proved to be ...

  20. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  1. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. 5 diets at approximately 40% crude protein containing varying levels of the extracts at 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% were formulated. These were fed to fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight, 5.25 – 6.05g) that were ...

  2. Mangifera indica Leave Extracts as Organic Inhibitors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition efficiency and adsorption characteristics of alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins extracts of Mangifera indica leaves in controlling corrosion of Zinc sheet in 5 M hydrogentetraoxosulphate (VI) acid solution has been evaluated by gasometric method. The formulation consisting of 2 g/L of extract offers 96.2%, 85.3% ...

  3. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757. Abbreviations AFLP - Amplified fragment length polymorphism , cpDNA - Chloroplast DNA, DDGE - Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA - Deoxyribo nucleic acid, EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, HCl - Hydrochloric acid, ISSR - Inter simple sequence repeats, ITS - Internal transcribed spacer, MATAB - Methyl Ammonium Bromide, Na2SO3 - Sodium sulphite, NaCl - Sodium chloride, NCBI - National Centre for Biotechnology Information, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PEG - Polyethylene glycol, RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, trnL-F - Transfer RNA genes start codon- termination codon. PMID:21423885

  4. Effects of Mangifera indica and Casuarina equistifolia extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean survival time (mst) and haematocrit was determined following treatment of Plasmodium berghei infected mice with Casuarina equistifolia and Mangifera indica (leaf) extracts during established infection and repository test procedures. The survival time was significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent compared to the ...

  5. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and ...

  6. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  7. Production Scenarios of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in Harari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production Scenarios of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. ... T Bezu, K Woldetsadik, K Woldetsadik, T Tana, T Tana ... Input shortage (water, fertilizer and pesticide), lack of improved technologies, pests (especially fruit fly and anthracnose), postharvest loss and poor marketing were the ...

  8. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  9. Biosynthesis of Yttrium oxide nanoparticles using Acalypha indica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the synthesis of Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized ... Then the extract was filtered through ordinary filter paper and through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The fil- trate was collected and it was kept in a refrigerator at 4. ◦. C for further experiments.

  10. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations.

  11. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seed lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, I A

    1966-12-02

    Many of the newly discovered seedoil acids have reactive or unusual functional groups or other facets of molecular structure that permit their ready differentiation from oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and the other most prevalent saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The recognition and availability of the new acids, coupled with methods that make detection and determination easy, will help studies of lipid biosynthesis in the plant and of lipid metabolism and utilization in animals, and will stimulate more studies in depth on the fine points of seedlipid structure. Correlations of structural patterns in seed lipids of particular groups of plants with classical taxonomic categories will permit clarifications, raise needed questions concerning classifications, and accelerate research in chemotaxonomy and phylogenetics. Seed lipids are particularly well suited for establishing relationships among plants because of their great variety in structure compared to the more limited structural types of amino acids, sugars, purines, and many other plant substances. The newly characterized seed oils are potentially important industrial raw materials whenever they come from agronomically promising plant species. The molecular structures of seed triglycerides have major influence on their physical properties and therefore advances in knowledge in that sphere have practical implications. For example, the unusual characteristics of cocoa butter that make it so valuable for food and confectionery use are attributed to the specific arrangement of fatty acids it its triglycerides. The glycerides are almost all 2-oleic-1,3-disaturated acid triglycerides. The physical characteristics of lard are advantageously changed by catalytically rearranging fatty acyl groups among the glycerides initially in the fat to achieve a more nearly random distribution, followed sometimes by further fractionation to remove more saturated glycerides. Through this change of glyceride structures a

  13. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  14. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  15. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  16. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LEAVES OF MORUS INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Pethakamsetty Lakshmi; Seru Ganapaty; K. Mary Bharathi

    2013-01-01

    Mulberry belongs to the genus Morus of the family Moraceae. It is an economically important plant being used for sericulture. Studies have been reported on the chemical composition and nutritional potentials of some mulberry species worldwide. In the present study the chemical examination of Morus indica leaves on conventional extraction and various chromatographic methods, led to the isolation of five compounds- β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, cirisimaritin and quer...

  17. Cancer chemopreventive activity of compounds isolated from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteillier, Aymeric; Cretton, Sylvian; Ciclet, Olivier; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Christen, Philippe; Cuendet, Muriel

    2017-05-05

    Waltheria indica L. is traditionally used in several countries against inflammatory related diseases and cancer, mainly as a decoction of the aerial parts. The transcription factor NF-κB is known to induce tumor promotion and progression and is considered a major player in inflammation-driven cancers. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway possess cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. This study aimed first to confirm the use of Waltheria indica as a traditional anti-inflammatory remedy by assessing the NF-κB inhibitory activity and then to identify the major bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds were also tested for their QR inducing property, a complementary strategy in cancer chemoprevention able to target tumor initiation. Finally, the relevance of in vitro results was examined by investigating the occurrence of the active compounds in traditional preparations. Compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts using flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. NF-κB inhibitory activity of pure compounds from Waltheria indica was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. Their QR inducing activity was also assessed in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Twenty-nine compounds, of which 5 are new, were obtained from the dichloromethane extract and tested for their cancer chemoprevention activity. Eleven compounds inhibited NF-κB and/or induced QR in the low to mid µM range. Chrysosplenol E (20) was active in both tests. Two of the most potent NF-κB inhibitors, waltherione A (4) and waltherione C (5), as well as 20 were found in the traditional decoction, in which 4 and 5 were major compounds. The presence of potent NF-κB inhibitors and QR inducing compounds in the decoction of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica supports its traditional use in inflammatory-related diseases and cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Usages therapeutiques traditionnels de Flacourtia indica (Burm f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certains les utilisent même dans le cadre de complément alimentaire. Aussi, les feuilles de F. indica sont-elles servies au bétail pour les engraisser. Mots clés : Investigations, plantes médicinales, complément alimentaire. Benin has a rich and diversified collection of flora utilised in treatment of malaria and diseases ...

