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Sample records for az31 mg alloy

  1. Corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ31B Mg alloy - Al6063 alloy joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, AZ31B Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy-rolled sheets were successfully joined by friction stir welding. Microstructural studies revealed a sound joint with good mechanical mixing of both the alloys at the nugget zone. Corrosion performance of the joint was assessed by immersing in 3.5% NaCl solution for different intervals of time and the corrosion rate was calculated. The joint has undergone severe corrosion attack compared with both the base materials (AZ31B and Al6063 alloys. The predominant corrosion mechanism behind the high corrosion rate of the joint was found to be high galvanic corrosion. From the results, it can be suggested that the severe corrosion of dissimilar Mg–Al joints must be considered as a valid input while designing structures intended to work in corroding environment.

  2. Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole over AZ31 Mg alloy for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, A.; Ranjani, P.; Rajendran, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymerization of pyrrole over AZ31 Mg was carried out using cyclic voltammetry. ► Pyrrole concentration was optimized to accomplish the adherent and uniform coating. ► Effect of monomer concentration on the surface morphology was discussed. ► Corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg in SBF was studied as a function of Py concentration. ► PPy coated AZ31 Mg alloy exhibited enhanced corrosion resistance at 0.25 M of Py. -- Abstract: Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole (Py) from aqueous salicylate solution over AZ31 Mg alloy was carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The effect of monomer concentration on the surface and electrochemical corrosion in simulated body fluid (SBF) were analysed. Attenuated total reflection-infrared (ATR-IR) spectra showed the characteristic ring stretching peaks for polypyrrole (PPy). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies exhibited typical cauliflower morphology with rough surface for PPy coated AZ31 Mg alloy. Open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization studies revealed that the coating prepared using 0.25 M of Py had positive shift of about 120 mV in corrosion potential and lower corrosion current density (0.03 mA/cm 2 ) compared to other concentrations and uncoated AZ31 Mg alloy (0.25 mA/cm 2 ). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) studies of uncoated and PPy coated Mg alloy in SBF revealed three-time constants behaviour with about one order of increment in impedance value for 0.25 M of Py

  3. In Vitro Studies on the Degradability, Bioactivity, and Cell Differentiation of PRP/AZ31B Mg Alloys Composite Scaffold

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    Jian Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more methods have been developed to improve the bioactivity of the biodegradable materials in bone tissue regeneration. In present study, we used rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs to evaluate the outcomes of Mg alloys (AZ31B, Magnesium, and Aluminum and Platelet-rich plasma (PRP/Mg alloys on rMSCs biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Water absorption experiments indicated that both bare AZ31B and PRP/AZ31B were capable of absorbing large amounts of water. But the water absorption ratio for PRP/AZ31B was significantly higher than that for bare AZ31B. The degradability experiments implied that both samples degraded at same speed. rMSCs on the surface of AZ31B distributed more and better than those on the AZ31B scaffold. In ALP activity experiment, the activity of rMSCs on the PRP/AZ31B was markedly higher than that on the AZ31B scaffolds on the 7th day and 14th day. qRT-PCR also showed that OPN and OCN were expressed in both samples. OPN and OCN expression in PRP/AZ31B sample were higher than those in bare AZ31B samples. In summary, the in vitro study implied that AZ31B combined with PRP could remarkably improve cell seeding, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

  4. Friction stir welded AM50 and AZ31 Mg alloys: Microstructural evolution and improved corrosion resistance

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    Templeman, Yael [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ben Hamu, Guy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Ashdod 77245 (Israel); Meshi, Louisa, E-mail: Louisa@bgu.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-04-15

    One of the major drawbacks of Mg alloys is poor weldability, caused by porosity formation during conventional fusion welding processes. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is promising technique in this context since it is a solid state technique. Contradicting results were published in the literature regarding the FSWed Mg alloys joint's properties. Current research was performed in order to investigate the microstructure and corrosion properties of FSWed Mg alloys, studying representatives of two commercial families: wrought AZ31-H24 and die cast AM50. It was found that in both alloys recrystallization occurred during the FSW. In AM50 the mechanism of the recrystallization was continuous, manifested by dislocation rearrangement into sub grain boundaries. In AZ31 discontinuous recrystallization had occurred through grain boundaries migration - twins rotated with respect to the matrix, turning into low angle grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance has improved during the FSW in both alloys to different extents. In the AM50 alloy, the nugget exhibited significantly higher surface potential than the base metal mainly due to the higher Al concentration in the matrix of the nugget, resulting from the dissolution of Al-enrichment and β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase. In the AZ31 alloy, no change in Al concentration had occurred, and the surface potential measured in the nugget was only slightly higher than in the base metal. These results underline the appropriateness of the FSW for Mg alloys since during the conventional welding deterioration of the corrosion resistance occurs. - Highlights: • Following FSW, AZ31-H24 experienced discontinuous recrystallization. • In AZ31 grain boundaries migration occurred, thus twins rotated. • In die cast AM50 continuous recrystallization occurred during the FSW. • In AM50 - dislocations rearranged into sub grain boundaries. • Corrosion resistance has improved during the FSW in both alloys to different extent.

  5. Friction stir welded AM50 and AZ31 Mg alloys: Microstructural evolution and improved corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeman, Yael; Ben Hamu, Guy; Meshi, Louisa

    2017-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of Mg alloys is poor weldability, caused by porosity formation during conventional fusion welding processes. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is promising technique in this context since it is a solid state technique. Contradicting results were published in the literature regarding the FSWed Mg alloys joint's properties. Current research was performed in order to investigate the microstructure and corrosion properties of FSWed Mg alloys, studying representatives of two commercial families: wrought AZ31-H24 and die cast AM50. It was found that in both alloys recrystallization occurred during the FSW. In AM50 the mechanism of the recrystallization was continuous, manifested by dislocation rearrangement into sub grain boundaries. In AZ31 discontinuous recrystallization had occurred through grain boundaries migration - twins rotated with respect to the matrix, turning into low angle grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance has improved during the FSW in both alloys to different extents. In the AM50 alloy, the nugget exhibited significantly higher surface potential than the base metal mainly due to the higher Al concentration in the matrix of the nugget, resulting from the dissolution of Al-enrichment and β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase. In the AZ31 alloy, no change in Al concentration had occurred, and the surface potential measured in the nugget was only slightly higher than in the base metal. These results underline the appropriateness of the FSW for Mg alloys since during the conventional welding deterioration of the corrosion resistance occurs. - Highlights: • Following FSW, AZ31-H24 experienced discontinuous recrystallization. • In AZ31 grain boundaries migration occurred, thus twins rotated. • In die cast AM50 continuous recrystallization occurred during the FSW. • In AM50 - dislocations rearranged into sub grain boundaries. • Corrosion resistance has improved during the FSW in both alloys to different extent.

  6. Joining of AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two dissimilar magnesium (Mg alloy sheets, one with low aluminium (AZ31 and another with high aluminium (AZ91 content, were successfully joined by friction stir welding (FSW. The effect of process parameters on the formation of hot cracks was investigated. A sound metallurgical joint was obtained at optimized process parameters (1400 rpm with 25 mm/min feed which contained fine grains and distributed β (Mg17Al12 phase within the nugget zone. An increasing trend in the hardness measurements has also confirmed more amount of dissolution of aluminium within the nugget zone. A sharp interface between nugget zone and thermo mechanical affected zone (TMAZ was clearly noticed at the AZ31 Mg alloy side (advancing but not on the AZ91 Mg alloy side (retreating. From the results it can be concluded that FSW can be effectively used to join dissimilar metals, particularly difficult to process metals such as Mg alloys, and hot cracking can be completely eliminated by choosing appropriate process parameters to achieve sound joint.

  7. Characteristics of AZ31 Mg alloy joint using automatic TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-tao; Zhou, Ji-xue; Zhao, Dong-qing; Liu, Yun-teng; Wu, Jian-hua; Yang, Yuan-sheng; Ma, Bai-chang; Zhuang, Hai-hua

    2017-01-01

    The automatic tungsten-inert gas welding (ATIGW) of AZ31 Mg alloys was performed using a six-axis robot. The evolution of the microstructure and texture of the AZ31 auto-welded joints was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The ATIGW process resulted in coarse recrystallized grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and epitaxial growth of columnar grains in the fusion zone (FZ). Substantial changes of texture between the base material (BM) and the FZ were detected. The {0002} basal plane in the BM was largely parallel to the sheet rolling plane, whereas the c-axis of the crystal lattice in the FZ inclined approximately 25° with respect to the welding direction. The maximum pole density increased from 9.45 in the BM to 12.9 in the FZ. The microhardness distribution, tensile properties, and fracture features of the AZ31 auto-welded joints were also investigated.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical property of dual-directional-extruded Mg alloy AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Liwei; Liu Tianmo; Jiang Shan; Pan Fushen; Liu Qing; Wang Zhongchang

    2010-01-01

    We report microstructure evolution and mechanical property of Mg alloy AZ31 processed by a new deformation technique, dual-directional extrusion (DDE). Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron back scatter diffraction technique, we attribute the significant refinement of original coarse grains in the DDE-processed alloy to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Moreover, we find that low temperature is crucial for yielding fine grain, which consequently results in high micro-hardness and yield stress, large fracture strain, and enhanced elongation. The improved mechanical properties are comparable or even superior to those of the alloy subjected to other deformation techniques, rendering the DDE a promising way for further tailoring properties of Mg-based alloys.

  9. The research on the effect of MgCO{sub 3} on the grain refinement in AZ31 magnesium alloy

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    Gao, S.Y.; Cui, J.Z.; Li, Q.C.; Zhang, Z.Q. [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2010-08-15

    The effect of MgCO{sub 3} addition on the as-cast microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy has been widely investigated. The results show that the average grain size of the {alpha}-Mg grain in AZ31 magnesium alloy decreases from about 570 {mu}m to 100 {mu}m by the addition of 0.6 wt.% MgCO{sub 3} as gain refiner at 760 C. Based on the analysis of EDS, theoretical calculation of E{sub bind} and Gibbs free energy, we esteem that grain refiner mechanism is mainly attributed to the generation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}, which can be serviced as nucleation site and restrain grain boundary from growing and transferring. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. A comparative corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 has been evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical polarization and impedance measurements. Corrosion rate derived from the weight losses demonstrated the occurrence of steeply fast corrosion reaction on AZ91 alloy after three hours of immersion, indicating the start of galvanic corrosion. An increase of corrosion rate with immersion time was also observed for AZ31 but with lesser extent than AZ91 alloy. Whereas Mg metals showed a decrease of corrosion rate with immersion time, suggesting the formation of a protective layer on their surfaces. In contrast, the corrosion current density (Icorr derived from the Tafel plots, exhibited their corrosion resistances in order of Mg > AZ91 > AZ31. Electrochemical charge transfer resistance (Rct and double layer capacitance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, are well in accordance with the measured Icorr. EIS measurements with time and microstructural examination of the corroded and uncorroded samples are helpful in elucidation of results measured by electrochemical polarization.

  11. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Chen, L J

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  12. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Chen, L J

    2009-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  13. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, L J, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shengyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  14. Mono-carboxylate conversion coatings for AZ31 Mg alloy protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frignani, A.; Grassi, V.; Zucchi, F.; Zanotto, F. [Corrosion Study Centre A. Dacco, University of Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Conversion coatings on a magnesium alloy were obtained by dipping AZ31 specimens in aqueous solutions of sodium salts of mono-carboxylic acids (stearic, palmitic, myristic, lauric, mono-carboxylate ion concentration from 1 to 5 mM, depending on the salt solubility) for 24 and 72 h at room temperature, or 24 h at 50 C. The influence exerted by the treatment time, bath temperature and alkyl chain length on the efficiency of these coatings was studied. The performances of the coatings were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve recording after 1 h immersion in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, while their temporal evolution was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra during 24 h. Further and long lasting tests were carried out also in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The efficiency of the coatings depended on the aliphatic chain length, and increased as the treatment time and the bath temperature were increased. The coating of lower homologue only hindered the cathodic process, while those of the higher homologues markedly inhibited the anodic process too. The best performances were displayed by 24 h-50 C stearic conversion coating, which maintained a very high efficiency for over 800 h immersion in 0.05 M sulphate solution. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinwoo [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • PCL/ZnO composite coating layer by electrospinning techniques showed the nano-scaled and porous surface structure. • Addition of zinc oxide NPs in the PCL fibers led to enhanced coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. • The composite coated surfaces on Mg substrates improved cell attachment and proliferation. - Abstract: In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  16. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PCL/ZnO composite coating layer by electrospinning techniques showed the nano-scaled and porous surface structure. • Addition of zinc oxide NPs in the PCL fibers led to enhanced coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. • The composite coated surfaces on Mg substrates improved cell attachment and proliferation. - Abstract: In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  17. An electron back-scattered diffraction study on the microstructure evolution of AZ31 Mg alloy during equal channel angular extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Li; Lin Dongliang; Mao Dali; Zeng Xiaoqin; Ding Wenjiang

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure evolution of AZ31 Mg alloy during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) was investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The grains of AZ31 Mg alloy were refined significantly after ECAE 1-8 passes at 498 K and the distributions of grain size tended to be more uniform with pass number increasing. Frequency of sub-boundaries and low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) increased at initial stage of deformation, and sub-boundaries and LAGBs evolved into high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) with further deformation, which resulted in the high frequency of HAGBs in the alloy after ECAE 8 passes. Preferred misorientation angle with frequency peak near 30 deg. and 90 deg. were observed. The frequency peaks were weak after ECAE 1 pass but became stronger with the increase of pass numbers. Micro-textures were formed in AZ31 microstructure during ECAE and were stronger with the pass number increasing

  18. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

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    He, Weijun, E-mail: weijun.he@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zheng, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-02-27

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  19. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weijun; Zheng, Li; Xin, Renlong; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  20. Influence of welding parameter on texture distribution and plastic deformation behavior of as-rolled AZ31 Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Liu, Dejia; Shu, Xiaogang; Li, Bo; Yang, Xiaofang; Liu, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-06-15

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has promising application potential for Mg alloys. However, softening was frequently occurred in FSW Mg joints because of the presence of a β-type fiber texture. The present study aims to understand the influence of texture distribution in stir zone (SZ) on deformation behavior and joint strength of FSW Mg welds. AZ31 Mg alloy joints were obtained by FSW with two sets of welding speed and rotation rate. Detailed microstructure and texture evolutions were examined on Mg welds by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that the changes of welding parameters can affect texture distribution and the characteristic of texture in the transition region between SZ and thermal-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ). As a consequence, the activation ability of basal slip and extension twinning was changed, which therefore influenced joint strength, inhomogeneous plastic deformation and fracture behaviors. The present work provided some insights into understanding the texture–property relationship in FSW Mg welds and indicated that it is effective to tailor the joint performance by texture control. - Highlights: • Welding parameters largely affect the inclination angle of SZ/TMAZ boundary. • Fracture morphology is associated with the characteristic of SZ/TMAZ boundary. • The characteristic of plastic deformation is explained from the activation of basal slip.

  1. Double fillet lap of laser welding of thin sheet AZ31B Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Salleh, M. N. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the experimental laser welding of thin sheet AZ31B using double fillet lap joint method. Laser welding is capable of producing high quality weld seams especially for small weld bead on thin sheet product. In this experiment, both edges for upper and lower sheets were subjected to the laser beam from the pulse wave (PW) mode of fiber laser. Welded sample were tested their joint strength by tensile-shear strength method and the fracture loads were studied. Strength for all welded samples were investigated and the effect of laser parameters on the joint strength and appearances were studied. Pulsed energy (EP) from laser process give higher effect on joint strength compared to the welding speed (WS) and angle of irradiation (AOI). Highest joint strength was possessed by sample with high EP with the same value of WS and AOI. The strength was low due to the crack defect at the centre of weld region.

  2. A systematic study of mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of AZ31B Mg alloy after ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoning; Qin, Haifeng; Gao, Hongyu; Mankoci, Steven; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhou, Xianfeng; Ren, Zhencheng; Doll, Gary L; Martini, Ashlie; Sahai, Nita; Dong, Yalin; Ye, Chang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium alloys have tremendous potential for biomedical applications due to their good biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and degradability, but can be limited by their poor mechanical properties and fast corrosion in the physiological environment. In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), a recently developed surface processing technique that utilizes ultrasonic impacts to induce plastic strain on metal surfaces, was applied to an AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloy. The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of the alloy after UNSM treatment were studied systematically. Significant improvement in hardness, yield stress and wear resistance was achieved after the UNSM treatment. In addition, the corrosion behavior of UNSM-treated AZ31B was not compromised compared with the untreated samples, as demonstrated by the weight loss and released element concentrations of Mg and Al after immersion in alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) for 24h. The in vitro biocompatibility of the AZ31B Mg alloys toward adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) before and after UNSM processing was also evaluated using a cell culture study. Comparable cell attachments were achieved between the two groups. These studies showed that UNSM could significantly improve the mechanical properties of Mg alloys without compromising their corrosion rate and biocompatibility in vitro. These findings suggest that UNSM is a promising method to treat biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term corrosion inhibition mechanism of microarc oxidation coated AZ31 Mg alloys for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yanhong; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Chen, Cheng-fu; Ning, Chengyun; Guo, Yuanjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The corrosion behavior is significantly affected by the long-term immersion. ► The degradation is inhibited due to the corrosion product layer. ► The corrosion resistance is enhanced by optimized MAO electrolyte concentrations. ► The corrosion inhibition mechanism is presented by a Flash animation. - Abstract: This paper addresses the long-term corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation coated Mg alloys immersed in simulated body fluid for 28 days. The coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys were produced in the electrolyte of sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) at the concentration of 20 g/L, 30 g/L and 40 g/L, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical micrograph were used to observe the microstructure of the samples before and after corrosion. The composition of the MAO coating and corrosion products were determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Corrosion product identification showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed on the surface of the corroded samples. The ratio of Ca/P in HA determined by the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique showed that HA is an acceptable biocompatible implant material. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to characterize the corrosion rate and the electrochemical impedance. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg alloys can be enhanced by optimizing the electrolyte concentrations for fabricating samples, and is enhanced after immersing the coated samples in simulated body fluid for more than 14 days. The enhanced corrosion resistance after long-term immersion is attributed to a corrosion product layer formed on the sample surface. The inhibition mechanism of the corrosion process is discussed and presented with an animation

  4. Friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujino, R.; Ochi, H. [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Osaka (Japan); Kawai, G. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Ogawa, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Osaka (Japan); Suga, Y. [Keio Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, for an acceleration of utilization of magnesium alloy which is being interested in recent years, friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy was carried out, and the joint performance was discussed in relation to the deformation heat input in the upset stage and upset loss as a evaluation factor. Where, the deformation heat input in the upset stage is mechanical work represented by the product of upset speed and axial pressure. As a result, it was made clear that the friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy was easy in the atmosphere, and good welded joints without a non- adhesion area at the weld interface could de obtained. Moreover, the evaluation factors discussed were possible to evaluate to joint performance. (orig.)

  5. Corrosion performance of MAO coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy in simulated body fluid vs. Earle's Balance Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Benjamin M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 755905, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Zhang, Lei, E-mail: lzhang14@alaska.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 755905, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Li, Weiping; Ning, Chengyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Chen, Cheng-fu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 755905, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gu, Yanhong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MAO coating is deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy by microarc oxidation. • Corrosion performance of MAO-coated AZ31 in EBSS vs. c-SBF is studied. • MAO-coated AZ31 exhibits enhanced corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31. • Samples in EBSS show slower corrosion progression than the samples in c-SBF. • CO{sub 2} buffer and less chloride in EBSS cause corrosion rate gap in c-SBF and EBSS. - Abstract: Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) provides an alternative to the conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) and has been shown to better simulate the corrosion conditions in vivo. In this work, a series of tests were conducted to explore the corrosion performance of MAO-coated AZ31 samples in EBSS vs. c-SBF. Samples were produced by varying MAO process parameters and then immersed up to 21 days in both EBSS and c-SBF. The corrosion rates were evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic scanning. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to compare the progression of microcracks across the surface of the coatings. The evaluation of cross-sectional thickness showed an increase in MAO coating thickness with the process voltage. MAO samples with a thicker coating generally have higher impedance and lower current density at the initial immersion time point of 0.5 h. Samples in EBSS showed higher initial impedance and lower current density values as compared to c-SBF counterparts for all process groups. Samples in EBSS demonstrated a much slower corrosion rate than c-SBF samples because of the decreased chloride content and CO{sub 2} buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  6. Corrosion performance of MAO coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy in simulated body fluid vs. Earle's Balance Salt Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Lei; Li, Weiping; Ning, Chengyun; Chen, Cheng-fu; Gu, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MAO coating is deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy by microarc oxidation. • Corrosion performance of MAO-coated AZ31 in EBSS vs. c-SBF is studied. • MAO-coated AZ31 exhibits enhanced corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31. • Samples in EBSS show slower corrosion progression than the samples in c-SBF. • CO 2 buffer and less chloride in EBSS cause corrosion rate gap in c-SBF and EBSS. - Abstract: Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) provides an alternative to the conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) and has been shown to better simulate the corrosion conditions in vivo. In this work, a series of tests were conducted to explore the corrosion performance of MAO-coated AZ31 samples in EBSS vs. c-SBF. Samples were produced by varying MAO process parameters and then immersed up to 21 days in both EBSS and c-SBF. The corrosion rates were evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic scanning. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to compare the progression of microcracks across the surface of the coatings. The evaluation of cross-sectional thickness showed an increase in MAO coating thickness with the process voltage. MAO samples with a thicker coating generally have higher impedance and lower current density at the initial immersion time point of 0.5 h. Samples in EBSS showed higher initial impedance and lower current density values as compared to c-SBF counterparts for all process groups. Samples in EBSS demonstrated a much slower corrosion rate than c-SBF samples because of the decreased chloride content and CO 2 buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  7. Enhancing Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31-MWCNT Nanocomposites through Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs reinforced Mg alloy AZ31 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy technique. The reinforcement material MWCNTs were blended in three weight fractions (0.33%, 0.66%, and 1% with the matrix material AZ31 (Al-3%, zinc-1% rest Mg and blended through mechanical alloying using a high energy planetary ball mill. Specimens of monolithic AZ31 and AZ31-MWCNT composites were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The microstructure, density, hardness, porosity, ductility, and tensile properties of monolithic AZ31 and AZ31-MWCNT nano composites were characterized and compared. The characterization reveals significant reduction in CNT (carbon nanoTube agglomeration and enhancement in microstructure and mechanical properties due to mechanical alloying through ball milling.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded and ECAPed AZ31 Mg alloy, grain refined with Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbati-Sarraf, S.A. [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Different amounts of Al-3Ti-0.15C master alloy (TiCAl), as grain refiner, were added to the AZ31 magnesium alloy (Mg-3Al-1Zn-0.3Mn) and the resulting microstructure, grain size distributions, texture, and mechanical properties were studied after extrusion and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Results showed that the addition of 1.0 wt.% TiCAl had the strongest grain refinement effect, reducing the grain sizes by 51.2 and 38.4% in the extruded and ECAPed conditions, respectively. The observed grain refinement was in part due to the presence of the thermally stable micron- and submicron-sized particles in the melt which act as nucleation sites during solidification. During the high-temperature extrusion and ECAP processes, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and grain growth are likely to occur. However, second phase particles will help in reducing the grain size by the particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) mechanism. Furthermore, the pinning effect of these particles can oppose grain growth by reducing the grain boundary migration. These two phenomena together with the partitioning of the grains imposed by the severe plastic deformation in the ECAP process have all contributed to the achieved fine-grained structure in the AZ31 alloy with enhanced mechanical properties. The enhancement in the shear yield stress (SYS) and ultimate shear strengths (USS) were, respectively, 11.2 and 6.1% in the extruded state, and 7.6 and 3.9% in the ECAPed conditions. The weaker strengthening effect of grain refinement in the ECAPed alloys can be attributed to the textural modifications which partly offset the achieved grain boundary strengthening.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Trung Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally.

  10. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-frequency electromagnetic field; AZ31 magnesium alloy; Al4C3; grain refinement. Abstract. The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an ...

  11. Effect of ultrasonic cold forging technology as the pretreatment on the corrosion resistance of MAO Ca/P coating on AZ31B Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingling, E-mail: daisy_chenlingling@163.com [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Gu, Yanhong, E-mail: gu_yanhong@163.com [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Lu, E-mail: liulu@bipt.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Shujing, E-mail: liushujing@bipt.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Hou, Binbin, E-mail: sohu19880815@126.com [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: 13521196884@sina.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Ding, Haiyang, E-mail: dinghaiyang@bipt.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic cold forging technology was used as the pretreatment for MAO coating. • Nano layer with the grain size of 30–80 nm was formed on the UCFT treated surface. • Calcium phosphate contained coating was obtained by MAO process. • The remained nano layer underlying MAO coating could impact the corrosion resistance greatly. - Abstract: A calcium phosphate contained (Ca/P) coating was obtained on AZ31B Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process under the pretreatment of ultrasonic cold forging technology (UCFT). The surface nanograins were introduced after UCFT pretreatment on AZ31B Mg alloy. Optical microscope (OM) was employed to observe the microstructures of the untreated and UCFT treated samples. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were employed to observe the microstructures of nanograins and the surface roughness of the UCFT treated Mg alloys. The grain size of the UCFT treated Mg alloy is 48.67 nm and the surface roughness is 17.03 nm. The microstructures and the phase compositions of MAO samples were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The XRD results show that the coating include Ca/P phase, including hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), HA), tertiary calcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, TCP) and calcium phosphate dehydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O, DCPD). The hardness of the samples was measured by the micro-hardness tester under the loads of 10 g, 25 g and 50 g. 3D topographies of hardness indenter were characterized by 3D profiler. The immersion tests and potentiodynamic polarization tests were used to evaluate the weight loss rate and corrosion current density in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the corrosion resistance of Ca/P MAO coating on Mg alloy was improved greatly by the pretreatment of UCFT.

  12. Corrosion behaviors of Zn/Al-Mn alloy composite coatings deposited on magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-Al-Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jifu; Zhang Wei; Yan Chuanwei; Du Keqin; Wang Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    After being pre-plated a zinc layer, an amorphous Al-Mn alloy coating was applied onto the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy with a bath of molten salts. Then the corrosion performance of the coated magnesium alloy was examined in 3.5% NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the single Zn layer was active in the test solution with a high corrosion rate while the Al-Mn alloy coating could effectively protect AZ31B magnesium alloy from corrosion in the solution. The high corrosion resistance of Al-Mn alloy coating was ascribed to an intact and stable passive film formed on the coating. The performances of the passive film on Al-Mn alloy were further investigated by Mott-Schottky curve and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. It was confirmed that the passive film exhibited n-type semiconducting behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution with a carrier density two orders of magnitude less than that formed on pure aluminum electrode. The XPS analysis indicated that the passive film was mainly composed of AlO(OH) after immersion for long time and the content of Mn was negligible in the outer part of the passive film. Based on the EIS measurement, electronic structure and composition analysis of the passive film, a double-layer structure, with a compact inner oxide and a porous outer layer, of the film was proposed for understanding the corrosion process of passive film, with which the experimental observations might be satisfactorily interpreted.

  13. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ce–V conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiao; Guo, Ruiguang; Jiang, Shuqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Through simple chemical conversion process, a Ce–V conversion coating is prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The coating (∼2 μm thick) has a duplex structure and is composed of Mg, Al, Ce, V and O in the outer layer and Mg, Al, V, F and O in the inner layer. • The Ce–V conversion coating can increase the E corr by 157 mV and decrease the i corr by 80 times compared to AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate. Moreover, the performance of the Ce–V conversion coating excels the chromate conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy. • The EIS results of Ce–V conversion coating indicate an increase of 10× in the corrosion resistance and a delay in the corrosion process kinetics compared to uncoated AZ31 magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • The ball cratering is a simple and effective technique of thickness measurement for chemical conversion coating. - Abstract: A Ce–V conversion coating was developed to improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the ball cratering test were adopted to study the morphology, chemical composition, structure and thickness of the coating. The coating has duplex structure with network and its thickness is about 2 μm. The coating contains high contents of Ce and V, which exhibits amorphous structure. Potentiodynamic polarization shows the coating can increase the corrosion potential and reduce the corrosion current density of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Moreover, the electrochemical impedance spectra exhibit the coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Results indicate that the Ce–V conversion coating can provide effective protection to AZ31 magnesium alloy

  14. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ce–V conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiao, E-mail: xiaoxiao217@126.com; Guo, Ruiguang; Jiang, Shuqin

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Through simple chemical conversion process, a Ce–V conversion coating is prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The coating (∼2 μm thick) has a duplex structure and is composed of Mg, Al, Ce, V and O in the outer layer and Mg, Al, V, F and O in the inner layer. • The Ce–V conversion coating can increase the E{sub corr} by 157 mV and decrease the i{sub corr} by 80 times compared to AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate. Moreover, the performance of the Ce–V conversion coating excels the chromate conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy. • The EIS results of Ce–V conversion coating indicate an increase of 10× in the corrosion resistance and a delay in the corrosion process kinetics compared to uncoated AZ31 magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • The ball cratering is a simple and effective technique of thickness measurement for chemical conversion coating. - Abstract: A Ce–V conversion coating was developed to improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the ball cratering test were adopted to study the morphology, chemical composition, structure and thickness of the coating. The coating has duplex structure with network and its thickness is about 2 μm. The coating contains high contents of Ce and V, which exhibits amorphous structure. Potentiodynamic polarization shows the coating can increase the corrosion potential and reduce the corrosion current density of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Moreover, the electrochemical impedance spectra exhibit the coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Results indicate that the Ce–V conversion coating can provide effective protection to AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  15. Effect of aluminum coatings on corrosion properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu Liuho; Lin Hsingan; Chen Chunchin; Yang Chihfu [Dept. of materials engineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Chang Chiahua; Wu Jenchin [Physical chemistry section, chemical systems research div., Chung-Shan Inst. of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2003-07-01

    This investigation aimed to increase the corrosion resistance of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by an aluminum arc spray coating and a post-treatment consisted of hot pressing and anodizing. It was found that the aluminum arc spraying alone was incapable of protection against corrosion due to the high amount of pores present in the coating layer. In order to solve the problem, densification of the Al arc-sprayed layer was carried out by hot pressing the coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate under an appropriate range of temperature, time and pressure. After hot pressing the Al coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate exhibited a much improved corrosion resistance. A final anodizing treatment applied to the AZ31 alloy with the dense Al coating further improved its resisting to corrosion. The results showed that, by adopting the Al arc spraying, hot pressing and anodizing process, the corrosion current density of the AZ31 alloy in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was from 2.1 x 10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2} (original AZ31) to 3.7 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} (after the surface treatment), which value is close to that of an anodized aluminum plate. (orig.)

  16. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yufu; Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants

  17. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  18. In vitro corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 — a synergetic influence of glucose and Tris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Yu; Liu, Bin; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen; Zou, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Hongwei George; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Guan, Shao-Kang; Liu, Qing-Yun

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable Mg alloys have generated great interest for biomedical applications. Accurate predictions of in vivo degradation of Mg alloys through cost-effective in vivo evaluations require the latter to be conducted in an environment close to that of physiological scenarios. However, the roles of glucose and buffering agents in regulating the in vivo degradation performance of Mg alloys has not been elucidated. Herein, degradation behavior of AZ31 alloy is investigated by hydrogen evolution measurements, pH monitoring and electrochemical tests. Results indicate that glucose plays a content-dependent role in degradation of AZ31 alloy in buffer-free saline solution. The presence of a low concentration of glucose, i.e. 1.0 g/L, decreases the corrosion rate of Mg alloy AZ31, whereas the presence of 2.0 and 3.0 g/L glucose accelerates the corrosion rate during long term immersion in saline solution. In terms of Tris-buffered saline solution, the addition of glucose increases pH value and promotes pitting corrosion or general corrosion of AZ31 alloy. This study provides a novel perspective to understand the bio-corrosion of Mg alloys in buffering agents and glucose containing solutions.

  19. Electrodeposition of Al-Mn alloy on AZ31B magnesium alloy in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jifu; Yan Chuanwei; Wang Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    The Al-Mn alloy coatings were electrodeposited on AZ31B Mg alloy in AlCl 3 -NaCl-KCl-MnCl 2 molten salts at 170 deg. C aiming to improve the corrosion resistance. However, in order to prevent AZ31B Mg alloy from corrosion during electrodeposition in molten salts and to ensure excellent adhesion of coatings to the substrate, AZ31B Mg alloy should be pre-plated with a thin zinc layer as intermediate layer. Then the microstructure, composition and phase constituents of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was indicated that, by adjusting the MnCl 2 content in the molten salts from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt%, the Mn content in the alloy coating was increased and the phase constituents were changed from f.c.c Al-Mn solid solution to amorphous phase. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was confirmed that the Al-Mn alloy coatings exhibited good corrosion resistance with a chear passive region and significantly reduced corrosion current density at anodic potentiodynamic polarization. The corrosion resistance of the alloy coatings was also related with the microstructure and Mn content of the coatings.

  20. Microstructures of friction welded joints of AZ31 to AM60 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, S.; Ono, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsubakino, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan); Tomita, T.; Aritoshi, M. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Industrial Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Okita, K. [Inst. of Industrial Research, Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was friction-welded to AM60 and the microstructures and the friction welding process were studied. The microstructures changed near the weld interface. The AZ31 was refined to a grain size of several {mu}m near the weld interface. The nucleation occurred in the shear bands that were introduced during the welding process. On the other hand, the eutectic structure was deformed and the lamellar structure which was composed of {alpha}-Mg and Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} was formed near the weld interface in AM60 alloy. In the friction process, the adhesion and peel off occurred alternately between AZ31 and AM60. Eventually, bonding was completed during upset process. (orig.)

  1. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO{sub 2}-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, J.J.; Guo, Y.Q.; Xiang, N. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Song, R.G., E-mail: songrg@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PEO coatings were formed in K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte. • K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} is capable to optimize the microstructure of PEO coating. • Corrosion resistance of PEO coatings is effected by K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} concentration in the electrolyte. • Potentiodynamic polarization results are well matched with the EIS test results. • Long time immersion test confirmed the electrochemical results. - Abstract: ZrO{sub 2}-containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF{sub 2} and t-ZrO{sub 2}. Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}. Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte.

  2. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO2-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, J.J.; Guo, Y.Q.; Xiang, N.; Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q.; Song, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PEO coatings were formed in K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte. • K 2 ZrF 6 is capable to optimize the microstructure of PEO coating. • Corrosion resistance of PEO coatings is effected by K 2 ZrF 6 concentration in the electrolyte. • Potentiodynamic polarization results are well matched with the EIS test results. • Long time immersion test confirmed the electrochemical results. - Abstract: ZrO 2 -containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K 2 ZrF 6 ) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF 2 and t-ZrO 2 . Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K 2 ZrF 6 . Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K 2 ZrF 6 -free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K 2 ZrF 6 is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K 2 ZrF 6 has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte.

  3. Fault-tolerant epoxy-silane coating for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Xue, H.B.; Meis, N.N.A.H.; Esteves, A.C.C.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid epoxy-silane coating was developed for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31. The average thickness of the film produced by dip-coating procedure was 14 µm. The adhesion strength of the epoxy-silane coating to the Mg substrate was evaluated by pull-off tests and was

  4. The Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Mitchell, M. L.; Torres, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion rates for bare and coated Magnesium alloy AZ31B have been measured. Two coatings, Dow-23(Trademark) and Tagnite(Trademark), have been tested by electrochemical methods and their effectiveness determined. Electrochemical methods employed were the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET), the polarization resistance technique (PR) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS). In addition, general corrosion and stress corrosion methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of the above coatings in 90 percent humidity. Results from these studies are presented.

  5. Corrosion characterization of micro-arc oxidization composite electrophoretic coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Congjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Jiang, Bailing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Liu, Ming [General Motors China Science Lab, Shanghai 201206 (China); Ge, Yanfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • A new protective composite coatings were prepared on AZ31B Mg alloy. • The E-coat locked into MAO coat by discharge channels forming a smoother and compact surface without defects. • Comparing with MAO coat, the MAOE composite coat could provide an excellent barrier for bare Mg against corrosion attack. - Abstract: A two layer composite coating system was applied on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy by Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO) plus electrophoretic coat (E-coat) technique. The Mg sample coated with MAO plus E-coat (MAOE) was compared with bare Mg and Mg sample coated by MAO only. The surface microstructure and cross section of bare and coated Mg before and after corrosion were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The corrosion performance of bare and coated Mg was evaluated using electrochemical measurement and hydrogen evolution test. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy was significantly improved by MAOE composite coating. The corrosion mechanism of bare and coated Mg is discussed.

  6. Laser Welding-Brazing of Immiscible AZ31B Mg and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Using an Electrodeposited Cu Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zequn; Tan, Caiwang; Wang, Gang; Chen, Bo; Song, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Hongyun; Li, Liqun; Feng, Jicai

    2018-03-01

    Metallurgical bonding between immiscible system AZ31B magnesium (Mg) and Ti-6Al-4V titanium (Ti) was achieved by adding Cu interlayer using laser welding-brazing process. Effect of the laser power on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Mg/Cu-coated Ti joints was studied. Visually acceptable joints were obtained at the range of 1300 to 1500 W. The brazed interface was divided into three parts due to temperature gradient: direct irradiation zone, intermediate zone and seam head zone. Ti3Al phase was produced along the interface at the direct irradiation zone. Ti-Al reaction layer grew slightly with the increase in laser power. A small amount of Ti2(Cu,Al) interfacial compounds formed at the intermediate zone and the ( α-Mg + Mg2Cu) eutectic structure dispersed in the fusion zone instead of gathering when increasing the laser power at this zone. At the seam head zone, Mg-Cu eutectic structure was produced in large quantities under all cases. Joint strength first increased and then decreased with the variation of the laser power. The maximum fracture load of Mg/Cu-coated Ti joint reached 2314 N at the laser power of 1300 W, representing 85.7% joint efficiency when compared with Mg base metal. All specimens fractured at the interface. The feature of fracture surface at the laser power of 1100 W was characterized by overall smooth surface. Obvious tear ridge and Ti3Al particles were observed at the fracture surface with increase in laser power. It suggested atomic diffusion was accelerated with more heat input giving rise to the enhanced interfacial reaction and metallurgical bonding in direct irradiation zone, which determined the mechanical properties of the joint.

  7. Effect of thermal tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-AZ31/Al-6061 diffusion bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarian, Mojtaba [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rizi, Mohsen Saboktakin, E-mail: M.saboktakin@Pa.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Industrial Engineering, Lenjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Morteza [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Honarmand, Mehrdad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tiran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javadinejad, Hamid Reza; Ghaheri, Ali [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Industrial Engineering, Lenjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahramipour, Mohammad Taghi [Materials Engineering Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 397 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, Marzieh [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Industrial Engineering, Lenjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the types thermal tempering of aluminum alloy on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31-O Mg and Al 6061-T6 diffusion bonding. Using Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) equipped with EDS analysis and line scan the interfaces of joints were evaluated. The XRD analysis was carried out to characterize phase constitution near the interface zone. The mechanical properties of joints were measured using Vickers micro-hardness and shear strength. According to the results in bonding of AZ31-Mg/Al-6061-O, in less plastic deformation in magnesium alloy, diffusion rate of most magnesium atoms occurred to aluminum alloy and formation of diffusion zone with minimum micro-hardness (140 HV) and maximum shear strength (32 MPa) compared to Al 6061-T6/Mg-AZ31 bonding. Evaluation of fracture surfaces indicates an occurrence of failure from the brittle intermetallic phases. - Highlights: • Diffusion bonding AZ31 to Al-6061withoutany interlayer was successful. • Thermal tempered aluminum alloy plays a vital role in the mechanical properties of joint. • Less thickness of reaction layers and micro-hardness in bonding annealed Al- 6061 layers to AZ31 was achieved. • Fracture surfaces indicated that the onset of fracture from intermetallic compounds resulted in fracture of the cleavage.