  19. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana en vue de leur rajeunissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age of the rootstock (two to six weeks depending on species, the level of grafting (on hypocotyl instead of epicotyl and the origin of the scion (apex have higher growth after micrografting than axillary buds. The method developed was applied to the restoration of juvenile traits of adult trees. The main criterion is the rooting ability of microcuttings sampled on scions, after micrografting. Rooting competence restoration depends on the species, the nature of the first copy of the donor tree and the number of cycles of micrografting. The rejuvenation was more definite for F. albida, mobilised by root cuttings. In this case, one third of the microcuttings rooted after the first cycle of micrografting and 75 % after the second. For 2. Mauritiana mobilised by horticultural budding, 25 % of microcuttings were rooted after the second successive micrograft. No restoration of rooting competence was obtained with A. senegal and T. indica mobilised by cutting.

  20. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  1. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  2. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan Campuran Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica terhadap Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemas R Notariza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radikal bebas, dalam kadar rendah atau menengah, mempunyai peran fisiologis bagi kehidupan sel tubuh. Pada konsentrasi tinggi, radikal-bebas dapat memicu stres oksidatif yang menjadi dasar patogenesis berbagai penyakit. Suplai antioksidan eksogen dibutuhkan untuk membantu kinerja antioksidan endogen dalam menangkal stres oksidatif. Ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica masing-masing diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica terhadap ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica. Kombinasi ekstrak diharapkan mampu meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan yang dihasilkan dan menurunkan dosis yang digunakan. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Kandungan fitokimia ekstrak juga diuji secara kualitatif. Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica maupun campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica positif mengandung fitokimia berupa flavonoid dan steroid. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa Vitamin C yang menjadi kontrol positif menunjukkan nilai EC50 sebesar 0,012 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica adalah 13,68 mg/mL, sedangkan nilai EC50 campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica adalah 39,65 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 yang lebih kecil mengindikasikan aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica.   Kata kunci: Acalypha indica; aktivitas antioksidan; Centella asiatica Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  4. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) use and conservation in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebifa-Othieno, Esther; Mugisha, Antony; Nyeko, Philip; Kabasa, John David

    2017-01-21

    Tamarindus indica L is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that traditionally contributes to food security and ecosystem stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the indigenous people of Eastern Uganda have used T. indica for generations and developed practices that promote its conservation and therefore we expected that they possess an elaborate indigenous knowledge (IK) system and that most of them have planted the species. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of IK, attitudes and practices on the use and conservation of T. indica. A cross sectional survey was conducted in two districts purposively selected from the T. indica natural range. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi-structured interviews and observation were used to collect data. Data was processed using qualitative analytical methods. Tamarindus indica was highly valued by the majority of the population. Tamarindus indica was used for food, medicinal, cultural, social, environmental amelioration and income generation purposes. The population possessed a high level of IK about T. indica evidenced by 18 categories of uses and multiple modes of use. Fruit pulp was the most commonly used tamarind product. Relative frequency of citation of the different uses provides insight into usage levels and IK possessed. The communities' food and medicinal uses concurred with scientific reports of health benefits of consuming T. indica. Approximately half of respondents had T. indica on their compounds or homegardens (53%). Fifty two percent of the tamarind population was self-propagated, 45% were planted while the propagation history for the remaining 3% was not known. Constraints towards planting T. indica included limited land, long maturation period and low monetary value. Fifty three percent of those who were growing T. indica did not carry out any silvicultural practices. The majority of T. indica encountered (87%) was intercropped with other crops or trees

  6. Morphological and organoleptic description of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cultivated in Jipijapa canton in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Ortega Julio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2016, seventeen cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L. were collected in local markets and farmers' field of Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, with the aim of describing and analyzing mango fruits due to their morphological characteristics of sugars (°Brix and total solids. Collections were carried out by stu-dents and teachers of the Research Methodologies course of the Agricultural Engineering Career, of the Southern State University of Manabí (UNESUM. The fruits were characterized by using 16 qualitative and quantitative variables for fruit and seed recommended by UPOV and IPGRI. The percentage of total solids and Brix grades of each harvested crop were also analyzed in the UNESUM bromatology laboratory. Results showed that in the Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, there is a great biodiversity of native mangoes, which were not characterized. Fruit shapes, pulp color and variable fiber contents were observed. The length of fruit was 6.33 to 12.50 cm, and the width was 5.27 to 8.50 cm, with a length/width ratio between 0.77 and 1.83 cm. The fruit weight was 63.3 to 500 g. No significant differences were observed in the sugars content (°Brix. Finally, it was observed that the range of consumable pulp was 63 to 94% in native cultivars and 86% to 97% in the improved ones.

  7. Efficient in vitro plant regeneration via leaf base segments of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M; Murugiah, V; Gupta, Aditya K

    2009-01-01

    A reliable and reproducible protocol has been developed for high frequency plant regeneration from 4-5 mm long leaf base segments of 4 days old in vitro germinated seedlings of indica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar Rasi. The effect of age of seedlings, position of leaf base segments and optimum concentration of 2,4-D on callus induction frequency was investigated with a future aim to use leaf bases for biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments. Friable, nodular and white to pale yellow embryogenic callus cultures (206 mg fresh weight /explant) were obtained from the first basal segments of rice seedlings on Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium supplemented with 2,4-D (11.3 microM) and 3.0 microM thiamine-HCL. Plant regeneration was achieved after the transfer of 54 days old embryogenic callus cultures to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP (2.2 microM) and NAA (0.27 microM). In vitro regenerated plants with multiple shoots and roots transferred to sterile soil in growth chamber and maintained in greenhouse exhibited normal growth and were phenotypically similar to plants germinated from seeds.

  8. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  9. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran. Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from individual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica. Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566). This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evidence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested.

  10. Avaliação da utilização de Nim (Azadirachta indica) para o controle parasitário em bovinos de produção leiteira em sistema orgânico.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Brito, Guilherme Rodrigues; Sanavria, Argemiro; Soares, João Paulo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    As infestações parasitárias são responsáveis por sérios prejuízos econômicos na pecuária leiteira por causarem danos para a saúde animal. O controle de ectoparasitos com produtos químicos convencionais tem sido realizado de forma indiscriminada, ocasionando o desenvolvimento acelerado de resistência aos princípios ativos, contaminação do ambiente e dos produtos de origem animal, provocando preocupação na sociedade e órgãos governamentais. Desta forma, o uso de métodos alternativos, como o de ...

  11. Eficacia do alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides) e Neem (Azadirachta indica) no controle da placa bacteriana e gengivite em uma comunidade carente de Fortaleza : um ensaio cl?nico controlado randomizado

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Botelho Soares

    2005-01-01

    Buccal illnesses as the caries and the gingivitis if configure as one of the main problems of the public health in the whole world. Oral Microorganism, in particular the streptococcus mutans group, are related to the formation of bacterial biofilm and the recurrent illnesses of it. A reduction of the number of these microorganisms implies, therefore, in prevention and control of these illnesses. In this work three solutions had been tested: clorexidina hidro-etan?lica 0.12% (positive control)...

  12. Utilização de substâncias naturais no controle de pulgões em cultivo orgânico de brócolis, Brassica oleracea var. itálica (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adriano Jorge Nunes dos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), Meliaceae, leaves and foliage of bitter melon, in Brazil named melão-de-são-caetano (Mormodica charantia L.), Cucurbitaceae, Chili Pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), Solanaceae, black pepper seeds (Piper nigrum), Piperaceae, NeenMax® (neem oil) and water (control) to control aphid infestations in organic cultivation of Brassica oleracea var. italic, in Arapiraca city, Alagoas...

  13. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M. A.; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butte...

  14. (Azadiracta indica) extract on sheep infested with Amblyomma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... The effect of topical application of neem seed extract on sheep infested with tick Ablyomma variegatum was examined for acaricidal and repellant activity. The seed extract showed acaricidal activity at 5.0, 2.5 and 1.0% concentration in vitro. The extract had no acaricidal activity in vivo. However, it showed a.

  15. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  17. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  18. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado; Ariadna Lafourcade Prada; Julio César Escalona Arranz; Antonio Iraizoz Colarte

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen ...

  19. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  20. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient

  1. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.A pre-formulation study for tablet preparation using soft extract from Tamarindus indica L. leaves was conducted. Possible interactions in binary mixtures of Tamarindus indica L. soft extract and selected excipients in a 1:3 ratio, which may affect the amount of polyphenols in the mixture at 30°, 45° and 60 °C temperatures, were analyzed. Three preliminary tablet formulations were designed and then the quality of granules and tables were researched in all the cases. It was concluded that there were no interactions affecting the color, the smell and the polyphenol concentration in the evaluated binary mixtures at 30°. At higher temperatures, the amount of polyphenols decreased. Pre-formulation number 3 yielded the best technological quality in tablet production and thus can be used for future formulation and optimization studies of Tamarind tables.

  2. Effect of the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia as well as glucose level of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica dose and time dependently inhibited parasitaemia and extended the life span of the treated rats from 8.5 days ...

  3. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado; Ariadna Lafourcade Prada; Julio César Escalona Arranz; Antonio Iraizoz Colarte

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen ...

  4. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  5. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FLUORIDE SORPTION USING MORRINGA INDICA-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karthikeyan, S. Siva Ilango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiments using activated carbon prepared from Morringa Indica bark were conducted to remove fluoride from aqueous solution. A minimum contact time of 25 min was required for optimum fluoride removal. The influence of adsorbent, dose, pH, co-ions (cations and anions on fluoride removal by the activated carbon has been experimentally verified. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at 30 C, 40 C and 50 C. The kinetics of adsorption and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were studied. The fluoride adsorption obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and followed a pseudo first order kinetic model. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the fluoride adsorption by Morringa Indica is an endothermic process indicating an increase in sorption rate at higher temperatures. The negative values of G indicate the spontaneity of adsorption. SEM and XRD studies confirmed the surface morphological characteristics of the adsorbent and the deposition of fluoride on the surface of the material.