  8. Effect of thermal tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-AZ31/Al-6061 diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mojtaba; Rizi, Mohsen Saboktakin; Jafarian, Morteza; Honarmand, Mehrdad; Javadinejad, Hamid Reza; Ghaheri, Ali; Bahramipour, Mohammad Taghi; Ebrahimian, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the types thermal tempering of aluminum alloy on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31-O Mg and Al 6061-T6 diffusion bonding. Using Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) equipped with EDS analysis and line scan the interfaces of joints were evaluated. The XRD analysis was carried out to characterize phase constitution near the interface zone. The mechanical properties of joints were measured using Vickers micro-hardness and shear strength. According to the results in bonding of AZ31-Mg/Al-6061-O, in less plastic deformation in magnesium alloy, diffusion rate of most magnesium atoms occurred to aluminum alloy and formation of diffusion zone with minimum micro-hardness (140 HV) and maximum shear strength (32 MPa) compared to Al 6061-T6/Mg-AZ31 bonding. Evaluation of fracture surfaces indicates an occurrence of failure from the brittle intermetallic phases. - Highlights: • Diffusion bonding AZ31 to Al-6061withoutany interlayer was successful. • Thermal tempered aluminum alloy plays a vital role in the mechanical properties of joint. • Less thickness of reaction layers and micro-hardness in bonding annealed Al- 6061 layers to AZ31 was achieved. • Fracture surfaces indicated that the onset of fracture from intermetallic compounds resulted in fracture of the cleavage.

  9. High speed cutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using LBR-370 numerical control lathe, high speed cutting was applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy. The influence of cutting parameters on microstructure, surface roughness and machining hardening were investigated by using the methods of single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results show that the cutting parameters have an important effect on microstructure, surface roughness and machine hardening. The depth of stress layer, roughness and hardening present a declining tendency with the increase of the cutting speed and also increase with the augment of the cutting depth and feed rate. Moreover, we established a prediction model of the roughness, which has an important guidance on actual machining process of magnesium alloy.

  10. Development of mechanical properties in a CaO added AZ31 magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Ki Ho; Shin, Young-Chul; Yoon, Duk Jae; Kawasaki, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    Processing through the application of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is recognized as one of the attractive severe plastic deformation techniques where the processed bulk metals generally achieve ultrafine-grained microstructure leading to improved physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Magnesium has received much attention to date for its lightweight, high strength and excellent elasticity. Mg alloys with addition of CaO is reported to provide the successful casting procedure without usage of greenhouse gas, SF 6 , whereas it is generally used for preventing the oxidation of Mg during casting. In the present investigation, a CaO added AZ31 (AZ31-CaO) magnesium alloy was processed by ECAP at elevated temepratures with a few steps of reduction which result in significant grain refinement to ~ 1.5 μm after 6 passes. Compression testing at room temperature demonstrated the AZ31-CaO alloy after ECAP showed enhanced yield strength more than the as-processed commercial AZ31 alloy while both alloys maintained ductility in spite of significant reduction in grain size. The improved strength in the AZ31-CaO alloy was attributed to the formation of fine Al 2 Ca precipitates which experience breaking-up through ECAP and accelerate the microstructural refinement. Moreover, the preservation of ductility was attributed to the enhancement of strain hardening capability in the AZ31 alloy at room temperature. This study discusses the feasibility of using ECAP to improve both strength and ductility on magnesium alloys by applying the diagram describing the paradox of strength and ductility. - Highlights: • AZ31 and AZ31-CaO magnesium alloys were processed by ECAP up to 6 passes. • AZ31-CaO alloy after ECAP showed improved yield strength without losing ductility. • CaO in AZ31 forms fine Al 2 Ca accelerating microstructural refinement during ECAP. • Feasibility of using ECAP was shown to improve both strength and ductility in Mg.

  11. Mechanical behaviour of biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy after long term in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekanmbi, Isaiah; Mosher, Christopher Z; Lu, Helen H; Riehle, Mathis; Kubba, Haytham; Tanner, K Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloys including AZ31 are exciting candidates for temporary implants as they eliminate the requirement for surgical removal, yet have higher mechanical properties than degradable polymers. However, the very long term mechanical properties and degradation of these alloys have not been fully characterized. The tensile, bending and corrosion behaviour of biodegradable AZ31 Mg alloy specimens have been investigated for up to 9months in vitro in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Small AZ31 Mg specimens showed a significant drop in bend yield strength and modulus after 3months in vitro degradation and an average mass loss of 6.1%. Larger dumbbell specimens showed significant drops in tensile strength from 251.96±3.53MPa to 73.5±20.2MPa and to 6.43±0.9MPa and in modulus from 47.8±5.6GPa to 25.01±3.4GPa and 2.36±0.89GPa after 3 and 9months respectively. These reductions were accompanied by an average mass loss of 18.3% in 9months. Degradation rate for the small and large specimens followed similar profiles with immersion time, with peak degradation rates of 0.1747gm -2 h - 1 and 0.0881gm -2 h - 1 , and average rates of 0.1038gm -2 h - 1 and 0.0397gm -2 h - 1 respectively. SEM fractography and polished specimen cross-sections revealed corrosion pits, cracks and corrosion induced defects. These data indicate the potential of AZ31 Mg for use in implants that require medium term degradation with load bearing mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flow behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31B processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, M S; Chakkingal, U

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are characterised by their low density, high specific strength and stiffness. But, the potential application of Mg is limited by its low room-temperature ductility and formability. Formability can be improved by developing an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process that can be used to develop an ultrafine grained microstructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the flow behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy after ECAP. The specimen was subjected to three passes of ECAP with a die angle of 120° using processing route Bc. The processing temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The microstructure characterisation was done. Compression tests of ECAPed and annealed specimens were carried out at strain rates of 0.01 – 1s −1 and deformation temperatures of 200 – 300°C using computer servo-controlled Gleeble-3800 system. The value of activation energy Q and the empirical materials constants of A and n were determined. The equations relating flow stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter were proposed. In the case annealed AZ31, the activation energy was determined to be 154 kJ/mol, which was slightly higher than the activation energy of 144 kJ/mol for ECAPed AZ31

  13. Flow behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31B processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, U.

    2014-08-01

    Magnesium alloys are characterised by their low density, high specific strength and stiffness. But, the potential application of Mg is limited by its low room-temperature ductility & formability. Formability can be improved by developing an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process that can be used to develop an ultrafine grained microstructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the flow behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy after ECAP. The specimen was subjected to three passes of ECAP with a die angle of 120° using processing route Bc. The processing temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The microstructure characterisation was done. Compression tests of ECAPed and annealed specimens were carried out at strain rates of 0.01 - 1s-1 and deformation temperatures of 200 - 300°C using computer servo-controlled Gleeble-3800 system. The value of activation energy Q and the empirical materials constants of A and n were determined. The equations relating flow stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter were proposed. In the case annealed AZ31, the activation energy was determined to be 154 kJ/mol, which was slightly higher than the activation energy of 144 kJ/mol for ECAPed AZ31.

  14. Enhancing Friction Stir Weldability of 6061-T6 Al and AZ31B Mg Alloys Assisted by External Non-rotational Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Huang, Ruofei; Meng, Xiangchen; Zhang, Liguo; Huang, Yongxian

    2017-05-01

    In order to increase cooling rate and then reduce the amounts of intermetallic compounds, external non-rotational shoulder tool system derived from traditional tool in friction stir welding was used to join dissimilar Al and Mg alloys. In this study, based on the external non-rotational shoulder, the weldability of Al and Mg alloys was significantly improved. The non-rotational shoulder tool is propitious to make more materials into weld, increase cooling rate and then reduce material adhesion of rotational pin, obtaining sound joint with smaller flashes and smooth surface. Importantly, the thickness of intermetallic compounds layer is reduced compared with traditional tool. Meanwhile, hardness values of dissimilar joint present uneven distribution, resulting from complex intercalated structures in nugget zone (NZ) featured by intermetallic compound layers and fine recrystallized Mg and Al grains. Compared with traditional tool, non-rotational shoulder is beneficial to higher tensile properties of joint. Due to the intermetallic compound layer formed in the interface of Al-Mg, the welding joint easily fractures at the NZ, presenting the typical brittle fracture mode.

  15. TiO2 Deposition on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO has been used in the past as a useful surface treatment technique to improve the anticorrosion properties of Mg alloys by forming protective layer. Coatings were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy in phosphate electrolyte with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO. This present work focuses on developing a TiO2 functional coating to create a novel electrophotocatalyst while observing the surface morphology, structure, composition, and corrosion resistance of the PEO coating. Microstructural characterization of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM followed by image analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. The corrosion resistance of the PEO treated samples was evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. The XRD pattern shows that the components of the oxide film include Mg from the substrate as well as MgO and Mg2TiO4 due to the TiO2 nanoparticle addition. The results show that the PEO coating with TiO2 nanoparticles did improve the corrosion resistance when compared to the AZ31 substrate alloy.

  16. Sub-micrometric surface texturing of AZ31 Mg-alloy through two-beam direct laser interference patterning with a ns-pulsed green fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Valentina; Biondi, Marco; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Pariani, Giorgio; Previtali, Barbara; Bianco, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Two-beam direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) is the method that employs two beams and provides control over the pattern geometry by regulating the angle between the beams and the wavelength of the beam. Despite the simplistic optical arrangement required for the method, the feasibility of sub-micrometric patterning of a surface depends on the correct manipulation of the process parameters, especially in the case of metallic materials. Magnesium alloys, from this point of view, exhibit further difficulty in processability due to low melting point and high reactivity. With biocompatibility and biodegradability features, Mg-alloy implants can take further advantage of surface structuring for tailoring the biological behaviour. In this work, a two-beam DLIP setup has been developed employing an industrial grade nanosecond-pulsed fiber laser emitting at 532 nm. The high repetition rate and ramped pulse profile provided by the laser were exploited for a more flexible control over the energy content deposited over the heat-sensitive Mg-alloy. The paper describes the strategies developed for controlling ramped laser emission at 20 kHz repetition rate. The process feasibility window was assessed within a large range of parameters. Within the feasibility window, a complete experimental plan was applied to investigate the effect of main laser process parameters on the pattern dimensions. Periodic surface structures with good definition down to 580 nm ± 20 nm spacing were successfully produced.

  17. Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tyrone L; DeLorme, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Magnesium Elektron North America (MENA) have conducted a joint effort to develop and evaluate rolled plate in commercially available magnesium alloy-temper AZ31B-H24...

  18. The oxidation resistance and ignition temperature of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La2O3 and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shizhe; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Zhihui; Lin, Pengyu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using lanthanum and lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) can improve oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy. ► La 2 O 3 is as effective as La in affecting both alloy microstructure and oxidation resistance. ► The optimum La concentration in alloy is ∼0.7 wt.%. ► We analyzed the oxidation kinetics of AZ31 alloy with both additions. - Abstract: We investigate the oxidation resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La and La oxide (La 2 O 3 ). The contributor is the practical La content in alloy. Both La and La 2 O 3 are effective in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloys. The samples with La content of ∼ 0.7 wt.% possess the best resistance to oxidation of all. Oxide scale, ignition temperature and oxidation kinetics are analyzed. However, higher La content is detrimental to the oxidation resistance.

  19. Tailoring degradation of AZ31 alloy by surface pre-treatment and electrospun PCL fibrous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanas, T. [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Sampath Kumar, T.S., E-mail: tssk@iitm.ac.in [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology - Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous layer using electrospinning technique so as to control degradation in physiological environment. Before coating, the alloy was treated with HNO{sub 3} to have good adhesion between the coating and substrate. To elucidate the role of pre-treatment and coating, samples only with PCL coating as well as HNO{sub 3} treatment only were prepared for comparison. Best coating adhesion of 4B grade by ASTM D3359–09 tape test was observed for pre-treated samples. The effect of coating on in vitro degradation and biomineralization was studied using supersaturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5 ×). The weight loss and corrosion results obtained by immersion test showed that the combination of HNO{sub 3} pre-treatment and PCL coating is very effective in controlling the degradation rate and improving bioactivity. Cytotoxicity studies using L6 cells showed that PCL coated sample has better cell adhesion and proliferation compared to uncoated samples. Nano-fibrous PCL coating combined with prior acid treatment seems to be a promising method to tailor degradation rate with enhanced bioactivity of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • PCL electrospun coating on HNO{sub 3} pre-treated AZ31 alloy controls biodegradation. • Acid pre-treatment stabilizes the substrate - coating interface. • Electrospun porous coating improves biomineralization. • Coating similar to extracellular matrix enhances cell adhesion.

  20. Novel hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Galio, A.F.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Trindade, C.; Dick, L.F.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to develop and study new anticorrosion films for AZ31B magnesium alloy based on the sol-gel coating approach. Hybrid organic-inorganic sols were synthesized by copolymerization of epoxy-siloxane and titanium or zirconium alkoxides. Tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphate was also used as additive to confer additional corrosion protection to magnesium-based alloy. A sol-gel coating, about 5-μm thick, shows good adhesion to the metal substrate and prevents corrosion attack in 0.005 M NaCl solution for 2 weeks. The sol-gel coating system doped with tris(trimethylsilyl)-phosphate revealed improved corrosion protection of the magnesium alloy due to formation of hydrolytically stable Mg-O-P chemical bonds. The structure and the thickness of the sol-gel film were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of AZ31B substrates pre-treated with the sol-gel derived hybrid coatings was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chemical composition of the silylphosphate-containing sol-gel film at different depths was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with depth profiling

  1. Microstructural characterization and finite element modeling of AZ31 magnesium alloys welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Segarra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it has been studied how the microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy can be affected by the thermic cycles produced by welding processes, trying to modeling by element finite software the thermic cycles in this material. The AZ31 samples tested were welded using Gas Tugsten Arc Welding (GTAW and different filler materials. For this investigation, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, and finite elements method software has been used. This work indicates in one hand that in this type of alloys the microconstituyentes are Al-Mn o Al-Mn-Mg compounds, the presence of β-phase cannot be found at room temperature in this research at room, on the other hand the obtained simulation models indicate that the recrystallization takes place in the areas which reach maximum temperatures around 550 °C, this value is also the limit of the dissolution area for the Al-Mn o Al-Mn-Mg precipitated particles which are very likely to act as inhibitors of the corrosion in NaCl electrolytes.

  2. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface contaminants as a result of thermo-mechanical processing of magnesium alloys, e.g. sheet rolling, can have a negative effect on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Especially contaminants such as Fe, Ni and Cu, left on the surface of magnesium alloys result in the formation...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...... cleaning the AZ31 sheet. However, to obtain reasonable corrosion resistance at least 5 mu m of the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet have to be removed....

  3. Effect of fiber laser parameters on laser welded AZ31B Magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Salleh Naqiuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of Magnesium (Mg alloys has been hugely applied in the industrial application such as in automotive, marine, and electronic due to its advantages of recyclability and lightweight. This alloys required low heat input to be weld since it is easily evaporated due to the Magnesium Oxide (MgO at the surface and it also possesses lower melting point compared to steel. Laser welding is more convenient to weld Mg alloys due to its high power and lower heat input. AZ31B was selected since it has strong mechanical properties among others Mg alloys due to the major alloying elements; Aluminium (Al and Zinc (Zn. Low power fiber laser machine with wavelength of 900 nm was used in this experiment. The intention of this work was to investigate the effect of low power fiber laser parameters and effect of shielding gas on weld penetration and microstructure. Another aim in this work was to produce the joint for this thin sheets metal. Penetration depth and microstructure evaluation were emphasized in the analysis section. Bead-on-Plate (BOP and laser lap welding was conducted on AZ31B with thicknesses of 1.0 mm and 0.6 mm for feasibility study using pulsed wave (PW mode. Defocusing features was used in order to find better focal position, which has less occurrence of evaporation (underfill. The effect of different angle of irradiation was also investigated. Two types of shielding gases, Argon (Ar and Nitrogen (N2 were used in order to study the effect of shielding gas. Lastly, the effect of pulsed energy on penetration types and depth of BOP welded samples was investigated. Focus point was found at focal length of 156 mm with 393.75 μm. For BOP experiment, higher pulsed energy used contributes to melt through defect. Meanwhile, Ns shielding gas proved to be better shielding gas in laser welding the AZ31B. Higher angle of irradiation could reduce the underfill defect. Fillet Lap joint of similar metal was successfully done where 2.0 J of

  4. Anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanying; Wu Guangming; Xing Guangjian; Li Donglin; Zhao Qing; Zhang Yunhong

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. However, the rapid degradation rate has limited their application in biomedical field. A great deal of studies have been done to improve the resistance of magnesium alloys. In this article, An anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating with a thickness of approximately 100μm was formed on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method. The morphology of the coatings were observed by an optical microscope and SEM. And the samples were soaked in hank's solution (37 deg. C) to investigate the corrosion resistance. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with magnesium hydroxide coatings present superior corrosion resistance than untreated samples.

  5. Development of mechanical properties in a CaO added AZ31 magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong-Hwan [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Metal Forming Technology R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ki Ho; Shin, Young-Chul; Yoon, Duk Jae [Metal Forming Technology R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kawasaki, Megumi, E-mail: megumi@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Processing through the application of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is recognized as one of the attractive severe plastic deformation techniques where the processed bulk metals generally achieve ultrafine-grained microstructure leading to improved physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Magnesium has received much attention to date for its lightweight, high strength and excellent elasticity. Mg alloys with addition of CaO is reported to provide the successful casting procedure without usage of greenhouse gas, SF{sub 6}, whereas it is generally used for preventing the oxidation of Mg during casting. In the present investigation, a CaO added AZ31 (AZ31-CaO) magnesium alloy was processed by ECAP at elevated temepratures with a few steps of reduction which result in significant grain refinement to ~ 1.5 μm after 6 passes. Compression testing at room temperature demonstrated the AZ31-CaO alloy after ECAP showed enhanced yield strength more than the as-processed commercial AZ31 alloy while both alloys maintained ductility in spite of significant reduction in grain size. The improved strength in the AZ31-CaO alloy was attributed to the formation of fine Al{sub 2}Ca precipitates which experience breaking-up through ECAP and accelerate the microstructural refinement. Moreover, the preservation of ductility was attributed to the enhancement of strain hardening capability in the AZ31 alloy at room temperature. This study discusses the feasibility of using ECAP to improve both strength and ductility on magnesium alloys by applying the diagram describing the paradox of strength and ductility. - Highlights: • AZ31 and AZ31-CaO magnesium alloys were processed by ECAP up to 6 passes. • AZ31-CaO alloy after ECAP showed improved yield strength without losing ductility. • CaO in AZ31 forms fine Al{sub 2}Ca accelerating microstructural refinement during ECAP. • Feasibility of using ECAP was shown to improve both strength and ductility in Mg.

  6. Investigation of the chemical vicinity of defects in Mg and AZ31 with positron coincident Doppler boarding spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Within the scope of the present work, two main goals have been achieved: Firstly, the coincident Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC has been elaborately improved in order to increase the spatial resolution for defect mapping measurements and to investigate samples with shallow positron trapping sites which are present e. g. in magnesium. Secondly, as an application, the chemical vicinity of defects in the industrially used magnesium based alloy AZ31 has been examined by means of the detailed investigation of ion-irradiated specimen with positron annihilation spectroscopy. Detailed simulations with the finite-element simulation tool COMSOL were used to optimize the focal diameter of the positron beam at the sample position in order to increase the spatial resolution. With a value of 0.3 mm, sub-mm resolution has now been reached. The CDBS has been furthermore equipped with a sample cooling unit in order to reach liquid nitrogen temperature, maintaining the feature of scanning the sample for defect mapping. Defects and their chemical surrounding in ion irradiated magnesium and the magnesium based alloy AZ31 were then investigated on an atomic scale with the CDBS. In the respective spectra the chemical information and the defect contribution have been thoroughly separated. For this purpose, samples of annealed Mg were irradiated with Mg-ions in order to create exclusively defects. In addition Al- and Zn-ion irradiations on Mg-samples were performed in order to create samples with both defects and impurity atoms. The ion irradiated area on the samples was investigated with laterally and depth resolved positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and compared with SRIM-simulations of the vacancy distribution. The investigation of the chemical vicinity of crystal defects in AZ31 was performed with CDBS on Mg-ion irradiated AZ31 with Mg-ion irradiated Mg. The outer tail of the energy distribution in the annihilation

  7. Investigation of the chemical vicinity of defects in Mg and AZ31 with positron coincident Doppler boarding spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Martin

    2008-03-10

    Within the scope of the present work, two main goals have been achieved: Firstly, the coincident Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC has been elaborately improved in order to increase the spatial resolution for defect mapping measurements and to investigate samples with shallow positron trapping sites which are present e. g. in magnesium. Secondly, as an application, the chemical vicinity of defects in the industrially used magnesium based alloy AZ31 has been examined by means of the detailed investigation of ion-irradiated specimen with positron annihilation spectroscopy. Detailed simulations with the finite-element simulation tool COMSOL were used to optimize the focal diameter of the positron beam at the sample position in order to increase the spatial resolution. With a value of 0.3 mm, sub-mm resolution has now been reached. The CDBS has been furthermore equipped with a sample cooling unit in order to reach liquid nitrogen temperature, maintaining the feature of scanning the sample for defect mapping. Defects and their chemical surrounding in ion irradiated magnesium and the magnesium based alloy AZ31 were then investigated on an atomic scale with the CDBS. In the respective spectra the chemical information and the defect contribution have been thoroughly separated. For this purpose, samples of annealed Mg were irradiated with Mg-ions in order to create exclusively defects. In addition Al- and Zn-ion irradiations on Mg-samples were performed in order to create samples with both defects and impurity atoms. The ion irradiated area on the samples was investigated with laterally and depth resolved positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and compared with SRIM-simulations of the vacancy distribution. The investigation of the chemical vicinity of crystal defects in AZ31 was performed with CDBS on Mg-ion irradiated AZ31 with Mg-ion irradiated Mg. The outer tail of the energy distribution in the annihilation

  8. In vitro and in vivo studies of biodegradable fine grained AZ31 magnesium alloy produced by equal channel angular pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Sunil, B; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday; Nandakumar, V; Doble, Mukesh; Devi Prasad, V; Raghunath, M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the role of different grain sizes produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the degradation behavior of magnesium alloy using in vitro and in vivo studies. Commercially available AZ31 magnesium alloy was selected and processed by ECAP at 300°C for up to four passes using route Bc. Grain refinement from a starting size of 46μm to a grain size distribution of 1-5μm was successfully achieved after the 4th pass. Wettability of ECAPed samples assessed by contact angle measurements was found to increase due to the fine grain structure. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the samples studied by immersing in super saturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5×) showed rapid mineralization within 24h due to the increased wettability in fine grained AZ31 Mg alloy. Corrosion behavior of the samples assessed by weight loss and electrochemical tests conducted in SBF 5× clearly showed the prominent role of enhanced mineral deposition on ECAPed AZ31 Mg in controlling the abnormal degradation. Cytotoxicity studies by MTT colorimetric assay showed that all the samples are viable. Additionally, cell adhesion was excellent for ECAPed samples particularly for the 3rd and 4th pass samples. In vivo experiments conducted using New Zealand White rabbits clearly showed lower degradation rate for ECAPed sample compared with annealed AZ31 Mg alloy and all the samples showed biocompatibility and no health abnormalities were noticed in the animals after 60days of in vivo studies. These results suggest that the grain size plays an important role in degradation management of magnesium alloys and ECAP technique can be adopted to achieve fine grain structures for developing degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The fluoride coated AZ31B magnesium alloy improves corrosion resistance and stimulates bone formation in rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Guangdao [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ai, Hongjun, E-mail: aihongjuna@sina.com [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluorine coated Mg alloy and clarify its mechanism in bone formation. We implanted the fluorine coated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group F) in rabbit mandibular and femur in vivo. Untreated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group A) and titanium screw (group T) were used as control. Then, scanning electron microscopy, the spectral energy distribution analysis, hard and decalcified bone tissues staining were performed. Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and collagen type I in the vicinity of the implant. Compared with the group A, the degradation of the alloy was reduced, the rates of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release were slowed down, and the depositions of calcium and phosphate increased in the group F in the early stage of implantation. Histological results showed that fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. Moreover, fluoride coating obviously up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. This study confirmed that the fluorine coating might improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy and promote bone formation by up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. - Highlights: • Fluoride coating inhibited the degradation of the alloy in the early implantation. • Fluorine coating could slow down the rate of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release. • Fluorine coating could promote the deposition of Ca and P in vivo. • Fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. • Fluorine coating up-regulated the expression of BMP-2 and collagen type I protein.

  10. A Comparative Electrochemical Study of AZ31 and AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Salman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study has been carried out on AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys in order to understand the electrochemical behavior in both alkaline and chloride containing solutions. The open circuit potential (OCP was examined in 1 M NaOH and 3.5 mass % NaCl solutions. AZ31 magnesium alloy shows several potential drops throughout the immersion in 1 M NaOH solution, though AZ91 does not show this phenomenon. The specimens were anodized at a constant potential of 3 V for 30 minutes at 298 K in 1 M NaOH solution. The anticorrosion behavior of the anodized specimens was better than those of nonanodized specimens. The anodized AZ91 has better corrosion resistance compared to nonanodized specimen and anodized AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  11. Corrosion mechanism and model of pulsed DC microarc oxidation treated AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yanhong, E-mail: ygu2@alaska.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Chen Chengfu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Bandopadhyay, Sukumar [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Yongjun [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Guo Yuanjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses the effect of pulse frequency on the corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF). The MAO coatings were deposited by a pulsed DC mode at four different pulse frequencies of 300 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz with a constant pulse ratio. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used for corrosion rate and electrochemical impedance evaluation. The corroded surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical microscopy. All the results exhibited that the corrosion resistance of MAO coating produced at 3000 Hz is superior among the four frequencies used. The XRD spectra showed that the corrosion products contain hydroxyapatite, brucite and quintinite. A model for corrosion mechanism and corrosion process of the MAO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy in the SBF is proposed.

  12. Corrosion mechanism and model of pulsed DC microarc oxidation treated AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yanhong; Chen Chengfu; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Ning Chengyun; Zhang Yongjun; Guo Yuanjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of pulse frequency on the corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF). The MAO coatings were deposited by a pulsed DC mode at four different pulse frequencies of 300 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz with a constant pulse ratio. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used for corrosion rate and electrochemical impedance evaluation. The corroded surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical microscopy. All the results exhibited that the corrosion resistance of MAO coating produced at 3000 Hz is superior among the four frequencies used. The XRD spectra showed that the corrosion products contain hydroxyapatite, brucite and quintinite. A model for corrosion mechanism and corrosion process of the MAO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy in the SBF is proposed.

  13. Mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy processed by a green metallurgy route; Propiedades mecanicas de la aleacion AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enrico, F.; Garces, G.; Hofer, M.; Kim, S. K.; Perez, P.; Cabeza, S.; Adeva, P.

    2013-07-01

    Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out successfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF{sub 6} coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl{sub 2} phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu) funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009), studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM) using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demonstrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa. (Author)

  14. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  15. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  16. Biodegradable behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yingwei; Shan Dayong; Chen Rongshi; Zhang Fan; Han Enhou

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have unique advantages to act as biodegradable implants for clinical application. The biodegradable behaviors of AZ31 in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various immersion time intervals were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, and then the biodegradable mechanisms were discussed. It was found that a protective film layer was formed on the surface of AZ31 in SBF. With increasing of immersion time, the film layer became more compact. If the immersion time was more than 24 h, the film layer began to degenerate and emerge corrosion pits. In the meantime, there was hydroxyapatite particles deposited on the film layer. The hydroxyapatite is the essential component of human bone, which indicates the perfect biocompatibility of AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  17. Cytotoxicity studies of AZ31D alloy and the effects of carbon dioxide on its biodegradation behavior in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali, E-mail: wangjialicsu@yahoo.cn [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qin, Ling [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wang, Kai [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208 (China); Wang, Jue; Yue, Ye [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Yangde [Guangdong Innovation Team for Biodegradable Magnesium and Medical Implants, E-ande, Dongguan 523660 (China); Tang, Jian [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Weirong [Guangdong Innovation Team for Biodegradable Magnesium and Medical Implants, E-ande, Dongguan 523660 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium alloys have been advocated as potential artificial bone materials due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The understanding of their corrosive mechanism in physiological environments is therefore essential for making application-orientated designs. Thus, this in vitro study was designed to assess the effects of CO{sub 2} on corrosive behavior of AZ31D to mimic in vivo special ingredient. Electrochemical technologies accompanied with Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and hydrogen evolution measurement were employed to analyze corrosive rates and mechanisms of AZ31D. Moreover, the biocompatibility of AZ31D was assessed with a direct cell attachment assay and an indirect cytotoxicity test in different diluted extracts. The ion concentrations in extracts were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to offer explanations on the differences of cell viability in the indirect test. The results of the direct cytotoxicity assay showed that the corrosive rate of AZ31D was too rapid to allow for cell adhesion. Extracts diluted less than 20 times would cause adverse effects on cell proliferation, likely due to excessive ions and gas release. Moreover, the presence of CO{sub 2} did not cause significant differences on corrosive behavior of AZ31D according to the results of electrochemical testing and hydrogen evolution measurement. This might be caused by the simultaneous process of precipitation and dissolution of MgCO{sub 3} due to the penetration role of CO{sub 2}. This analysis of corrosive atmospheres on the degradation behavior of magnesium alloys would contribute to the design of more scientific in vitro testing systems in the future. - Highlights: • We evaluate the effects of CO{sub 2} on corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys. • We assess the feasibility of commercial AZ31D alloy as potential implants. • CO{sub 2} is not the key factor to minimize

  18. Mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy processed by a green metallurgy route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Enrico, F.; Garces, G.; Hofer, M.; Kim, S. K.; Perez, P.; Cabeza, S.; Adeva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out successfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF 6 coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl 2 phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu) funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009), studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM) using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demonstrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa. (Author)

  19. Workability Limits of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, Uday

    2018-03-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is an important severe plastic deformation process to produce ultrafine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. Magnesium and its alloys generally possess poor workability at temperatures below 250 °C. This investigation examines the influence of different passes and processing routes of ECAP on improving the workability of Mg alloy AZ31B. ECAP was carried out for three passes using a die of angle 120° using processing routes Bc and C. The operating temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The resultant microstructure and mechanical properties were determined. Workability of the alloy at 423 K (150 °C) was determined using upsetting experiments on cylindrical specimens machined from the annealed and ECAPed samples. Workability limit diagrams have been constructed for the various processed conditions. The workability data generated were also analyzed using five different workability criteria (also referred to as ductile fracture models) and the material constants for these five models were evaluated. Specimens processed by two passes through route C (pass 2C) exhibits better workability compared to other passes since the workability limit line after this pass shows maximum safe working area and lies above the other workability lines. Among the five different workability criteria investigated, the Freudenthal workability criterion is more suitable for prediction of failure in this alloy.

  20. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of laser surface-treated AZ31B Mg bio-implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tso-Chang; Ho, Yee-Hsien; Joshi, Sameehan S; Rajamure, Ravi S; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2017-05-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, they suffer from poor corrosion performance in the human body environment. In light of this, surface modification via rapid surface melting of AZ31B Mg alloy using a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser was conducted. Laser processing was performed with laser energy ranging from 1.06 to 3.18 J/mm 2 . The corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of laser surface-treated and untreated AZ31B Mg alloy samples was evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructure examination revealed grain refinement as well as formation and uniform distribution of Mg 17 Al 12 phase along the grain boundary for laser surface-treated samples. Evolution of such unique microstructure during laser surface treatment indicated enhancement in the corrosion resistance of laser surface-treated samples compared to untreated alloy.

  1. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Purified Magnesium and AZ31 Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifeh, Sohrab; Burleigh, T. David

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are ideal for biodegradable implants due to their biocompatibility and their low-stress shielding. However, they can corrode too rapidly in the biological environment. The objective of this research was to develop heat treatments to slow the corrosion of high purified magnesium and AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid at 37{\\deg}C. Heat treatments were performed at different temperatures and times. Hydrogen evolution, weight loss, PDP, and EIS methods were used to measu...

  2. Evolution of twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with bimodal grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oñorbe, E. [CIEMAT, Division of Structural Materials, Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gan, W. [German Engineering Materials Science Centre at MLZ, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lichtebergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Máthis, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Tolnai, D. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Horváth, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Pérez, P.; Adeva, P. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with a bimodal grain structure is studied under compression along the extrusion direction. This study has combined in-situ measurements during the compression tests by Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction and Acoustic Emission techniques and the evaluation of the microstructure and texture in post-mortem compression samples deformed at different strains. The microstructure of the alloy is characterized by the coexistence of large areas of fine dynamic recrystallized grains and coarse non-recrystallized grains elongated along extrusion direction. Twinning occurs initially in large elongated grains before the macroscopic yield stress which is controlled by the twinning in equiaxed dynamically recrystallized grains. - Highlights: • The AZ31 extruded at low temperature exhibits a bimodal grains structure. • Twinning takes place before macroscopic yielding in coarse non-DRXed grains. • DRXed grains controls the beginning of plasticity in magnesium alloys with bimodal grain structure.

  3. Corrosion behaviour and in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility of surface-modified AZ31 alloy; Comportamiento frente a la corrosion y biocompatibilidad in vitrolin vivo de la aleacion AZ31 modificada superficialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneras, M.; Iglesias, C.; Perez-Maceda, B. T.; Valle, J. A. de; Garcia-Alonso, M. C.; Alobera, M. A.; Clemente, C.; Rubio, J. C.; Escudero, M. I.; Lozano, R. M.

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluates the corrosion behaviour and the in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloy, which fulfills the mechanical requirements of bone. The corrosion kinetic of as-received AZ31 alloy was not compatible with the cell growth. To improve its performance, the AZ31 alloy was surface modified by a chemical conversion treatment in hydrofluoric acid. The magnesium fluoride layer generated by the surface treatment of AZ31 alloy enhances its corrosion behaviour, allowing the in vitro growth of osteoblastic cells over the surface and the in vivo formation of a highly compact layer of new bone tissue. These results lead to consider the magnesium fluoride coating as necessary for potential use of the AZ31 alloy as biodegradable and absorbable implant for bone repair. (Author) 18 refs.

  4. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  5. Surface roughness optimization in machining of AZ31 magnesium alloy using ABC algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys serve as excellent substitutes for materials traditionally used for engine block heads in automobiles and gear housings in aircraft industries. AZ31 is a magnesium alloy finds its applications in orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. Surface roughness is an important parameter in the present manufacturing sector. In this work optimization techniques namely firefly algorithm (FA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC which are based on swarm intelligence techniques, have been implemented to optimize the machining parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut in order to achieve minimum surface roughness. The parameter Ra has been considered for evaluating the surface roughness. Comparing the performance of ABC algorithm with FA and PSO algorithm, which is a widely used optimization algorithm in machining studies, the results conclude that ABC produces better optimization when compared to FA and PSO for optimizing surface roughness of AZ 31.

  6. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. (Lahaie and Bouchard 2001; ... superheating, carbon inoculation, addition of solute elements ... microscope (SEM) for morphological characterization. 3. Results and ... C. Figures 2(d), (e) and (f) show the ... It is widely appreciated that the microstructure of a casting.

  7. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: Grain Refinement by Adjusting Pulse Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM offers a potential approach to fabricate large-scale magnesium alloy components with low cost and high efficiency, although this topic is yet to be reported in literature. In this study, WAAM is preliminarily applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium. Fully dense AZ31 magnesium alloy components are successfully obtained. Meanwhile, to refine grains and obtain good mechanical properties, the effects of pulse frequency (1, 2, 5, 10, 100, and 500 Hz on the macrostructure, microstructure and tensile properties are investigated. The results indicate that pulse frequency can result in the change of weld pool oscillations and cooling rate. This further leads to the change of the grain size, grain shape, as well as the tensile properties. Meanwhile, due to the resonance of the weld pool at 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the samples have poor geometry accuracy but contain finer equiaxed grains (21 μm and exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength (260 MPa and yield strength (102 MPa, which are similar to those of the forged AZ31 alloy. Moreover, the elongation of all samples is above 23%.

  8. Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Materials 2 2.2 Hot Rolling 3 2.2 Sample Characterization: Microstructure and Tensile Properties 3 3. Rolling Experiments 5 3.1 High-Temperature...material systems for protective and structural applications, especially in ground vehicles. Magnesium (Mg), due to its low density (~25% that of steel ...applications, wrought Mg is difficult to produce in thin sheets because of its inherently low ductility . As a result, Mg sheet is often produced at

  9. Notch sensitivity of cast AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Estrin, Y.; Zúberová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2005), s. 88-91 ISSN 1335-0803. [Degradácia konštrukčných materiálov 2005. Terchová - Biely Potok, 05.09.2005-07.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : notch sensitivity * magnesium alloy * fatigue lifetime Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  10. Corrosion protection and improved cytocompatibility of biodegradable polymeric layer-by-layer coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Nicole; Lee, Boeun; Enick, Nathan; Carlson, Benjamin; Kunjukunju, Sangeetha; Roy, Abhijit; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-11-01

    Composite coatings of electrostatically assembled layer-by-layer anionic and cationic polymers combined with an Mg(OH)2 surface treatment serve to provide a protective coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrates. These ceramic conversion coating and layer-by-layer polymeric coating combinations reduced the initial and long-term corrosion progression of the AZ31 alloy. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful application of coatings. Potentiostatic polarization tests indicate improved initial corrosion resistance. Hydrogen evolution measurements over a 2 week period and magnesium ion levels over a 1 week period indicate longer range corrosion protection and retention of the Mg(OH)2 passivation layer in comparison to the uncoated substrates. Live/dead staining and DNA quantification were used as measures of biocompatibility and proliferation while actin staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the cellular morphology and integration with the coated substrates. The coatings simultaneously provided improved biocompatibility, cellular adhesion and proliferation in comparison to the uncoated alloy surface utilizing both murine pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells and human mesenchymal stem cells. The implementation of such coatings on magnesium alloy implants could serve to improve the corrosion resistance and cellular integration of these implants with the native tissue while delivering vital drugs or biological elements to the site of implantation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  12. Nano grained AZ31 alloy achieved by equal channel angular rolling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, F.Z.; Ketabchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Equal channel angular rolling (ECAR) is a severe plastic deformation process which is carried out on large, thin sheets. The grain size could be significantly decreased by this process. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet by this process to nanometer. The effect of the number of ECAR passes on texture evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated. ECAR temperature was controlled to maximize the grain refinement efficiency along with preventing cracking. The initial microstructure of as-received AZ31 sheet showed an average grain size of about 21 μm. The amount of grain refinement increased with increasing the pass number. After 10 passes of the process, significant grain refinement occurred and the field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) micrographs showed that the size of grains were decreased significantly to about 14-70 nm. These grains were formed at the grain boundaries and inside some of the previous larger micrometer grains. Observation of optical microstructures and X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) showed the formation of twins after ECAR process. Micro-hardness of material was studied at room temperature. There was a continuous enhancement of hardness by increasing the pass number of ECAR process. At the 8th pass, hardness values increased by 53%. At final passes hardness reduced slightly, which was attributed to saturation of strain in high number of passes.

  13. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.-K.; Chang, C.-K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures

  14. Surface morphology, microstructure and properties of as-cast AZ31 magnesium alloy irradiated by high intensity pulsed ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xuesong [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); The Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Gang [Sino-Russia Joint Lab for High Energy Beam, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159 (China); Wang, Guotian [School of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Technology, Harbin 150050 (China); Zhu, Guoliang, E-mail: glzhu1983@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240 Shanghai (China); Zhou, Wei, E-mail: wzhou@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wang, Jun; Sun, Baode [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240 Shanghai (China); The State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • High intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation were performed to improve the properties of as-cast AZ31 magnesium alloy. • After 10 shots HIPIB irradiation, the average microhardness was increased by 27.1% and wear rate was reduced by 38.5%. • After 10 shots HIPIB irradiation, the corrosion rate was reduced by 24.8%, and the corrosion rate was decreased from 23.15 g m{sup −2} h{sup −1} to 17.4 g m{sup −2} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: High intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation was performed as surface modification to improve the properties of as-cast AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloys. The surface morphology and microstructure of the irradiated Mg alloys were characterized and their microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance before and after HIPIB irradiation were measured. The results show that the formation of crater on the surface was attributed to the particles impacted from the irradiated cathode material. HIPIB irradiation resulted in more vacancy defects on the surface of the material. Moreover, new dislocations were generated by the reaction between vacancies, and the dislocation configuration was also changed. These variations caused by the HIPIB are beneficial for improving the material properties. After 10 shots of irradiation, the average microhardness increased by 27.1% but the wear rate decreased by 38.5%. The corrosion rate was reduced by 24.8% according to the salt spray corrosion experiment.

  15. Influence of the Composition of the Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution on the Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 and AZ61 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tkacz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloys were analyzed in terms of potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The influence of the solution composition and material surface finish was examined also through the analysis of corrosion products created on the samples’ surface after electrochemical measurements in terms of scanning electron microscopy using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Obtained data revealed the differences in the response of the magnesium alloys to enriched Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution—HBSS+ (with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions and Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution—HBSS (without Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Both examined alloys exhibited better corrosion resistance from the thermodynamic and kinetic point of view in the enriched HBSS+. AZ61 magnesium alloy reached higher values of polarization resistance than AZ31 magnesium alloy in both the used corrosion solutions. Phosphate-based corrosion products were characteristic for the AZ31 and AZ61 alloys tested in the HBSS (without Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The combination of phosphate-based corrosion products and clusters of MgO and Mg(OH2 was typical for the surface of samples tested in the enriched HBSS+ (with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Pitting corrosion attack was observed only in the case of enriched HBSS+.

  16. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Weld Joints of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, T.; Otsuka, M.; Yokota, T.; Ueki, T.

    The applicability of friction stir welding to hot rolled sheet of commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 plates has been investigated. Friction stir weld joint showed mechanical strength comparable to that of base material, though the ductility remained at one half of that of the latter. The results are consistent with the microstructure which is characterized by a fine grained bond layer bounded by-intermediate grained base metals. It is found that both anodizing treatment and insertion of aluminum foil between batting faces do not degrade the joint properties at all. The results suggest that friction stir welding can be potentially applied to magnesium alloy.

  17. Microstructure and properties of friction stir butt-welded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunhong; Wang Kuaishe

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for magnesium and aluminum alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this paper, an excellent friction stir weld of AZ31 magnesium alloy was obtained at proper parameter. In the friction stir zone (FSZ), the microstructure of the base material (BM) is replaced by fine grains and small particles of intermetallic compounds. The average microhardness of the friction stir zone is higher than that of the base material. The maximum tensile strength of joint can reach 93% that of the base material. And the failure locations are almost at the heating affected zone

  18. Preliminary research on a novel bioactive silicon doped calcium phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy via electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wan, Peng, E-mail: pwan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tan, LiLi [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Fan, XinMin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yang, Ke [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-03-01

    A silicon doped calcium phosphate coating was obtained successfully on AZ31 alloy substrate via pulse electrodeposition. A novel dual-layer structure was observed with a porous lamellar-like and outer block-like apatite layer. In vitro immersion tests were adopted in simulated body fluid within 28 days of immersion. Slow degradation rate obtained from weight loss was observed for the Si-doped Ca–P coating, which was also consistent with the results of electrochemical experiments showing an enhanced corrosion resistance for the coating. Further formation of an apatite-like layer on the surface after immersion proved better integrity and biomineralization performance of the coating. Biological characterization was carried out for viability, proliferation and differentiation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. The coating showed a good cell growth and an enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, an increased activity of osteogenic marker ALP was found. All the results demonstrated that the Si-doped calcium phosphate was perspective to be used as a coating for magnesium alloy implants to control the degradation rate and enhance the bioactivity, which would facilitate the rapidity of bone tissue repair. - Highlights: • A Si-doped calcium phosphate coating was achieved via pulse ED on AZ31 alloy. • The coating was composed of a porous lamellar-like layer and outer block-like apatite. • The coating showed slow degradation rate and better biomineralization property. • The coating improved cell proliferation and activity of osteogenic marker ALP.

  19. Preliminary research on a novel bioactive silicon doped calcium phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy via electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xun; Wan, Peng; Tan, LiLi; Fan, XinMin; Yang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    A silicon doped calcium phosphate coating was obtained successfully on AZ31 alloy substrate via pulse electrodeposition. A novel dual-layer structure was observed with a porous lamellar-like and outer block-like apatite layer. In vitro immersion tests were adopted in simulated body fluid within 28 days of immersion. Slow degradation rate obtained from weight loss was observed for the Si-doped Ca–P coating, which was also consistent with the results of electrochemical experiments showing an enhanced corrosion resistance for the coating. Further formation of an apatite-like layer on the surface after immersion proved better integrity and biomineralization performance of the coating. Biological characterization was carried out for viability, proliferation and differentiation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. The coating showed a good cell growth and an enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, an increased activity of osteogenic marker ALP was found. All the results demonstrated that the Si-doped calcium phosphate was perspective to be used as a coating for magnesium alloy implants to control the degradation rate and enhance the bioactivity, which would facilitate the rapidity of bone tissue repair. - Highlights: • A Si-doped calcium phosphate coating was achieved via pulse ED on AZ31 alloy. • The coating was composed of a porous lamellar-like layer and outer block-like apatite. • The coating showed slow degradation rate and better biomineralization property. • The coating improved cell proliferation and activity of osteogenic marker ALP

  20. Darkening effect on AZ31B magnesium alloy surface induced by nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Y.C., E-mail: guan0013@e.ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Zhou, W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Zheng, H.Y.; Li, Z.L. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2013-09-01

    Permanent darkening effect was achieved on surface of AZ31B Mg alloy irradiated with nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser, and special attention was made to examine how surface structure as well as oxidation affect the darkening effect. Experiments were carried out to characterize morphological evolution and chemical composition of the irradiated areas by optical reflection spectrometer, Talysurf surface profiler, SEM, EDS, and XPS. The darkening effect was found to be occurred at the surface under high laser energy. Optical spectra showed that the induced darkening surface was uniform over the spectral range from 200 nm to 1100 nm. SEM and surface profiler showed that surface morphology of darkening areas consisted of large number of micron scale cauliflower-like clusters and protruding particles. EDS and XPS showed that compared to non-irradiated area, oxygen content at the darkening areas increased significantly. It was proposed a mechanism that involved trapping of light in the surface morphology and chemistry variation of irradiated areas to explain the laser-induced darkening effect on AZ31B Mg alloy.

  1. Research on the drawing process with a large total deformation wires of AZ31 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajor, T; Muskalski, Z; Suliga, M

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium and their alloys have been extensively studied in recent years, not only because of their potential applications as light-weight engineering materials, but also owing to their biodegradability. Due to their hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure, cold plastic processing of magnesium alloys is difficult. The preliminary researches carried out by the authors have indicated that the application of the KOBO method, based on the effect of cyclic strain path change, for the deformation of magnesium alloys, provides the possibility of obtaining a fine-grained structure material to be used for further cold plastic processing with large total deformation. The main purpose of this work is to present research findings concerning a detailed analysis of mechanical properties and changes occurring in the structure of AZ31 alloy wire during the multistage cold drawing process. The appropriate selection of drawing parameters and the application of multistep heat treatment operations enable the deformation of the AZ31 alloy in the cold drawing process with a total draft of about 90%.

  2. Analysis of metallic traces from the biodegradation of endomedullary AZ31 alloy temporary implants in rat organs after long implantation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelón, O G; Iglesias, C; Garrido, J; Clemente, C; Garcia-Alonso, M C; Escudero, M L

    2015-08-04

    AZ31 alloy has been tested as a biodegradable material in the form of endomedullary implants in female Wistar rat femurs. In order to evaluate the accumulation of potentially toxic elements from the biodegradation of the implant, magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and fluorine (F) levels have been measured in different organs such as kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen and brain. Several factors that may influence accumulation have been taken into account: how long the implant has been in place, whether or not the bone is fractured, and the presence of an MgF2 protective coating on the implant. The main conclusions and the clinical relevance of the study have been that AZ31 endomedullary implants have a degradation rate of about 60% after 13 months, which is fully compatible with fracture consolidation. Neither bone fracture nor an MgF2 coating seems to influence the accumulation of trace elements in the studied organs. Aluminium is the only alloying element in this study that requires special attention. The increase in Al recovered from the sampled organs represents 3.95% of the amount contained in the AZ31 implant. Al accumulates in a statistically significant way in all the organs except the brain. All of this suggests that in long-term tests AZ31 may be a suitable material for osteosynthesis.

  3. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Hyuk [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10{sup 2}s{sup -}1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s{sup -}1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s{sup -}1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  4. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong; Park, Sung Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10"2s"-1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s"-1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s"-1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  5. Hybrid laser-TIG welding, laser beam welding and gas tungsten arc welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liming; Wang Jifeng; Song Gang

    2004-01-01

    Welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy was carried out using hybrid laser-TIG (LATIG) welding, laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding. The weldability and microstructure of magnesium AZ31B alloy welded using LATIG, LBW and TIG were investigated by OM and EMPA. The experimental results showed that the welding speed of LATIG was higher than that of TIG, which was caught up with LBW. Besides, the penetration of LATIG doubles that of TIG, and was four times that of LBW. In addition, arc stability was improved in hybrid of laser-TIG welding compared with using the TIG welding alone, especially at high welding speed and under low TIG current. It was found that the heat affect zone of joint was only observed in TIG welding, and the size of grains in it was evidently coarse. In fusion zone, the equiaxed grains exist, whose size was the smallest welded by LBW, and was the largest by TIG welding. It was also found that Mg concentration of the fusion zone was lower than that of the base one by EPMA in three welding processes

  6. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lei, Ting, E-mail: tlei@mail.csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiao, Tao [2nd Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • The optimum operating conditions were determined by an orthogonal experiment. • The coating is composed of oxides and hydroxides of V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+} and Mg(OH){sub 2}. • The self-healing performance was investigated by cross-cut immersion test. • The vanadia conversion coating provided active corrosion protection to AZ31 alloy. - Abstract: A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  7. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao; Lei, Ting; Xiao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimum operating conditions were determined by an orthogonal experiment. • The coating is composed of oxides and hydroxides of V"5"+, V"4"+ and Mg(OH)_2. • The self-healing performance was investigated by cross-cut immersion test. • The vanadia conversion coating provided active corrosion protection to AZ31 alloy. - Abstract: A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  8. Effects of benzotriazole on anodized film formed on AZ31B magnesium alloy in environmental-friendly electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinghua; An Maozhong; Yang Peixia; Li Haixian; Su Caina

    2009-01-01

    An environmental-friendly electrolyte of silicate and borate, which contained an addition agent of 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) with low toxicity (LD50 of 965 mg/kg), was used to prepare an anodized film on AZ31B magnesium alloy under the constant current density of 1.5 A/dm 2 at room temperature. Effects of BTA on the properties of the anodized film were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), loss weight measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results demonstrated that anodized growth process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependant on the BTA concentration, which might be attributed to the formation of an BTA adsorption layer on magnesium substrate surface. When the BTA concentration was 5 g/L in the electrolyte, a compact and thick anodized film could provide excellent corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  9. Enhancement of tensile ductility and stretch formability of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet processed by cross-wavy bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Qinghuan; Yang, Xuyue; Sun, Huan; Li, Bin; Qin, Jia; Wang, Jun; Ma, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The AZ31 Mg alloy sheet is deformed to 4 passes at 673 K by cross-wavy bending. •A fine-grained microstructure and a weak and random texture are achieved. •Different softening mechanisms significantly affect the microstructure evolution. •The tensile ductility and stretch formability enhance dramatically. -- Abstract: The microstructure and texture evolution in the sheets of AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied by means of cross-wavy bending for 4 passes at 673 K. The bended samples were examined by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Finite element analysis suggested an inhomogeneous deformation at each pass. Following cross-wavy bending, a fine-grained microstructure with an average grain size of ∼8 μm and a weak and random basal texture were achieved. Accumulative effective strain was almost equal in the whole sheet at the end. Different work softening mechanisms significantly affected the evolution of the microstructure. Dynamic recovery played an important role during the first three bending passes whereas, in contrast, dynamic recrystallization dominated the evident grain refinement during the last pass. The tensile ductility and stretch formability of the 4-pass sheet at room temperature were distinctly enhanced compared to the initial sheet (1.55 and 2 times larger, respectively). These prominent increases were mainly attributed to texture randomizing rather than texture weakening alone

  10. Study of deformation texture in an AZ31 magnesium alloy rolled at wide range of rolling speed and reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjari, M; Su, J; Kabir, A S; Yue, S; Tamimi, S; Hara, K; Utsunomiya, H; Petrov, R; Kestens, L

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of Mg is restricted at low temperatures because: (a) only a small number of deformation mechanisms can be activated, and (b) a preferred crystallographic orientation (texture) develops in wrought alloys, especially in flat-rolled sheets. This causes problems in thin sheet processing as well as component manufacturing from the sheet. In this study, different rolling speeds from 15 to 1000 m/min were employed to warm-roll AZ31B magnesium alloy to different reductions. The results show that AZ31B sheets rolled at 15 m/min and 100 °C has fractured for reductions of more than 30% per pass. However, by increasing the rolling speed to 1000 m/min the rollability was improved significantly and the material can be rolled to reductions of more than 70% per pass. The results show that with increasing strain rate at 100°C, the splitting of basal poles was observed, indicating the activation of more contraction twins and secondary twins. (paper)

  11. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  12. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  13. Corrosion behaviors in physiological solution of cerium conversion coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiufang; Yang Yuyun; Liu Erbao; Jin Guo; Zhong Jinggao; Li Qingfen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a non-toxic Ce-based conversion coating was obtained on the surface of bio-medical AZ31 magnesium alloys. The micro-morphology of the coating prepared with optimal technical parameters and immersed in physiological solution (Hank's solution) in different time was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), composition of the cerium conversion coating and corrosion products in Hank's solution were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. In addition, the corrosion property in Hank's solution was studied by electrochemical experiment and immersion test. The results show that the dense Ce-based conversion coating is obtained on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloys in optimal technical parameters and the conversion coating consists of a mass of trivalent and tetravalent cerium oxides. The cerium conversion coating can provide obvious protection of magnesium alloys and can effectively reduce the degradation speed in Hank's solution. Also the degradation products have little influence on human body.

  14. Microstructure damage evolution associated with cyclic deformation for extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Purpose Equipment and Advanced Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Fatigue damage evolution of extruded AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloy is investigated under strain-controlled tension-compression loading along the extrusion direction at various strain amplitudes, and the different cyclic deformation behaviors are observed. At the strain amplitude of 2%, the tensile peak stress displays significant cyclic softening, whereas the compressive peak stress shows consistent cyclic hardening. At 1%, moderate cyclic hardening is observed at both the tensile peak and compressive peak stresses. At 0.5%, the tensile peak stress presents stable cyclic hardening, whereas the compressive peak stress almost keeps constant. The microstructure morphologies associated with the cyclic deformation are analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The degree of deformation twins is evaluated by analyzing X-ray diffraction (XRD) using a normalized parameter λ. The results show the fatigue crack initiation modes and its propagation modes are dependent on the strain amplitude. At 2%, grain boundary (GB) cracking and triple joint cracking are detected after 1st loading cycle. At 1%, fatigue crack initiates at grain boundary (GB cracking), twin boundary (TB cracking) and triple joint of three neighboring grains. Both grain boundary induced (GB-induced) intergranular and persistent slip band induced (PSB-induced) transgranular propagation modes play an important role in the early-stage crack growth. At 0.5%, crack initiation modes are similar to that at 1%, but GB-induced intergranular propagation mode dominates the early-stage crack growth. The effects of the microstructure (texture, grain size and uniformity) on the fatigue damage behavior are discussed.

  15. A novel simple strategy for in situ deposition of apatite layer on AZ31B magnesium alloy for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Lee, Do Hee [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anodizing process was used for the surface modification of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • An appetite-like film was deposited on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • Ceramic film was investigated by XRD and XPS. • Nano-plates growth are observed though the implemented experimental design. • Significant increase in the substrate hardness and surface roughness was observed. - Abstract: In this study, for the first time, the degradation performance of AZ31B Mg alloy was tuned by an in situ deposition of apatite thin layer within a short time in one step. Using Taguchi method for experimental design, anodization process was designed under control conditions (time and voltage), and simulated body fluid (SBF) was used as the electrolyte to nucleate apatite-like compounds. The coated alloy was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), EDS, X-ray diffraction and XPS analysis. The results show that the applied voltage has a significant effect on the formation of apatite-like layers. Compared to the uncoated samples, microhardness and surface roughness of the coated samples showed remarkably different values. The potentiodynamic polarization results demonstrate that the polarization resistance of the anodized samples is higher than the substrate polarization resistance, thus improving the alloy corrosion resistant. Based on the experimental results, the proposed nanostructure apatite-like coating can offer a promising way to improve the biocompatibility and degradability properties of the Mg alloy for bone tissue regeneration.

  16. Microstructure control during twin roll casting of an AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y; Bayandorian, I; Fan, Z

    2012-01-01

    The existing twin roll casting technique for magnesium alloys suffers heterogeneity in both microstructure and chemistry and downstream processing is required to improve the strip quality, resulting in cost rise. In the present work, twin roll casting was carried out using an AZ31 magnesium alloy, with the application of intensive shearing melt conditioning prior to casting. The effect of process parameters such as pouring temperature and casting speed on microstructure control during casting and subsequent downstream processing was studied. Experimental results showed that the melt conditioning treatment allowed the production of AZ31 strips with uniform and refined microstructure free of centreline segregations. It was also shown that an optimized combination of pouring temperature and casting speed, in conjunction with a strip thickness control operation, resulted in uniformly distributed stored energies due to enhanced plastic deformation, which promoted recrystallization during casting and subsequent heat treatment. Strips prepared by twin roll casting and homogenization developed similar microstructural features to those prepared by twin roll casting followed by lengthy downstream processing by homogenization, hot rolling and annealing and displayed a weaker basal texture, exhibiting a potentially better formability.

  17. Effects of sintering temperature on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 alloy with Ca–P sol–gel coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, 121001 (China); Shi, Ping, E-mail: p_shi@sohu.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, 121001 (China); Wei, Donghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, 121001 (China); E, Shanshan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, 121013 (China); Li, Qiang; Chen, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, 121001 (China)

    2016-04-25

    To slow down the initial biodegradation rate of magnesium alloy, calcium phosphate (Ca–P) coatings were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy by a sol–gel technique. To study the effects of sintering temperature on microstructure, bonding strength and corrosion behavior of the coatings, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an adhesive strength test were used to characterize the coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was investigated by immersion test and electrochemical corrosion techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. It shows that the sol–gel coatings consist of Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, mixture of Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and hydroxyapatite, and hydroxyapatite, by sintering respectively at 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C. There are major cracks on the coatings. The crack area portion on the coating and the bonding strength at the interface between the calcium phosphate coating and the bare AZ31 increases, and the corrosion resistance of the coated AZ31 in SBF decreases with increasing sintering temperatures from 300 °C to 500 °C. Based on our investigations, the corrosion resistance of the coated AZ31 in SBF depends mainly on the crack area portion on the coatings, rather than on the coating phase stability. - Highlights: • Ca–P coating was prepared on AZ31 alloy by a sol–gel technique. • Crack area portion in the coating increases with temperatures. • Bonding strength between Ca–P coating and substrate increases with temperatures. • Corrosion resistance of the coated AZ31 in SBF decreases with temperatures. • Corrosion resistance of the coated AZ31 depends mainly on the crack area portion.

  18. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Coy, A.E.; Viejo, F.; Arrabal, R.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 deg. C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH) 2 and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of MgO and Mg(OH) 2 . A linear relation between the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface and the subsequent corrosion behaviour in the humid environment was found. The AZ80 alloy revealed the highest amount of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film and the highest atmospheric corrosion resistance, even higher than the AZ91D alloy, indicating that aluminium distribution in the alloy microstructure influenced the amount of magnesium carbonate formed.

  19. Chitosan coatings crosslinked with genipin for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Y Pozzo, Ludmila; da Conceição, Thiago F; Spinelli, Almir; Scharnagl, Nico; Pires, Alfredo T N

    2018-02-01

    In this study, coatings of chitosan crosslinked with genipin were prepared on sheets of AZ31 magnesium alloy and their corrosion protection properties were characterized by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings were also characterized by means of FTIR and XPS. It was observed that the crosslinking process decreases the corrosion current and shifts the corrosion potential of the alloy to less negative values. The EIS analysis demonstrated that the crosslinking process increases the maximum impedance after short and long exposure times. The superior performance of the crosslinked coatings is related to a lower degree of swelling, as observed in the swelling tests carried out on free-standing films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microstructure of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy deformed by indentation-flattening compound deformation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Wang, Zhongtang; Yu, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    Characteristic of indentation-flattening compound deformation technology (IFCDT) is discussed, and the parameters of IFCDT are defined. Performance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet deformed by IFCDT is researched. The effect of IFCDT coefficient, temperature and reduction ratio on the microstructure of magnesium alloy sheet is analyzed. The research results show that the volume fraction of the twin crystal decreases gradually and the average grain size increases with increasing of coefficient of IFCDT. With increase of the reduction ratio, the volume fraction of the twin crystal gradually increases, and the average grain size also increases. With increase of deformation temperature, the volume fraction of the twin crystal decreases gradually, and the twin crystal grain size increases.

  1. CO2 and diode laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinhong; Li Lin; Liu Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being increasingly used in automotive and aerospace structures. Laser welding is an important joining method in such applications. There are several kinds of industrial lasers available at present, including the conventional CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers as well as recently available high power diode lasers. A 1.5 kW diode laser and a 2 kW CO 2 laser are used in the present study for the welding of AZ31 alloys. It is found that different welding modes exist, i.e., keyhole welding with the CO 2 laser and conduction welding with both the CO 2 and the diode lasers. This paper characterizes welds in both welding modes. The effect of beam spot size on the weld quality is analyzed. The laser processing parameters are optimized to obtain welds with minimum defects

  2. Corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 screws is dependent on the implantation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willbold, E. [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kaya, A.A. [Mugla University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Mugla (Turkey); Kaya, R.A. [MedicalPark Hospital, Kueltuer Sok No:1, 34160 Bahcelievler, Istanbul (Turkey); Beckmann, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str.1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Witte, F., E-mail: witte.frank@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The corrosion of biodegradable materials is a crucial issue in implant development. Among other materials, magnesium and magnesium based alloys are one of the most promising candidates. Since the corrosion of biodegradable materials depends on different physiological parameters like pH or ion concentrations, the corrosion might be different in different biological environments. To investigate this issue, we produced screws from magnesium alloy AZ31 and implanted them into the hip bone of 14 sheep. After 3 and 6 months, the screws were explanted and analyzed with synchrotron-radiation based micro-computed tomography and hard tissue histology. We found considerable differences in the corrosion behavior of the magnesium screws with respect to its original tissue location. However, we could detect a normal immunological tissue response.

  3. Effects of TiO2 coating on the microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linzhi; Shen Jun; Xu Nan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The weld penetration and the D/W ratio could be improved dramatically by increasing of the amount of the TiO 2 coating. → The average grain size of the α-Mg grains increased and the β-Mg 17 Al 12 IMC transformed from granular structure to continuous structure with an increase of the amount of the TiO 2 coating. → With an increase of the amount of the TiO 2 coating, the microhardness of the FZ of the AZ31 magnesium alloy welded joints decreased slightly at first and then decreased sharply. → The UTS value of the welded joints increased with an increase of the amount of the TiO 2 coating. → However, too much TiO 2 coating caused a significant decrease of the UTS value of the welded joints. - Abstract: The effects of TiO 2 coating on the macro-morphologies, microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints were investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests and tensile tests. The results showed that an increase in the amount of the TiO 2 coating resulted in an increase in the weld penetration and the depth/width (D/W) ratio of the TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy seams. Moreover, the average grain size of the α-Mg grains increased and the β-Mg 17 Al 12 intermetallic compound (IMC) was coarser in the case of higher amount of the TiO 2 coating. With an increase in the amount of the TiO 2 coating, the microhardness of the fusion zone (FZ) of the AZ31 magnesium alloy welded joints decreased slightly initially and then decreased sharply. In addition, with an increase in the amount of the TiO 2 coating, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value and elongation of the welded joints increased at first and then decreased sharply.

  4. Study on hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of cast-extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy and nanocomposite using processing map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Loganathan, C.; Narayanasamy, R.; Senthilkumar, V.; Nguyen, Q.B.; Gupta, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hot deformation behavior of AZ31B Mg alloy and nanocomposite were studied. ► Activation energy of AZ31B Mg alloy and nanocomposite were determined. ► Twining, shear bands and flow localization were observed. - Abstract: The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of cast-extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy and nanocomposite have been studied using processing-maps. Compression tests were conducted in the temperature range of 250–400 °C and strain rate range of 0.01–1.0 s −1 . The three-dimensional (3D) processing maps developed in this work, describe the variations of the efficiency of power dissipation and flow instability domains in the strain rate (ε) and temperature (T) space. The deformation mechanisms namely dynamic recrystallization (DRX), dynamic recovery (DRY) and instability regions were identified using processing maps. The deformation mechanisms were also correlated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The optimal region for hot working has been observed at a strain rate (ε) of 0.01 s −1 and the temperature (T) of 400 °C for both magnesium alloy and nanocomposite. Few instability regimes have been identified in this study at higher strain rate (ε) and temperature (T). The stability domains have been identified in the lower strain rate regimes

  5. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongseok Jang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3− and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  6. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongseok; Owuor, Daniel; Waterman, Jenora T; White, Leon; Collins, Boyce; Sankar, Jagannathan; Gilbert, Thomas W; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-08-15

    The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO₃ - ) and mucin in Gamble's solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble's solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  7. Laser assisted self-pierce riveting of AZ31 magnesium alloy strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandet, Y.; Deam, R.; Beer, A.; Song, W.; Blacket, S.

    2010-01-01

    Laser assisted self-piercing riveting (LSPR) is a new solid state process that enables low ductility materials to be mechanically joined without cracking. A simple but effective thermal analysis of LSPR is presented that enabled both the absorption of the laser radiation and heat transfer between plies to be determined. The approach was applied to experimental data for LSPR joining of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy sheets. It is shown that by using this analytical approach, the temperature at the onset of joining could be estimated and related to observations of joint quality. It was found that crack-free joints were produced at strip temperatures above 200 o C at the time of rivet insertion.

  8. Study on hybrid heat source overlap welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G.L.; Zhou, G.; Yuan, S.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B was overlap welded by hybrid welding (laser-tungsten inert gas arc). According to the hybrid welding interaction principle, a new heat source model, hybrid welding heat source model, was developed with finite element analysis. At the same time, using a high-temperature metallographical microscope, the macro-appearance and microstructure characteristics of the joint after hybrid overlap welding were studied. The results indicate that the hybrid welding was superior to the single tungsten inert gas welding or laser welding on the aspects of improving the utilized efficiency of the arc and enhancing the absorptivity of materials to laser energy. Due to the energy characteristics of hybrid overlap welding the macro-appearance of the joint was cup-shaped, the top weld showed the hybrid welding microstructure, while, the lower weld showed the typical laser welding microstructure

  9. Study on hybrid heat source overlap welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, G.L. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)], E-mail: guoliliang@sohu.com; Zhou, G. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, S.Q. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B was overlap welded by hybrid welding (laser-tungsten inert gas arc). According to the hybrid welding interaction principle, a new heat source model, hybrid welding heat source model, was developed with finite element analysis. At the same time, using a high-temperature metallographical microscope, the macro-appearance and microstructure characteristics of the joint after hybrid overlap welding were studied. The results indicate that the hybrid welding was superior to the single tungsten inert gas welding or laser welding on the aspects of improving the utilized efficiency of the arc and enhancing the absorptivity of materials to laser energy. Due to the energy characteristics of hybrid overlap welding the macro-appearance of the joint was cup-shaped, the top weld showed the hybrid welding microstructure, while, the lower weld showed the typical laser welding microstructure.

  10. Semiconducting behavior of the anodically passive films formed on AZ31B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work includes determination of the semiconductor character and estimation of the dopant levels in the passive film formed on AZ31B alloy in 0.01 M NaOH, as well as the estimation of the passive film thickness as a function of the film formation potential. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials preponderated. Based on the Mott–Schottky analysis, it was shown that the calculated donor density increases linearly with increasing the formation potential. Also, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results indicated that the thickness of the passive film was decreased linearly with increasing the formation potential. The results showed that decreasing the formation potential offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films.

  11. Microstructural evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy subjected to sliding friction treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Jinwen; Huo, Wangtu; Zhang, Yusheng; Wei, Q.

    2018-06-01

    Microstructural evolution and grain refinement mechanism in AZ31 magnesium alloy subjected to sliding friction treatment were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The process of grain refinement was found to involve the following stages: (I) coarse grains were divided into fine twin plates through mechanical twinning; then the twin plates were transformed to lamellae with the accumulation of residual dislocations at the twin boundaries; (II) the lamellae were separated into subgrains with increasing grain boundary misorientation and evolution of high angle boundaries into random boundaries by continuous dynamic recrystallisation (cDRX); (III) the formation of nanograins. The mechanisms for the final stage, the formation of nanograins, can be classified into three types: (i) cDRX; (ii) discontinuous dynamic recrystallisation (dDRX); (iii) a combined mechanism of prior shear-band and subsequent dDRX. Stored strain energy plays an important role in determining deformation mechanisms during plastic deformation.

  12. Improving the corrosion properties of magnesium AZ31 alloy GTA weld metal using microarc oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Siva Prasad; M.Ashfaq; N.Kishore Babu; A.Sreekanth; K.Sivaprasad; V.Muthupandi

    2017-01-01

    In this work,the morphology,phase composition,and corrosion properties of microarc oxidized (MAO) gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments of AZ31 alloy were investigated.Autogenous gas tungsten arc welds were made as full penetration bead-on-plate welding under the alternating-current mode.A uniform oxide layer was developed on the surface of the specimens with MAO treatment in silicate-based alkaline electrolytes for different oxidation times.The corrosion behavior of the samples was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.The oxide film improved the corrosion resistance substantially compared to the uncoated specimens.The sample coated for 10 min exhibited better corrosion properties.The corrosion resistance of the coatings was concluded to strongly depend on the morphology,whereas the phase composition and thickness were concluded to only slightly affect the corrosion resistance.

  13. Grain boundary sliding mechanism during high temperature deformation of AZ31 Magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roodposhti, Peiman Shahbeigi, E-mail: pshahbe@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University (United States); University of Connecticut (United States); Sarkar, Apu; Murty, Korukonda Linga [North Carolina State University (United States); Brody, Harold [University of Connecticut (United States); Scattergood, Ronald [North Carolina State University (United States)

    2016-07-04

    High temperature tensile creep tests were conducted on AZ31 Magnesium alloy at low stress range of 1–13 MPa to clarify the existence of grain boundary sliding (GBS) mechanism during creep deformation. Experimental data within the GBS regime shows the stress exponent is ~2 and the activation energy value is close to that for grain boundary diffusion. Analyses of the fracture surface of the sample revealed that the GBS provides many stress concentrated sites for diffusional cavities formation and leads to premature failure. Scanning electron microscopy images show the appearances of both ductile and brittle type fracture mechanism. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis (based on Williamson-Hall technique) shows a reduction in dislocation density due to dynamic recovery (DRV). A correlation between experimental data and Langdon's model for GBS was also demonstrated.

  14. Application of YAG Laser TIG Arc Hybrid Welding to Thin AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Kim, Jongcheol; Hasegawa, Yu; Suga, Yasuo

    A magnesium alloy is said to be an ecological material with high ability of recycling and lightweight property. Especially, magnesium alloys are in great demand on account of outstanding material property as a structural material. Under these circumstances, research and development of welding process to join magnesium alloy plates are of great significance for wide industrial application of magnesium. In order to use it as a structure material, the welding technology is very important. TIG arc welding process is the most ordinary process to weld magnesium alloy plates. However, since the heat source by the arc welding process affects the magnesium alloy plates, HAZ of welded joint becomes wide and large distortion often occurs. On the other hand, a laser welding process that has small diameter of heat source seems to be one of the possible means to weld magnesium alloy in view of the qualitative improvement. However, the low boiling point of magnesium generates some weld defects, including porosity and solidification cracking. Furthermore, precise edge preparation is very important in butt-welding by the laser welding process, due to the small laser beam diameter. Laser/arc hybrid welding process that combines the laser beam and the arc is an effective welding process in which these two heat sources influence and assist each other. Using the hybrid welding, a synegistic effect is achievable and the disadvantages of the respective processes can be compensated. In this study, YAG laser/TIG arc hybrid welding of thin magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets was investigated. First of all, the effect of the irradiation point and the focal position of laser beam on the quality of a weld were discussed in hybrid welding. Then, it was confirmed that a sound weld bead with sufficient penetration is obtained using appropriate welding conditions. Furthermore, it was made clear that the heat absorption efficiency is improved with the hybrid welding process. Finally, the tensile tests

  15. Effects of nano-particles strengthening activating flux on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xiong; Shen, Jun; Cheng, Liang; Li, Yang; Pu, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased nano-particles strengthening activating flux degraded TIGed seams. • The reaction between SiC particles and Mg alloy produced Al 4 C 3 and Mg 2 Si phases. • Al 4 C 3 and SiC particles promoted the nucleation and suppressed the growth of α-Mg. • Refined α-Mg grains, precipitated phase and SiC particles enhanced TIGed joints. - Abstract: In this paper, AZ31 magnesium alloy joints were processed by nano-particles strengthening activating flux tungsten inert gas (NSA-TIG) welding, which was achieved by the mixed TiO 2 and nano-SiC particles coated on the samples before welding tests. The macro/micro structural observation and mechanical properties evaluation of the welding joints were conducted by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and tension and microhardness tests. The results showed that nano-particles strengthening activating flux effective improved the microstructure, microhardness in fusion zone, ultimate tensile strength of the TIG welding joints. In addition, the chemical reaction between part of SiC particles and AZ31 magnesium alloy produced Al 4 C 3 and Mg 2 Si in the joints. The Al 4 C 3 performed as nucleating agents for α-Mg and the dispersed Mg 2 Si and SiC particles enhanced the mechanical properties of the NSA-TIG welding joints. However, large heat input induced by the increase of the surface coating density of the nano-particles strengthening activating flux, increased the α-Mg grain sizes and weakened the mechanical properties of the welded joints. Therefore, the grain size of α-Mg, distribution of β-Mg 17 Al 12 , Mg 2 Si and SiC particles together influenced the evolution of the mechanical properties of the NSA-TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

  16. Warm Deep Drawing of Rectangular Parts of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Adopting Variable Blank Holder Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yinghong; Chang Qunfeng; Li Dayong; Zeng Xiaoqin

    2007-01-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet with good shape and formability is fabricated by warm cross rolling. Uniaxial tensile tests are conducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermal - mechanical simulator, and the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are analyzed. A warm deep drawing process of square part is also simulated by the finite element method. The influences of blank holder force on the formability are numerically investigated. A double-action hydraulic press that can realize adjustable blank holder forces is developed and its working principle and control system are introduced. Some warm deep drawing experiments of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are also performed. Different variation schemes of the blank holder force with the stroke of the punch are tested, and the experiment results are compared. Results show that the suitable blank holder force variation scheme is a ladder curve with the punch stroke. Adopting the variable blank holder force technique can improve 13.2% of the drawing depth of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet

  17. Characteristic values for the forming of the magnesium alloy AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, E.; Janssen, S.; Wieser, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of investigation and development at the institute for metal forming and metal forming machine tools (IFUM) at the University of Hanover, Germany is to advance magnesium forming scientifically which has so far been based on experience and empirically determined process data only. Optimized process parameter with a sound material scientific and process control base have to be determined for the deformation of magnesium wrought alloys in order to broaden the technical use of such alloys. Aim of the investigations introduced in this paper is the determination of characteristic values as well-founded basis for the forming technological processing of magnesium wrought alloys in massive forming processes. The basic data for the description of the deformation ability in the form of friction factor and flow curve is to be detected, especially in connection with the integration into an FEM-simulation. In order to achieve such data for the magnesium wrought alloy AZ31 the flow curve at temperatures between 250 and 300 C and the deformation ratio 1, 10, 20 and 30 are presented. On the other hand a ring upsetting test for the determination of the friction factor at altitude reductions of 30, 50, 70%, a tool temperature of 200 C, a work piece temperature between 300 and 400 C and different lubricants are shown for the said alloy. (orig.)

  18. Biofunctional composite coating architectures based on polycaprolactone and nanohydroxyapatite for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced biocompatibility of magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zomorodian, A., E-mail: amir.zomorodian@ist.utl.pt [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Garcia, M.P. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Moura e Silva, T. [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, J.C.S. [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, M.H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    In this work a biofunctional composite coating architecture for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced cellular adhesion of AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. The composite coating consists of a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix modified with nanohydroxyapatite (HA) applied over a nanometric layer of polyetherimide (PEI). The protective properties of the coating were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a non-disturbing technique, and the coating morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that the composite coating protects the AZ31 substrate. The barrier properties of the coating can be optimized by changing the PCL concentration. The presence of nanohydroxyapatite particles influences the coating morphology and decreases the corrosion resistance. The biocompatibility was assessed by studying the response of osteoblastic cells on coated samples through resazurin assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the polycaprolactone to hydroxyapatite ratio affects the cell behavior and that the presence of hydroxyapatite induces high osteoblastic differentiation. - Highlights: • A biofunctional coating architecture for bioresorbable AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. • The composite coating provides corrosion protection of the bare material. • The coating enhances alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblastic cells. • The presence of hydroxyapatite results in higher osteoblastic differentiation.

  19. Biofunctional composite coating architectures based on polycaprolactone and nanohydroxyapatite for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced biocompatibility of magnesium AZ31 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomorodian, A.; Garcia, M.P.; Moura e Silva, T.; Fernandes, J.C.S.; Fernandes, M.H.; Montemor, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work a biofunctional composite coating architecture for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced cellular adhesion of AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. The composite coating consists of a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix modified with nanohydroxyapatite (HA) applied over a nanometric layer of polyetherimide (PEI). The protective properties of the coating were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a non-disturbing technique, and the coating morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that the composite coating protects the AZ31 substrate. The barrier properties of the coating can be optimized by changing the PCL concentration. The presence of nanohydroxyapatite particles influences the coating morphology and decreases the corrosion resistance. The biocompatibility was assessed by studying the response of osteoblastic cells on coated samples through resazurin assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the polycaprolactone to hydroxyapatite ratio affects the cell behavior and that the presence of hydroxyapatite induces high osteoblastic differentiation. - Highlights: • A biofunctional coating architecture for bioresorbable AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. • The composite coating provides corrosion protection of the bare material. • The coating enhances alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblastic cells. • The presence of hydroxyapatite results in higher osteoblastic differentiation

  20. A Study on Compressive Anisotropy and Nonassociated Flow Plasticity of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Hot Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of anisotropy in compression is studied on hot rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the quadratic Hill48 yield criterion and nonassociated flow rule (non-AFR. The constitutive model is characterized by compressive tests of AZ31 billets since plastic deformations of materials are mostly caused by compression during rolling processes. The characterized plasticity model is implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT based on semi-implicit backward Euler's method. The subroutine is employed to simulate square-bar rolling processes. The simulation results are compared with rolled specimens and those predicted by the von Mises and the Hill48 yield function under AFR. Moreover, strip rolling is also simulated for AZ31 with the Hill48 yield function under non-AFR. The strip rolling simulation demonstrates that the lateral spread generated by the non-AFR model is in good agreement with experimental data. These comparisons between simulation and experiments validate that the proposed Hill48 yield function under non-AFR provides satisfactory description of plastic deformation behavior in hot rolling for AZ31 alloys in case that the anisotropic parameters in the Hill48 yield function and the non-associated flow rule are calibrated by the compressive experimental results.