  7. Antimalarial compounds from the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaou, Ali Mohamed; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Canlet, Cécile; Debrauwer, Laurent; Hutter, Sébastien; Laget, Michèle; Faure, Robert; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2010-07-20

    In the Comoros Islands, the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica are used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. Because of the important use of this plant, the phytochemistry of the aerial parts was investigated. Three compounds were isolated from the decoction of this plant material, pyrocatechol, homaloside D and poliothrysoside. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity on the chloroquine-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum and the cytotoxicity on two complementary human cell lines (THP1, HepG2), of AcOEt extract obtained after liquid/liquid extraction of the decoction and pure compounds, were evaluated. The poliothrysoside isolated from the AcOEt extract presented a strong antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)=7.4 microM) and a good selectivity index (>28) similar to chloroquine. This study reports for the first time antiplasmodial activity for Flacourtia indica, for its AcOEt extract and the three major constituents and confirms its traditional use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  9. Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil: A potential source for biodiesel production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a country is highly dependent on the supply of fossil fuels which are constrained by its limited availability and pollution characteristics. India is among the world’s fourth-largest petroleum consumer due to which the vehicular emissions increased eight times over the last two decades. Due to the environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel reserves, attention has been given to find an alternative energy source. Among the alternatives existing, Biodiesel is the one which is less polluting and eco-friendly. So it can be used in industrial, commercial, agricultural and other sectors as a substitute for diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, frying oils (waste, animal tallow and algae by a process of chemical reaction called Transesterification. Biodiesel is also known as methyl or ethyl esters of the feedstock from which it is produced. It is miscible with diesel oil which allows the use of blends of petro diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. The C.I. engines fuelled with biodiesel perform more or less in the same fashion as that with the conventional fuel. Comparative to diesel, biodiesel has high Cetane number and lower compressibility. Additionally, the heat release rate of biodiesel is slightly lower than diesel owing to low calorific value, low volatility and high viscosity. The problem of high viscosity can be eradicated by transesterification process and by adding additives which help us to store the biodiesel for a longer duration of time without any decay. Exhaust emissions are significantly reduced with the use of biodiesel or its blends. The present paper investigates the potential of Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production as it can be extracted from seeds of Mahua tree which are indigenous to India. It can grow even in dry regions and are found abundantly in several parts of India

  10. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  11. Antitrypanosomal quinoline alkaloids from the roots of Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretton, Sylvian; Breant, Lise; Pourrez, Lucie; Ambuehl, Chiara; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Perozzo, Remo; Karimou, Soumana; Kaiser, Marcel; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2014-10-24

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane root extract of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of 10 quinoline alkaloids, namely, 8-deoxoantidesmone (1), waltheriones E-L (2-9), and antidesmone (10). Among these, compounds 2-9 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by comparison of experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra. In addition, the isolated constituents were evaluated for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Compounds 4, 5, and 8 showed potent and selective growth inhibition toward Trypanosoma cruzi with IC50 values between 0.02 and 0.04 μM. Cytotoxicity for mouse skeletal L-6 cells was also determined for these compounds.

  12. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  14. Antibacterial effects of Pluchea indica Less leaf extract on E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Febrina Pargaputri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus. faecalis (E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum are the most common bacteria found in infected tooth root canal. Most of these bacteria often cause failure in endodontic treatments. Pluchea indica Less leaf is a species of plants that has several chemical properties. It consists of flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, and essensial oils which have been reported as antibacterial agents. Because of its benefits, the extract of Pluchea indica Less leaves may be potentially developed as one of root canal sterilization dressing. Purpose: This study aimed to determine antibacterial activity of Pluchea indica Less leaves extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria. Method: Dilution method was conducted first to show Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. The antibacterial activity test on Pluchea indica Less leaves extract was performed on E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria using agar diffusion method. The Pluchea indica Less leaves extract used for antibacterial activity test was at a concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%. Thirty-five petridiscs were used and divided into five groups based on the extract concentration. Result: The results showed strong and moderate antibacterial effects of the Pluchea indica Less leaves extract on E. faecalis at the concentrations of 100% and 50%, while on F. nucleatum only at the concentration of 100% with moderate effect. Conclusion: Pluchea indica Less leaves extract has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria with strong-moderate effect.

  15. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  16. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  17. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as res­ervoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran.Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from indi­vidual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Results: Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica.  Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566.Conclusion: This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evi­dence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested. 

  18. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  19. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  20. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  1. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The ab- dominal sternite is cream-white. The femur of the hind leg is thick. The compound eyes are black. This study showed that the larvae developed within the shells, on surface of the seeds, rotten. Infestation by Megaselia rufipes Meigen on germinated oil palm seeds ... 29. Fig. 5: Cracked seeds infested with maggots.

  2. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  3. Evaluación de la emergencia y las características morfológicas iniciales de Tamarindus indica L. con fines agroforestales Evaluation of the emergence and the initial morphological characteristics of Tamarindus indica L. with agroforestry purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Flores

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el estado Zulia, Venezuela, se evaluó en un primer experimento el efecto de la posición de siembra (PS y el tiempo de almacenamiento (TA de semillas de Tamarindus indica L., y en un segundo ensayo se analizó la emergencia y las características morfológicas de las plántulas mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado. La PS correspondió a semillas sembradas con el hilo hacia abajo, el hilo hacia arriba colocadas horizontalmente; mientras que el TA fue de uno y ocho meses. Transcurridos 30 días, los efectos de la PS, el TA y la interacción PSxTA fueron significativos en el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, la longitud de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH y el número de nudos (NN por plántula. Las semillas con un mes de almacenamiento y sembradas con el hilo hacia abajo mostraron los mejores resultados (PE: 97,5%; TE: 22,3 días; mientras que las semillas recién cosechadas sin almacenamiento y sembradas con el hilo hacia abajo, aportaron resultados sobresalientes (PE: 96,56%; TE: 22,92 días. Se observó una correlación significativa en todas las variables medidas, excluyendo el NH con AC, y el DT con AC y NH. Se concluye que para propagar eficazmente T. indica y establecer sistemas agroforestales, se deben emplear semillas recién cosechadas o bien con un mes de almacenamiento, sembrándolas con el hilo hacia abajo.In the Zulia state, Venezuela, a first trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting position (PP and storage time (ST of Tamarindus indica L. seeds, and in a second trial the emergence and morphological characteristics of the seedlings were analyzed by means of a completely randomized design. The PP corresponded to seeds planted with the hilum facing down, the hilum facing up horizontally placed; while ST was one and eight months. After 30 days the effects of PP, ST and the PP x ST interaction were significant on the emergence percentage (EP, emergence

  4. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meran Keshawa Ediriweera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described.