  1. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-Speed Rolling of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Having Different Initial Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Yusuke; Hara, Kenichiro; Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-02-01

    It is known that magnesium alloys can be rolled up to a large thickness reduction and develop a unique texture when the rolling speed is high (>1000 m/min). In order to understand the texture formation mechanism during high-strain-rate deformation, high-speed rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy samples having different initial textures was conducted. The main components of the textures after the rolling were the RD-split basal, which consisted of 10°-20° inclining basal poles from the normal direction toward the rolling direction of the sheet, regardless of the different initial textures. With preheating at 473 K, all the samples were rolled without cracking while all were cracked when preheating was not applied. The optical micrographs and EBSD measurements showed a significant amount of twins and the cracks that developed along the shear bands consisted with laminated twins. Based on the texture simulation using the visco-plastic self-consistent model, it is concluded that the rapid development of the RD-split basal component from the initial basal alignment along the transverse direction was attributable to the tension twinning, The effect of the initial texture on the crack formation can be explained by the activation of the twinning system.

  3. Investigation of the passive behaviour of AZ31B alloy in alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the passivity of AZ31B alloy in NaOH solutions was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and Mott–Schottky analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that decreasing NaOH concentration leads to decrease the corrosion rate of this alloy. EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance (1/C of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness which increases with decreasing NaOH concentration. Therefore, it is clear that dilute NaOH solutions offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behaviour, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films. The Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials (over the cation vacancies preponderated. Also, Mott–Schottky results showed that the donor densities evaluated from Mott–Schottky plots are in the range of 1020 cm−3 and decreased with decreasing NaOH concentration.

  4. Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jingee; Lee, Jongshin; You, Bongsun; Choi, Seogou; Kim, Youngsuk

    2007-01-01

    Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model

  5. On numerical modeling of low-head direct chill ingot caster for magnesium alloy AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive 3D turbulent CFD study has been carried out to simulate a Low-Head (LH vertical Direct Chill (DC rolling ingot caster for the common magnesium alloy AZ31. The model used in this study takes into account the coupled laminar/turbulent melt flow and solidification aspects of the process and is based on the control-volume finite-difference approach. Following the aluminum/magnesium DC casting industrial practices, the LH mold is taken as 30 mm with a hot top of 60 mm. The previously verified in-house code has been modified to model the present casting process. Important quantitative results are obtained for four casting speeds, for three inlet melt pouring temperatures (superheats and for three metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficients for the steady state operational phase of the caster. The variable cooling water temperatures reported by the industry are considered for the primary and secondary cooling zones during the simulations. Specifically, the temperature and velocity fields, sump depth and sump profiles, mushy region thickness, solid shell thickness at the exit of the mold and axial temperature profiles at the center and at three strategic locations at the surface of the slab are presented and discussed.

  6. Two stage S-N curve in corrosion fatigue of extruded magnesium alloy AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Mutoh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension-compression fatigue tests of extruded AZ31 magnesium alloys were carried out under corrosive environments:(a high humidity environment (80 %RH and (b 5 wt. %NaCl environment. It was found that the reduction rate of fatiguestrength due to corrosive environment was 0.12 under a high humidity and 0.53 under a NaCl environment. It was alsoobserved that under corrosive environments, the S-N curve was not a single curve but a two-stage curve. Above the fatiguelimit under low humidity, the crack nucleation mechanism was due to a localized slip band formation mechanism. Below thefatigue limit under low humidity, the reduction in fatigue strength was attributed to the corrosion pit formation and growth to the critical size for fatigue crack nucleation under the combined effect of cyclic load and the corrosive environment. The critical size was attained when the stress intensity factor range reached the threshold value for crack growth.

  7. Wettability and corrosion of alumina embedded nanocomposite MAO coating on nanocrystalline AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheytani, M.; Aliofkhazraei, M., E-mail: maliofkh@gmail.com; Bagheri, H.R.; Masiha, H.R.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, micro- and nanocrystalline AZ31B magnesium alloy were coated by micro-arc oxidation method. In order to fabricate nanocrystalline surface layer, surface mechanical attrition treatment was performed and nano-grains with average size of 5–10 nm were formed on the surface of the samples. Coating process was carried out at different conditions including two coating times and two types of electrolyte. Alumina nanoparticles were utilized as suspension in electrolyte to form nanocomposite coatings by micro-arc oxidation method. Potentiodynamic polarization, percentage of porosity, and wettability tests were performed to study various characteristics of the coated samples. The results of scanning electron microscope imply that samples coated in silicate-based electrolyte involve much lower surface porosity (∼25%). Besides, the results of wettability test indicated that the maximum surface tension with deionized water is for nanocrystalline sample. In this regard, the sample coated in silicate-based suspension was 4 times more hydrophilic than the microcrystalline sample. - Highlights: • MAO in phosphate electrolyte needs higher energy as compared to silicate electrolyte. • Less porosity and finer grain size on free surface of the silicate-based coatings. • Observed porosity from top surface of coating shows the effect of the final MAO sparks. • SMAT affects surface roughness and accelerates growth kinetics.

  8. Initiation and strain compatibility of connected extension twins in AZ31 magnesium alloy at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao0105@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Zhu, Biwu [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Guangjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, Chongqing 400045 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Xie, Chao [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Tang, Changping [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Uniaxial compression tests were carried out at 350 °C and a strain rate of 0.3 s{sup −1} on as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy samples. At a true strain of − 0.1, extension twin pairs in a grain and twin chains across adjacent grains were detected. The orientation of selected twins and their host grains were determined by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The Schmid factors (SFs), accommodation strains and geometric compatibility factors (m{sup ′}) were calculated. Analysis of the data indicated that the formation of twin pair and twin chain was related to the SF and m{sup ′}. Regarding to twin chain across adjacent grains, accommodation strain was also involved. The selection of twin variants in twin chain was generally determined by m{sup ′}. When the twins required the operation of pyramidal slip or twinning in adjacent grain, the corresponding connected twins with a relative high m{sup ′} were selected in this adjacent grain. - Highlights: •The formation of paired twins is studied during high temperature deformation. •The initiation of twinning in twin pair and twin chain obeys the Schmid law. •The twin variants' selection in twin chain is related to the geometric compatibility factor. •The accommodation strain plays an important role on the formation of twin chain.

  9. The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livescu, Veronica; Cady, Carl M.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Henrie, Benjamin L.; Gray, George T.

    The deformation in compression of pure magnesium and AZ31B magnesium alloy, both with a strong basal pole texture, has been investigated as a function of temperature, strain rate, and specimen orientation. The mechanical response of both metals is highly dependent upon the orientation of loading direction with respect to the basal pole. Specimens compressed along the basal pole direction have a high sensitivity to strain rate and temperature and display a concave down work hardening behavior. Specimens loaded perpendicularly to the basal pole have a yield stress that is relatively insensitive to strain rate and temperature and a work hardening behavior that is parabolic and then linearly upwards. Both specimen orientations display a mechanical response that is sensitive to temperature and strain rate. Post mortem characterization of the pure magnesium was conducted on a subset of specimens to determine the microstructural and textural evolution during deformation and these results are correlated with the observed work hardening behavior and strain rate sensitivities were calculated.

  10. Development of liquid-nitrogen-cooling friction stir spot welding for AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Shen, Jun; Zhou, Meng-bing; Cheng, Liang; Sang, Jia-xing

    2017-10-01

    A liquid-nitrogen-cooling friction stir spot welding (C-FSSW) technology was developed for welding AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. The liquid-nitrogen cooling degraded the deformability of the welded materials such that the width of interfacial cracks increased with increasing cooling time. The grain size of the stirred zone (SZ) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the C-FSSW-welded joints decreased, whereas that of the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) increased with increasing cooling time. The maximum tensile shear load of the C-FSSW-welded joints welded with a cooling time of 5 or 7 s was larger than that of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW)-welded joint, and the tensile shear load decreased with increasing cooling time. The microhardness of the C-FSSW-welded joints was greater than that of the FSSW-welded joint. Moreover, the microhardness of the SZ and the HAZ of the C-FSSW-welded joints increased, whereas that of the TMAZ decreased, with increasing cooling time.

  11. Material flow and microstructural evolution during friction stir spot welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, W.; Mishra, R.S.; Carlson, B.; Verma, R.; Mishra, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Material flow and local texture evolution during friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of AZ31 magnesium alloy was characterized by varying tool rotation rates. Texture at various locations of the welded region was measured using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Material flow is significantly influenced by tool rotation rate with a conical step spiral pin tool, and FSSW introduces a unique basal fiber texture in the welded region. Results indicate that local texture evolution is dominated by shear deformation through material flow. The tool shoulder applies both shear and compressive deformation to the upper region material; however, the rotating pin introduces only shear deformation to the adjacent material. As the tool rotation rate increases, the effect of both tool shoulder and pin becomes more prominent by introducing a higher degree of basal pole tilt with respect to the initial rolling texture at the periphery of the pin, but less tilt in the upper region beneath the tool shoulder undersurface. The equiaxed fine grain structure in the stir zone appears to result from the twinning-induced dynamic recrystallization and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization.

  12. Evaluation of self-healing ability of Ce–V conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of cerium nitrate in vanadate solutions on the properties of Ce–V conversion coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloys, and evaluated the self-healing behavior of the Ce–V conversion coating for AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results showed that the additions of cerium nitrate prevented pentavalent vanadium from reducing to tetravalent vanadium in the coatings during conversion reaction process. Adding appropriate cerium nitrate to vanadate solution led to a thicker coating with a more compact CeVO4 layer. The corrosion behavior of the Ce–V conversion coating was investigated by the electrochemical tests and the scratch immersion test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The self-healing ability of the coating was confirmed from all tests. The surface analysis revealed that the self-healing effect of the Ce–V conversion coating was only provided by the release and migration of vanadium compounds.

  13. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 w...

  14. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. - Highlights: • Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 in vitro and in vivo • Retardation of degradation via plasma electrolytic oxidation in vitro and in vivo • Differentiation of in vitro and in vivo corrosion types and products

  15. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yongseok [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Tan, Zongqing [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States); Jurey, Chris [Luke Engineering, Wadsworth, OH 44282 (United States); Collins, Boyce [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Badve, Aditya [Business and Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Dong, Zhongyun [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States); Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang [Department of Bio-nano System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sankar, Jagannathan [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. - Highlights: • Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 in vitro and in vivo • Retardation of degradation via plasma electrolytic oxidation in vitro and in vivo • Differentiation of in vitro and in vivo corrosion types and products.

  16. Orientation dependent slip and twinning during compression and tension of strongly textured magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samman, T., E-mail: al-samman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Li, X. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Chowdhury, S. Ghosh [CSIR National Metallurgical Laboratory, MST Division, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Over recent years there have been a remarkable number of studies dealing with compression of magnesium. A literature search, however, shows a noticeably less number of papers concerned with tension and a very few papers comparing both modes, systematically, in one study. The current investigation reports the anisotropic deformation behavior and concomitant texture and microstructure evolution investigated in uniaxial tension and compression tests in two sample directions performed on an extruded commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 at different Z conditions. For specimens with the loading direction parallel to the extrusion axis, the tension-compression strength anisotropy was pronounced at high Z conditions. Loading at 45{sup o} from the extrusion axis yielded a tension-compression strength behavior that was close to isotropic. During tensile loading along the extrusion direction the extrusion texture resists twinning and favors prismatic slip (contrary to compression). This renders the shape change maximum in the basal plane and equal to zero along the c-axis, which resulted in the orientation of individual grains remaining virtually intact during all tension tests at different Z conditions. For the other investigated sample direction, straining was accommodated along the c-axis, which was associated with a lattice rotation, and thus, a change of crystal orientation. Uniaxial compression at a low Z condition (400 deg. C/10{sup -4} s{sup -1}) yielded a desired texture degeneration, which was explained on the basis of a more homogeneous partitioning of slip systems that reduces anisotropy and enhanced dynamic recrystallization (DRX), which counteracts the strong deformation texture. The critical strains for the nucleation of DRX in tensiled specimens at the highest investigated Z condition (200 deg. C/10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were found to range between 4% and 5.6%.

  17. Dynamic behaviors of a Ca–P coated AZ31B magnesium alloy during in vitro and in vivo degradations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Tan Lili; Xu Wenli; Zhang Bingchun; Yang Ke

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification can be an effective way to control the biodegradation behavior of magnesium alloys and even improve their biological properties. Much attention has been paid to the initial protection ability and biological properties of magnesium alloys coating. In this work, the dynamic behaviors of a Ca–P coated AZ31B magnesium alloy during the degradations in vitro and in vivo, including hemolysis, mechanical loading capability and implantation in animals, were investigated. The hemolytic rates of the alloy with and without coating were all declined to be lower than 5% after more than 20 days immersion in PBS, though an increase happened to the alloy at the early immersion of 3–7 days. Reduction of the mechanical loading capacity was gradually evolved for the coated alloy and the peak load retention of 85% was still maintained after 120 days degradation. The in vivo implantation indicated that the Ca–P coated AZ31B alloy showed a more suitable time dependent degradation behavior which was favorable for growth of the new tissue and the healing dynamics of bones, making it a promising choice for medical application.

  18. Investigation on the Effect of Pulsed Energy on Strength of Fillet Lap Laser Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. N. M.; Ishak, M.; Aiman, M. H.; Idris, S. R. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.

    2017-09-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy have been hugely applied in the aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries. However, welding thin sheet AZ31B was challenging due to its properties which is easily to evaporated especially using conventional fusion welding method such as metal inert gas (MIG). Laser could be applied to weld this metal since it produces lower heat input. The application of fiber laser welding has been widely since this type of laser could produce better welding product especially in the automotive sectors. Low power fiber laser was used to weld this non-ferrous metal where pulse wave (PW) mode was used. Double fillet lap joint was applied to weld as thin as 0.6 mm thick of AZ31B and the effect of pulsed energy on the strength was studied. Bond width, throat length, and penetration depth also was studied related to the pulsed energy which effecting the joint. Higher pulsed energy contributes to the higher fracture load with angle of irradiation lower than 3 °

  19. Effect of the chemistry and structure of the native oxide surface film on the corrosion properties of commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Sebastian, E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maffiotte, C. [CIEMAT-DT edificio 30, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, A.; Galvan, Juan Carlos [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barranco, Violeta [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study has been to advance in knowledge of the chemical composition, structure and thickness of the thin native oxide film formed spontaneously in contact with the laboratory atmosphere on the surface of freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to furthering the understanding of protection mechanisms. For comparative purposes, and to more fully describe the behaviour of the native oxide film, the external oxide films formed as a result of the manufacturing process (as-received condition) have been characterised. The technique applied in this research to study the thin oxide films (thickness of just a few nanometres) present on the surface of the alloys has basically been XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in combination with ion sputtering. Corrosion properties of the alloys were studied in 0.6 M NaCl by measuring charge transfer resistance values, which are deduced from EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) measurements after 1 h of exposure. Alloy AZ61 generally showed better corrosion resistance than AZ31, and the freshly polished alloys showed better corrosion resistance than the alloys in as-received condition. This is attributed to a combination of (1) higher thickness of the native oxide film on the AZ61 alloy and (2) greater uniformity of the oxide film in the polished condition. The formation of an additional oxide layer composed by a mixture of spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and MgO seems to diminish the protective properties of the passive layer on the surface of the alloys in as-received condition.

  20. Effect of the chemistry and structure of the native oxide surface film on the corrosion properties of commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, Sebastian; Maffiotte, C.; Samaniego, A.; Galvan, Juan Carlos; Barranco, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to advance in knowledge of the chemical composition, structure and thickness of the thin native oxide film formed spontaneously in contact with the laboratory atmosphere on the surface of freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to furthering the understanding of protection mechanisms. For comparative purposes, and to more fully describe the behaviour of the native oxide film, the external oxide films formed as a result of the manufacturing process (as-received condition) have been characterised. The technique applied in this research to study the thin oxide films (thickness of just a few nanometres) present on the surface of the alloys has basically been XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in combination with ion sputtering. Corrosion properties of the alloys were studied in 0.6 M NaCl by measuring charge transfer resistance values, which are deduced from EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) measurements after 1 h of exposure. Alloy AZ61 generally showed better corrosion resistance than AZ31, and the freshly polished alloys showed better corrosion resistance than the alloys in as-received condition. This is attributed to a combination of (1) higher thickness of the native oxide film on the AZ61 alloy and (2) greater uniformity of the oxide film in the polished condition. The formation of an additional oxide layer composed by a mixture of spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) and MgO seems to diminish the protective properties of the passive layer on the surface of the alloys in as-received condition.

  1. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  2. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao; Lei, Ting; Xiao, Tao

    2015-10-01

    A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  3. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate–borax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.J.; Wang, X.J.; Zhang, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MgO ceramic coating has been prepared on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation in the borax-doped silicate system. ► Boron element exists in the PEO films in the form of noncrystal. ► The microhardness and compactness of doped ceramic coating are much higher than that of the substrate and undoped ceramic coating, and this doped coated sample shows better wear-resisting property. - Abstract: A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  4. Loss of mechanical properties in vivo and bone-implant interface strength of AZ31B magnesium alloy screws with Si-containing coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Guangdao; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Ke

    2014-05-01

    In this study the loss of mechanical properties and the interface strength of coated AZ31B magnesium alloy (a magnesium-aluminum alloy) screws with surrounding host tissues were investigated and compared with non-coated AZ31B, degradable polymer and biostable titanium alloy screws in a rabbit animal model after 1, 4, 12 and 21weeks of implantation. The interface strength was evaluated in terms of the extraction torque required to back out the screws. The loss of mechanical properties over time was indicated by one-point bending load loss of the screws after these were extracted at different times. AZ31B samples with a silicon-containing coating had a decreased degradation rate and improved biological properties. The extraction torque of Ti6Al4V, poly-l-lactide (PLLA) and coated AZ31B increased significantly from 1week to 4weeks post-implantation, indicating a rapid osteosynthesis process over 3weeks. The extraction torque of coated AZ31B increased with implantation time, and was higher than that of PLLA after 4weeks of implantation, equalling that of Ti6Al4V at 12weeks and was higher at 21weeks. The bending loads of non-coated AZ31B and PLLA screws degraded sharply after implantation, and that of coated AZ31B degraded more slowly. The biodegradation mechanism, the coating to control the degradation rate and the bioactivity of magnesium alloys influencing the mechanical properties loss over time and bone-implant interface strength are discussed in this study and it is concluded that a suitable degradation rate will result in an improvement in the mechanical performance of magnesium alloys, making them more suitable for clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. “In-vitro” corrosion behaviour of the magnesium alloy with Al and Zn (AZ31) protected with a biodegradable polycaprolactone coating loaded with hydroxyapatite and cephalexin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomorodian, A.; Santos, C.; Carmezim, M.J.; Silva, T.Moura e; Fernandes, J.C.S.; Montemor, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Mg alloys are very susceptible to corrosion in physiological media. This behaviour limits its widespread use in biomedical applications as bioresorbable implants, but it can be controlled by applying protective coatings. On one hand, coatings must delay and control the degradation process of the bare alloy and, on the other hand, they must be functional and biocompatible. In this study a biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL) coating was functionalised with nano hydroxyapatite (HA) particles for enhanced biocompatibility and with an antibiotic, cephalexin, for anti-bacterial purposes and applied on the AZ31 alloy. The chemical composition and the surface morphology of the coated samples, before and after the corrosion tests, were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and Raman. The results showed that the presence of additives induced the formation of agglomerates and defects in the coating that resulted in the formation of pores during immersion in Hanks' solution. The corrosion resistance of the coated samples was studied in Hank's solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results evidenced that all the coatings can provide corrosion protection of the bare alloy. However, in the presence of the additives, corrosion protection decreased. The wetting behaviour of the coating was evaluated by the static contact angle method and it was found that the presence of both hydroxyapatite and cephalexin increased the hydrophilic behaviour of the surface. The results showed that it is possible to tailor a composite coating that can store an antibiotic and nano hydroxyapatite particles, while allowing to control the in-vitro corrosion degradation of the bioresorbable Mg alloy AZ31.

  6. Effects of combined organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors on the nanostructure cerium based conversion coating performance on AZ31 magnesium alloy: Morphological and corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saei, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Amini, R.; Kalajahi, M. Salami

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cn-Mn-polyvinyl alcohol conversion coating led to more uniform and crack free film deposition. •The corrosion resistance of Ce film was noticeably improved by using combination of polyvinyl alchol and Mn2+ cations. •A synergistic effect between polyvinyl alchol-Mn2+ resulted in Ce film with enhanced morphology and corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) AZ31 samples were chemically treated by a series of room temperature nanostructure cerium based conversion coatings containing Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, Co(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The microstructure and corrosion protection properties of different samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Results demonstrated that the AZ31 Mg alloy sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA showed the highest corrosion resistance. A denser Ce film with lower crack was precipitated on the sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA conversion coating.

  7. Enhanced mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint using two-pass friction stir processing with rapid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nan, E-mail: xunan@hhu.edu.cn; Bao, Yefeng

    2016-02-08

    In this study, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint was subjected to two-pass rapid cooling friction stir processing (RC-FSP). The main results show that, two-pass RC-FSP causes the significant dissolution of the coarse eutectic β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase into the magnesium matrix and the remarkable grain refinement in the stir zone. The low-hardness region which frequently located at heat-affected zone was eliminated. The stir zone showed ultrafine grains of 3.1 μm, and exhibited a good combination of ultrahigh tensile strength of 284 MPa and large elongation of 7.1%. This work provides an effective strategy to enhance the strength of TIG welded magnesium alloy joint without ductility loss.

  8. Enhanced mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint using two-pass friction stir processing with rapid cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Nan; Bao, Yefeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint was subjected to two-pass rapid cooling friction stir processing (RC-FSP). The main results show that, two-pass RC-FSP causes the significant dissolution of the coarse eutectic β-Mg_1_7Al_1_2 phase into the magnesium matrix and the remarkable grain refinement in the stir zone. The low-hardness region which frequently located at heat-affected zone was eliminated. The stir zone showed ultrafine grains of 3.1 μm, and exhibited a good combination of ultrahigh tensile strength of 284 MPa and large elongation of 7.1%. This work provides an effective strategy to enhance the strength of TIG welded magnesium alloy joint without ductility loss.

  9. Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Wang, Denghui; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; He, Xiuli; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Liyong

    2018-03-28

    In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material's fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11-20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11-20} tensile twins.

  10. Effect of tool pin profile on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motalleb-nejad, P.; Saeid, T.; Heidarzadeh, A.; Darzi, Kh.; Ashjari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FSW conditions for defect free joints of AZ31B magnesium alloy were reached. • The effect of FSW factors such pin design on the features of the welds was studied. • Taper pin caused to finest grains and highest mechanical properties. • The superior properties of the joints were achieved at the condition of ω 2 /υ = 6300. • All the tensile fractures occurred at the interface of the SZ and base metal. - Abstract: In this investigation the effect of friction stir welding pin geometry on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy joints is studied. The considered pin geometries are simple cylindrical, screw threaded cylindrical and taper. The joints are friction stir welded at different traverse and rotational speeds. Microstructures of the joints are examined using the optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the tensile properties and hardness of the joints are measured. The results show that taper and screw threaded cylindrical pins produce defect free joints. In addition, the taper pin results in finest microstructure and highest mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is found that rotational speed has a more significant role on the final microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints, compared to the traverse speed

  11. Biofunctional composite coating architectures based on polycaprolactone and nanohydroxyapatite for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced biocompatibility of magnesium AZ31 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, A; Garcia, M P; Moura E Silva, T; Fernandes, J C S; Fernandes, M H; Montemor, M F

    2015-03-01

    In this work a biofunctional composite coating architecture for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced cellular adhesion of AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. The composite coating consists of a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix modified with nanohydroxyapatite (HA) applied over a nanometric layer of polyetherimide (PEI). The protective properties of the coating were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a non-disturbing technique, and the coating morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that the composite coating protects the AZ31 substrate. The barrier properties of the coating can be optimized by changing the PCL concentration. The presence of nanohydroxyapatite particles influences the coating morphology and decreases the corrosion resistance. The biocompatibility was assessed by studying the response of osteoblastic cells on coated samples through resazurin assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the polycaprolactone to hydroxyapatite ratio affects the cell behavior and that the presence of hydroxyapatite induces high osteoblastic differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Texture evolution in Nd:YAG-laser welds of AZ31 magnesium alloy hot rolled sheets and its influence on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commin, Lorelei; Dumont, Myriam; Rotinat, Rene; Pierron, Fabrice; Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → AZ31 LBW fusion zone results in Mg 17 (Al-Zn) 12 precipitation, twins formation and {0 0 2} texture modification. → The mechanical properties were reduced after LBW but the fracture occurred in the base metal. → The mechanical properties were reduced after LBW but the fracture occurred in the base metal. → A recovery of elongation and UTS can be achieved by a 300 deg. C/1 h heat treatment. The texture evolution is mainly responsible for the yield strength reduction in the fusion zone. - Abstract: AZ31 hot rolled magnesium alloy presents a strong basal texture. Using laser beam welding (LBW) as a joining process induces high temperature gradients leading to major texture changes. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to study the texture evolution, and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed to understand its influence on mechanical properties. The random texture obtained in the LBW fusion zone is mainly responsible for the yield strength reduction.

  13. Fusion welding of Fe-added lap joints between AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy by hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiao-dong; Liu, Li-ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Hybrid Laser-TIG fusion welding technique was used for joining Mg to Al alloys. → Laser defocusing amount determined penetration depth inside Al alloy of joints. → The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed Mg-Al intermetallics greatly in joints. → A maximum joint strength with optimum thickness of Fe interlayer was obtained. → Excessive addition of Fe interlayer was adverse for the strength improvement. -- Abstract: AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy were lap joined together with the addition of Fe interlayer by fusion welding of hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) technique. The influence of location of laser focal spot (LFS) on joint penetration depth and that of the depth on joint strength were investigated. The results showed that when the LFS was just on the surface of Al plate, the deepest penetration could be obtained, which contributed to the improvement of shear strength of Fe-added joints, but not to the elevation of the strength of Mg/Al direct joints. The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed massive production of Mg-Al intermetallics but produced Fe-Al intermetallics in the fusion zone of the joints, whose micro-hardness was extremely high and was also adverse for the enhancement of joint shear strength. The effect of Fe-interlayer thickness on the joint shear strength was also examined, and the maximum shear strength of Fe-added joint could achieve 100 MPa with 0.13 mm thick Fe interlayer. The fracture modes of 0.07 and 0.13 mm Fe-interlayer-added joints were both quasi-cleavage, while those of direct and 0.22 mm interlayer-added joints were completely cleavage. The theoretical shear strength of the Fe-added joints was also discussed.

  14. Interfacial Reaction Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Welding-brazing Bonding Between AZ31B Magnesium Alloy and PRO500 Ultra-high Strength Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jian-hua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out with TIG welding-brazing of AZ31B magnesium alloy to PRO500 steel using TIG arc as heat source. The interfacial reaction characteristics and mechanical properties of the welding-brazing bonding were investigated. The results show that an effective bonding is achieved between AZ31B magnesium alloy and PRO500 steel by using TIG welding-brazing method. Some spontaneous oxidation reactions result in the formation of a transition zone containing AlFe3 phase with rich oxide. The micro-hardness value of the interfacial transition zone is between that of the AZ31B and the PRO500. Temper softening zone appears due to the welding thermal cycle nearby the bonding position in the interface. A higher heat input makes an increase of the brittle phases and leads to an obvious decrease of the bonding strength.

  15. Twinning behaviors of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy under multidirectional loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dewen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Tianmo, E-mail: tmliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Longjing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Lu, Liwei [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, Hunan (China); Chen, Huicong; Shi, Dongfeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-02-15

    The microstructure and texture evolution of an AZ31 magnesium rolled sheet during quasi-static compression at strain rates of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} has been investigated by in situ electron backscattered diffraction. The influence of the initial and pre-deformed texture on the predominant deformation mechanisms during compression has been examined. It has been found that extensive grain reorientation due to (10 − 12) tensile twinning appeared when compressed along transverse direction. Tensile twin variants were observed under this loading condition, and different variants will cause an effect to the following deformation. Several twinning modes occurred with continuative loading along rolling direction. - Highlights: •Twinning behaviors were investigated through in situ multidirectional compressive tests. •Deformation behavior was affected by the twin variants. •Four types of twinning behaviors were observed during deformation process.

  16. Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Zhiquan; Wu, Yekang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Guorui; Li, Dalong; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Yu, Shengxue; Shen, Dejiu; Nash, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), potentio-dynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Detached coating samples were fabricated by an electrochemical method and more details of the internal micro-structure of coatings were clearly observed on the fractured cross-section morphologies of the samples compared to general polished cross-section morphologies. Evolution mechanisms of the coating corrosion behavior in relation to the evolution of micro-structural characteristics were discussed in detail.

  17. The Effects of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical and Wear Properties of AZ31 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT-reinforced AZ31 matrix nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using a powder metallurgy method followed by hot extrusion. The influence of CNTs on microstructures, mechanical properties, and wear properties were systematically investigated by optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, hardness test, tensile test, and wear test. The results revealed that the nanocomposites showed a slightly smaller grain size compared with the matrix and uniform distribution that CNTs could achieve at proper content. As a result, the addition of CNTs could weaken basal plane texture. However, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the composites were enhanced as the amount of CNTs increased up to 2.0 wt. %, reaching maximum values of 241 MPa (+28.2% and 297 MPa (+6.1%, respectively. The load transfer mechanism, Orowan mechanism, and thermal mismatch mechanism played important roles in the enhancement of the yield strength, and several classical models were employed to predict the theoretical values. The effect of CNT content on the friction coefficient and weight loss of the nanocomposites was also studied. The relationships between the amount of CNTs, the friction coefficient, and weight loss could be described by the exponential decay model and the Boltzmann model, respectively.

  18. Dual-beam laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-03-01

    Porosity within laser welds of magnesium alloys is one of the main roadblocks to achieving high quality joints. One of the causes of pore formation is the presence of pre-existing coatings on the surface of magnesium alloy such as oxide or chromate layers. In this study, single-beam and dual-beam laser heat sources are investigated in relation to mitigation of pores resulting from the presence of the as-received oxide layer on the surface of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy during the laser welding process. A fiber laser with a power of up to 4 kW is used to weld samples in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The effect of dual-beam laser welding with different beam energy ratios is studied on the quality of the weld bead. The purpose of this paper is to identify the beam ratio that best mitigates pore formation in the weld bead. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition, as well as laser-induced plasma plume are monitored in real-time by use of a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. Results showed that a dual-beam laser configuration can effectively mitigate pore formation in the weld bead by a preheating-welding mechanism.

  19. Surface composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy irradiated by high-intensity pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P.; Lei, M.K.; Zhu, X.P.

    2011-01-01

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation of AZ31 magnesium alloy is performed and electrochemical corrosion experiment of irradiated samples is carried out by using potentiodynamic polarization technology in order to explore the effect of HIPIB irradiation on corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. The surface composition, cross-sectional morphology and microstructure are characterized by using electron probe microanalyzer, optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results indicated that HIPIB irradiation leads to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, in terms of the considerable increase in both corrosion potential and pitting breakdown potential. The microstructural refinement and surface purification induced by HIPIB irradiation are responsible for the improved corrosion resistance. - Research Highlights: → A modified layer about 30 μm thick is obtained by HIPIB irradiation. → Selective ablation of element/impurity phase having lower melting point is observed. → More importantly, microstructural refinement occurred on the irradiated surface. → The modified layer exhibited a significantly improved corrosion resistance. → Improved corrosion resistance is ascribed to the combined effect induced by HIPIB.

  20. Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tyrone L; DeLorme, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    .... The magnesium alloy plates were parametrically compared with the minimum performance requirements of aluminum alloy 5083-H131 temper rolled plate using various armor-piercing and fragment-simulating projectiles (FSPs...

  1. Effect of interlayer configurations on joint formation in TLP bonding of Ti-6AI-4V to Mg-AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atieh, A. M.; Khan, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this research work, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process was utilized to fabricate joints using thin (20 micro m) nickel and copper foils placed between two bonding surfaces to help facilitate joint formation. Two joint configurations were investigated, first, Ti-6Al-4V/CuNi/Mg-AZ31 and second, Ti-6Al-4V/NiCu/Mg-AZ3L The effect of bonding time on microstructural developments across the joint and the changes in mechanical properties were studied as a function of bonding temperature and pressure. The bonded specimens were examined by metallographic analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both cases, intermetallic phase of CuMg/sub 2/ and Mg/sub 3/AlNi/sub 2/ was observed inside the joint region. The results show that joint shear strengths for the Ti-6Al-4V/CuNi/Mg-AZ31 setup produce joints with shear strength of 57 MPa compared to 27MPa for joints made using the Ti-6Al-4V/NiCu/Mg-AZ31 layer arrangement. (author)

  2. Effect of interlayer configurations on joint formation in TLP bonding of Ti-6Al-4V to Mg-AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atieh, A M; Khan, T I

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process was utilized to fabricate joints using thin (20μm) nickel and copper foils placed between two bonding surfaces to help facilitate joint formation. Two joint configurations were investigated, first, Ti-6Al-4V/CuNi/Mg-AZ31 and second, Ti-6Al-4V/NiCu/Mg-AZ3L The effect of bonding time on microstructural developments across the joint and the changes in mechanical properties were studied as a function of bonding temperature and pressure. The bonded specimens were examined by metallographic analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both cases, intermetallic phase of CuMg 2 and Mg 3 AlNi 2 was observed inside the joint region. The results show that joint shear strengths for the Ti-6Al-4V/CuNi/Mg-AZ31 setup produce joints with shear strength of 57 MPa compared to 27MPa for joints made using the Ti-6Al-4V/NiCu/Mg-AZ31 layer arrangement

  3. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Barranco, Violeta; El-Hadad, A.A.; Llorente, Irene; Serra, Carmen; Galván, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of heat treated magnesium alloys. • Relation between heat treatment and aluminium subsurface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and corrosion behaviour. - Abstract: This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5–60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times

  4. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Sebastián, E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barranco, Violeta [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); El-Hadad, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Llorente, Irene [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Serra, Carmen [Servicio de Nanotecnologia y Análisis de Superficies, CACTI, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Galván, J.C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of heat treated magnesium alloys. • Relation between heat treatment and aluminium subsurface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and corrosion behaviour. - Abstract: This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5–60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times.

  5. Preparation and corrosion resistance of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Feiyang; Xu, Guohua; Wang, Fengwu; Yu, Nian; Wu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was successfully prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate by chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of improving its corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The influence of hydroxyapatite (HA) content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the coatings was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of HA content in phytic acid solution, the cracks on the surface of the coatings gradually reduced, which subsequently improved the corrosion resistance of these coated magnesium alloy. Electrochemical measurements in simulated body fluid (SBF) revealed that the composite coating with 45 wt.% HA addition exhibited superior surface integrity and significantly improved corrosion resistance compared with the single phytic acid conversion coating. The results of the immersion test in SBF showed that the composite coating could provide more effective protection for magnesium alloy substrate than that of the single phytic acid coating and showed good bioactivity. Magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite, with the desired bioactivity, can be synthesized through chemical conversion deposition technology as protective coatings for surface modification of the biodegradable magnesium alloy implants. The design idea of the new type of biomaterial is belong to the concept of "third generation biomaterial". Corrosion behavior and bioactivity of coated magnesium alloy are the key issues during implantation. In this study, preparation and corrosion behavior of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on magnesium alloy were studied. The basic findings and significance of this paper are as follows: 1. A novel environmentally friendly, homogenous and crack-free magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was fabricated on AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of enhancing its corrosion resistance and

  6. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide/poly(lactic acid) composite coating on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Fen; Li, Shuo-Qi; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) coating consisted of uniform hexagonal nano-plates was firstly synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal treatment on the AZ31 alloy, and then a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coating was sealed on the top layer of the ZnAl-LDH coating using vacuum freeze-drying. The characteristics of the ZnAl-LDH/PLA composite coatings were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and EDS. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ZnAl-LDH coating contained a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer, and the PLA coating with a strong adhesion to the porous outer layer can prolong the service life of the ZnAl-LDH coating. The excellent corrosion resistance of this composite coating can be attributable to its barrier function, ion-exchange and self-healing ability.

  7. Characterization of high-strain rate mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli; Xu, Hanbing; Erdman, Donald L.; Starbuck, Michael J.; Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1 000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1 000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Empirical relationship was established to predict the corrosion rate of plasma sprayed alumina coatings by incorporating process parameters. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five-level, central composite rotatable design matrix. The developed relationship can be effectively used to predict the corrosion rate of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on corrosion rate, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

  9. Study of the effect of Pyrophosphate in low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Jae Gon; Kim, Eng Chan; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) was utilized to eliminate the drawbacks of high voltage PEO such as high cost, dimensional deformation, and porosity. Low voltage PEO produces a thin coating, which leads to low corrosion resistance. In order to solve this problem, 0.1⁓0.6 M pyrophosphates were added to a bath containing 1.4 M NaOH and 0.35 M Na_2SiO_3.PEO at 70V was conducted at 25℃ for 3 minutes. The chemical composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of the anodized coating were analyzed. The anodized film was composed of MgO, Mg_2SiO_4, and Mg_2O_7P_2. Themorphology of the film showed a inappropriately dense structure and low porosity in the anodized layers. It is found that low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in cooperation with phosphating treatment can provide good corrosion protection for the AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  10. Study of the effect of Pyrophosphate in low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jae Gon; Kim, Eng Chan [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hong [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) was utilized to eliminate the drawbacks of high voltage PEO such as high cost, dimensional deformation, and porosity. Low voltage PEO produces a thin coating, which leads to low corrosion resistance. In order to solve this problem, 0.1⁓0.6 M pyrophosphates were added to a bath containing 1.4 M NaOH and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}.PEO at 70V was conducted at 25℃ for 3 minutes. The chemical composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of the anodized coating were analyzed. The anodized film was composed of MgO, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, and Mg{sub 2}O{sub 7}P{sub 2}. Themorphology of the film showed a inappropriately dense structure and low porosity in the anodized layers. It is found that low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in cooperation with phosphating treatment can provide good corrosion protection for the AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  11. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Barranco, Violeta; El-Hadad, A. A.; Llorente, Irene; Serra, Carmen; Galván, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5-60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times.

  12. Effect of current frequency on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during electroplastic rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopei [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Guoyi; Kuang, Jie; Li, Xiaohui [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of electroplastic rolling (ER) on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture in the AZ31 magnesium alloy strips has been investigated by tensile testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) methods. It is shown that the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture are highly current frequency-dependent. Best mechanical properties are obtained from the 500 Hz ER specimen by carrying out tensile tests for all the rolled strips. Besides, the frequencies of twin boundaries, which are reduced to the minimum at 500 Hz, vary with the current frequency. Moreover, it can be seen from the calculated (0001) and (101{sup ¯}0) pole figures that texture evolved into an obvious off-basal texture, and non-basal slip systems are activated under 500 Hz. The mechanisms of twinning growth and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during ER are considered to be responsible for the experimental results.

  13. Influence of the Composition of the Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution on the Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 and AZ61 Magnesium Alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkacz, J.; Slouková, K.; Minda, J.; Drábiková, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Doležal, P.; Wasserbauer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 465. ISSN 2075-4701 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : magnesium alloy * AZ31 * AZ61 * HBSS * HBSS+ * EIS * potentiodynamic test Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4701/7/11/465

  14. Distinguishing between slip and twinning events during nanoindentation of magnesium alloy AZ31

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, T.; Šiška, Filip; Barnett, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, JAN (2016), s. 10-13 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0197 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium alloy * Nanoindentation * AFM * CPFEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.747, year: 2016

  15. Nanomechanical analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy and pure magnesium correlated with crystallographic orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bočan, Jiří; Maňák, Jan; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 644, Sep (2015), s. 114-120 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EBSD * electron microscopy * hardness measurement * magnesium alloys * mechanical characterization * nanoindentation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015

  16. Effect of Thickness on the Morphology and Corrosion Behavior of Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carlos E.; Maddela, Surender; O'Keefe, Matthew J.; Wang, Yar-Ming

    Cerium-based conversion coatings (CeCCs) were deposited onto AZ31B magnesium alloy substrates using a spontaneous reaction of CeCl3, H2O2 and gelatin in a water-based solution. The coating thickness was adjusted by controlling the immersion time in the deposition solution. Prior to deposition, the AZ31B substrates were treated using an acid pickling in nitric acid and then an alkaline cleaning in sodium metasilicate pentahydrate. After deposition, the coated samples were immersed in a phosphate bath that converted cerium oxide/hydroxide into cerium phosphate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and neutral salt spray testing studies indicated that 100 nm thick CeCC had better corrosion performance than 400 nm coatings. Characterization of the CeCCs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a three layer structure with different compositions.

  17. Anodizing of magnesium alloy AZ31 in alkaline solutions with silicate under continuous sparking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Liyuan; Yu Xia; Yang Zhihui; Wang Yunyan; Okido, Masazumi

    2008-01-01

    Anodization is a useful technique for forming protective films on magnesium alloys and improves its corrosion resistance. Based on the alkaline electrolyte solution with primary oxysalt developed previously, the optimum secondary oxysalt was selected by comparing the anti-corrosion property of anodic film. The structure, component and surface morphology of anodic film and cross-section were analyzed using energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion process was detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that secondary oxysalt addition resulted in different anodizing processes, sparking or non-sparking. Sodium silicate was the most favorable additive of electrolyte, in which anodic film with the strongest corrosion resistance was obtained. The effects of process parameters, such as silicate concentration, applied current density and temperature, were also investigated. High temperature did not improve anti-property of anodic film, while applying high current density resulted in more porous surface of film

  18. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  19. Study of Dissimilar Welding AA6061 Aluminium Alloy and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy with ER5356 Filler Using Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, M. I. I.; Ishak, M.; Halil, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is to study of dissimilar welding AA6061 aluminium alloy and AZ31B magnesium alloy with ER5356 filler using friction stir welding. 2 mm thick plates of aluminium and magnesium were used. Friction stir welding operations were performed at different rotation and travel speeds and used the fixed tilt angle which is 3°. The rotation speeds varied from 800 to 1100 rpm, and the travel speed varied from 80 to 100 mm/min. In the range rotation speed of 800 to 1000 rpm and welding speed of 80 to 100 mm/min there are no defect at the weld. Tensile test show the higher tensile strength is 198 MPa and the welding efficiency is about 76%.

  20. Friction stir welding joint of dissimilar materials between AZ31B magnesium and 6061 aluminum alloys: Microstructure studies and mechanical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 141554933 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behnamian, Y. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Mostafaei, A., E-mail: amir.mostafaei@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Izadi, H. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Saeid, T. [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 513351996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 113659466 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gerlich, A.P., E-mail: adrian.gerlich@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining dissimilar alloys, which can dramatically reduce grain sizes and offer high mechanical joint efficiency. Lap FSW joints between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloy sheets were made at various tool rotation and travel speeds. Rotation and travel speeds varied between 560–1400 r/min and 16–40 mm/min respectively, where the ratio between these parameters was such that nearly constant pitch distances were applied during welding. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used to investigate the microstructures of the joints welded. Intermetallic phases including Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} (γ) and Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} (β) were detected in the weld zone (WZ). For different tool rotation speeds, the morphology of the microstructure in the stir zone changed significantly with travel speed. Lap shear tensile test results indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds to 1400 r/min and 40 mm/min, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum. Microhardness measurements and tensile stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW parameters and mainly depended on the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. In addition, a debonding failure mode in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld nugget was investigated by SEM and surface fracture studies indicated that the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone controlled the failure mode. XRD analysis of the fracture surface indicated the presence of brittle intermetallic compounds including Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} (γ) and Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} (β). - Highlights: • Dissimilar Al/Mg joint was obtained by lap friction stir welding technique. • Effect of rotation and travel speeds on the formation of intermetallic

  1. Friction stir welding joint of dissimilar materials between AZ31B magnesium and 6061 aluminum alloys: Microstructure studies and mechanical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, J.; Behnamian, Y.; Mostafaei, A.; Izadi, H.; Saeid, T.; Kokabi, A.H.; Gerlich, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining dissimilar alloys, which can dramatically reduce grain sizes and offer high mechanical joint efficiency. Lap FSW joints between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloy sheets were made at various tool rotation and travel speeds. Rotation and travel speeds varied between 560–1400 r/min and 16–40 mm/min respectively, where the ratio between these parameters was such that nearly constant pitch distances were applied during welding. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used to investigate the microstructures of the joints welded. Intermetallic phases including Al 12 Mg 17 (γ) and Al 3 Mg 2 (β) were detected in the weld zone (WZ). For different tool rotation speeds, the morphology of the microstructure in the stir zone changed significantly with travel speed. Lap shear tensile test results indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds to 1400 r/min and 40 mm/min, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum. Microhardness measurements and tensile stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW parameters and mainly depended on the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. In addition, a debonding failure mode in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld nugget was investigated by SEM and surface fracture studies indicated that the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone controlled the failure mode. XRD analysis of the fracture surface indicated the presence of brittle intermetallic compounds including Al 12 Mg 17 (γ) and Al 3 Mg 2 (β). - Highlights: • Dissimilar Al/Mg joint was obtained by lap friction stir welding technique. • Effect of rotation and travel speeds on the formation of intermetallic compounds • Microstructure and chemical

  2. Preparation and characterization of HA microflowers coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Hui [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu Dezhen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Luo Yan [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang Fuping, E-mail: hitth001@yahoo.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydroxyapatite microflowers coating is fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy has been enhanced by micro-arc oxidation and solution treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and solution treatment exhibits a high ability to form apatite. - Abstract: Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this work, hydroxyapatite microflowers coating is fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and the apatite-forming ability is studied also. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy has been enhanced by MAO coating. And the solution treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the MAO sample, by forming a barrier layer on the surface of the MAO coating, and by penetrating into the outer layer of the MAO film, sealing the micropores and micro-cracks existed in the MAO coating. In addition, the MAO-ST coating also exhibits a high ability to form apatite.

  3. Tensile properties and strain-hardening behavior of double-sided arc welded and friction stir welded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, S.M.; Chen, D.L.; Bhole, S.D.; Cao, X.; Powidajko, E.; Weckman, D.C.; Zhou, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Microstructures, tensile properties and work hardening behavior of double-sided arc welded (DSAWed) and friction stir welded (FSWed) AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy sheet were studied at different strain rates. While the yield strength was higher, both the ultimate tensile strength and ductility were lower in the FSWed samples than in the DSAWed samples due to welding defects present at the bottom surface in the FSWed samples. Strain-hardening exponents were evaluated using the Hollomon relationship, the Ludwik equation and a modified equation. After welding, the strain-hardening exponents were nearly twice that of the base metal. The DSAWed samples exhibited stronger strain-hardening capacity due to the larger grain size coupled with the divorced eutectic structure containing β-Mg 17 Al 12 particles in the fusion zone, compared to the FSWed samples and base metal. Kocks-Mecking type plots were used to show strain-hardening stages. Stage III hardening occurred after yielding in both the base metal and the welded samples. At lower strains a higher strain-hardening rate was observed in the base metal, but it decreased rapidly with increasing net flow stress. At higher strains the strain-hardening rate of the welded samples became higher, because the recrystallized grains in the FSWed and the larger re-solidified grains coupled with β particles in the DSAWed provided more space to accommodate dislocation multiplication during plastic deformation. The strain-rate sensitivity evaluated via Lindholm's approach was observed to be higher in the base metal than in the welded samples.

  4. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows...... the position, orientation and full stress tensor of each illuminated grain to be determined and, hence, enables the study of evolving stress fields in coarse grained materials with a spatial resolution equal to the grain size. Grain resolved information like this is vital for understanding what happens when...... the traditional continuum mechanics approach breaks down and fracture is governed by local heterogeneities (e.g. phase or stress differences) between grains. As a first approximation the results obtained were averaged through the thickness of the sample and compared with an elastic–plastic continuum finite...

  5. Corrosion Behavior of PEO Coatings Formed on AZ31 Alloy in Phosphate-Based Electrolytes with Calcium Acetate Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaei, E.; Atapour, M.; Edris, H.; Hakimizad, A.

    2017-07-01

    The PEO coating started on magnesium AZ31 using a unipolar DC power source. The coating was generated in the electrolyte based on Na3PO4·12H2O and KOH with calcium acetate as additive. The x-ray diffraction method showed some phases containing calcium and phosphate, which was created in the presence of additive. Also, the EDS tests of the sample's surfaces proved the existence of calcium on the surface. Based on the electrochemical tests results, the most corrosion resistance belongs to the sample with calcium acetate additive. In fact, the results of the EIS tests showed the coating with calcium acetate has the highest resistance but the lowest capacitance. However, this state belongs to the surface morphology, the lower porosity, and surface chemical composition.

  6. Reversible motion of twin boundaries in AZ31 alloy and new design of magnesium alloys as smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Ostapovets, Andriy; Jäger, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, APR (2014), s. 509-516 ISSN 0261-3069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GPP108/12/P054 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnesium alloy * twinning * texture * smart material Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2014

  7. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  8. Effect of Sn4+ Additives on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Anodic Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Alkaline Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, S. A.; Kuroda, K.; Saito, N.; Okido, M.

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal with high specific strength and good mechanical properties. However, poor corrosion resistance limits its widespread use in many applications. Magnesium is usually treated with Chromate conversion coatings. However, due to changing environmental regulations and pollution prevention requirements, a significant push exists to find new, alternative for poisonous Cr6+. Therefore, we aim to improve corrosion resistance of anodic coatings on AZ31 alloys using low cost non-chromate electrolyte. Anodizing was carried out in alkaline solutions with tin additives. The effect of tin additives on the coating film was characterized by SEM and XRD. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using anodic and cathodic polarizations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion resistance property was improved with tin additives and the best anti-corrosion property was obtained with addition of 0.03 M Na2SnO3.3H2O to anodizing solution.

  9. Fabrication of ZIF-8@SiO2 Micro/Nano Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surface on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Impressive Corrosion Resistance and Abrasion Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuiqing; Liu, Qi; Chen, Rongrong; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Liu, Peili; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-29

    Superhydrophobic coatings are highly promising for protecting material surfaces and for wide applications. In this study, superhydrophobic composites, comprising a rhombic-dodecahedral zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8@SiO 2 ), have been manufactured onto AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical etching and dip-coating methods to enhance stability and corrosion resistance. Herein, we report on a simple strategy to modify hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilan (HDTMS) on ZIF-8@SiO 2 to significantly improve the property of repelling water. We show that various liquids can be stable on its surface and maintain a contact angle higher than 150°. The morphologies and chemical composition were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR). In addition, the anticorrosion and antiattrition properties of the film were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization and HT, respectively. Such a coating shows promising potential as a material for large-scale fabrication.

  10. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  11. Experimental Characterization and Material Modelling of an AZ31 Magnesium Sheet Alloy at Elevated Temperatures under Consideration of the Tension-Compression Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Dykiert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium sheet alloys have a great potential as a construction material in the aerospace and automotive industry. However, the current state of research regarding temperature dependent material parameters for the description of the plastic behaviour of magnesium sheet alloys is scarce in literature and accurate statements concerning yield criteria and appropriate characterization tests to describe the plastic behaviour of a magnesium sheet alloy at elevated temperatures in deep drawing processes are to define. Hence, in this paper the plastic behaviour of the well-established magnesium sheet alloy AZ31 has been characterized by means of convenient mechanical tests (e. g. tension, compression and biaxial tests) at temperatures between 180 and 230 °C. In this manner, anisotropic and hardening behaviour as well as differences between the tension-compression asymmetry of the yield locus have been estimated. Furthermore, using the evaluated data from the above mentioned tests, two different yield criteria have been parametrized; the commonly used Hill’48 and an orthotropic yield criterion, CPB2006, which was developed especially for materials with hexagonal close packed lattice structure and is able to describe an asymmetrical yielding behaviour regarding tensile and compressive stress states. Numerical simulations have been finally carried out with both yield functions in order to assess the accuracy of the material models.

  12. Grain refining mechanism of Al-containing Mg alloys with the addition of Mn-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Gaowu W.; Ren Yuping; Huang Wei; Li Song; Pei Wenli

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: The ε-AlMn phase acts as the heterogeneous nucleus of α-Mg phase during the solidification of the AZ31 Mg alloy, not the γ-Al 8 Mn 5 phase. The grain refinement effect is very clear with the addition of only 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy (pure ε-AlMn). The grain refinement does not deteriorate up to the holding time of 60 min at 740 o C. - Abstract: The effect of manganese on grain refinement of Al-containing AZ31 Mg alloy has been investigated by designing a series of Mn-Al alloys composed of either pure ε-AlMn, γ 2 -Al 8 Mn 5 or both of them using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is experimentally clarified that the grain refinement of the AZ31 Mg alloy is due to the existence of the ε-AlMn phase in the Mn-Al alloys, not the γ 2 -Al 8 Mn 5 phase. The grain size of AZ31 Mg alloy is about 91 μm without any addition of Mn-Al alloys, but remarkably decreases to ∼55 μm with the addition of either Mn-34 wt% Al or Mn-28 wt% Al. With a minor addition of 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy, the grain size of AZ31 alloy decreases to ∼53 μm, and the Mn-28Al alloy can be active as grain refiner for holding time up to 60 min for the melt AZ31 alloy at 750 o C.

  13. Grain refining mechanism of Al-containing Mg alloys with the addition of Mn-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Gaowu W., E-mail: qingw@smm.neu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Wenhu Road 3-11, Heping District, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province (China); Ren Yuping; Huang Wei; Li Song; Pei Wenli [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Wenhu Road 3-11, Heping District, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province (China)

    2010-10-08

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: The {epsilon}-AlMn phase acts as the heterogeneous nucleus of {alpha}-Mg phase during the solidification of the AZ31 Mg alloy, not the {gamma}-Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phase. The grain refinement effect is very clear with the addition of only 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy (pure {epsilon}-AlMn). The grain refinement does not deteriorate up to the holding time of 60 min at 740 {sup o}C. - Abstract: The effect of manganese on grain refinement of Al-containing AZ31 Mg alloy has been investigated by designing a series of Mn-Al alloys composed of either pure {epsilon}-AlMn, {gamma}{sub 2}-Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} or both of them using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is experimentally clarified that the grain refinement of the AZ31 Mg alloy is due to the existence of the {epsilon}-AlMn phase in the Mn-Al alloys, not the {gamma}{sub 2}-Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phase. The grain size of AZ31 Mg alloy is about 91 {mu}m without any addition of Mn-Al alloys, but remarkably decreases to {approx}55 {mu}m with the addition of either Mn-34 wt% Al or Mn-28 wt% Al. With a minor addition of 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy, the grain size of AZ31 alloy decreases to {approx}53 {mu}m, and the Mn-28Al alloy can be active as grain refiner for holding time up to 60 min for the melt AZ31 alloy at 750 {sup o}C.

  14. Preparation and characterization of HA microflowers coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Dezhen; Luo, Yan; Wang, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this work, hydroxyapatite microflowers coating is fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and the apatite-forming ability is studied also. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy has been enhanced by MAO coating. And the solution treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the MAO sample, by forming a barrier layer on the surface of the MAO coating, and by penetrating into the outer layer of the MAO film, sealing the micropores and micro-cracks existed in the MAO coating. In addition, the MAO-ST coating also exhibits a high ability to form apatite.

  15. Corrosion behavior of biodegradable material AZ31 coated with beeswax-colophony resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumelar, Muhammad Dikdik; Putri, Nur Ajrina; Anggaravidya, Mahendra; Anawati, Anawati

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are potential candidates for biodegradable implant materials owing to their ability to degrade spontaneously in a physiological environment. However, the degradation rate is still considered too fast in human body solution. A coating is typically applied to slowdown corrosion rate of Mg alloys. In this work, an organic coating of mixture beeswax-colophony with ratios of 40-60, 50-50, and 60-40 in wt% was synthesized and applied on commercial magnesium alloyAZ31. The coated specimens were then characterized with SEM and XRF. The corrosion behavior of the coated specimens was evaluated by immersion test in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution at 37°C for 14 days. The results indicated that the coating material improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ31 alloy.

  16. Detection of defects in laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration by a real-time spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-05-01

    The effect of surface oxide layer existing at the lap-joint faying surface of magnesium sheets is investigated on the keyhole dynamics of the weld pool and weld bead qualities. It is observed that by removing the oxide layer from the faying surface of the lap joint, a high quality weld can be achieved in the laser welding process. However, the presence of an oxide layer deteriorates the quality of the weld by forming pores at the interface of the two overlapped sheets. The purpose of this paper is to identify the correlation between the integrity of the weld and the interaction between the laser and material. A spectroscopy sensor was applied to detect the spectra emitted from a plasma plume during the laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The electron temperature was calculated by applying a Boltzmann plot method based on the detected spectra, and the correlation between the pore formation and the spectral signals was studied. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition were monitored in real-time by a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A green laser was used as an illumination source in order to detect the influence of the oxide layer on the dynamic behavior of the molten pool. Results revealed that the detected spectrum and weld defects had a meaningful correlation for real-time monitoring of the weld quality during laser welding of magnesium alloys.

  17. Corrosion Resistance of the Superhydrophobic Mg(OH2/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.

  18. The corrosion properties of phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy: The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an eco-friendly accelerating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, R. [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, AmirKabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarabi, A.A., E-mail: sarabi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, AmirKabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-01

    Sodium nitrite has been used as an accelerating agent in phosphating bath to improve its properties. However, it is well known that sodium nitrite is a carcinogenic component in phosphating sludge. In this study, it has been aimed to replace sodium nitrite by an environmentally friendly accelerating agent. To this end, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in phosphating bath to improve the phosphate coating formation on an AZ31 magnesium alloy. The effect of SDS/sodium nitrite ratio on the phosphated samples properties was also studied. Using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), direct current (DC) polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the properties of phosphated magnesium samples were studied. Results showed uniform phosphate coating formation on the magnesium sample mostly in hopeite phase composition. In addition, a denser and less permeable coating can be obtained at these conditions. The corrosion resistance of the phosphated samples was superiorly improved using higher SDS concentration in the phosphating bath.

  19. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  20. Microstructural and mechanical responses to various rolling speeds determined in multi-pass break-down rolling of AZ31B alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weitao; Tang, Yan; Ning, Fangkun; Le, Qichi; Cui, Jianzhong

    2018-04-01

    Different rolling operations of as-cast AZ31B alloy were performed under different rolling speed (18 ∼ 72 m min‑1) and rolling pass conditions at 400 °C. Microstructural studies, tensile testing and formability evaluation relevant to each rolling operation were investigated. For 1-pass rolling, coarse average grain size (CAGS) region gradually approached the center layer as the rolling speed increased. Moreover, twins, shear bands and coarse-grain structures were the dominant components in the microstructure of plates rolled at 18, 48 and 72 m min‑1, respectively, indicating the severe deformation inhomogeneity under the high reduction per pass condition. For 2-pass rolling and 4-pass rolling, dynamic recrystallization was observed to be well and CAGS region has substantially disappeared, indicating the significant improvement in deformation uniformity and further the grain homogenization under the conditions. Microstructure uniformity degree of 2-pass rolled plates did not vary much as the rolling speed varied. On this basis, shear band distribution dominated the deformation behavior during the uniaxial tension of the 2-pass rolled plates. However, microstructure uniformity accompanied by twin distribution played a leading role in stretching the 4-pass rolled plates.

  1. The corrosion properties of phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy: The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an eco-friendly accelerating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, R.; Sarabi, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium nitrite has been used as an accelerating agent in phosphating bath to improve its properties. However, it is well known that sodium nitrite is a carcinogenic component in phosphating sludge. In this study, it has been aimed to replace sodium nitrite by an environmentally friendly accelerating agent. To this end, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in phosphating bath to improve the phosphate coating formation on an AZ31 magnesium alloy. The effect of SDS/sodium nitrite ratio on the phosphated samples properties was also studied. Using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), direct current (DC) polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the properties of phosphated magnesium samples were studied. Results showed uniform phosphate coating formation on the magnesium sample mostly in hopeite phase composition. In addition, a denser and less permeable coating can be obtained at these conditions. The corrosion resistance of the phosphated samples was superiorly improved using higher SDS concentration in the phosphating bath.

  2. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: DejiuShen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  3. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren; Mikkelsen, Lars P.; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Lienert, Ulrich; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Reimers, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows the position, orientation and full stress tensor of each illuminated grain to be determined and, hence, enables the study of evolving stress fields in coarse grained materials with a spatial resolution equal to the grain size. Grain resolved information like this is vital for understanding what happens when the traditional continuum mechanics approach breaks down and fracture is governed by local heterogeneities (e.g. phase or stress differences) between grains. As a first approximation the results obtained were averaged through the thickness of the sample and compared with an elastic–plastic continuum finite element simulation. It was found that a full three-dimensional simulation was required to account for the measured transition from the overall plane stress case away from the notch to the essentially plane strain case observed near the notch tip. The measured and simulated stress contours were shown to be in good agreement except at the highest applied load, at which stress relaxation at the notch tip was observed in the experimental data. This stress relaxation is attributed to the initiation and propagation of a crack. Finally, it was demonstrated that the measured lattice rotations could be used as a qualitative measure of the shape and extent of the plastic deformation zone.

  4. Effect of Sn addition on the microstructure and deformation behavior of Mg-3Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Byeong-Chan; Kim, Jae H.; Bae, Jun Ho; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Shim, Myeong-Shik; Kim, Nack J.

    2017-01-01

    Mg alloys generally suffer from their poor formability at low temperatures due to their strong basal texture and a lack of adequate deformation systems. In the present study, a small amount of Sn was added instead of Zn to Mg-3Al alloy to modify its deformation behavior and improve the stretch formability. Microstructural examinations of the deformed Mg-3Al-1Sn (AT31) alloy by electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that prismatic slip is quite active during deformation, resulting in much lower r-values and planar anisotropy than the counterpart Mg-3Al-1Zn (AZ31) alloy. Polycrystal plasticity simulation based on visco-plasticity self-consistent (VPSC) model also shows that prismatic slip is the dominant deformation mode in AT31 alloy besides basal slip. As a consequence, AT31 alloy shows a much higher stretch formability than AZ31 alloy. On the other hand, AZ31 alloy shows the development of intense shear bands during stretch forming, and these shear bands act as crack propagating paths, limiting the stretch formability of AZ31 alloy.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (wt%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Shuaiju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yu, Hui, E-mail: yuhuidavid@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Huixing [Mechanical and Material School, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, Tianjin 300350 (China); Cui, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shangdong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Park, Sung Hyuk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Weiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); You, Bong Sun [Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-06

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a newly developed rare earth free Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (BAZ811, in wt%) alloy were investigated and compared with those of a commercial AZ31 alloy. The as-extruded BAZ811 alloy with much finer grain size shows more homogeneous dynamical recrystallized (DRXed) microstructure and weaker basal texture than those of AZ31 alloy. In addition, compared with bimodal structure AZ31 alloy containing only relatively coarse and sparse Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phases, the coexistence of strip-like fragmented Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitate and nano-size Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles in the microstructure was observed in BAZ811 alloy. Moreover, the BAZ811 alloy exhibits a tensile yield stress of 291 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 331 MPa, an elongation to failure of 14.6% as well as a reduction in yield asymmetry, which is mainly attributed to the combined effects of grain refinement and micro-scale broken Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles together with nano-scale spherical Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitates. The strain hardening behavior of both BAZ811 and AZ31 alloys were also discussed in terms of microstructure variation.

  6. Properties of Rolled AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Fabricated by Continuous Variable Cross-Section Direct Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Feng; Li, Xue Wen; Shi, Wen Yong

    2018-03-01

    Rolling is currently a widely used method for manufacturing and processing high-performance magnesium alloy sheets and has received widespread attention in recent years. Here, we combined continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion (CVCDE) and rolling processes. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the resulting sheets rolled at different temperatures from CVCDE extrudate were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The results showed that a fine-grained microstructure was present with an average grain size of 3.62 μm in sheets rolled from CVCDE extrudate at 623 K. Dynamic recrystallization and a large strain were induced by the multi-pass rolling, which resulted in grain refinement. In the 573-673 K range, the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation initially increased and then declined as the CVCDE temperature increased. The above results provide an important scientific basis of processing, manufacturing and the active control on microstructure and property for high-performance magnesium alloy sheet.

  7. Effect of keyhole characteristics on porosity formation during pulsed laser-GTA hybrid welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Xu, Jiannan; Xin, Lijun; Zhao, Zuofu; Wu, Fufa; Ma, Shengnan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-06-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between laser keyhole characteristics on the porosity formation during pulsed laser-GTA welding of magnesium alloy. Based on direct observations during welding process, the influences of laser keyhole state on the porosity formation were studied. Results show that the porosities in the joint are always at the bottom of fusion zone of the joint, which is closely related to the keyhole behavior. A large depth to wide ratio always leads to the increase of porosity generation chance. Keeping the keyhole outlet open for a longer time benefits the porosity restriction. Overlap of adjacent laser keyhole can effectively decrease the porosity generation, due to the cutting effect between adjacent laser keyholes. There are threshold overlap rate values for laser keyholes in different state.

  8. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of 2205/AZ31B Laminates Fabricated by Explosive Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A bimetal composite of 2205 duplex stainless steel and AZ31B magnesium alloy was cladded successfully through the method of explosive welding. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of 2205/AZ31B bimetal composite are discussed. The interface of 2205/AZ31B bimetallic composite was a less regular wavy morphology with locally melted pockets. Adiabatic shear bands occurred only in the AZ31B side near explosive welding interface. The microstructure observed with EBSD showed a strong refinement near the interface zones. Line scan confirmed that the interface had a short element diffusion zone which would contribute to the metallurgical bonding between 2205 duplex stainless steel and AZ31B magnesium alloy. The value of micro-hardness near the bonding interface of composite plate increased because of work hardening and grain refinement. The tensile shear strength of bonding interface of 2205/AZ31B composite was 105.63 MPa. Tensile strength of 2205/AZ31B composite material was higher than the base AZ31B. There were two abrupt drops in stress in the stress–strain curves of the 2205/AZ31B composite materials.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of Mg/Al alloys in high humidity atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabal, R.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P. [Facultad de Quimicas, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Merino, S. [Departamento de Tecnologia Industrial, Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The influence of relative humidity (80-90-98% RH) and temperature (25 and 50 C) on the corrosion behaviour of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys was evaluated using gravimetric measurements. The results were compared with the data obtained for the same alloys immersed in Madrid tap water. The corrosion rates of AZ alloys increased with the RH and temperature and were influenced by the aluminium content and alloy microstructure for RH values above 90%. The initiation of corrosion was localised around the Al-Mn inclusions in the AZ31 alloy and at the centre of the {alpha}-Mg phase in the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys. The {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase acted as a barrier against corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Analysis of the Deformability of Two-Layer Materials AZ31/Eutectic / Analiza Możliwości Odkształcania Plastycznego Materiału Dwuwarstwowego AZ31/Eutektyka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mola R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the results of physical simulation of the deformation of the two-layered AZ31/eutectic material using the Gleeble 3800 metallurgical processes simulator. The eutectic layer was produced on the AZ31 substrate using thermochemical treatment. The specimens of AZ31 alloy were heat treated in contact with aluminium powder at 445°C in a vacuum furnace. Depending on the heating time, Al-enriched surface layers with a thickness of 400, 700 and 1100 μm were fabricated on a substrate which was characterized by an eutectic structure composed of the Mg17Al12 phase and a solid solution of aluminium in magnesium. In the study, physical simulation of the fabricated two-layered specimens with a varying thickness of the eutectic layer were deformed using the plane strain compression test at various values of strain rates. The testing results have revealed that it is possible to deform the two-layered AZ31/eutectic material at low strain rates and small deformation values.

  11. Comportamiento de la corrosión de aleaciones de magnesio AZ31-B en ambiente marino, modificadas por el proceso de fricción-agitación Corrosion behavior in marine environment of magnesium alloy AZ31-B welded by friction-agitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Aperador Chaparro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de la corrosión de la aleación de magnesio AZ31-B en ambiente marino simulado, modificada mediante el proceso de fricción-agitación (PFA, con el fin de determinar el efecto de las variables del proceso, velocidad de rotación y velocidad de avance. Se llevaron a cabo análisis mediante espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica y curvas de polarización potencio-dinámicas (Tafel. Adicionalmente, se determinó la microestructura en las zonas del cordón de soldadura a través de metalografía óptica. Finalmente, se analizaron los productos de corrosión formados en la superficie de las muestras por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM equipado con el analizador químico por EDS. Se observó que una relación de velocidad de avance/velocidad de rotación mayor produce menor velocidad de corrosión y con ello mayor resistencia a la corrosión en medios salinos, al parecer relacionados con el gran tamaño de grano en la zona agitada, que corresponde a más entrada de calor.The corrosion behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy modified by friction stir processing (FSP was studied in simulated marine environment, in order to determine the effect of process variables rotation speed and travel speed. The corrosion analysis was carried upon by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel, metallographic analysis of the welded zones was done by optical microscopy and the chemical analysis of the corrosion products were done by using scanning electron microscope (SEM, equipped with EDS analyzer. It was observed that the increase of the rate rotation speed/travel speed of the process produces a decrease in the corrosion rate and the corresponding increase of the corrosion resistance in marine environment, apparently related to the higher grain size found in the stir zone, corresponding to a higher heat input.

  12. Comportamiento frente a la corrosión y biocompatibilidad in vitro/in vivo de la aleación AZ31 modificada superficialmente

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, M. L.; Clemente, C.; Rubio, J. C.; Alobera, M. A.; García-Alonso, M. C.; del Valle, J. A.; Iglesias, C.; Pérez-Maceda, B. T.; Carboneras, M.; Lozano, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluates the corrosion behaviour and the in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloy, which fulfills the mechanical requirements of bone. The corrosion kinetic of as-received AZ31 alloy was not compatible with the cell growth. To improve its performance, the AZ31 alloy was surface modified by a chemical conversion treatment in hydrofluoric acid. The magnesium fluoride layer generated by the surface treatment of AZ31 alloy enhances its corrosion behaviour, a...

  13. Parameters optimization for friction spot welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy by Taguchi method Otimização dos parâmetros de soldagem por fricção por ponto da liga de magnésio AZ31 pelo método de Taguchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Contri Campanelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction spot welding (FSpW is a solid state welding process suitable for producing spot-like joints, especially in lightweight materials, which are particularly interesting due to the weight saving potential. The plunging of an especially designed non-consumable and rotating tool creates a connection between overlapped sheets through frictional heat and plastic deformation. Minimum material loss is observed, and therefore a fully consolidated joint with flat surface (no keyhole is obtained. In the current study, the effect of FSpW parameters, such as rotational speed, plunge depth and dwell time, on lap shear strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy joints was investigated. The optimization of input process parameters was carried out through Taguchi approach of DOE. Analysis of variance was applied to determine the individual importance of each parameter. Main effect plots were used to indicate the best levels for maximizing lap shear strength. The results show that tool plunge depth has the higher effect on the weld strength, followed by rotational speed and dwell time.A soldagem por fricção por ponto (FSpW é um processo de soldagem no estado sólido adequado para a produção de juntas pontuais, especialmente em materiais leves, que são particularmente interessantes devido ao potencial de redução de peso. A penetração de uma ferramenta não-consumível e rotacional especialmente desenvolvida cria uma junção entre as placas sobrepostas através de calor por fricção e deformação plástica. A perda de material é mínima, obtendo-se, portanto, uma junta totalmente consolidada com superfície plana (sem furo. Neste trabalho, investigou-se o efeito dos parâmetros do FSpW, tais como velocidade de rotação, profundidade de penetração e tempo de residência, na resistência ao cisalhamento das juntas de liga de magnésio AZ31. A otimização dos parâmetros de entrada do processo foi realizada através do método de Taguchi de DOE. A an

  14. Grain refinement of AZ31 by (SiC)P: Theoretical calculation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.; Hartig, Ch.; Bormann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Grain refinement of gravity die-cast Mg-alloys can be achieved via two methods: in situ refinement by primary precipitated metallic or intermetallic phases, and inoculation of the melt via ceramic particles that remain stable in the melt due to their high thermodynamic stability. In order to clarify grain refinement mechanisms and optimize possible potent refiners in Mg-alloys, a simulation method for heterogeneous nucleation based on a free growth model has been developed. It allows the prediction of the grain size as a function of the particle size distribution, the volumetric content of ceramic inoculants, the cooling rate and the alloy constitution. The model assumptions were examined experimentally by a study of the grain refinement of (SiC) P in AZ31. Additions of (SiC) P result in significant grain refinement, if appropriate parameters for ceramic particles are chosen. The model makes quantitatively correct predictions for the grain size and its variation with cooling rate

  15. A study of long-term static load on degradation and mechanical integrity of Mg alloys-based biodegradable metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Youngmi; Jang, Yongseok; Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Long-term stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test of Mg alloys was performed. • AZ31B-H24 shows transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and ZE41A-T5 intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). • Long-term static loading accelerated crack propagation, leading to the loss of mechanical strength. - Abstract: Predicting degradation behavior of biodegradable metals in vivo is crucial for the clinical success of medical devices. This paper reports on the effect of long-term static stress on degradation of magnesium alloys and further changes in mechanical integrity. AZ31B (H24) and ZE41A (T5) alloys were tested to evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a physiological solution for 30 days and 90 days (ASTM G39 testing standard). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were used to characterize surface morphology and micro-structure of degraded alloys. The results show the different mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking for AZ31B (transgranular stress corrosion cracking, TGSCC) and ZE41A (intergranular stress corrosion cracking, IGSCC). AZ31B was more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under a long term static load than ZE41A. In conclusion, we observed that long-term static loading accelerated crack propagation, leading to the loss of mechanical integrity.

  16. A study of long-term static load on degradation and mechanical integrity of Mg alloys-based biodegradable metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Youngmi; Jang, Yongseok; Yun, Yeoheung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test of Mg alloys was performed. • AZ31B-H24 shows transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and ZE41A-T5 intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). • Long-term static loading accelerated crack propagation, leading to the loss of mechanical strength. - Abstract: Predicting degradation behavior of biodegradable metals in vivo is crucial for the clinical success of medical devices. This paper reports on the effect of long-term static stress on degradation of magnesium alloys and further changes in mechanical integrity. AZ31B (H24) and ZE41A (T5) alloys were tested to evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a physiological solution for 30 days and 90 days (ASTM G39 testing standard). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were used to characterize surface morphology and micro-structure of degraded alloys. The results show the different mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking for AZ31B (transgranular stress corrosion cracking, TGSCC) and ZE41A (intergranular stress corrosion cracking, IGSCC). AZ31B was more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under a long term static load than ZE41A. In conclusion, we observed that long-term static loading accelerated crack propagation, leading to the loss of mechanical integrity.

  17. Corrosion behaviors of Mg and its alloys with different Al contents in a modified simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Zhaohui [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Changjun, E-mail: wucj163@126.co [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.c [School of Chemistry Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang Feixia [School of Chemistry Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-11-20

    The corrosion behaviors of pure magnesium (Mg) and three Mg alloys with different Al contents were investigated in a modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) through immersion tests, Tafel experiments, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) experiments. The immersion results show that the corrosion rates (CRs) of the four samples were in an order of AZ91D < AZ61 < AZ31 < pure Mg after immersion for 1 day. With an increase in immersion time, their corrosion rates decreased and then a stable stage was reached after 16 days. The order of CRs of the four samples changed to AZ91D < pure Mg < AZ61 < AZ31 after immersion for 24 days. The results of EIS experiments indicate that the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) of the three magnesium alloys initially increased and then decreased while the R{sub ct} of pure Mg was kept lower within 24 h. The results of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show that pure Mg and three alloys were heterogeneously corroded in the m-SBF. The corrosion of pure Mg, which showed a more uniform corrosion appearance, resulted from localized corrosion over the entire surface. Alloy AZ91D (of 8.5-9.5 wt.% Al) showed relatively uniform corrosion morphology and the {beta}-Mg{sub 12}Al{sub 17} precipitates in alloy AZ91D were more homogeneously and continuously distributed along the grain boundaries. Obvious corrosion pits were found on the surface of alloy AZ61 and AZ31. The corrosion pits of alloy AZ61 were shallower than those of alloy AZ31. Alloy AZ61 (of 5.8-7.2 wt.% Al) possessed more Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} and a little {beta}-Mg{sub 12}Al{sub 17} presented along the grain boundary heterogeneously and discontinuously. Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} was the main phase of the AZ31 alloy (of 2.5-3.5 wt.% Al) dispersed into the matrix. In conclusion, the microstructure and the Al content in the {alpha}-Mg (Al) matrix significantly affected the corrosion properties of the alloys in the m-SBF. With the increase

  18. Corrosion behaviors of Mg and its alloys with different Al contents in a modified simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhaohui; Wu Changjun; Dai Changsong; Yang Feixia

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of pure magnesium (Mg) and three Mg alloys with different Al contents were investigated in a modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) through immersion tests, Tafel experiments, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) experiments. The immersion results show that the corrosion rates (CRs) of the four samples were in an order of AZ91D ct ) of the three magnesium alloys initially increased and then decreased while the R ct of pure Mg was kept lower within 24 h. The results of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show that pure Mg and three alloys were heterogeneously corroded in the m-SBF. The corrosion of pure Mg, which showed a more uniform corrosion appearance, resulted from localized corrosion over the entire surface. Alloy AZ91D (of 8.5-9.5 wt.% Al) showed relatively uniform corrosion morphology and the β-Mg 12 Al 17 precipitates in alloy AZ91D were more homogeneously and continuously distributed along the grain boundaries. Obvious corrosion pits were found on the surface of alloy AZ61 and AZ31. The corrosion pits of alloy AZ61 were shallower than those of alloy AZ31. Alloy AZ61 (of 5.8-7.2 wt.% Al) possessed more Al 8 Mn 5 and a little β-Mg 12 Al 17 presented along the grain boundary heterogeneously and discontinuously. Al 8 Mn 5 was the main phase of the AZ31 alloy (of 2.5-3.5 wt.% Al) dispersed into the matrix. In conclusion, the microstructure and the Al content in the α-Mg (Al) matrix significantly affected the corrosion properties of the alloys in the m-SBF. With the increase in Al content, the corrosion resistances of the samples were improved.