  5. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae), commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described. PMID:29456572

  6. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  7. Absorption and translocation of 15N in Japonica (Hinohikari) and Indica (Hadsaduri) rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.; Inagaki, S.; Chishaki, N.; Horiguchi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of 15 N-labeled nitrogen (N) applied as three N levels of ammonium nitrate at the stages of panicle initiation (PI) and heading (HD) were compared between a japonica rice variety (var. Hinohikari) and a tall indica rice variety (var. Hadsaduri) by growing them hydroponically. With the supply of low N level, 15 N absorption by the japonica variety was larger, but at medium and high N levels, the tall indica variety absorbed larger amounts of 15 N at both stages. However, the amount of 15 N partitioned to the panicles at maturity was considerably smaller in the indica variety, since dry matter allocation to the panicles was also smaller in this variety. The tall indica variety showed a considerable loss of 15 N from heading to maturity at the high N-level unlike the japonica variety. (author)

  8. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

  9. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as res­ervoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran.Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from in...

  10. Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of growing rabbits. Mango fruit rejects were sliced such that the peel and pulp were together and the seed discarded, sun dried until it attained about 10% moisture and milled to ...

  11. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soradech, Sitthiphong; Petchtubtim, Intira; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu; Muangman, Thanchanok

    2016-03-22

    In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  12. The role of auxins and cytokinins in the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis and Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ritter, Claudia; Venus, Yvonne; Camehl, Iris; Varma, Ajit; Shahollari, Bationa; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Arabidopsis growth and reproduction are stimulated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The fungus produces low amounts of auxins, but the auxin levels and the expression of auxin-regulated genes are not altered in colonized roots. Also, mutants with reduced auxin levels (ilr1-1, nit1-3, tfl2, cyp79 b2b3) respond to P. indica. However, the fungus rescues the dwarf phenotype of the auxin overproducer sur1-1 by converting free auxin into conjugates, which also results in the downregulation of the auxin-induced IAA6 and the upregulation of the P. indica-induced LRR1 gene. The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. trans-Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica-mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis-zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica-induced growth promotion. Finally, a comparative analysis of the phytohormone mutants allows the conclusion that the response to P. indica is independent of the architecture and size of the roots.

  13. Characterisation of glufosinate resistance mechanisms in Eleusine indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaludin, Adam; Yu, Qin; Zoellner, Peter; Beffa, Roland; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-06-01

    An Eleusine indica population has evolved resistance to glufosinate, a major post-emergence herbicide of global agriculture. This population was analysed for target-site (glutamine synthetase) and non-target-site (glufosinate uptake, translocation and metabolism) resistance mechanisms. Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity extracted from susceptible (S) and resistant (R*) plants was equally sensitive to glufosinate inhibition, with IC 50 values of 0.85 mm and 0.99 mm, respectively. The extractable GS activity was also similar in S and R* samples. Foliar uptake of [ 14 C]-glufosinate did not differ in S and R* plants, nor did glufosinate net uptake in leaf discs. Translocation of [ 14 C]-glufosinate into untreated shoots and roots was also similar in both populations, with 44% to 47% of the herbicide translocated out from the treated leaf 24 h after treatment. The HPLC and LC-MS analysis of glufosinate metabolism revealed no major metabolites in S or R* leaf tissue. Glufosinate resistance in this resistant population is not due to an insensitive GS, or increased activity, or altered glufosinate uptake and translocation, or enhanced glufosinate metabolism. Thus, target-site resistance is likely excluded and the exact resistance mechanism(s) remain to be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  15. Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  16. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  17. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  18. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  19. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  20. Purification and properties of the dihydrofolate synthetase from Serratia indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masamichi; Iwai, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The dihydrofolate synthetase (EC6.3.2.12) responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from dihydropteroic acid and L-glutamic acid was purified about 130-fold from extracts of Serratia indica IFO 3759 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme preparation obtained was shown to be homogeneous by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and ultracentrifugal analysis. The sedimentation coefficient of this enzyme was 3.9 S, and the molecular weight was determined to be about 47,000 by Sephadex G-100. The optimum pH for the reaction was 9.0. The enzymatic reaction required dihydropteroate, L-glutamate and ATP as substrates, and Mg 2+ and K + as cofactors. γ-L-Glutamyl-L-glutamic acid cannot replace L-glutamic acid as the substrate. Neither pteroic acid nor tetrahydropteroic acid can be used as the substrate. ATP was partially replaced by ITP or GTP. The enzyme reaction was inhibited by the addition of ADP, but not by AMP. One mole of dihydrofolate, 1 mole of ADP and 1 mole of orthophosphate were produced from each 1 mole of dihydropteroic acid, L-glutamic acid, and ATP. These results suggest that the systematic name for the dihydrofolate synthetase is 7,8-dihydropteroate: L-glutamate ligase (ADP). (auth.)

  1. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  2. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.

  3. Sprouted Sorghum Extract Elicits Coleoptile Emergence, Enhances Shoot and Root Acclimatization, and Maintains Genetic Fidelity in indica Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Radhesh Krishnan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The high growth-stimulating effect of plant extract has urged the plant biotechnologists to use natural supplements in the culture media instead of synthetic phytohormones. We advocated the effect of sprouted sorghum extract (SSE on emergence, in vitro acclimatization, and genetic fidelity in coleoptile derived callus of indica rice variety ADT36. The use of SSE with Murashige Skoog medium efficiently acclimatized the root and shoot apical systems. A higher mat and seminal roots (3.4 g biomass with an efficient shoot primordium elongation were observed with an increase in the concentration of SSE. Seeds treated with SSE medium showed higher germination and earlier coleoptile maturation about 48 h compared to untreated seeds, and there was a higher expression of eEF-1α with an increase in coleoptile length. B5 medium was effective on inducing embryogenic and nodular callus from 3-day-old coleoptile with 3.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and further proliferated effectively with 0.8 mg/L kinetin with a fresh weight of 180 mg. Highly significant regeneration was observed with combination of 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine and 3.0 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid. The metabolic and genetic profiles of in vitro and directly cultivated plants were the same, examined through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR and R-ISSR (combination of RAPD and ISSR markers, respectively, and thus confirming the significant efficacy of the SSE incorporated medium. Disarmed T-DNA was transformed to coleoptile derived callus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 and confirmed by GUS assay. The T-DNA integration was confirmed by DNA blot analysis using DNA from transient GUS-expressed explants. Thus, SSE can be used as a natural and organic supplement for organogenesis and efficient acclimatizations of shoot and root apical meristems in regenerated plants.

  4. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  5. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  6. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  7. Anti-fungal activity of some medicinal plants on different pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Farzana, A.; Shaukat, S.; Akbar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal activity of different medicinal and locally available plants extracts (leaves, fruit, seeds) which are usually found in the surrounding of fields or in the fields on some fungi were tested in lab conditions. Six different plants were selected for testing these plants were Acacia nilotica (Lamk.) Willd. Azadirachta indica (A.) Juss. Crotalaria juncea L. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Ocimum basilicum L. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) Dc. These plants showed antifungal activity against the Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. These plants crude extracts of leaves showed inhibition activity against the fungi and suppressed the myclial growth. Over all selected plants exhibited moderate type of inhibition against these above mentioned pathogens. Among these plants, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea showed the most effective results against the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sp. of fungal pathogens. Whereas, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Prosopis juliflora showed least potential of inhibition against all above mentioned fungal pathogens. It is investigated in present studies that Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea can be utilized against the management of fungal diseases particularly Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. (author)

  8. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  9. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action; Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da acao inseticida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista, E-mail: mrforim@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  12. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  13. TEST OF Morus khunpai AND M.indica HYBRID TOWARDS SILKWORM FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaedah Muin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of silkworm rearing depends on the availability of qualified mulberry plants. The research is aimed to observe the compatibility of hybrid Morus khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm's feeding. It is related to the cocoon and filament quality. KI hybrids are a result of pollination control male parent M.khunpai and female parent M.indica S-54. The research applied a Randomized Complete Design by measuring variables, i.e.: the percentage of cocoon, number of normal cocoon, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length. The result showed that cocoon and filament quality of silkworm fed by mulberry hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI have shown non-significant differences compared with silkworm fed by mulberry parents (M.khunpai and M.indica and the control (M.nigra. This situation showed that there has not been recognised yet as the compatibility of hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm feeding.

  14. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  15. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  16. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ..... atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes and other diseases.

  17. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S N; Naranjo, A M; Herrera, A P

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au +3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl 4 ) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution. (paper)

  19. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  20. Antibacterial activity of fumaria indica (hausskn.) pugsley against selected bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Y.; Nawaz, K.; Hussain, K.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts of F. indica prepared in different doses against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), Escherichia coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using agar well diffusion method (inhibition zone measurements) compared to gentamicin as standard antibiotic. Results showed significant activities against the test organisms with overall satisfactory statistics. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed more inhibition to methanolic extracts of F. indica. Minimum inhibitory as well as minimum bactericidal concentrations against all strains except Shigella sonnei were also recorded. Studies showed promising horizons for the use of F. indica as an active antibacterial component in modern drug formulations. (author)

  1. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  2. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  3. Macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight &Arn. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To rationalize the macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae. Methods: The crude ethanolic extract of fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae was using physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence analysis, and preliminary photochemical investigation (TLC, HPTLC, column chromatography. Results: An attempt has been made to highlight this folk herbal medicine through present study which will assist in the identification of fresh as well as dried crude samples of fruits anatomically and physico chemically. TLC fingerprint profiling and fluorescence analysis of powdered fruits were also carried out and the salient qualitative and quantitative parameters are reported. Conclusions: The present study will provide referential information for correct identification and help in checking adulteration in market samples used in the preparation of various herbal medicines. The present observation will also be helpful in macroscopial, anatomical and physicochemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae.