  19. Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Round Bars Obtained in Different Rolling Processes / Własności Prętów Okrągłych Ze Stopu Magnezu AZ31 Otrzymanych W Różnych Procesach Walcowania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanik A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently magnesium alloy bars are manufactured mainly in the extrusion process. This method has some drawbacks, which include: low process capacity, considerable energy demand, small length of finished products. Therefore it is purposeful to develop efficient methods for manufacturing of Mg alloy products in the form of bars, such methods include groove rolling and three-high skew rolling processes. Modified stretching passes provide change in material plastic flow, which contributes to the occurrence of the better distribution of stress and strain state than in the case of rolling in classical stretching passes. One of the modern method of Mg alloy bars production is rolling in a three-high skew rolling mill, which allows to set in a single pass a larger deformation compared to the rolling in the stretching passes.

  20. Comportamiento mecánico de la aleación AZ31 reforzada con nanofibras de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of reinforcing AZ31 with carbon nanofibres. The materials AZ31, AZ31-1 % C y AZ31-2 % C were produced by a conventional powder metallurgy route consisting of mechanical mixing of nanofibres and powders of AZ31, cool compactation and extrusion at 350 °C. After extrusion the three materials exhibited a recrystallized microstructure of similar grain size, fine and rather inhomogeneous. Furthermore, they presented a weak fibre texture with basal plane parallel to the extrusion direction. The tensile properties were affected by the nanofibres presence only at 100 °C. At this temperature, yield strength and tensile strength were 30% higher than in the unreinforced alloy.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de la adición de nanofibras de carbono en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta pulvimetalúrgica convencional. Se prepararon tres materiales, AZ31, AZ31- 1 % C y AZ31-2 % C. Tras una mezcla mecánica de las nanofibras con los polvos de AZ31, se precompactaron en frío y se extruyeron a 350 °C. Los tres presentan una microestructura recristalizada con un tamaño de grano similar, fino aunque algo heterogéneo. Los tres materiales presentan una débil textura de fibra con el plano basal paralelo a la dirección de extrusión. Las propiedades mecánicas a tracción únicamente se ven afectadas por la presencia de nanofibras a 100 °C superando los materiales reforzados en un 30 % a los valores de límite elástico y resistencia de la aleación sin reforzar.

  1. Mechanical characterization and constitutive modeling of Mg alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekonen, M. Nebebe; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Mosler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Material characterization of the Mg alloys AZ31 and ZE10 at elevated temperatures. ► Distortion of the yield locus does not depend on the strain rate. ► Novel constitutive model suitable for the analysis of sheet forming of magnesium. ► Strain-dependent r-values are included within the model. ► The model is thermodynamically consistent and accounts for distortional hardening. - Abstract: In this paper, an experimental mechanical characterization of the magnesium alloys ZE10 and AZ31 is performed and a suitable constitutive model is established. The mechanical characterization is based on uniaxial tensile tests. In order to avoid poor formability at room temperature, the tests were conducted at elevated temperature (200 °C). The uniaxial tensile tests reveal sufficient ductility allowing sheet forming processes at this temperature. The differences in yield stresses and plastic strain ratios (r-values) confirm the anisotropic response of the materials under study. The constitutive model is established so that the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloys such as anisotropy and compression-tension asymmetry can be accommodated. This model is thermodynamically consistent, incorporates rate effect, is formulated based on finite strain plasticity theory and is applicable in sheet forming simulations of magnesium alloys. More precisely, a model originally proposed by Cazacu and Barlat in 2004 and later modified to account for the evolution of the material anisotropy is rewritten in a thermodynamically consistent framework. The calibrated constitutive model is shown to capture the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloy sheets.

  2. Evolution of the Corrosion Morphology on AZ31B Tracked Electrochemically and by In Situ Microscopy in Chloride-Containing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, M. A.; Cain, T. W.; Briglia, B. F.; Scully, J. R.; Fitz-Gerald, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of open-circuit corrosion morphology as a function of immersion time for Mg alloy AZ31B in 0.6-M NaCl solution was investigated. Real-time optical microscopy accompanied by simultaneous electrochemical characterization was used to characterize the filiform corrosion (FFC) of AZ31B. Specifically, the behavior of propagating corrosion filaments on the metal surface was observed, and correlations among polarization resistance, filament propagation rates, open-circuit potential, and active coverage of local corrosion sites were revealed. Three distinct stages of corrosion were observed in 0.6-M NaCl. An initial passive region, during which a slow potential rise occurred (termed stage I), a second FFC region (termed stage II) with shallow penetrating, distinct filaments, and a final FFC region (termed stage III) with deeper penetrating filaments, aligned to form a linear front. The electrochemical properties of each stage are discussed, providing insights into the penetration rates and corrosion model.

  3. Biodegradation of Mg-14Li alloy in simulated body fluid: A proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bo Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High corrosion kinetics and localised corrosion progress are the primary concerns arising from the clinical implementation of magnesium (Mg based implantable devices. In this study, a binary Mg-lithium (Li alloy consisting a record high Li content of 14% (in weight was employed as model material aiming to yield homogenous and slow corrosion behaviour in a simulated body fluid, i.e. minimum essential medium (MEM, in comparison to that of generic Mg alloy AZ31 and biocompatible Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca counterparts. Scanning electron microscopy examination reveals single-phase microstructural characteristics of Mg-14Li (β-Li, whilst the presence of insoluble phases, cathodic to α-Mg matrix, in AZ31 and Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca. Though slight differences exist in the corrosion kinetics of all the specimens over a short-term time scale (no longer than 60 min, as indicated by potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, profound variations are apparent in terms of immersion tests, i.e. mass loss and hydrogen evolution measurements (up to 7 days. Cross-sectional micrographs unveil severe pitting corrosion in AZ31 and Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca, but not the case for Mg-14Li. X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm that a compact film (25 μm in thickness consisting of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3 and calcium hydroxide was generated on the surface of Mg-14Li in MEM, which contributes greatly to its low corrosion rate. It is proposed therefore that the single-phase structure and formation of protective and defect-free Li2CO3 film give rise to the controlled and homogenous corrosion behaviour of Mg-14Li in MEM, providing new insights for the exploration of biodegradable Mg materials.

  4. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na_2SiO_3, KF and NaH_2PO_4·2H_2O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  5. A study of strontium doped calcium phosphate coatings on AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satish S.; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun E.; Ohodnicki, John; Loghmanian, Autrine; Banerjee, Ipsita; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings have been studied to tailor the uncontrolled non-uniform corrosion of Mg based alloys while simultaneously enhancing bioactivity. The use of immersion techniques to deposit CaP coatings is attractive due to the ability of the approach to coat complex structures. In the current study, AZ31 substrates were subjected to various pretreatment conditions prior to depositing Sr 2+ doped and undoped CaP coatings. It was hypothesized that the bioactivity and corrosion protection of CaP coatings could be improved by doping with Sr 2+ . Heat treatment to elevated temperatures resulted in the diffusion of alloying elements, Mg and Zn, into the pretreated layer. Sr 2+ doped and undoped CaP coatings formed on the pretreated substrates consisted of biphasic mixtures of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Electrochemical corrosion experiments indicated that the extent of Sr 2+ doping and pretreatment both influenced the corrosion protection. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For both cell types, proliferation decreased upon increasing the Sr 2+ concentration. However, both osteogenic gene and protein expression significantly increased upon increasing Sr 2+ concentration. These results suggest that Sr 2+ doped coatings are capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation on degradable Mg alloys, while also enhancing corrosion protection, in comparison to undoped CaP coatings

  6. In vivo assessment of a new multifunctional coating architecture for improved Mg alloy biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro S; Zomorodian, Amir; Kwiatkowski, Lech; Lutze, Rafal; Balkowiec, Alicja; Colaço, Bruno; Pinheiro, Vitor; Fernandes, João C S; Montemor, Maria F; Fernandes, Maria H

    2016-08-10

    Magnesium alloys are regarded as potential biodegradable load-bearing biomaterials for orthopedic applications due to their physico-chemical and biomechanical properties. However, their clinical applicability is restricted by their high degradation rate, which limits the physiological reconstruction of the neighbouring tissues. In this work, a multifunctional coating architecture was developed on an AZ31 alloy by conjoining an anodization process with the deposition of a polymeric-based layer consisting of polyether imine reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, aiming at improved control of the corrosion activity and biological performance of the Mg substrate. Anodization and coating protocols were evaluated either independently or combined for corrosion resistance and biological behaviour, i.e. the irritation potential and angiogenic capability within a chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, and bone tissue response following tibia implantation within a rabbit model. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that coated Mg constructs, particularly anodized plus coated with AZ31, exhibited excellent stability compared to the anodized alloy and, particularly, to the bare AZ31. Microtomographic evaluation of the implanted samples correlated with these degradation results. Mg constructs displayed a non-irritating behaviour, and were associated with high levels of vascular ingrowth. Bone ingrowth neighbouring the implanted constructs was observed for all samples, with coated and anodized plus coated samples presenting the highest bone formation. Gene expression analysis suggested that the enhanced bone tissue formation was associated with the boost in osteogenic activity through Runx2 upregulation, following the activation of PGC-1α/ERRα signaling. Overall, the developed multifunctional coatings appear to be a promising strategy to obtain safe and bioactive biodegradable Mg-based implants with potential applications within bone tissue.

  7. Evolution of Microstructure in Rolled Mg-Based Alloy. Textural Aspect / Ewolucja Mikrostruktury W Walcowanym Stopie Na Bazie Mg. Aspekt Teksturowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural materials, which makes them particularly suitable for use in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, due to hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, resulting in insufficient number of independent slip systems, magnesium alloys exhibit poor formability at room temperature. Conventional methods of work hardening of magnesium alloys requires the temperature about 300°C, which favours simultaneously processes of thermal recovery and grain growth, but decreases beneficial microstructure strengthening effect. Thus, it is a crucial to undertake development of a technology for semi-finished magnesium alloys elements, which will ensure better mechanical properties of the final products by forming desirable microstructure. In the paper we present the development of crystallographic texture of the Mg-based alloy (Mg-AZ31 in the form of pipe extruded at 430°C and subjected to pilger rolling at relatively low temperature.

  8. Enhanced corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by a silane-based solution treatment after an in-situ formation of the Mg(OH)2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fubao; Shen, Jun; Gao, Runhua; Xie, Xiong; Luo, Xiong

    2016-03-01

    A novel organic-inorganic Mg(OH)2/silane surface layer has been developed for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the immersion tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and sellotape tests showed that the Mg(OH)2/silane-based composite surface layer possessed excellent corrosion resistance and very good adhesion due to the formation of Si-O-Mg bond between Mg(OH)2 layer and silane layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests results indicated that for the long-term corrosion protection of AZ31 the increase of the curing temperature improved the impedance of the composited layer when the curing temperature was lower than 130 °С. However, the impedance of the composited layer deceased when the curing temperature was more than 130 °С due to the carbonization of the silane layer.

  9. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-06-01

    We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na 2 SiO 3 , KF and NaH 2 PO 4 ·2H 2 O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  10. Mg-MOF-74/MgF₂ Composite Coating for Improving the Properties of Magnesium Alloy Implants: Hydrophilicity and Corrosion Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yan, Zhijie; Ma, Xiaolu; Geng, Tie; Wu, Haihong; Li, Zhongyue

    2018-03-07

    Surface modification on Mg alloys is highly promising for their application in the field of bone repair. In this study, a new metal-organic framework/MgF₂ (Mg-MOF-74/MgF₂) composite coating was prepared on the surface of AZ31B Mg alloy via pre-treatment of hydrofluoric acid and in situ hydrothermal synthesis methods. The surface topography of the composite coating is compact and homogeneous, and Mg-MOF-74 has good crystallinity. The corrosion resistance of this composite coating was investigated through Tafel polarization test and immersion test in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. It was found that Mg-MOF-74/MgF₂ composite coating significantly slowed down the corrosion rate of Mg alloy. Additionally, Mg-MOF-74/MgF₂ composite coating expresses super-hydrophilicity with the water contact angle of nearly 0°. In conclusion, on the basis of MgF₂ anticorrosive coating, the introduction of Mg-MOF-74 further improves the biological property of Mg alloys. At last, we propose that the hydrophilicity of the composite coating is mainly owing to the large number of hydroxyl groups, the high specific surface area of Mg-MOF-74, and the rough coating produced by Mg-MOF-74 particles. Hence, Mg-MOF-74 has a great advantage in enhancing the hydrophilicity of Mg alloy surface.

  11. Grain refinement of Ca addition in a twin-roll-cast Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Bin, E-mail: jiangbinrong@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liu Wenjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Qiu Dong; Zhang Mingxing [Division of Materials, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain refinement of Ca addition in a twin-roll-cast Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of 0.08 wt% Ca into Mg melts can significantly reduce the grain size to 30 {mu}m from 100 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}Ca intermetallic particles have high potency to act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for {alpha}-Mg. - Abstract: Addition of 0.08 wt% Ca into AZ31 melts significantly reduces the average grain size of thin strips produced by twin-roll-cast to 30 {mu}m from 100 {mu}m. Like Zr, due to the high chemical activity, the Ca added into the melts reacts with Al and forms Al{sub 2}Ca intermetallic compound. X-ray diffraction result approves the existence of Al{sub 2}Ca in the thin strips, which formed in the melts. Crystallographic examination of relationship between Al{sub 2}Ca and Mg using the edge-to-edge matching model indicates that Al{sub 2}Ca particles are effective inoculants for heterogeneous nucleation of Mg. It is considered that Al{sub 2}Ca is a potential and effective grain refiner for Mg alloys and the grain refinement through addition of Ca in the AZ31 alloy is attributed to the inoculation effect of Al{sub 2}Ca particles formed in the melts.

  12. Hybrid epoxy–silane coatings for improved corrosion protection of Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusciotti, Fabiola; Snihirova, Darya V.; Xue, Huibin; Montemor, M. Fatima; Lamaka, Svetlana V.; Ferreira, Mario G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid epoxy–silane coatings for corrosion protection of Mg alloy AZ31. ► Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the corrosion behavior. ► Very good corrosion protection after 1 month immersion in 0.05 M NaCl. ► Surface and chemical characterization to understand corrosion processes. ► Influence of organic structure in coatings corrosion performance. - Abstract: New hybrid epoxy–silane coatings, with added functionalities for improved performance and durability, were designed to increase the corrosion protection of magnesium alloys. The corrosion behavior of the coated AZ31 was studied through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.05 M NaCl. The morphology and surface chemistry of the samples were also investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) before and after immersion in the electrolyte. The new hybrid silane coatings showed a high resistance to corrosion that persisted throughout one-month immersion in a pH-neutral NaCl solution.

  13. Quasicrystal-reinforced Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyun Kim, Young; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do

    2014-04-01

    The formation of the icosahedral phase (I-phase) as a secondary solidification phase in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg-Zn-Al base systems provides useful advantages in designing high performance wrought magnesium alloys. The strengthening in two-phase composites (I-phase + α -Mg) can be explained by dispersion hardening due to the presence of I-phase particles and by the strong bonding property at the I-phase/matrix interface. The presence of an additional secondary solidification phase can further enhance formability and mechanical properties. In Mg-Zn-Y alloys, the co-presence of I and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 phases by addition of Ca can significantly enhance formability, while in Mg-Zn-Al alloys, the co-presence of the I-phase and Mg 2 Sn phase leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. Dynamic and static recrystallization are significantly accelerated by addition of Ca in Mg-Zn-Y alloy, resulting in much smaller grain size and more random texture. The high strength of Mg-Zn-Al-Sn alloys is attributed to the presence of finely distributed Mg 2 Sn and I-phase particles embedded in the α -Mg matrix.

  14. Propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Errico, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out succesfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF6 coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl2 phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009, studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demostrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa.Recientemente se ha demostrado la posibilidad de fabricar por moldeo, componentes libres de defectos de diferentes aleaciones comerciales de magnesio, añadiendo CaO al caldo, sin emplear SF6. En el caso de las aleaciones AZ este proceso, además, mejora notablemente las propiedades mecánicas, no sólo por la mayor limpieza de las aleaciones sino también por la presencia de la fase CaAl2 que se forma por la incorporación de calcio al caldo. Este trabajo, enmarcado dentro del proyecto Green Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu financiado por la Unión Europea (Programa LIFE+2009, estudia la influencia de diferentes adiciones de CaO en la microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de la aleación Eco-Mg AZ31. El estudio se lleva a cabo en aleaciones AZ31 con 0,5, 1 y 1,5% CaO procesadas por dos rutas diferentes, aleaciones

  15. Effect of implantation of biodegradable magnesium alloy on BMP-2 expression in bone of ovariectomized osteoporosis rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yue; Ren, Ling; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yajiang; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Lili; Chen, Shurui; Yang, Ke; Mei, Xifan

    2013-01-01

    The study was focused on the implantation of a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy into the femoral periosteal of the osteoporosis modeled rats. The experimental results showed that after 4 weeks implantation of AZ31 alloy in the osteoporosis modeled rats, the expression of BMP-2 in bone tissues of the rats was much enhanced, even higher than the control group, which should promote the bone formation and be beneficial for reducing the harmful effect of osteoporosis. Results of HE stains showed that the implantation of AZ31 alloy did not have obvious pathological changes on both the liver and kidney of the animal. - Highlights: • Mg alloy greatly increased expression of BMP-2 in osteoporosis modeled rat bone. • Mg alloy showed good biological safety. • Mg alloy is beneficial for reducing the symptom of osteoporosis

  16. Dry Sliding Wear Charactristics of Aluminum 6061-T6, Magnesium AZ31 and Rock Dust Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, R.; Balasundaram, R.; Rajkumar, G.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the use of aluminum composite is gaining popularity in a wide range of applications like automobiles, aerospace and constructions (both interior & exterior) panels etc., due to its high strength, low density characteristics. Various reinforcing materials are used with aluminum 6061-T6 in order to have better mechanical properties. The addition of 0.3% of magnesium AZ31 will increase the ultimate tensile strength by 25 %. The reinforcement of rock dust will decrease the density. Hence, in order to have an advantages of magnesium AZ31 and rock dust, in this work, these two constitutes are varied from 1% to 2% on the base material of Al6061-T6 in stir casting. To evaluate the wear characteristics, Pin on disc is used in these composites. The input parameters are speed, time & load. The output response is wear. To minimize the number of experiments, L9 orthogonal array is used. The test results showed that a composite of 97% of Al (6061-T6), 1% Mg (AZ31) & 2 % of rock dust produced less wear. To find the best value of operating parameter for each sample, ANN-GA is used.

  17. Effect of tool offsetting on microstructure and mechanical properties dissimilar friction stir welded Mg-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Amir Hossein; Fazilah Mohamad Selamat, Nor; Sajuri, Zainuddin

    2017-09-01

    Automotive and aerospace industries are attempting to produce lightweight structure by using materials with low density such as aluminum and magnesium alloys to increase the fuel efficiency and consequently reduce the environmental pollution. It can be beneficial to join Mg to Al to acquire ideal performance in special applications. Friction stir welding (FSW) is solid state welding processes and relatively lower temperature of the process compared to fusion welding processes. This makes FSW a potential joining technique for joining of the dissimilar materials. In this study, Mg-Al butt joints were performed by FSW under different tool offset conditions, rotation rates (500-600 rpm) and traverse speeds (20 mm/min) with tool axis offset 1 mm shifted into AZ31B or Al6061 (T6), and without offset. During the welding process AZ31B was positioned at the advancing side (AS) and Al6061 (T6) was located at the retreating side (RS). Defect free AZ31B-Al6061 (T6) dissimilar metal FSW joints with good mechanical properties were obtained with the combination of intermediate rotation rate and low traverse speed pin is in the middle. When tool positioned in -1 mm or +1 mm offsetting, some defects were found in SZ of dissimilar FSWed joints such as cavity, tunnel, and crack. Furthermore, a thin layer of intermetallic compounds was observed in the stir zone at the interface between Mg-Al plates. The strength of the joint was influenced by FSW parameters. Good mechanical properties obtained with the combination of intermediate rotational speed of 600 rpm and low travelling speed of 20 mm/min by locating Mg on advancing side when pin is in the middle. Also, Joint efficiency of the welds prepared in the present study was between 29% and 68% for the different welding parameters.

  18. Micromorphological effect of calcium phosphate coating on compatibility of magnesium alloy with osteoblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

    2017-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were developed to control the degradation speed and to improve the biocompatibility of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Osteoblast MG-63 was cultured directly on OCP- and HAp-coated Mg-3Al-1Zn (wt%, AZ31) alloy (OCP- and HAp-AZ31) to evaluate cell compatibility. Cell proliferation was remarkably improved with OCP and HAp coatings which reduced the corrosion and prevented the H2O2 generation on Mg alloy substrate. OCP-AZ31 showed sparse distribution of living cell colonies and dead cells. HAp-AZ31 showed dense and homogeneous distribution of living cells, with dead cells localized over and around corrosion pits, some of which were formed underneath the coating. These results demonstrated that cells were dead due to changes in the local environment, and it is necessary to evaluate the local biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. Cell density on HAp-AZ31 was higher than that on OCP-AZ31 although there was not a significant difference in the amount of Mg ions released in medium between OCP- and HAp-AZ31. The outer layer of OCP and HAp coatings consisted of plate-like crystal with a thickness of around 0.1 μm and rod-like crystals with a diameter of around 0.1 μm, respectively, which grew from a continuous inner layer. Osteoblasts formed focal contacts on the tips of plate-like OCP and rod-like HAp crystals, with heights of 2-5 μm. The spacing between OCP tips of 0.8-1.1 μm was wider than that between HAp tips of 0.2-0.3 μm. These results demonstrated that cell proliferation depended on the micromorphology of the coatings which governed spacing of focal contacts. Consequently, HAp coating is suitable for improving cell compatibility and bone-forming ability of the Mg alloy.

  19. Room Temperature Shear Band Development in Highly Twinned Wrought Magnesium AZ31B Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jon; Miles, Michael; Fullwood, David; Adams, Brent; Khosravani, Ali; Mishra, Raja K.

    2013-01-01

    Failure mechanisms were studied in wrought AZ31B magnesium alloy after forming under different strain paths. Optical micrographs were used to observe the shear band formation and regions of high twin density in samples strained under uniaxial, biaxial, and plane strain conditions. Interrupted testing at 4 pct effective strain increments, until failure, was used to observe the evolution of the microstructure. The results showed that shear bands, with a high percentage of twinned grains, appeared early in the samples strained under biaxial or plane strain tension. These bands are similar to those seen in uniaxial tension specimens just prior to failure where the uniaxial tensile ductility was much greater than that observed for plane strain or biaxial tension conditions. A forming limit diagram for AZ31B, which was developed from the strain data, showed that plane strain and biaxial tension had very similar limit strains; this contrasts with materials like steel or aluminum alloys, which typically have greater ductility in biaxial tension compared to plane strain tension.

  20. The effects of alloying elements on microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ80 magnesium alloys joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Jiansheng; Ding, Rongrong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of alloying elements on the macrostructures, microstructures and tensile strength of AZ80 Mg alloy weldments were studied in the present study. The results indicate that with the decrease of Al element content of filler wire, the welding defects of seam are gradually eliminated and the β-Mg17Al12 phases at α-Mg boundaries are refined and become discontinuous, which are beneficial to the improvement of tensile strength. With AZ31 Mg alloy filler wire, the maximum tensile strength of AZ80 weldment is 220 MPa and fracture occurs at the welding seam of joint. It is experimentally proved that robust AZ80 Mg alloy joints can be obtained by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with AZ31 Mg alloy filler wire. However, further study is required to improve the microstructures and reduce welding defects of joint in order to further improve the joining strength of AZ80 Mg alloy joint.

  1. On the deformation twinning of Mg AZ31B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette

    2015-01-01

    and grain volumes are used to construct various 3D microstructures and model them with a Crystal Plasticity Finite Element (CPFE) code. It is observed that the average grain-resolved stress did not always select the highest ranked Schmid factor twin variant. In fact, the contribution of lower ranked......Crystals with a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure are inherently anisotropic, and have a limited number of independent slip systems, which leads to strong deformation textures and reduced formability in polycrystalline products. Tension along the c-axis of the crystal ideally activates......-ray diffraction (3DXRD) was used to map the center-of-mass positions, volumes, orientations, elastic strains, and stress tensors of over 1400 grains in-situ up to a true strain of 1.4%. More than 700 tensile twins were observed to form in the mapped volume under deformation. The measured center-of-mass positions...

  2. Mechanical properties and microstructural evaluation of AA1100 to AZ31 dissimilar friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizieh, M., E-mail: azizieh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi Alavijeh, A. [School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, 250-13450 102 Avenue, Surrey, BC V3T 0A3 (Canada); Abbasi, M. [High Temperature Energy Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Balak, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welds of AA1100 and AZ31 were investigated to understand the effects of rotational and travel speed as well as pin position. The tensile results of welded samples revealed that the sound welds were formed when the stirring pin deviated from the centreline to the AZ31 side. The X-ray diffraction shows that Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} and Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} intermetallics formation occurs in the stir zone during the welding process. High hardness of these intermetallic phases increased the hardness of the stir zone to 110 Hv. The best tensile results were obtained in the sample processed in the range of 28–32 (rev/mm) rotational to travel speed ratio. - Highlights: • For Al to Mg friction stir welding, tool offset must be to Mg side. • There is an optimum rotational speed for obtain the highest strength. • Intermetallics form in any welding condition. • The volume fraction of intermetallic is directly related to FSW peak temperature.

  3. Pengaruh waktu kontak terhadap kualitas sambungan hasil las gesek (Friction Welding Magnesium AZ-31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solihin Solihin

    2018-01-01

    resulted by the friction contact between two welding material’s surface. FW is usually using the lathe machine and the two weld materials were placed on fix- and rotated-tail stocks. The welding process start once the temperature reach about 80% of material’s melting temperature and in the case of Magnesium AZ-31 alloys was about 5500C. Afterwards, the rotated tailstock was push for joining the two materials. In this study, we have tested contact welding at 3, 5, and 10 minutes respectively on rotating speed of 1400rpm. In this study, friction weld of 3 min resulted the highest Tensile Strength, i.e., 16.78MPa of the weld material when compare to other parameters. Also, the hardness number at stir zone of welding parameter 3, 5, and 10minutes are almost the same, i.e., 60 HRE, while at the heat affected zone (HAZ area were 69.6; 64.6; and 60.6 HRE respectively. This initial results show a potential further research for different friction welding parameters in order to find the optimum welding operational parameters in friction weld Magnesium AZ-31. Keywords: Friction Welding, Magnesium AZ-31, macro structure, void.

  4. Performance of Mg-14Li-1Al-0.1Ce as anode for Mg-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yibin; Li, Deyu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, West Street No. 92, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Ning [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, West Street No. 92, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Milin; Huang, Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-02-15

    In this research, a new Mg-air battery based on Mg-14Li-1Al-0.1Ce was prepared and the battery performance was investigated by constant current discharge test. The corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and Mg-Li-Al-Ce were studied by self-corrosion rate measurement and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The characteristics of Mg-Li-Al-Ce after discharge were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that Mg-Li-Al-Ce is more active than Mg and AZ31. The self-corrosion rate is found to be in the order: Mg-Li-Al-Ce < Mg < AZ31. It has been observed that the Mg-air battery based on Mg-Li-Al-Ce offers higher operating voltage, anodic efficiency and capacity than those with Mg and AZ31. SEM and EIS results show that the discharge product of Mg-Li-Al-Ce is loosely adhered to the alloy surface, and thus Mg-Li-Al-Ce could keep high discharge activity during discharge. (author)

  5. Bioactive glass–ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xinyu; Cai Shu; Dou Ying; Xu Guohua; Huang Kai; Ren Mengguo; Wang Xuexin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sol–gel derived 45S5 glass–ceramic coating was prepared on Mg alloy substrate. ► The corrosion resistance of glass–ceramic coated Mg alloy was markedly improved. ► The corrosion behavior of the coated sample varied due to the cracking of coating. - Abstract: In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass–ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol–gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass–ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na 2 Ca 2 Si 3 O 9 , with the thickness of ∼1.0 μm, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (E corr ) form −1.60 V to −1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (i corr ) from 4.48 μA cm −2 to 0.16 μA cm −2 , due to the protection provided by the glass–ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass–ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass–ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  6. Effect of Strain Restored Energy on Abnormal Grain Growth in Mg Alloy Simulated by Phase Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Huang, Yuan-yuan

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal grain growth of single phase AZ31 Mg alloy in the spatio-temporal process has been simulated by phase field models, and the influencing factors of abnormal grain growth are studied in order to find the ways to control secondary recrystallization in the microstructure. The study aims to find out the mechanisms for abnormal grain growth in real alloys. It is shown from the simulated results that the abnormal grain growth can be controlled by the strain restored energy. Secondary recrystallization after an annealing treatment can be induced if there are grains of a certain orientation in the microstructure with local high restored energy. However, if the value of the local restored energy at a certain grain orientation is not greater than 1.1E 0, there may be no abnormal grain growth in the microstructure.

  7. Comportamiento frente a la corrosión y biocompatibilidad in vitro/in vivo de la aleación AZ31 modificada superficialmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, M. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluates the corrosion behaviour and the in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloy, which fulfills the mechanical requirements of bone. The corrosion kinetic of as-received AZ31 alloy was not compatible with the cell growth. To improve its performance, the AZ31 alloy was surface modified by a chemical conversion treatment in hydrofluoric acid. The magnesium fluoride layer generated by the surface treatment of AZ31 alloy enhances its corrosion behaviour, allowing the in vitro growth of osteoblastic cells over the surface and the in vivo formation of a highly compact layer of new bone tissue. These results lead to consider the magnesium fluoride coating as necessary for potential use of the AZ31 alloy as biodegradable and absorbable implant for bone repair.En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la corrosión y la biocompatibilidad in vitro/in vivo de la aleación de magnesio AZ31, cuyas propiedades mecánicas son superiores a los requisitos mecánicos del hueso. La aleación en estado de recepción ha mostrado una cinética de corrosión no compatible con el crecimiento celular. Para mejorar su comportamiento, el material ha sido modificado superficialmente mediante tratamiento de conversión química en ácido fluorhídrico. La capa de fluoruro de magnesio generada tras este tratamiento mejora el comportamiento del material frente a la corrosión, permitiendo el crecimiento in vitro de células osteoblásticas sobre su superficie y la formación in vivo de una capa de nuevo tejido óseo muy compacta. Estos resultados permiten concluir que el recubrimiento de fluoruro de magnesio es necesario para que el material AZ31 pueda ser potencialmente aplicado como implante biodegradable y reabsorbible en reparaciones óseas.

  8. Structural and tribological properties of CrTiAlN coatings on Mg alloy by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yongjing; Long Siyuan; Yang Shicai; Pan Fusheng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a series of multi-layer hard coating system of CrTiAlN has been prepared by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique in a gas mixture of Ar + N 2 . The coatings were deposited onto AZ31 Mg alloy substrates. During deposition step, technological temperature and metallic atom concentration of coatings were controlled by adjusting the currents of different metal magnetron targets. The nitrogen level was varied by using the feedback control of plasma optical emission monitor (OEM). The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), micro-hardness tester, and scratch and ball-on-disc tester. The experimental results show that the N atomic concentration increases and the oxide on the top of coatings decreases; furthermore the modulation period and the friction coefficient decrease with the N 2 level increasing. The outstanding mechanical property can be acquired at medium N 2 level, and the CrTiAlN coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy substrates outperform the uncoated M42 high speed steel (HSS) and the uncoated 316 stainless steel (SS)

  9. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripanapong, Patchara; Kariya, Shota; Luangvaranunt, Tachai; Umeda, Junko; Tsutsumi, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST), AZ61 (ST), AZ80 (ST) and AZ91 (ST) were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST), in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST) exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST) dissimilar materials is discussed in this work. PMID:28773788

  10. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Pripanapong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST, AZ61 (ST, AZ80 (ST and AZ91 (ST were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST, in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST dissimilar materials is discussed in this work.

  11. Bioactive glass-ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinyu; Cai, Shu; Dou, Ying; Xu, Guohua; Huang, Kai; Ren, Mengguo; Wang, Xuexin

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol-gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass-ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na2Ca2Si3O9, with the thickness of ∼1.0 μm, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (Ecorr) form -1.60 V to -1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (icorr) from 4.48 μA cm-2 to 0.16 μA cm-2, due to the protection provided by the glass-ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass-ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  12. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Neralla, Sudheer [Jet-Hot LLC, Burlington, NC 27215 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, KF and NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  13. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  14. Microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion behavior, and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy with different extrusion ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Yuan, Guangyin; Niu, Jialin; Fu, Penghuai; Ding, Wenjiang

    2012-05-01

    Recently, commercial magnesium (Mg) alloys containing Al (such as AZ31 and AZ91) or Y (such as WE43) have been studied extensively for biomedical applications. However, these Mg alloys were developed as structural materials, not as biomaterials. In this study, a patented Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (denoted as JDBM) alloy was investigated as a biomedical material. The microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion behavior, and cytotoxicity of the alloy extruded at 320 °C with extrusion ratios of 8 and 25 were studied. The results show that the lower extrusion ratio results in finer grains and higher strength, but lower elongation, while the higher extrusion ratio results in coarser grains and lower strength, but higher elongation. The biocorrosion behavior of the alloy was investigated by hydrogen evolution and mass loss tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the alloy extruded with lower extrusion ratio exhibits better corrosion resistance. The corrosion mode of the alloy is uniform corrosion, which is favorable for biomedical applications. Aging treatment on the as-extruded alloy improves the strength and decreases the elongation at room temperature, and has a small positive influence on the corrosion resistance in SBF. The cytotoxicity test indicates that the as-extruded JDBM alloy meets the requirement of cell toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Korozní odolnost tvářených hořčíkových slitin AZ31 a AZ61 v Hankovì roztoku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkacz, J.; Slouková, K.; Minda, J.; Drábiková, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Doležal, P.; Wasserbauer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2016), s. 101-106 ISSN 1804-1213 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : corrosion * AZ31 magnesium alloy * AZ61 magnesium alloy Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/kom.2016.60.issue-4/kom-2016-0016/kom-2016-0016.xml?format=INT

  16. THE EFFECT OF SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AS-CAST AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of a magnesium cast alloy (AZ31 processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP at two different temperatures were investigated. The as-cast alloy with an average grain size of 360  was significantly refined to about 5  after four ECAP passes at 543 K. Grain refinement was achieved through dynamic recrystallization (DRX during the ECAP process in which the formation of necklace-type structure and bulging of original grain boundaries would be the main mechanisms. ECAP processing at lower temperature resulted in finer recrystallized grains and also a more homogenous microstructure. The mechanical behavior was investigated at room temperature by tensile tests. The obtained results showed that the ECAP processing can basically improve both strength and ductility of the cast alloy. However, the lower working temperature led to higher yield and ultimate strength of the alloy.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium (Mg) Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to investigate additive manufacturing techniques for Mg alloys.  It will leverage off research being conducted at University of Florida and...

  18. Fibre Laser Cutting and Chemical Etching of AZ31 for Manufacturing Biodegradable Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gökhan Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium-alloy stents shows promise as a less intrusive solution for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies as a result of the high biocompatibility of the material and its intrinsic dissolution in body fluids. However, in addition to requiring innovative solutions in material choice and design, these stents also require a greater understanding of the manufacturing process to achieve the desired quality with improved productivity. The present study demonstrates the manufacturing steps for the realisation of biodegradable stents in AZ31 magnesium alloy. These steps include laser microcutting with a Q-switched fibre laser for the generation of the stent mesh and subsequent chemical etching for the cleaning of kerf and surface finish. Specifically, for the laser microcutting step, inert and reactive gas cutting conditions were compared. The effect of chemical etching on the reduction in material thickness, as well as on spatter removal, was also evaluated. Prototype stents were produced, and the material composition and surface quality were characterised. The potentialities of combining nanosecond laser microcutting and chemical etching are shown and discussed.

  19. Bioactive glass-ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Xinyu [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cai Shu, E-mail: caishu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dou Ying [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu Guohua [Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Huang Kai; Ren Mengguo; Wang Xuexin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was prepared on Mg alloy substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion resistance of glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy was markedly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion behavior of the coated sample varied due to the cracking of coating. - Abstract: In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol-gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass-ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}, with the thickness of {approx}1.0 {mu}m, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (E{sub corr}) form -1.60 V to -1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) from 4.48 {mu}A cm{sup -2} to 0.16 {mu}A cm{sup -2}, due to the protection provided by the glass-ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass-ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  20. In vitro and in vivo corrosion, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys as implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Da-Tren; Hong, Daeho; Saha, Partha; Ferrero, Jordan; Lee, Boeun; Tan, Zongqing; Dong, Zhongyun; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-11-01

    This study introduces a class of biodegradable Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys novel to biological applications and presents evaluations for orthopedic and craniofacial implant applications. Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys were processed using conventional melting and casting techniques. The effects of increasing Y content from 1 to 4 wt.% as well as the effects of T4 solution treatment were assessed. Basic material phase characterization was conducted using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Compressive and tensile tests allowed for the comparison of mechanical properties of the as-cast and T4-treated Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys to pure Mg and as-drawn AZ31. Potentiodynamic polarization tests and mass loss immersion tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the alloys. In vitro cytocompatibility tests on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells were also conducted. Finally, alloy pellets were implanted into murine subcutaneous tissue to observe in vivo corrosion as well as local host response through H&E staining. SEM/EDS analysis showed that secondary phase intermetallics rich in yttrium were observed along the grain boundaries, with the T4 solution treatment diffusing the secondary phases into the matrix while increasing the grain size. The alloys demonstrated marked improvement in mechanical properties over pure Mg. Increasing the Y content contributed to improved corrosion resistance, while solution-treated alloys resulted in lower strength and compressive strain compared to as-cast alloys. The Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys demonstrated excellent in vitro cytocompatibility and normal in vivo host response. The mechanical, corrosion and biological evaluations performed in this study demonstrated that Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys, especially with the 4 wt.% Y content, would perform well as orthopedic and craniofacial implant biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Study on the Static Recrystallization Behavior of Cold-Rolled Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Stimulated by Electropulse Treatment and Conventional Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopei; Li, Xiaohui; Kure-Chu, Song-Zhu; Tang, Guoyi

    2018-02-01

    Cold-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy strips, with a reduction of 33 pct, were subjected to electropulse treatment (EPT) and conventional heat treatment (HT) to evaluate the respective influences of electropulses and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of AZ31. The highest measured temperature during the EPT (543 K) was used in HT. The electron backscattered diffraction results demonstrated that the EPT-stimulated recrystallization was completed within 8 seconds, whereas for HT, recrystallization was still far from completion even after 240 seconds. It was found that both the nucleation and grain growth of these two processes were totally different. In the EPT samples, nucleation tended to occur preferentially near extension twin boundaries and grain boundaries by continuous recrystallization, whereas in the HT samples, nucleation occurred mainly by grain boundaries bulging via discontinuous recrystallization. As grain growth proceeded, the texture intensities of the EPT samples decreased gradually and finally evolved into an obvious transverse-direction-split texture. This is likely attributable to the impact of electropulses on the boundary energy and the contribution of nonbasal dislocations; however, the basal-type textures of the HT samples were notably strengthened, which is associated with a 30 deg〈0001〉 orientation with respect to the deformed texture.