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  6. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta Extracts on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zenon Machado; da Trindade, Lenilson Santos; Santana, Genelane Cruz; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; da Costa Mendonça, Marcelo; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; López, Jorge A.; Macedo, Maria Lucila Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Background: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Conclusions: Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. SUMMARY Antibacterial effect of T. indica and M. esculenta leaf extract was evaluated.T. indica extract displayed activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.M. esculenta showed effect on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Abbreviations Used: BHI: Agar brain heart infusion, CAPES: Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, FAPITEC/SE: Foundation for support to research and technological innovation of the state of

  7. Mapping QTL for Seed Germinability under Low Temperature Using a New High-Density Genetic Map of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningfei Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping major quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for rice seed germinability under low temperature (GULT can provide valuable genetic source for improving cold tolerance in rice breeding. In this study, 124 rice backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs derived from a cross indica cv. Changhui 891 and japonica cv. 02428 were genotyped through re-sequencing technology. A bin map was generated which includes 3057 bins covering distance of 1266.5 cM with an average of 0.41 cM between markers. On the basis of newly constructed high-density genetic map, six QTL were detected ranging from 40 to 140 kb on Nipponbare genome. Among these, two QTL qCGR8 and qGRR11 alleles shared by 02428 could increase GULT and seed germination recovery rate after cold stress, respectively. However, qNGR1 and qNGR4 may be two major QTL affecting indica Changhui 891germination under normal condition. QTL qGRR1 and qGRR8 affected the seed germination recovery rate after cold stress and the alleles with increasing effects were shared by the Changhui 891 could improve seed germination rate after cold stress dramatically. These QTL could be a highly valuable genetic factors for cold tolerance improvement in rice lines. Moreover, the BRILs developed in this study will serve as an appropriate choice for mapping and studying genetic basis of rice complex traits.

  8. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  9. Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae, a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pavetta indica is a massive bloomer for a brief period in May.  The flowers are hermaphroditic, strikingly protandrous, self and cross-compatible, nectariferous and psychophilous.  They possess secondary pollen presentation mechanism as a device to avoid autonomous autogamy but it does not prevent geitonogamy.  The fruit set largely occurs through geitonogamy and xenogamy.  Butterflies, especially papilionids, pierids, nymphalids, and sphingid hawk moth pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar.  Honey bees and blue-banded digger bees feed on pollen and effect only accidental pollination.  The nectar is sucrose-rich and contains essential and non-essential amino acids.  Birds are seed dispersal agents. Seeds are non-dormant and germinate readily during rainy season but their continued growth and establishment is subject to the availability of soil moisture and nutrients.  The plant is not able to populate itself in its natural area.  The local uses of different parts of the plant have been found to be affecting its reproductive success and natural regeneration rate.  Therefore, regulation of the uses of this plant is recommended for its survival and restoration of its population size in the natural areas due to its role as a keystone species for bees and butterflies during dry season. 

  10. Development of an iron-enriched high-yieldings indica rice cultivar by introgression of a high-iron trait from transgenic iron-biofortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Soumitra; Ali, Nusrat; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2014-09-01

    Low level of iron in staple food crops is one reason for the predominance of iron-deficiency anemia in developing countries. Most of the iron in rice grains accumulates in the outer aleurone layer and embryo, which are removed during milling, and the edible endosperm contains very low amounts of iron. In an effort to increase iron nutrition, we report here the transgene introgression of a high-iron trait into a high-yielding indica rice cultivar. The ferritin gene from soybean (soyfer1) was introduced into rice plants through interbreeding between soybean ferritin-overexpressing transgenic IR68144 and the high-yielding cultivar Swarna. The stable integration of the soyfer1 gene was confirmed in the BC2F4 generation, and the hybrid seeds showed 2.6-fold soybean ferritin gene expression over the recurrent parent Swarna. The hybrid milled seeds revealed a 2.54-fold increase in iron and 1.54-fold increase in zinc compared to Swarna. Agronomic data and an SSR marker analysis of the hybrid rice plants were taken into account for NIL character identification.

  11. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, A. K.; Shrotriya, S.; Rout, S. D.; Dash, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    Hábitos de nidificación y alimentación de la ardilla gigante hindú (Ratufa indica) en el refugio de vida silvestre de Karlapat, India La ardilla gigante hindú (Ratufa indica) es una de las cuatro especies de ardilla gigante del mundo. Se trata de una especie endémica de la India, pero sus poblaciones se encuentran muy fragmentadas. La ecología de las ardillas en Asia se ha estudiado poco, lo que ha entorpecido los esfuerzos de conservación y de gestión. Se estudiaron los hábitos de nidif...

  12. Mantis indica Mukherjee, 1995: a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870 (Insecta: Mantodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 was erected on the basis of some distinctive characters. Based on morphological characters, it was supposed to belong to the genus Statilia (Roy (1999: 163. However, in the absence of the knowledge of the structure of genitalia, its species status remained confusing. A further study on the structure of genitalia revealed that Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 is undoubtedly a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870. A table is provided to compare significant features of related species. Colour photographs of holotype and genitalia of comparable species are also provided.

  13. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species. The seeds were primed using seven different solutions for three different priming durations. Primed seed lots were evaluated for seed germination, seedling vigour index, seedling emergence and ...

  14. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  15. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  16. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  17. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  18. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  20. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  1. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  2. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L) Kuntze in Mice. Chung-Shih Chen, Mei-Lin Wang, Rosa Huang Liu, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsong-Ming Lu, Wei-Yu Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, Chi-Chiang Yang, Yew-Min Tzeng ...

  3. Ecology of Pleuromamma indica Wolfenden (Copepoda - Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Iyer, H.K.

    , strong oxygen minimum above 500m depth and a wide range of salinity varying from 32 x 10-3 in Bay of Bengal to more than 37 x 10 -3 in the northern Arabian Sea were characteristics of the study area. P. indica showed a positive correlation with salinity...

  4. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  5. Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large spreading evergreen tree with simple leaves and small reddish white or yellowish green flowers borne on much-branched inflorescences. More than 500 varieties of mango are cultivated in Indiafor their large, sweet, edible fruits which are of high economic ...

  6. Efficacy of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) varieties as a source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) serves as a source of food, feed, as well as a means of additional income to the people in northern Ethiopia. The species has different varieties with varied rate of productivity and palatability. This study was conducted to assess the food and feed value of the Cactus Pear varieties in ...

  7. Studies on mode of infection of Neovossia indica incitant of karnal bunt of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munjal, R.L.; Chatrath, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Mode of infection of Karnal bunt fungus-Neovossia indica has been established by using histopathological and radiotracer techniques. It has been observed that germ tubes arising from sporidia of the fungus directly enter the epidermal cells of glumes and then to the ovary through the ovary wall. (author)

  8. mangifera indica as a bioindicator of lead, copper and iron in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-07-16

    Jul 16, 2009 ... The levels of lead, Pb copper Cu and iron Fe in Mangifera indica leaf and bark and the native soil samples in the vicinity of Makeri smelting plant, ... metals such as mercury, copper, cadmium, and lead are known to be very toxic and ... They were then transported to the laboratory in clean polyethylene bags.

  9. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  10. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Rarely Cultivated Traditional Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha, T.; Martin, Kottackal Poulose; Sreekumar, V. B.; Madassery, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting was performed to assess the genetic diversity among rarely cultivated traditional indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties collected from a tribal hamlet of Kerala State, India. A total of 664 DNA bands amplified by 15 primers exhibited 72.9% polymorphism (an average of 32.3 polymorphic bands per primer). The varieties Jeerakasala and...

  11. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica)-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J. GUSHA; S. KATSANDE; P.I. ZVINOROVA; S. NCUBE

    2013-01-01

    The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum) mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P

  12. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Dethe, Shekhar M; Sangli, Gopala K; Abhilash, K; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml. This study demonstrates that M. indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica.

  13. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  15. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peptic ulcers, haemorrhage, or pathological changes in the liver or kidney were observed in A. indica- treated mice, and there were no significant ... exercise combined with a balanced diet may be the most effective strategy through with to ... conditions, such as inflammatory disease, liver disease, intestinal infections ...

  16. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, F; Ribuot, C; Boumendjel, A; Guissou, I

    2013-06-21

    Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana) is commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa, South America and Hawaii, mainly against pain, inflammation, conditions of inflammation, diarrhea, dysentery, conjunctivitis, wounds, abscess, epilepsy, convulsions, anemia, erectile dysfunctions, bladder ailments and asthma. Aim of the review to provide an up-to-date overview of the botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and toxicity data of Waltheria indica. Additionally, studies providing an evidence for local and traditional uses of Waltheria indica are discussed. Further phytochemical and pharmacological potential of this species are suggested for future investigations. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via academic libraries and electronic search. These sources include Pubmed, Web of Science, Portal de Portales-Latindex, Science Research.com and Google scholar. These studies about the medical botanical, traditional uses, chemical, pharmacological and toxicological data on Waltheria indica were published in English, Portuguese, Spanish, German and French. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Waltheria indica were investigated and showed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anti-anemic, anti-oxidant, sedative and anticonvulsant activities. The phytochemical investigations showed the presence of cyclopeptid alkaloids, flavonoids (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-(6″-E-p-coumaryl)-glucopyranoside), tannins, sterols, terpenes, saponins, anthraquinones. Studies of acute toxicity in animal indicated that Waltheria indica can be toxic. Waltheria indica possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation, malaria, infectious diseases (e.g., lungs infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, diarrhea due to Candida albicans or Escherichia coli) and prevention of oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to

  17. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthiphong Soradech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (% and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  18. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  19. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  20. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei (Lythraceae) seedlings for phytoremediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Gu, Cuihua; Bai, Shangbin; Sun, Zhibin; Zhu, Tingting; Zhu, Xudan; Grit, Dale H; Tembrock, Luke R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals is one of the most serious environmental problems generated from human activities. Because phytoremediation utilizes plants to uptake contaminants, it could potentially be used to remediate metal-contaminated areas. A pot culture experiment with four levels of cadmium (Cd) (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg of Cd/kg dry soil) was conducted to investigate Cd accumulation and tolerance of roots, shoots, and leaves of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei as well as their potential for phytoremediation. Experimental results indicated that Cd inhibited seedling growth only at the higher Cd exposure concentration (40 and 80 mg/kg). The tolerance index revealed that on average L. indica is more tolerant of Cd than L. fauriei. Moreover, plants in the experiment accumulated Cd differentially. In comparisons between L. indica and L. fauriei, the leaves of the former had higher concentrations of Cd, while the roots of latter had higher concentrations of Cd. Furthermore, the roots, shoots, and leaves had very high bioaccumulation factors that markedly exceeded 1.0 (exceptional only in shoots of 80 mg/kg for L. fauriei), indicating that the seedlings extracted Cd from the soil. The leaves' translocation factor of L. indica was greater than 1.0, being significantly higher than that of L. fauriei. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and total declined in both species significantly as Cd concentrations exceeded 40 mg/kg in the soil. In contrast, lipid peroxidation and proline content was found to increase with increasing Cd concentration. From the assessments of biomass production, Cd tolerance and uptake L. indica and L. fauriei could stand as excellent species for remediating Cd-contaminated soils.