  2. Effect of subsequent tension and annealing on microstructure evolution and strength enhancement of friction stir welded Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Renlong; Sun, Liyun; Liu, Dejia; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Friction stir welded (FSW) Mg alloys normally exhibit a lower yield strength compared with the base materials, which is a drawback for their application as structure materials. In this study, subsequent tension along the transverse direction (TD) and then annealing were applied on FSW AZ31 alloys to modify the microstructure and texture in weld zone and to improve the joint strength. The results showed that by subsequent tension ∼4.5% strain along TD and then annealing, the yield strength (YS) could be greatly enhanced for the FSW AZ31 alloys. Specifically the YS was improved from ∼86 to ∼177 MPa by subsequent 4.5% tension and then reduced to ∼156 MPa after annealing. For the initial joint sample, fracture occurred in the stir zone (SZ) side during the transverse tensile test. But after subsequent tension, all the samples fractured in the base materials (BMs) whether subjected to annealing or not. The microstructure and texture evolutions after subsequent tension and annealing were examined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to understand the underlining mechanisms for the improved mechanical properties. It revealed that a lot of {10−12} extension twins were generated in the SZ side by 4.5% tension along TD, which significantly refined the grains in the SZ side and rotated the grains from soft to hard orientations for the transverse tensile test. Therefore, the formation of {10−12} twin lamellae had significant hardening effects on further transverse tensile tests. Schmid factor (SF) analysis revealed that the texture change by subsequent tension had much more impact on the activation of {10−12} extension twinning than basal slip for the transverse tensile test. This might affect the competition of extension twinning and basal slip and reduce the deformation incompatibility in the SZ side, which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. Nevertheless the present study showed that it was efficient to improve the YS of FSW Mg

  3. High temperature mechanical forming of Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwembela, A.; McQueen, H.J.; Myshlyaev, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mg alloys are hot worked in the range 180-450 o C and 0.0-10 s -1 ; the present project data are compared with a wide selection of published results. The flow stresses and their dependence on temperature and strain rate are fairly similar to simple Al alloys: however, the hot ductility is much lower (≤3 in torsion). Twinning plays a significant role in Mg alloys almost independently of temperature; the twins initiate at low strains in grains poorly oriented for basal slip and in consequence become well disposed for such slip. As T rises, there is increasing formation of subgrains that spread toward the grain centers from grain and twin boundaries: this is indicative of stress concentrations inducing non-basal sup which helps provide the geometrically necessary dislocations. Above about 240 o C, dynamic (DRX) nucleates at grain and twin boundaries, preferentially at intersections; this again is evidence of non-basal slip that provides the highly misoriented cells. The boundaries in which further strain concentrates producing further DRX. The microstructure remains very heterogeneous compared to the uniform dynamically recovered substructure in Al alloys, thus giving rise to the reduced ductility. These results are employed to interpret the mechanical and microstructural behavior of Mg alloys in extrusion, rolling and forging. (author)

  4. Applications of thermodynamic calculations to Mg alloy design: Mg-Sn based alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Park, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Ho; Kang, Dae Hoon; Kim, Nack J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently an Mg-Sn based alloy system has been investigated actively in order to develop new magnesium alloys which have a stable structure and good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Thermodynamic modeling of the Mg-Al-Mn-Sb-Si-Sn-Zn system was performed based on available thermodynamic, phase equilibria and phase diagram data. Using the optimized database, the phase relationships of the Mg-Sn-Al-Zn alloys with additions of Si and Sb were calculated and compared with their experimental microstructures. It is shown that the calculated results are in good agreement with experimental microstructures, which proves the applicability of thermodynamic calculations for new Mg alloy design. All calculations were performed using FactSage thermochemical software. (orig.)

  5. Mg amorphous alloys for biodegradable implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danez, G.P.; Koga, G.Y.; Tonucci, S.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of implants made from amorphous alloys magnesium-based with additions of zinc and calcium are promising. Properties such as biocompatibility, low density, high mechanical strength, low modulus (as compared to alloys such as stainless steel and titanium), corrosion resistance and wear resistance make it attractive for use in implants. Moreover, the by-products of corrosion and wear are not toxic and may contribute to fixation. Aiming to understand the tendency of this amorphous ternary (Mg-Zn-Ca) and expand the information about this system, this work involved the use of the topological criterion of instability (λ) and the criterion of electronegativity (Δe) to the choice of compositions. The alloys were processed into wedge-shaped and analyzed structurally and in X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  6. The interrupted properties of an extruded Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shun; Liu, Tianmo; He, Jiejun; Lu, Liwei; Zeng, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} twins on yield stress is reflected at low deformation. ► The recompressive yield stress equals to the stress when it is unloaded. ► The stress–strain curve of recompression seems like that without interruption. ► Twins generated in precompression could become thicker in recompression. -- Abstract: The current paper investigates the effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins identified by using electron backscattered diffraction on the interrupted properties of an extruded Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31) alloy. Compressive and recompressive tests are conducted along extrusion direction (ED). It is discovered that the yield strength of recompression is enhanced due to grain refinement by {101 ¯ 2} extension twins. The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins on the yield stress of recompression is mainly reflected at the stage of small deformation while the improvement of yield strength is mainly attributed to the pile-up and intersection of dislocations as large deformation occurs. Furthermore, the yield stress of recompression is identical to the interrupted stress of precompression. In situ observation reveals that some twins generated in precompression could also become thicker in the following recompression.

  7. Biofunctionalized anti-corrosive silane coatings for magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Zhilian; Romeo, Tony; Weber, Jan; Scheuermann, Torsten; Moulton, Simon; Wallace, Gordon

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloys are advantageous in various implant applications, as they reduce the risks associated with permanent metallic implants. However, a rapid corrosion rate is usually a hindrance in biomedical applications. Here we report a facile two step procedure to introduce multifunctional, anti-corrosive coatings on Mg alloys, such as AZ31. The first step involves treating the NaOH-activated Mg with bistriethoxysilylethane to immobilize a layer of densely crosslinked silane coating with good corrosion resistance; the second step is to impart amine functionality to the surface by treating the modified Mg with 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane. We characterized the two-layer anticorrosive coating of Mg alloy AZ31 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, static contact angle measurement and optical profilometry, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance measurements. Furthermore, heparin was covalently conjugated onto the silane-treated AZ31 to render the coating haemocompatible, as demonstrated by reduced platelet adhesion on the heparinized surface. The method reported here is also applicable to the preparation of other types of biofunctional, anti-corrosive coatings and thus of significant interest in biodegradable implant applications. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical alloying and sitering of TI - 10WT.% MG powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ti-10wt.%Mg powder alloy has been produced by mechanical alloying. Elemental powders of Ti and Mg were ball milled in a Zoz-Simoloyer CM01 for 16 and 20 hours under argon. Mechanical alloying was followed by XRD, SEM and particle size analysis...

  9. Simulation of precipitation and strengthening in MG-RE alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium - rare earth (Mg-RE) alloys have received considerable attention in the past decades for wider applications in the aerospace industry due to their relatively high strength and excellent creep resistance. Most rare-earth containing magnesium alloys, such as Mg-Y, Mg-Gd, and Mg-Y-Nd, are precipitation hardenable. A technical barrier to the wider applications of such alloys is the lack of a sufficiently large age hardening response. To further improve this response, an improved underst...

  10. A kinematic hardening constitutive model for the uniaxial cyclic stress-strain response of magnesium sheet alloys at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhitao; Chen, Wufan; Wang, Fenghua; Feng, Miaolin

    2017-11-01

    A kinematic hardening constitutive model is presented, in which a modified form of von Mises yield function is adopted, and the initial asymmetric tension and compression yield stresses of magnesium (Mg) alloys at room temperature (RT) are considered. The hardening behavior was classified into slip, twinning, and untwinning deformation modes, and these were described by two forms of back stress to capture the mechanical response of Mg sheet alloys under cyclic loading tests at RT. Experimental values were obtained for AZ31B-O and AZ31B sheet alloys under both tension-compression-tension (T-C-T) and compression-tension (C-T) loadings to calibrate the parameters of back stresses in the proposed model. The predicted parameters of back stresses in the twinning and untwinning modes were expressed as a cubic polynomial. The predicted curves based on these parameters showed good agreement with the tests.

  11. Corrosion properties of the Mg alloy coated with polypyrrole films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubač, Zoran; Rončević, Ivana Škugor; Metikoš-Huković, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electropolymerization of pyrrole on Mg-alloy surface in presence of salicylate. • Salicylate dual role in PPy deposition: passivation and electron transfer mediation. • Redox potential of salicylate corresponds to potential of PPy nucleation. • EIS and polarization corrosion studies of PPy coated Mg-alloy in Hanks’ solution. • Polypyrrole significantly slowdown Mg alloy corrosion in Hanks’ solution. - Abstract: In the present study the reactive surface of Mg alloy was coated with the nontoxic biocompatible polypyrrole (PPy) film synthesized by electrochemical oxidation from an aqueous salicylate solution. Salicylate ions prevent Mg dissolution and act as an electron transfer mediator during the PPy film nucleation, formation and growth on the alloy surface. Kinetics of the pyrrole polymerization as well as corrosion resistance of the PPy coated Mg alloy in the Hanks’ solution were investigated using dc electrochemical methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Characterization of the surface film was performed by optical and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  12. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials: corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Dieter Müller

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic fluids on the corrosion behaviour of Mg and AZ31 and LAE442 alloys using potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and EIS techniques. Results showed localized attack in chloride containing media. The breakdown potential decreased when chloride concentration increased. The potential range of the passivation region was extended in the presence of albumin. EIS measurements showed that the corrosion behaviour of the AZ31 was very different from that of LAE442 alloy in chloride solutions.

  13. Microstructural evolution in Mg-rich Mg-Zn-Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, T.; Ranganathan, S.; Nair, S.; Bajargan, G.

    2005-01-01

    Mg-rich Mg-Zn-Y alloys with nominal compositions Mg 97 Zn 1 Y 2 , Mg 97 Zn 2 Y 1 , Mg 92 Zn 6.5 Y 1.5 and Mg 97-x Zn 1 Y 2 Zr x have been chosen for the present study. These alloys are prepared by using sand casting mold. The sand cast alloys are remelted and subjected to copper mold casting and melt spinning techniques. The effect of cooling rate on microstructures was studied. It is observed that the size of the precipitates decreases with an increase of cooling rate. The formation of nano precipitates results in higher strength of the alloy as compared to the conventional alloys. The microstructures of melt spun ribbons are compared with RS/PM (rapidly solidified power metallurgy) Mg 97 Zn 1 Y 2 alloy, obtained from a different source. (author)

  14. Magnesium Alloys as a Biomaterial for Degradable Craniofacial Screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L.; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N.; Almarza, Alejandro J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as a potential biomaterial for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available Mg-alloys (pure Mg and AZ31) in-vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg-alloy screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in-vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (~40N). A finite element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and the model can be used for future Mg-alloy screw design. Then, Mg-alloy screws were implanted for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12 weeks. MicroCT (computed tomography) was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg-alloy degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histologic analysis was also completed for the Mg-alloys at 12 weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg-alloy screw types. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31, however bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg-alloy screw types in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12 weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg-alloys for craniofacial applications. PMID:24384125

  15. Changes in texture and microstructure of friction stir welded Mg alloy during post-rolling and their effects on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Renlong; Liu, Dejia; Xu, Zeren; Li, Bo; Liu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    A strong and complicated microtexture usually forms in stir zone (SZ) of friction stir welded (FSW) Mg alloys, which significantly influences the tensile properties of the joint due to the strong anisotropic mechanical properties of Mg alloys. This study aims to study the evolution of microstructure and texture in SZ during post-rolling of FSW AZ31 alloy and its effect on the tensile properties and fracture of the FSW joint. A detailed characterization of microstructure and texture in SZ and especially in SZ/base material (BM) interface was conducted on the FSW-undeformed and FSW-rolled specimens. Schmid factor (SF) changes for extension twinning and basal slip for transverse tensile tests were analyzed and discussed. It confirmed that the c-axis in SZ-center was parallel to welding direction (WD), but tilted towards transverse direction (TD) with the area moving to SZ-side. After subsequent rolling (by ∼2.5% strain), a large number of extension twins were found in SZ-side, but it was less in SZ-center. The production of extension twins rotated the grains in SZ-side and affected the transverse tensile properties significantly. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses showed that the SF of the twins was decreased compared with the matrix for both extension twinning and basal slip for the transverse tensile tests. So, the extension twins generated by post-rolling could cause texture strengthening for the transverse tensile tests. Moreover, the introduction of twin boundaries subdivided the grains, which also increased the tensile properties of the FSW-rolled specimens. The effect of post-rolling on the tensile properties and fracture was studied. It showed that post-rolling increased the transverse yield strength (YS) of the FSW AZ31 alloy, and the YS was increased further with the increase of rolling strain. The YS was raised from ∼87 MPa of the FSW-undeformed specimen to ∼115 MPa for the FSW-R-2.5 and ∼171 MPa for the FSW-R-7 specimens. Because

  16. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  17. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  18. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  19. Development of Al-Mg-Li alloys for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yoshifusa; Yoshida, Hideo; Uno, Teruo; Baba, Yoshio; Kamada, Koji.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum-magnesium-lithium alloys featuring low residual induced radioactivity and high electrical resistivity have been developed for fusion reactor structural materials. The addition of lithium in aluminum and Al-Mg alloys markedly increases electrical resistivity and tensile strength of them. However the elongation of Al-Mg-Li alloys containing more than 2 mass% lithium are less than 10 %. The Al-4--5 mass%Mg-1 mass%Li alloys are optimum for fusion reactor materials, and exhibit high resistivity (86 nΩm: 20 %IACS), medium strength (300 MPa) and good formability (22 % elongation). The variation of electrical resistivity of Al-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys in solid solution can be approximated by the Matthiessen's rule. (author)

  20. Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Film on Mg-Gd-Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Z. X.; Dong, Q. S.; Kong, S. X.; Zhang, X. B.; Xue, Y. J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    An environment-friendly technique for depositing a Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT) (Mg6Al2(OH)16-CO3ṡ4H2O) conversion film was developed to protect the Mg-Gd-Zn alloy from corrosion. The morphology and chemical compositions of the film were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. The electrochemical test and hydrogen evolution test were employed to evaluate the biocorrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn alloy coated with the Mg-Al HT film in the simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the formation of Mg-Al HT film was a transition from amorphous precursor to a crystalline HT structure. The HT film can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. It indicates that the process provides a promising approach to modify Mg-Gd-Zn alloy.

  1. Amplitude Dependent Internal Friction in a Mg-Al-Zn Alloy Studied after Thermal and Mechanical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanka Trojanová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude-dependent internal friction of continuously-cast and rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was measured in this study. Samples were annealed and quenched step by step; immediately after the treatment, the amplitude dependence of the logarithmic decrement was measured. Changes in the microstructure due to thermomechanical treatment were reflected in changes in the damping. Internal friction is influenced by the dislocation substructure and its modification due to solute atoms migration, microplastic deformation, and twins’ formation. Internal friction in the rolled sheets is affected by the rolling texture.

  2. Structural characteristics and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Zn, Mg-Zn-Gd alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D

    2013-07-01

    In this research, binary Mg-Zn (up to 3 wt% Zn) and ternary Mg-Zn-Gd (up to 3 wt% Gd, 3 wt% Zn) alloys were prepared by induction melting in an argon atmosphere. The structures of these alloys were characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. In addition, Brinell hardness measurements were taken to supplement these studies. Corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements in a physiological solution (9 g/l NaCl). Depending on the composition, structures of the as-cast alloys contained α-Mg dendrites, MgZn, Mg5Gd and Mg3Gd2Zn3 phases. Compared to pure Mg, zinc improved the corrosion resistance of binary Mg-Zn. Gadolinium also improved the corrosion resistance in the case of Mg-1Zn-3Gd alloy. The highest corrosion rate was observed for Mg-3Zn-3Gd alloy. Our results improve the understanding of the relationships between the structure and corrosion behavior of our studied alloy systems.

  3. Thermal Microstructural Stability of AZ31 Magnesium after Severe Plastic Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, John P.; Askari, Hesam A.; Hovanski, Yuri; Heiden, Michael J.; Field, David P.

    2015-03-01

    Both equal channel angular pressing and friction stir processing have the ability to refine the grain size of twin roll cast AZ31 magnesium and potentially improve its superplastic properties. This work used isochronal and isothermal heat treatments to investigate the microstructural stability of twin roll cast, equal channel angular pressed and friction stir processed AZ31 magnesium. For both heat treatment conditions, it was found that the twin roll casted and equal channel angular pressed materials were more stable than the friction stir processed material. Calculations of the grain growth kinetics showed that severe plastic deformation processing decreased the activation energy for grain boundary motion with the equal channel angular pressed material having the greatest Q value of the severely plastically deformed materials and that increasing the tool travel speed of the friction stir processed material improved microstructural stability. The Hollomon-Jaffe parameter was found to be an accurate means of identifying the annealing conditions that will result in substantial grain growth and loss of potential superplastic properties in the severely plastically deformed materials. In addition, Humphreys’s model of cellular microstructural stability accurately predicted the relative microstructural stability of the severely plastically deformed materials and with some modification, closely predicted the maximum grain size ratio achieved by the severely plastically deformed materials.

  4. Hydro mechanical deep-drawing and high pressure sheet metal forming as forming technologies for the production of complex parts made of magnesium sheet metal AZ31B-0; Hydromechanisches Tiefziehen und Hochdruckblechumformung als Verfahren zur Herstellung komplexer Bauteile aus Magnesiumfeinblechen des Typs AZ31B-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweger, B.; Richter, G.; Duering, M.; Karabet, A. [Lehrstuhlleiter, BTU Cottbus, Lehrstuhl Konstruktion und Fertigung, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Sviridov, A.; Hartmann, H.; Richter, U. [Forschungs- und Qualitaetszentrum Oderbruecke gGmbH Eisenhuettenstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Semi - finished sheet - metal products made of magnesium alloys such as AZ31B are known as better deformable at temperatures in the range of 175 C - 240 C. By means of hydroforming technologies, as there are hydro mechanical deep-drawing and high pressure sheet metal forming, the influence of different forming parameters on the forming results has been investigated. A more complex experimental geometry was deformed applying forming temperatures of 175 C, 200 C, 225 C and 240 C and accordingly adjusted forces of the blank holder. Concerning the applied forming - methods and experimental parameters the forming results have been evaluated and compared regarding the decrease of sheet thickness and the development of small radii. For some experimental parts, which have been deformed by means of high pressure sheet metal forming at temperatures of 175 C and 225 C, supplementary investigations have been carried out in order to determine the evolution of characteristic surface values in dependence on the forming operation. On the basis of these results practical recommendations for the limits of application of aforementioned forming technologies for AZ31B-0 magnesium sheet metal are given. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Eine gute Umformbarkeit von Blechhalbzeugen aus Magnesiumknetlegierungen stellt sich bekanntlich bei Anwendung von Umformtemperaturen im Bereich von 175 C - 240 C ein. Anhand der wirkmedienbasierten Umformverfahren hydromechanisches Tiefziehen und Hochdruckblechumformung ist an handelsueblichen AZ31B-0 Feinblechen die Einstellung unterschiedlicher Umformparameter erprobt worden. Unter Verwendung von Umformtemperaturen von 175 C, 200 C, 225 C und 240 C und entsprechend angepassten Niederhalterdruecken ist eine praxisnahe Versuchsgeometrie ''Minihood'' ausgeformt worden. Im Hinblick auf angewendete Umformverfahren und Versuchsparameter wurde an den Versuchsbauteilen die Blechdickenabnahme und die

  5. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  6. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianyue; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  7. Microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Wei-chao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different amounts of added Al, ranging from 1 % to 9 %, on the microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys were investigated. The results showed that when the amount of added Al is less than 5%, the grain size of the Mg-Al binary alloys decreases dramatically from 3 097 μm to 151 μm with increasing addition of Al. Further addition of Al up to 9% makes the grain size decrease slowly to 111 μm. The α-Mg dendrite arms are also refined. Increasing the amount of added Al decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of the Mg-Al binary alloys remarkably, and enhances the micro-hardness of the α-Mg matrix.

  8. Structural and transport properties of Sn-Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydaneri, F.; Saatci, E.; Oezdemir, M.; Ari, M.; Durmus, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and temperature dependence transport of Sn-Mg alloys have been investigated for five different samples (Pure Sn, Sn-1.0 wt % Mg , Sn-2.0 wt % Mg , Sn-6.0 wt.% Mg and Pure Mg). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDX) measurements were carried out in order to clarify the structural properties of the samples. It has been found that, the samples have tetragonal crystal symmetry except the pure Mg which has hexagonal crystal symmetry. The cell parameters decrease slightly with addition of Mg element. The SEM micrographs of the samples show that, the samples have smooth surfaces with clear grain boundary. There is no crack, porosity or defects on the surfaces. The electrical resistivity of the samples increases almost linearly with the increasing temperature, which were measured by four-point probe technique. The thermal conductivity values are in between 0.60-1.00 W/Km, which are decrease slightly with temperature and increase with composition of Mg. The thermal conductivity values of the alloys are in between the values of the pure samples. Thermal conductivity results of the alloys have been compared with available other studies and a good agreement has been seen between the results. In addition, the temperature coefficients of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity have been determined, which are independent with the compositions of alloying elements

  9. Interaction of hydrogen with an Mg-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, A.; Sorensen, M.B.; Burkarl, R.; Moller, B.; Molenbroek, A.M.; Pedersen, A.S.; Andreasen, J.W.; Nielsen, M.M.; Jensen, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with an Mg-Al alloy pre-exposed to air have been studied with in situ time resolved X-ray powder diffraction. Phase fractions as a function of time are derived from series of consecutive diffraction patterns allowing kinetic analysis. The apparent activation energy for dehydrogenation of the Mg-Al alloy is found to be 160 kJ/mol. This is not significantly higher than for pure and fully activated Mg. It is suggested that the addition of Al improves the resistance towards oxygen contamination

  10. Study of sintering on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annur, Dhyah; Lestari, Franciska P.; Erryani, Aprilia; Kartika, Ika

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium and its alloy have gained a lot of interest to be used in biomedical application due to its biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, sintering process in powder metallurgy was chosen to fabricatenonporous Mg-6Zn-1Ca (in wt%) alloy and porous Mg-6Zn-1Ca-10 Carbamide alloy. For creating porous alloy, carbamide (CO(NH2)2 was added to alloy system as the space holder to create porous structure material. Effect of the space holder addition and sintering temperature on porosity, phase formation, mechanical properties, and corrosion properties was observed. Sintering process was done in a tube furnace under Argon atmosphere in for 5 hours. The heat treatment was done in two steps; heated up at 250 °C for 4 hours to decompose spacer particle, followed by heated up at 580 °C or 630 °C for 5 hours. The porous structure of the resulted alloys was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), while the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Mechanical properties were examined using compression testing. From this study, increasing sintering temperature up to 630 °C reduced the mechanical properties of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  11. An in vivo model to assess magnesium alloys and their biological effect on human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Chaya, Amy; Verdelis, Kostas; Bilodeau, Elizabeth A; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have many unique qualities which make them ideal candidates for bone fixation devices, including biocompatibility and degradation in vivo. Despite a rise in Mg alloy production and research, there remains no standardized system to assess their degradation or biological effect on human stem cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a novel in vivo model to assess Mg alloys for craniofacial and orthopedic applications. Our model consists of a collagen sponge seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) around a central Mg alloy rod. These scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in mice and analyzed after eight weeks. Alloy degradation and biological effect were determined by microcomputed tomography (microCT), histological staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). MicroCT showed greater volume loss for pure Mg compared to AZ31 after eight weeks in vivo. Histological analysis showed that hBMSCs were retained around the Mg implants after 8 weeks. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed the expression of dentin matrix protein 1 and osteopontin around both pure Mg and AZ31 with implanted hBMSCs. In addition, histological sections showed a thin mineral layer around all degrading alloys at the alloy-tissue interface. In conclusion, our data show that degrading pure Mg and AZ31 implants are cytocompatible and do not inhibit the osteogenic property of hBMSCs in vivo. These results demonstrate that this model can be used to efficiently assess the biological effect of corroding Mg alloys in vivo. Importantly, this model may be modified to accommodate additional cell types and clinical applications. Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been investigated as ideal candidates for bone fixation devices due to high biocompatibility and degradation in vivo, and there is a growing need of establishing an efficient in vivo material screening system. In this study, we assessed degradation rate and biological effect of Mg alloys by transplanting Mg alloy rod with

  12. High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys with Excellent Biodegradation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, J.; Becker, M.; Martinelli, E.; Weinberg, A. M.; Mingler, B.; Kilian, H.; Pogatscher, S.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    This article deals with the development of fine-grained high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) magnesium alloys intended for use as biodegradable implant material. The alloys contain solely low amounts of Zn and Ca as alloying elements. We illustrate the development path starting from the high-Zn-containing ZX50 (MgZn5Ca0.25) alloy with conventional purity, to an ultrahigh-purity ZX50 modification, and further to the ultrahigh-purity Zn-lean alloy ZX10 (MgZn1Ca0.3). It is shown that alloys with high Zn-content are prone to biocorrosion in various environments, most probably because of the presence of the intermetallic phase Mg6Zn3Ca2. A reduction of the Zn content results in (Mg,Zn)2Ca phase formation. This phase is less noble than the Mg-matrix and therefore, in contrast to Mg6Zn3Ca2, does not act as cathodic site. A fine-grained microstructure is achieved by the controlled formation of fine and homogeneously distributed (Mg,Zn)2Ca precipitates, which influence dynamic recrystallization and grain growth during hot forming. Such design scheme is comparable to that of HSLA steels, where low amounts of alloying elements are intended to produce a very fine dispersion of particles to increase the material's strength by refining the grain size. Consequently our new, ultrapure ZX10 alloy exhibits high strength (yield strength R p = 240 MPa, ultimate tensile strength R m = 255 MPa) and simultaneously high ductility (elongation to fracture A = 27%), as well as low mechanical anisotropy. Because of the anodic nature of the (Mg,Zn)2Ca particles used in the HSLA concept, the in vivo degradation in a rat femur implantation study is very slow and homogeneous without clinically observable hydrogen evolution, making the ZX10 alloy a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  13. Improved Mg-based alloys for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Stetson, N.T.; Evans, J. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of this on-going work is to develop low temperature alloys capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen, allowing greater than for 2 wt.% at the system level which is required by most applications. Surface modification of Mg can be used to improve its H-sorption kinetics. The authors show here that the same Mg-transition metal-based multi-component alloy when prepared by melt-spinning results in a more homogeneous materials with a higher plateau pressure as compared to preparing the material by mechanical grinding. They have also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 50}Al{sub 45}Zn{sub 5} results in a sample having a higher plateau pressure.

  14. Divorced Eutectic Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monas, Alexander; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kim, Se-Jong; Yim, Chang Dong; Höche, Daniel; Steinbach, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    We present simulations of the nucleation and equiaxed dendritic growth of the primary hexagonal close-packed -Mg phase followed by the nucleation of the -phase in interdendritic regions. A zoomed-in region of a melt channel under eutectic conditions is investigated and compared with experiments. The presented simulations allow prediction of the final properties of an alloy based on process parameters. The obtained results give insight into the solidification processes governing the microstructure formation of Mg-Al alloys, allowing their targeted design for different applications.

  15. Phase formation in Mg-Sn-Si and Mg-Sn-Si-Ca alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.; Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R., E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-02-17

    Research highlights: > The solidification paths of ternary and quaternary alloys are analyzed in detail, using the tool of thermodynamic calculations. > The precipitation sequence of phases and their amounts compare well with the microstructure of alloys. > The most efficient comparison to the experimental thermal analysis data is done by calculation of the enthalpy variation with temperature. > The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for the development of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram. - Abstract: Experimental work is done and combined with the Calphad method to generate a consistent thermodynamic description of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn quaternary system, validated for Mg-rich alloys. The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for this multicomponent system. Dedicated thermal analysis with DTA/DSC on sealed samples is performed and the microstructure of slowly solidified alloys is analyzed using SEM/EDX. The thermodynamic description and phase diagram of the ternary Mg-Si-Sn system, developed in detail also in this work, deviates significantly from a previous literature proposal. The phase formation in ternary and quaternary alloys is analyzed using the tool of thermodynamic equilibrium and Scheil calculations for the solidification paths and compared with present experimental data. The significant ternary/quaternary solid solubilities of pertinent intermetallic phases are quantitatively introduced in the quaternary Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram and validated by experimental data.

  16. A Limited Dynamic Investigation of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in 3 Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    and rolling direction. Semi- infinite impacts from penetrators in each direction are shown. The targets were sectioned and machined using electrical... infinite , penetration characterization, WAPEN, effective flow stress (EFS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...a method for determining pitch or yaw. Since the X-ray system worked for all tests, the data from this backup system were not used. Semi- infinite

  17. Development of Rolling Schedules for Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE)-Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    specimens were mounted in an epoxy resin and prepared using conventional metallographic techniques. A final etching, using diluted picric acid, was...additional pass, the shearing texture is exaggerated and, unless reversed , an acicular texture in the material could result. The function of route C

  18. Microstructural Effects on the Spall Properties of ECAE-Processed AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    stresses using 51 mm and 105 mm bore gas guns . The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) was measured to be approximately 181 ± 3 MPa. The spall strengths...MD 21218, USA b Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK c U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD...21005, USA d Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received

  19. An Analysis of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B-H24 for Ballistic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    CELIUS MATERIAL TEKNIK KARLSKOGA AB L HELLNER S 69180 KARLSKOGA SWEDEN 3 CENTRE D’ETUDES GRAMAT J CAGNOUX C GALLIC J TRANCHET... GRAMAT 46500 FRANCE 1 MINISTRY OF DEFENCE DGA DSP STTC G BRAULT 4 RUE DE LA PORTE D’ISSY 00460 ARMEES F 75015 PARIS FRANCE 1

  20. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-06-01

    The cast products Mg–Sn based alloys are promising candidates for automobile industries, since they provide a cheap yet thermally stable alternative to existing alloys. One drawback of the Mg–Sn based alloys is their insufficient hardness. The hardenability can be improved by engineering the microstructure through additions of Zn to the base alloy and selective aging conditions. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the microstructural characteristics and the role of Zn to promote precipitation hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT was employed to obtain precise chemical information on the distribution of Zn in the microstructure. It was found from microstructural studies that different precipitates with varying sizes and phases were present; lath-shaped precipitates of the Mg2Sn phase have an incoherent interface with the matrix, unlike the lath-shaped MgZn2 precipitates. Furthermore, nano-sized precipitates dispersed in the microstructure with short-lath morphology can either be enriched with Sn or Zn. On the other hand, APT analysis revealed the strong repulsion between Sn and Zn atoms in a portion of the analysis volume. However, larger reconstruction volume required to identify the role of Zn is still limited to the optimization of specimen preparation.

  1. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-01-01

    hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT

  2. Influence of pulsed current on deformation mechanism of AZ31B sheets during tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kai [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong, Xianghuai, E-mail: dongxh@sjtu.edu.cn [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie, Huanyang [Shanghai Superior Die Technology Co., Ltd, 775 Jinsui Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Wu, Yunjian; Peng, Fang [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The tensile tests of AZ31B sheets were carried out under pulsed current (PC) of different frequencies, and then the deformation mechanism at different conditions was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction. The results show that PC does not change the initial yield stress, but reduces the work hardening rate and induces softening effect. Furthermore, electroplasticity effect is controlled by thermal activation. When Z (Zener-Hollomon parameter) is high, the effect of PC is limited, causing a relatively weak electroplasticity effect. With the increasing of Z, the effect of PC strengthens. When Z reaches the critical condition, the activated slip systems obviously change because of PC, which induces the change of texture evolution and the discontinuous change of the intensity of electroplasticity. When Z is low, electroplasticity effect reaches a saturate condition and does not change with Z. Moreover, higher frequency contributes to the dislocation annihilation at all the slip systems, and then increasing frequency can strengthen the extra softening effect of PC. - Highlights: • Pulsed current does not change the initial yield stress, but reduce the work hardening rate and cause softening effect. • Increasing frequency can strengthen the softening effect. • The rules of the softening effect at different deformation condition are different. • The influence of current on deformation mechanism was analyzed by XRD.

  3. Study on microstructure and properties of Mg-alloy surface alloying layer fabricated by EPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dongfeng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AZ91D surface alloying was investigated through evaporative pattern casting (EPC technology. Aluminum powder (0.074 to 0.104 mm was used as the alloying element in the experiment. An alloying coating with excellent properties was fabricated, which mainly consisted of adhesive, co-solvent, suspending agent and other ingredients according to desired proportion. Mg-alloy melt was poured under certain temperature and the degree of negative pressure. The microstructure of the surface layer was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that a large volume fraction of network new phases were formed on the Mg-alloy surface, the thickness of the alloying surface layer increased with the alloying coating increasing from 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm, and the microstructure became compact. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the new phases. It showed that the new phases mainly consist of β-Mg17Al12, in addition to a small quantity of inter-metallic compounds and oxides. A micro-hardness test and a corrosion experiment to simulate the effect of sea water were performed. The result indicated that the highest micro-hardness of the surface reaches three times that of the matrix. The corrosion rate of alloying samples declines to about a fifth of that of the as-cast AZ91D specimen.

  4. Thermophysical properties of some liquid binary Mg-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plevachuk Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some structure-sensitive thermophysical properties, namely, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of liquid binary alloys Al33.3Mg66.7, Mg47.6Zn52.4 and Mg33.3Zn66.7 (all in wt.%, as the most promising cast alloys to fabricate components for cars, aircraft and other complex engineering products, were investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in a wide temperature range by the four-point contact method. The thermal conductivity was measured by the steady-state concentric cylinder method. The obtained results are compared with literature experimental and calculated data.

  5. Neural network potential for Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Giofré, Daniele; Junge, Till; Ceriotti, Michele; Curtin, William A.

    2017-10-01

    The 6000 series Al alloys, which include a few percent of Mg and Si, are important in automotive and aviation industries because of their low weight, as compared to steels, and the fact their strength can be greatly improved through engineered precipitation. To enable atomistic-level simulations of both the processing and performance of this important alloy system, a neural network (NN) potential for the ternary Al-Mg-Si has been created. Training of the NN uses an extensive database of properties computed using first-principles density functional theory, including complex precipitate phases in this alloy. The NN potential accurately reproduces most of the pure Al properties relevant to the mechanical behavior as well as heat of solution, solute-solute, and solute-vacancy interaction energies, and formation energies of small solute clusters and precipitates that are required for modeling the early stage of precipitation and mechanical strengthening. This success not only enables future detailed studies of Al-Mg-Si but also highlights the ability of NN methods to generate useful potentials in complex alloy systems.

  6. Surface treatments for controlling corrosion rate of biodegradable Mg and Mg-based alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M S; Hall, Colin; Murphy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Due to their excellent biodegradability characteristics, Mg and Mg-based alloys have become an emerging material in biomedical implants, notably for repair of bone as well as coronary arterial stents. However, the main problem with Mg-based alloys is their rapid corrosion in aggressive environments such as human bodily fluids. Previously, many approaches such as control of alloying materials, composition and surface treatments, have been attempted to regulate the corrosion rate. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent research focusing on surface treatment techniques utilised to control the corrosion rate and surface integrity of Mg-based alloys in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Surface treatments generally involve the controlled deposition of thin film coatings using various coating processes, and mechanical surfacing such as machining, deep rolling or low plasticity burnishing. The aim is to either make a protective thin layer of a material or to change the micro-structure and mechanical properties at the surface and sub-surface levels, which will prevent rapid corrosion and thus delay the degradation of the alloys. We have organised the review of past works on coatings by categorising the coatings into two classes—conversion and deposition coatings—while works on mechanical treatments are reviewed based on the tool-based processes which affect the sub-surface microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. Various types of coatings and their processing techniques under two classes of coating and mechanical treatment approaches have been analysed and discussed to investigate their impact on the corrosion performance, biomechanical integrity, biocompatibility and cell viability. Potential challenges and future directions in designing and developing the improved biodegradable Mg/Mg-based alloy implants were addressed and discussed. The literature reveals that no solutions are yet complete and hence new and innovative approaches

  7. Surface treatments for controlling corrosion rate of biodegradable Mg and Mg-based alloy implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Hall, Colin; Murphy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Due to their excellent biodegradability characteristics, Mg and Mg-based alloys have become an emerging material in biomedical implants, notably for repair of bone as well as coronary arterial stents. However, the main problem with Mg-based alloys is their rapid corrosion in aggressive environments such as human bodily fluids. Previously, many approaches such as control of alloying materials, composition and surface treatments, have been attempted to regulate the corrosion rate. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent research focusing on surface treatment techniques utilised to control the corrosion rate and surface integrity of Mg-based alloys in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Surface treatments generally involve the controlled deposition of thin film coatings using various coating processes, and mechanical surfacing such as machining, deep rolling or low plasticity burnishing. The aim is to either make a protective thin layer of a material or to change the micro-structure and mechanical properties at the surface and sub-surface levels, which will prevent rapid corrosion and thus delay the degradation of the alloys. We have organised the review of past works on coatings by categorising the coatings into two classes—conversion and deposition coatings—while works on mechanical treatments are reviewed based on the tool-based processes which affect the sub-surface microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. Various types of coatings and their processing techniques under two classes of coating and mechanical treatment approaches have been analysed and discussed to investigate their impact on the corrosion performance, biomechanical integrity, biocompatibility and cell viability. Potential challenges and future directions in designing and developing the improved biodegradable Mg/Mg-based alloy implants were addressed and discussed. The literature reveals that no solutions are yet complete and hence new and innovative approaches

  8. Effects of high energy ball milling on synthesis and characteristics of Ti-Mg alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikwanda, HK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Ti-Mg alloys using mechanical alloying method has been investigated. Effects of the mechanical alloying parameters on the resultant microstructural features have been studied. This work presents the effects of milling speed...

  9. A Computational Investigation of Precipitates in Mg-RE Alloys With Applications To Mg-X Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Ahmed

    Increasing fuel efficiency in transportation vehicles is a major policy goal for both government and auto and aerospace manufacturers. Lightweight structural materials, such as magnesium alloys, hold great promise in enabling such fuel efficiency gains. Understanding the controlling factors in Mg alloy strengthening is crucial for the rational design of structurally strong and inexpensive Mg alloys. In this work, we seek to understand the energetic underpinnings giving rise to a class of remarkably strong Mg alloys: Mg-RE systems. We use first-principles methods to efficiently explore seventeen Mg-RE systems, drawing out broad patterns and distilling our knowledge into simple design rules for Mg alloys. We begin by investigating the controlling factors for the Mg-strengthening prismatic plate precipitates in Mg-RE systems, discovering the critical role of strain in such systems. We then proceed to investigate the surprising role of interfacial energies in determining the course of the Mg-RE precipitation reactions. Using strain and interfacial energies, we construct a phase-field model which accurately depicts the precipitate morphology as a function of time and size in a Mg-Nd system. Finally, we combine our gained insights to implement a computational alloy design scheme on a large portion of the periodic table where we seek Mg-strengthening solutes. Our work advances the understanding of strengthening in Mg alloys and lays the groundwork for full scale computational alloy design.

  10. Preliminary study of the characteristics of a high Mg containing Al-Mg-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F; McKay, B J; Fan, Z; Chen, M F

    2012-01-01

    An Al-20Mg-4Si high Mg containing alloy has been produced and its characteristics investigated. The as-cast alloy revealed primary Mg 2 Si particles evenly distributed throughout an α-Al matrix with a β-Al 3 Mg 2 fully divorced eutectic phase observed in interdendritic regions. The Mg 2 Si particles displayed octahedral, truncated octahedral, and hopper morphologies. Additions of Sb, Ti and Zr had a refining influence reducing the size of the Mg 2 Si from 52 ± 4 μm to 25 ± 0.1 μm, 35 ± 1 μm and 34 ± 1 μm respectively. HPDC tensile test samples could be produced with a 0.6 wt.% Mn addition which prevented die soldering. Solution heating for 1 hr was found to dissolve the majority of the Al 3 Mg 2 eutectic phase with no evidence of any effect on the primary Mg 2 Si. Preliminary results indicate that the heat treatment has a beneficial effect on the elongation and the UTS.

  11. Resistance Element Welding of Magnesium Alloy/austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manladan, S. M.; Yusof, F.; Ramesh, S.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Z.; Ling, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-material design is increasingly applied in the automotive and aerospace industries to reduce weight, improve crash-worthiness, and reduce environmental pollution. In the present study, a novel variant of resistance spot welding technique, known as resistance element welding was used to join AZ31 Mg alloy to 316 L austenitic stainless steel. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated. It was found that the nugget consisted of two zones, including a peripheral fusion zone on the stainless steel side and the main fusion zone. The tensile shear properties of the joints are superior to those obtained by traditional resistance spot welding.

  12. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Obtention of Al-Mg alloys of porous morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan V, J.; Zamora R, L.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Iturbe G, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    With the objective of using it as fuel cell, a Mg 25 AI alloy of porous morphology was obtained. The material it was hydrogenates at 200 C by different time. It was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction, XRD. Those XRD diffractographs present peaks run toward the origin, that which indicates a volume increase of the unitary cell by effect of the hydrogen absorption. (Author)

  14. Magnetic domains in martensite of Ni-Mg-Ga alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokorin, V.V.; Babij, O.M.; Dubinko, S.V.; Prokopov, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The structural changes attendant on intermartensitic transformation in a Ni-Mg-Ga shape memory alloy are considered using magneto-optical visualization with the help of ferrite-garnet monocrystalline films. It is established that on the intermartensitic transformation the complete reorganization of martensite macrostructure fails. Martensite crystals resulted from the basic transformation change somewhat their sizes on intermartensitic transition. The existence of large-scale labyrinth magnetic domain structure is revealed [ru

  15. Variant selection of primary, secondary and tertiary twins in a deformed Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Sijia; Jonas, John J.; Gottstein, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Samples of magnesium alloy AZ31 were deformed in plane strain compression in a channel die at 100 °C and a strain rate of 5 × 10 −3 s −1 . The initial texture was favorably oriented for extension twinning. At a true strain of ε = −0.11, many primary extension twins were observed to consume their parent grains completely. Furthermore, numerous secondary contraction twins formed within the primary extension twins and some tertiary extension twins grew within the secondary contraction twins. The orientations of the parent grains and all three generations of twins were measured. The twin variants selected during each of the three stages of twinning were determined by electron backscatter diffraction techniques and the absent potential twin variants were also identified. The way in which the selected primary extension twins grow so as to consume the parent grains and contact all the neighboring grains is explained in terms of the accommodation strains imposed on the neighboring grains. The analysis shows that the primary twin selected is not necessarily the variant with the highest Schmid factor but the one that requires the least accommodation work in most of the neighboring grains. The same principle was found to hold for the secondary and tertiary twins. By contrast, potential high Schmid factor twins that required the consumption of appreciable accommodation energy did not form. A Taylor simulation produced similar results and indicates that the accommodation strain concept is consistent with the principle of the minimization of plastic work.

  16. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5-cells under the influence of Mg and Mg alloy degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela H; Feyerabend, Frank; Laipple, Daniel; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Weinberg, Annelie; Luthringer, Bérengère J C

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-based materials are a potential alternative to permanent implants for application in children. Nevertheless effects of those materials on growth plate cartilage and chondrogenesis have not been previously evaluated. In vitro differentiation of ATDC5 cells was evaluated under the influence of pure Mg (PMg), Mg with 10wt% of gadolinium (Mg-10Gd) and Mg with 2wt% of silver (Mg-2Ag) degradation products (extracts) and direct cell culture on the materials. Gene expression showed an inhibitory effect on ATDC5 mineralization with the three extracts and a chondrogenic potential of Mg-10Gd. Cells cultured in Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag extracts showed the same proliferation and morphology than cells cultured in growth conditions. Mg-10Gd induced an increase in production of ECM and a bigger cell size, similar to the effects found with differentiation conditions. An increased metabolic activity was observed in cells cultured under the influence of Mg-10Gd extracts, indicated by an acidic pH during most of the culture period. After 7days of culture on the materials, ATDC5 growth, distribution and ECM synthesis were higher on Mg-10Gd samples, followed by Mg-2Ag and PMg, which was influenced by the homogeneity and composition of the degradation layer. This study confirmed the tolerance of ATDC5 cells to Mg-based materials and a chondrogenic effect of Mg-10Gd. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are necessary to evaluate cell reactions to those materials, as well as the effects on bone growth and the biocompatibility of the alloying system in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In-process tool rotational speed variation with constant heat input in friction stir welding of AZ31 sheets with variable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Gianluca; Campanella, Davide; Forcellese, Archimede; Fratini, Livan; Simoncini, Michela

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, friction stir welding experiments on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets, characterized by a variable thickness along the welding line, were carried out. The approach adapted during welding consisted in maintaining constant the heat input to the joint. To this purpose, the rotational speed of the pin tool was increased with decreasing thickness and decreased with increasing thickness in order to obtain the same temperatures during welding. The amount by which the rotational speed was changed as a function of the sheet thickness was defined on the basis of the results given by FEM simulations of the FSW process. Finally, the effect of the in-process variation of the tool rotational speed on the mechanical and microstructural properties of FSWed joints was analysed by comparing both the nominal stress vs. nominal strain curves and microstructure of FSWed joints obtained in different process conditions. It was observed that FSW performed by keeping constant the heat input to the joint leads to almost coincident results both in terms of the curve shape, ultimate tensile strength and ultimate elongation values, and microstructure.

  18. Superconducting properties of MgB2 particle impregnated with Mg-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Matsuda, Kenji; Mizutani, Manabu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Aoyama, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional penetration method combined with semi-solid casting (SS-3DPC) was utilized to prepare magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) powder composite materials with various host materials of Mg, Mg-3%Al, Mg-3%Al-1%Zn, Mg-9%Al, and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated predominant peak patterns of MgB 2 and a host alloy, implying that the host material tightly bonded MgB 2 grains without melting the MgB 2 powder. This was confirmed by SEM images. Measured electrical resistivity and magnetization versus temperature showed clear signals of superconducting transition temperature of 27-38 K for all the samples cut out from the billets. Magnetic hysteresis loop observed at 5 K enabled us to estimate a critical current density (J c ) based on the extended Bean model. Additions of aluminum and zinc elements to magnesium host-matrix were found to enhance J c and increase residual resistivity (ρ 0 ) suggesting that aluminum and zinc have an effect on pinning magnetic flux flow for J c enhancement, and scattering conduction electrons for increase of ρ 0 . (author)

  19. Formability of a wrought Mg alloy evaluated by impression testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Walid; Gollapudi, Srikant; Charit, Indrajit; Murty, K. Linga

    2018-01-17

    This study is focused on furthering our understanding of the different factors that influence the formability of Magnesium alloys. Towards this end, formability studies were undertaken on a wrought Mg-2Zn-1Mn (ZM21) alloy. In contrast to conventional formability studies, the impression testing method was adopted here to evaluate the formability parameter, B, at temperatures ranging from 298 to 473 K. The variation of B of ZM21 with temperature and its rather limited values were discussed in the light of different deformation mechanisms such as activation of twinning, slip, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX). It was found that the material characteristics such as grain size, texture and testing conditions such as temperature and strain rate, were key determinants of the mechanism of plastic deformation. A by-product of this analysis was the observation of an interesting correlation between the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, and the ability of Mg alloys to undergo DRX.

  20. Combinatorial search for hydrogen storage alloys: Mg-Ni and Mg-Ni-Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelmez, Rabia; Cakmak, Guelhan; Oeztuerk, Tayfur [Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    A combinatorial study was carried out for hydrogen storage alloys involving processes similar to those normally used in their fabrication. The study utilized a single sample of combined elemental (or compound) powders which were milled and consolidated into a bulk form and subsequently deformed to heavy strains. The mixture was then subjected to a post annealing treatment, which brings about solid state reactions between the powders, yielding equilibrium phases in the respective alloy system. A sample, comprising the equilibrium phases, was then pulverized and screened for hydrogen storage compositions. X-ray diffraction was used as a screening tool, the sample having been examined both in the as processed and the hydrogenated state. The method was successfully applied to Mg-Ni and Mg-Ni-Ti yielding the well known Mg{sub 2}Ni as the storage composition. It is concluded that a partitioning of the alloy system into regions of similar solidus temperature would be required to encompass the full spectrum of equilibrium phases. (author)

  1. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. F.; Xie, X. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Cong, Y.; Zhou, F. Y.; Qiu, K. J.; Wang, X.; Chen, S. H.; Huang, L.; Tian, L.; Qin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  2. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-05-29

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals.

  3. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5-cells under the influence of Mg and Mg alloy degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela H., E-mail: adela.martinez@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Geesthacht (Germany); Feyerabend, Frank; Laipple, Daniel; Willumeit-Römer, Regine [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Geesthacht (Germany); Weinberg, Annelie [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Luthringer, Bérengère J.C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-based materials are a potential alternative to permanent implants for application in children. Nevertheless effects of those materials on growth plate cartilage and chondrogenesis have not been previously evaluated. In vitro differentiation of ATDC5 cells was evaluated under the influence of pure Mg (PMg), Mg with 10 wt% of gadolinium (Mg-10Gd) and Mg with 2 wt% of silver (Mg-2Ag) degradation products (extracts) and direct cell culture on the materials. Gene expression showed an inhibitory effect on ATDC5 mineralization with the three extracts and a chondrogenic potential of Mg-10Gd. Cells cultured in Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag extracts showed the same proliferation and morphology than cells cultured in growth conditions. Mg-10Gd induced an increase in production of ECM and a bigger cell size, similar to the effects found with differentiation conditions. An increased metabolic activity was observed in cells cultured under the influence of Mg-10Gd extracts, indicated by an acidic pH during most of the culture period. After 7 days of culture on the materials, ATDC5 growth, distribution and ECM synthesis were higher on Mg-10Gd samples, followed by Mg-2Ag and PMg, which was influenced by the homogeneity and composition of the degradation layer. This study confirmed the tolerance of ATDC5 cells to Mg-based materials and a chondrogenic effect of Mg-10Gd. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are necessary to evaluate cell reactions to those materials, as well as the effects on bone growth and the biocompatibility of the alloying system in the body. - Highlights: • Degradation of PMg, and Mg-2Ag do not influence ATDC5 cells growth and chondrogenic redifferentiation. • Mg-10Gd enhances fast chondrogenic redifferentiation and expression of hyperthrophic markers on ATDC5 cells. • Further evaluation of the effects of PMg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag in vivo are necessary to confirm its potential for application in growing bones.

  4. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5-cells under the influence of Mg and Mg alloy degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela H.; Feyerabend, Frank; Laipple, Daniel; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Weinberg, Annelie; Luthringer, Bérengère J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-based materials are a potential alternative to permanent implants for application in children. Nevertheless effects of those materials on growth plate cartilage and chondrogenesis have not been previously evaluated. In vitro differentiation of ATDC5 cells was evaluated under the influence of pure Mg (PMg), Mg with 10 wt% of gadolinium (Mg-10Gd) and Mg with 2 wt% of silver (Mg-2Ag) degradation products (extracts) and direct cell culture on the materials. Gene expression showed an inhibitory effect on ATDC5 mineralization with the three extracts and a chondrogenic potential of Mg-10Gd. Cells cultured in Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag extracts showed the same proliferation and morphology than cells cultured in growth conditions. Mg-10Gd induced an increase in production of ECM and a bigger cell size, similar to the effects found with differentiation conditions. An increased metabolic activity was observed in cells cultured under the influence of Mg-10Gd extracts, indicated by an acidic pH during most of the culture period. After 7 days of culture on the materials, ATDC5 growth, distribution and ECM synthesis were higher on Mg-10Gd samples, followed by Mg-2Ag and PMg, which was influenced by the homogeneity and composition of the degradation layer. This study confirmed the tolerance of ATDC5 cells to Mg-based materials and a chondrogenic effect of Mg-10Gd. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are necessary to evaluate cell reactions to those materials, as well as the effects on bone growth and the biocompatibility of the alloying system in the body. - Highlights: • Degradation of PMg, and Mg-2Ag do not influence ATDC5 cells growth and chondrogenic redifferentiation. • Mg-10Gd enhances fast chondrogenic redifferentiation and expression of hyperthrophic markers on ATDC5 cells. • Further evaluation of the effects of PMg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag in vivo are necessary to confirm its potential for application in growing bones.

  5. Discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys as anodes for Mg-air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Naiguang; Wang, Richu; Peng, Chaoqun; Peng, Bing; Feng, Yan; Hu, Chengwang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the effect of indium on the discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb alloy. • We evaluate the performance of Mg-air batteries with Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In anodes. • We analyze the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy in the discharge process. - Abstract: The discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is investigated by electrochemical techniques, and compared with that of pure magnesium. The results show that Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy provides a more negative potential and exhibits a higher utilization efficiency in contrast with Mg-Al-Pb alloy and pure magnesium during the half-cell test at a large current density, and gives desirable discharge performance when used as anode for Mg- air battery. The peak power density of the Mg-air battery with Mg-Al-Pb-In anode is 94.5 mW cm −2 , which is comparable with those of Mg-H 2 O 2 semi-fuel batteries. Moreover, the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy during the discharge process is also analyzed

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded Mg/Al joint assisted by stationary shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    Using magnesium alloy as upper sheet, 3 mm-thick AZ31 magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy were joined using friction stir lap welding assisted by stationary shoulder. The effects of tool rotating speed on cross-sections, microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg/Al lap joints were mainly discussed. Results showed that stationary shoulder contributed to joint formation, by which stir zones (SZ) were characterized by big onion rings after welding. Because of the big forging force exerted by stationary shoulder, the upper region of hook was well bonded. SZ showed much higher hardness because of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The bonding conditions at the base material (BM)/SZ interface at advancing side and the hook region played important roles on joint lap shear properties. The X-ray diffraction pattern analysis revealed that the main IMCs were Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17.

  7. Formation of MgZnO alloy under thermodynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markevich, I.V.; Stara, T.R., E-mail: stara_t@ukr.net; Kuchuk, A.V.; Polishchuk, Yu.O.; Kladko, V.P.

    2014-11-15

    Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O ceramics with x=0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 were sintered at T{sub s}=700–1250 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra as well as X-ray diffraction patterns were measured at 293 K. Bandgap width was evaluated from the position of PLE peak. Non-monotonous dependence of PLE peak position on T{sub s} was observed for all used x. This effect was concluded to be caused by the formation of cubic phase side by side with hexagonal one and the enhancement of this process with increasing T{sub s}, which resulted in the decrease of Mg content in the hexagonal phase at T{sub s}>1000 °C. Temperature range of 1000–1050 °C was found to be the optimum one for the formation of hexagonal MgZnO alloy at used x. It was shown that x=0.20 was the solubility limit of MgO in hexagonal Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O ceramics.

  8. Stannate conversion coatings on Mg-8Li alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lihui; Zhang Milin; Li Junqing; Yu Xiang; Niu Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    The stannate conversion coatings (SnCC) on Mg-8Li alloy were investigated by simple immersion method. The surface morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) techniques. The corrosion resistance was assessed by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The effects of time of a stannate bath on the quality of stannate conversion coatings were investigated by SEM and EIS. It was found that the coating particles were mainly composed of hemispherical particles MgSnO 3 .3H 2 O. A comparison of results revealed the coating treated for 60 min exhibited the most uniform, dense and corrosion-resistant

  9. Secondary precipitation in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buha, J.; Lumley, R.N.; Crosky, A.G.; Hono, K.

    2007-01-01

    Interruption of a conventional T6 heat treatment at 177 deg. C for the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy 6061 after a short period of time (20 min), by inserting a dwell period at a lower temperature (e.g. 65 deg. C), promotes secondary precipitation of Guinier-Preston (GP) zones. As a consequence, a much greater number of precursors to the β'' precipitates are produced so that a finer and denser dispersion of this phase is formed when T6 ageing is resumed. This change in microstructure causes significant and simultaneous improvements in tensile properties and fracture toughness. Secondary precipitation of GP zones occurs through a gradual evolution of a large number of Mg-Si(-Cu)-vacancy co-clusters formed during the initial ageing at 177 deg. C. The precise mechanism of secondary precipitation has been revealed by three-dimensional atom probe microscopy supplemented by transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry

  10. Mg and Mg alloys: how comparable are in vitro and in vivo corrosion rates? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit, Regine

    2015-02-01

    Due to their biodegradability, magnesium and magnesium-based alloys could represent the third generation of biomaterials. However, their mechanical properties and time of degradation have to match the needs of applications. Several approaches, such as choice of alloying elements or tailored microstructure, are employed to tailor corrosion behaviour. Due to the high electrochemical activity of Mg, numerous environmental factors (e.g. temperature and surrounding ion composition) influence its corrosion behaviour, making it unpredictable. Nevertheless, the need of reliable in vitro model(s) to predict in vivo implant degradation is increasing. In an attempt to find a correlation between in vitro and vivo corrosion rates, this review presents a systematic literature survey, as well as an attempt to correlate the different results. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Mg alloys fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieda, Junko; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Ti-xMg (x=17, 33, and 55 mass%) alloy films, which cannot be prepared by conventional melting processes owing to the absence of a solid-solution phase in the phase diagram, were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their biocompatibility. Ti and Mg films were also prepared by the same process for comparison. The crystal structures were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 310 K for 7d to evaluate the dissolution amounts of Ti and Mg. In addition, to evaluate the formation ability of calcium phosphate in vitro, the Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in Hanks' solution at 310 K for 30 d. Ti and Mg form solid-solution alloys because the peaks attributed to pure Ti and Mg do not appear in the XRD patterns of any of the Ti-xMg alloy films. The surfaces of the Ti-17 Mg alloy and Ti-33 Mg alloy films contain Ti oxides and MgO, whereas MgO is the main component of the surface oxide of the Ti-55 Mg alloy and Mg films. The dissolution amounts of Ti from all films are below or near the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On the other hand, the Ti-17 Mg alloy, Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films exhibit Mg dissolution amounts of approximately 2.5, 1.4, 21, and 41 μg/cm(2), respectively. The diffraction peaks attributed to calcium phosphate are present in the XRD patterns of the Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films after the immersion in Hanks' solution. Spherical calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the surface of the Ti-33 Mg film. However, many cracks are observed in the Ti-55 Mg film, and delamination of the film occurs after the immersion in Hanks' solution. The Mg film is dissolved in Hanks' solution and calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the glass substrate. Consequently, it is revealed that the Ti-33 Mg

  12. Modeling of Precipitation Sequence and Ageing Kinetics in Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrami, A.

    2010-01-01

    Al-Mg-Si alloys are heat treatable alloys in which strength is obtained by precipitation hardening. Precipitates, formed from a supersaturated solid solution during ageing heat treatment, are GP-zones, B", B´ and B-Mg2Si. Precipitation kinetics and strength vary with alloy composition and process

  13. Texture development during tensile deformation in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Tensile tests were made on commercial A1050 pure Al, A5182 Al-4.4% Mg alloy and A2017 Al-4% Cu alloy by varying the test temperature and the strain rate. Textures developed at various stages of the tensile deformation were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that, during the tensile test of the 1050 pure Al with the strain rate of 3 x 10{sup -4}S{sup -1} at 20 C, tensile axis readily rotated toward left angle 111 right angle stable end orientation. However, such rotation occurred only at the latest stage of the tensile deformation near the ultimate tensile stress, where stress strain curve was almost flattened and work hardening was almost saturated. It was strongly suggested that, since fine and complex dislocation cell structures were developed in such a work-hardened state, smooth and long range dislocation glide such as assumed in the classical Taylor theory would not be possible. To explain the observed texture development, cooperative movement of the dislocations in the cell walls might be necessary. In fact, addition of Mg and Cu, which suppressed strongly the development of well defined cell structures due to P-L effect or dynamic strain ageing, significantly retarded the rotation of tensile axes toward left angle 111 right angle. Interesting enough, textures developed in all these materials investigated were not affected by the strain rate and the temperature of the tensile test. (orig.)

  14. In vitro study of nanostructured diopside coating on Mg alloy orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    The high corrosion rate of Mg alloys has hindered their application in various areas, particularly for orthopedic applications. In order to decrease the corrosion rate and to improve the bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy, nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) has been coated on AZ91 Mg alloy using a combined micro arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The crystalline structure, the morphology and the composition of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, and compression test were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, the in vitro bioactivity and the mechanical stability of the samples, respectively. The cytocompatibility of the samples was tested by the cell viability and the cell attachment of L-929 cells. The results confirmed that the diopside coating not only slows down the corrosion rate, but also enhances the in vitro bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of AZ91 Mg alloy. Therefore, Mg alloy coated with nanostructured diopside offers a promising approach for biodegradable bone implants. - Highlights: • The diopside coating was applied on Mg alloy using the combined MAO and EPD methods. • The corrosion resistance of the diopside coated Mg alloy was noticeably improved. • The in vitro bioactivity of the diopside coated Mg alloy was considerably increased. • The mechanical stability of biodegradable Mg alloy was enhanced by diopside coating. • The cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy was improved employing diopside coating

  15. The Influence of Aluminum on the Microstructure and Hardness of Mg-5Si-7Sn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys due the low density and good mechanical properties are mainly used in the automotive and aerospace industry. In recent years, magnesium alloys are extensively developed for use in high temperatures (above 120°C. Among these alloys, magnesium alloys containing tin and silicon have large possibilities of application due to the formation of thermally stable intermetallic Mg2Sn and Mg2Si. In this paper the influence of aluminum and heat treatment on the on the microstructure and hardness of Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy is reported. It was found that the microstructure of Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy consist of α-Mg solid solution, Mg2Sn and Mg2Si compounds. Addition of 2 wt% of Al to Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy causes the formation of Al2Sn phase. Moreover, Al dissolves in the α-Mg solid solution. The solution heat-treatment of tested alloys at 500°C for 24 h causes the dissolve the Mg2Sn phase in the α-Mg matrix and spheroidization of Mg2Si compound. The Mg2Si primary crystals are stable at solution temperature. After ageing treatment the precipitation process of equilibrium Mg2Sn phase was found in both alloys. The addition of aluminum has a positive effect on the hardness of Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy. In case of Mg-5Si-7Sn-2Al alloy the highest hardness was obtained for sample aged for 148 h at 250°C (88 HV2, while in case of Al-free alloy the highest hardness is 70 HV for material aged for 148 h at 250°C.

  16. Effect of sterilization process on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of pure Mg and MgCa alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.L.; Zhou, W.R.; Wu, Y.H.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various sterilization methods on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of MgCa alloy, with pure Mg as a comparison, including steam autoclave sterilization (SA), ethylene oxide steam sterilization (EO), glutaraldehyde sterilization (GD), dry heat sterilization (DH) and Co60 γ ray radiation sterilization (R) technologies. The surface characterizations were performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and surface free energy measurement, whereas the cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by cellular adhesive experiment, platelet adhesion and hemolysis test. The results showed that the five sterilization processes caused more changes on the surface of MgCa alloy than that on the surface of pure Mg. The GD sterilization caused the most obvious changes on the surface of the pure Mg, and the SA sterilization made the largest alteration on the MgCa alloy surface. The GD and DH sterilization processes could cause increases on surface free energy for both pure Mg and MgCa alloys, while the other three sterilization processes reduced the surface free energy. The DH and GD sterilization processes caused the least alteration on the cell adhesion on pure Mg surface, whereas the EO sterilization performed the greatest impact on the cell adhesion on the Mg–Ca alloy surface. The hemolysis percentage of pure Mg and MgCa alloys were reduced by SA sterilization, meanwhile the other four sterilization processes increased their hemolysis percentages significantly, especially for the EO sterilization. - Highlights: • The effect of sterilization on surface chemistry and biocompatibility was studied. • Sterilization caused more surface changes on MgCa alloy than pure Mg. • Co60 γ ray radiation is the most appropriate sterilization process

  17. The Age-Precipitations Structure Of Al-Mg-Ge Alloy Aged At 473K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Mg-Ge alloy is one of the age-hardening aluminum alloy after solution heat treatment. It has been proposed that the age-precipitation behavior of Al-Mg-Ge alloy is different from that of Al-Mg-Si alloy according to our previous works about the microstructure on Al-Mg-Ge alloy over-aged at 523K. For example, The hardness of peak aged Al-1.0mass%Mg2Ge alloy is higher than that of Al-1.0mass%Mg2Si alloy. The precipitates in the over-aged samples have been classified as some metastable phases, such as the β’-phase and Type-A precipitates and equilibrium phase of β-Mg2Ge by TEM observation. There a few reports about microstructure on Al-Mg-Ge alloys observed by TEM for different aging times. The age-precipitations structure of Al-Mg-Ge alloy has not been became clear. In this work, TEM observation was investigated the microstructure on Al-1.0mass%Mg2Ge alloy for difference aging times aged at 473K.

  18. Dispersion strengthening of precipitation hardened Al-Cu-Mg alloys prepared by rapid solidification and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.; Sankaran, K. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several Al-4Cu-1Mg-1.5Fe-0.75Ce alloys have been processed from either rapidly solidified or mechanically alloyed powder using various vacuum degassing parameters and consolidation techniques. Strengthening by the fine subgrains, grains, and the dispersoids individually or in combination is more effective when the alloys contain shearable precipitates; consequently, the strength of the alloys is higher in the naturally aged rather than the artificially aged condition. The strengths of the mechanically alloyed variants are greater than those produced from prealloyed powder. Properties and microstructural features of these dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in regards to their processing histories.

  19. Influence of Iron in AlSi10MgMn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žihalová M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled aluminium alloys. Better understanding of iron influence in this kind of alloys can lead to reduction of final castings cost. Presented article deals with examination of detrimental iron effect in AlSi10MgMn cast alloy. Microstructural analysis and ultimate tensile strength testing were used to consider influence of iron to microstructure and mechanical properties of selected alloy.

  20. Rotary Friction Welding of Weight Heavy Alloy with Wrought AlMg3 Alloy for Subcaliber Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Janusz Goroch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies concerning friction welding of Weight Heavy Alloy (WHA with AlMg3 alloy are presented. The friction welding of density 17,5 Mg/m3 with aluminum alloy showed that it is possible to reach the joints with the strength exceeding the yield strength of wrought AlMg3 alloy. This strength looks to be promising from point of view of condition which have to be fulfilled in case of armor subcaliber ammunition, where WHA rods play the role Kinetic Energy Penetrators and aluminum is used for projectile ballistic cup.

  1. Rotary Friction Welding of Weight Heavy Alloy with Wrought AlMg3 Alloy for Subcaliber Ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    Olgierd Janusz Goroch; Zbigniew Gulbinowicz

    2017-01-01

    The results of studies concerning friction welding of Weight Heavy Alloy (WHA) with AlMg3 alloy are presented. The friction welding of density 17,5 Mg/m3 with aluminum alloy showed that it is possible to reach the joints with the strength exceeding the yield strength of wrought AlMg3 alloy. This strength looks to be promising from point of view of condition which have to be fulfilled in case of armor subcaliber ammunition, where WHA rods play the role Kinetic Energy Penetrators and aluminum i...

  2. Effect of Alloy Elements on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshikazu; Hisayuki, Koji; Sakaguchi, Masashi; Higashi, Kenji

    Microstructures and mechanical properties in the modified Al-Mg-Si alloys with variation in the alloy elements and their contents were investigated to enhance higher strength and ductility. Optimizing both the alloy element design and the industrial processes including heat-treatments and extrusion technology was carried out along the recent suggestion from the first principles calculation. The investigation concluded that the addition of Fe and/or Cu could recovery their lost ductility, furthermore increase their tensile strength up to 420 MPa at high elongation of 24 % after T6 condition for Al-0.8mass%Mg-1.0mass%Si-0.8mass%Cu-0.5mass%Fe alloy with excess Si content. The excellent combination between strength and ductility could be obtained by improvement to the grain boundary embitterment caused by grain boundary segregation of Si as a result from the interaction of Si with Cu or Fe with optimizing the amount of Cu and Fe contents.

  3. Use of equimolar cysteine/ascorbic acids to recover MCP synthesized Ti(Mg) alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushove, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of waste by-products of mechanochemical processing (MCP) synthesis of Ti(Mg) alloy, from TiO2 and 15 wt.% excess Mg, was conducted in equimolar cysteine/ascorbic acids. The synthesized alloy is inherently mixed with MgO and other oxides...

  4. Solar-blind wurtzite MgZnO alloy films stabilized by Be doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Longxing; Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Quanlin; Chen, Mingming; Ji, Xu; Wu, Tianzhun; Gui, Xuchun; Xiang, Rong; Tang, Zikang; Pan, Bicai

    2013-01-01

    Mg x Zn 1−x O alloy films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (rf-PMBE). The phase segregation occurred when x was larger than 33%. Be doping was found experimentally able to stabilize the high-Mg-content MgZnO alloy. By alloying 1–2% Be into MgZnO, the band gap of as-prepared quaternary alloys can be raised to the solar-blind range (4.5 eV). Calculated formation energy of the alloys based on first principle reveals that a small amount of Be incorporation can reduce the formation energy of high-Mg-content MgZnO alloys and results in a more stable system, which justifies our experimental observations. (paper)

  5. Predictive calculation of phase formation in Al-rich Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys using a thermodynamic Mg-alloy database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, J.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Dobatkina, T.V.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges

  6. Predictive calculation of phase formation in Al-rich Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys using a thermodynamic Mg-alloy database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rokhlin, L.L. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Leninsky prosp. 49, 119991 GSP-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dobatkina, T.V. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Leninsky prosp. 49, 119991 GSP-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)]. E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2007-05-16

    Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges.

  7. Alloy development for the enhanced stability of Ω precipitates in Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, B. M.; Shiflet, G. J.; Starke, E. A.

    2006-04-01

    The coarsening resistance and thermal stability of several Ω plate-dominated microstructures were controlled through altering the chemistry and thermomechanical processing of various Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys. Quantitative comparisons of Ω nucleation density, particle size, and thermal stability were used to illustrate the effects of alloy composition and processing conditions. The long-term stability of Ω plates was found to coincide with relatively high levels of silver and moderate magnesium additions, with the latter limiting the competition for solute with S-phase precipitation. This analysis revealed that certain microstructures initially dominated by Ω precipitation were found to remain stable through long-term isothermal and double-aging heat treatments, which represents significant improvement over the previous generation of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys, in which Ω plates dissolved sacrificially after long aging times. The quantitative precipitate data, in conjunction with a thermodynamic database for the aluminum-rich corner of the Al-Cu-Mg-Ag quaternary system, were used to estimate the chemistry of the α/Ω-interphase boundary. These calculations suggest that silver is the limiting species at the α/Ω interfacial layer and that Ω plates form with varying interfacial chemistries during the early stages of artificial aging, which is directly related to the overall stability of certain plates.

  8. Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bi-Cheng; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been used to calculate the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp) Mg by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. The minimum energy pathways and the saddle point configurations during solute migration are calculated with the climbing image nudged elastic band method. Vibrational properties are obtained using the quasi-harmonic Debye model with inputs from first-principles calculations. An improved generalized gradient approximation of PBEsol is used in the present first-principles calculations, which is able to well describe both vacancy formation energies and vibrational properties. It is found that the solute diffusion coefficients in hcp Mg are roughly inversely proportional to the bulk modulus of the dilute alloys, which reflects the solutes' bonding to Mg. Transition metal elements with d electrons show strong interactions with Mg and have large diffusion activation energies. Correlation effects are not negligible for solutes Ca, Na, Sr, Se, Te, and Y, in which the direct solute migration barriers are much smaller than the solvent (Mg) migration barriers. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in remarkable agreement with available experimental data in the literature.

  9. Effectiveness of Ti-micro alloying in relation to cooling rate on corrosion of AZ91 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candan, S.; Celik, M.; Candan, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, micro Ti-alloyed AZ91 Mg alloys (AZ91 + 0.5wt.%Ti) have been investigated in order to clarify effectiveness of micro alloying and/or cooling rate on their corrosion properties. Molten alloys were solidified under various cooling rates by using four stage step mold. The microstructural investigations were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behaviors of the alloys were evaluated by means of immersion and electrochemical polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Mg 17 Al 12 (β) intermetallic phase in the microstructure of AZ91 Mg alloy formed as a net-like structure. The Ti addition has reduced the distribution and continuity of β intermetallic phase and its morphology has emerged as fully divorced eutectic. Compared to AZ91 alloy, the effect of the cooling rate in Ti-added alloy on the grain size was less pronounced. When AZ91 and its Ti-added alloys were compared under the same cooling conditions, the Ti addition showed notably high corrosion resistance. Electrochemical test results showed that while I corr values of AZ91 decrease with the increase in the cooling rate, the effect of the cooling rate on I corr values was much lower in the Ti-added alloy. The corrosion resistance of AZ91 Mg alloy was sensitive towards the cooling rates while Ti-added alloy was not affected much from the cooling conditions. - Highlights: • Effect the cooling rate on grain size was less pronounced in the Ti-added alloy. • The morphology of the β phase transformed into fully divorced eutectics. • Ti addition exhibited significantly higher corrosion resistance. • Ti micro alloying is more effective than faster cooling of the alloy on corrosion.

  10. Corrosion behavior of die-cast Mg-4Al-2Sn-xCa alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Chul; Kim, Byeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Ro [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dae Hyun; Park, Ik Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, the effect of Ca additions on microstructure and corrosion characteristics of high pressure die-cast Mg-4Al-2Sn alloy has been investigated. Mg-4Al-2Sn-xCa (x= 0, 0.3 and 0.7wt.%) alloy was prepared by using a high pressure die-casting method. Results indicated that the microstructure of Mg-4Al-2Sn alloy consisted of α-Mg, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Sn phase. With increase of Ca additions, CaMgSn phase was newly formed and grain size was sharply decreased. From the test results, the corrosion resistance of die-cast Mg-4Al-2Sn alloy was significantly improved by Ca addition. It is considered that stabilization of Mg(OH){sub 2} layer and refinements of microstructure with increase of Ca additions.

  11. The intergranular corrosion behavior of 6000-series alloys with different Mg/Si and Cu content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yun; Liu, Qing, E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn; Jia, Zhihong, E-mail: zhihongjia@cqu.edu.cn; Xing, Yuan; Ding, Lipeng; Wang, Xueli

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • High Cu alloy with high Mg/Si ratio has the best comprehensive property. • Addition of excess Mg could improve the intergranular corrosion resistance. • Si containing particles on the grain boundaries of Si-rich alloys promote IGC. • IGC susceptibility depends primarily on Cu content and secondarily on Mg/Si ratio. - Abstract: 6000-series aluminium alloys with high Cu or excess Si addition were susceptible to intergranular corrosion (IGC). In order to obtain good IGC resistance, four alloys with low/high Cu and various Mg/Si ratios were designed. The corrosion behaviour of four alloys was investigated by accelerated corrosion test, electrochemical test and electron microscopies. It was revealed that IGC susceptibility of alloys was the result of microgalvanic coupling between the noble grain boundary precipitates and the adjacent precipitates free zone (PFZ), which was closely related to a combination of Cu content and the Mg/Si ratio. Excess Mg could improve the IGC resistance of alloys by forming discontinuous precipitates on the grain boundaries. The designed alloy with high Cu and excess Mg has the same corrosion level as the commercial alloy with low Cu and excess Si, which provides possibility for developing new alloy.

  12. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance Property of a Zn-AI-Mg Alloy with Different Solidification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guang-rui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating attracted much attention due to its high corrosion resistance properties, especially high anti-corrosion performance at the cut edge. As the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating was usually produced by hot-dip galvanizing method, solidification process was considered to influence its microstructure and corrosion properties. In this work, a Zn-Al-Mg cast alloy was melted and cooled to room temperature with different solidification processes, including water quench, air cooling and furnace cooling. Microstructure of the alloy with different solidification processes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Result shows that the microstructure of the Zn-Al-Mg alloy are strongly influenced by solidification process. With increasing solidification rate, more Al is remained in the primary crystal. Electrochemical analysis indicates that with lowering solidification rate, the corrosion current density of the Zn-Al-Mg alloy decreases, which means higher corrosion resistance.

  13. Mechanical properties, corrosion, and biocompatibility of Mg-Zr-Sr-Dy alloys for biodegradable implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2017-11-28

    This study investigates the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and biocompatibility of magnesium (Mg)-based Mg1Zr2SrxDy (x = 0, 1, 1.63, 2.08 wt %) alloys for biodegradable implant applications. The corrosion behavior of the Mg-based alloys has been evaluated in simulated body fluid using an electrochemical technique and hydrogen evolution. The biocompatibility of the Mg-based alloys has been assessed using SaSO2 cells. Results indicate that the addition of Dy to Mg-Zr-Sr alloy showed a positive impact on the corrosion behavior and significantly decreased the degradation rates of the alloys. The degradation rate of Mg1Zr2Sr1.0Dy decreased from 17.61 to 12.50 mm year -1 of Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy based on the hydrogen evolution. The ultimate compressive strength decreased from 270.90 MPa for Mg1Zr2Sr1Dy to 236.71 MPa for Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy. An increase in the addition of Dy to the Mg-based alloys resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the Mg 2 Dy phase, which mitigated the galvanic effect between the Mg 17 Sr 2 phase and the Mg matrix, and led to an increase in the corrosion resistance of the base alloy. The biocompatibility of the Mg-based alloys was enhanced with decreasing corrosion rates. Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy exhibited the lowest corrosion rate and the highest biocompatibility compared with the other Mg-based alloys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The in vitro biocompatibility and macrophage phagocytosis of Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; He, Peng; Wan, Peng; Li, Mei; Wang, Kehong; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Mg alloys are gaining interest for applications as biodegradable medical implant, including Mg-Al-Zn series alloys with good combination of mechanical properties and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, whether the existence of second phase particles in the alloys exerts influence on the biocompatibility is still not clear. A deeper understanding of how the particles regulate specific biological responses is becoming a crucial requirement for their subsequent biomedical application. In this work, the in vitro biocompatibility of Mg17Al12 as a common second phase in biodegradable Mg-Al-Zn alloys was investigated via hemolysis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion tests. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by the extracellular matrix mineralization assay. The Mg17Al12 particles were also prepared to simulate the real situation of second phase in the in vivo environment in order to estimate the cellular response in macrophages to the Mg17Al12 particles. The experimental results indicated that no hemolysis was found and an excellent cytocompatibility was also proved for the Mg17Al12 second phase when co-cultured with L929 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. Macrophage phagocytosis co-culture test revealed that Mg17Al12 particles exerted no harmful effect on RAW264.7 macrophages and could be phagocytized by the RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the possible inflammatory reaction and metabolic way for Mg17Al12 phase were also discussed in detail. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of Al on Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Nd Casting Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Chen, Yanhong; Guo, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Al on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy was investigated systematically by a series of microstructural analysis, solidification analysis and tensile tests. The results show that Al has an obvious refining effect on the as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy. With increasing Al content, the grain size of the as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy decreases firstly, then increases slightly after the Al content reaching 3 wt.%, and the minimum grain size of the Mg-3Nd alloy is 48 ± 4.0 μm. The refining mechanism can be attributed to the formation of Al2Nd particles, which play an important role in the heterogeneous nucleation. The strength and elongation of the Mg-3Nd alloy refined by Al also increase with increasing Al content and slightly decrease when the Al content is more than 3 wt.%, and the strengthening mechanism is attributed to the grain refinement as well as dispersed intermetallic particles. Furthermore, the microstructural thermal stability of the Mg-3Nd-3Al alloy is higher than that of the Mg-3Nd-0.5Zr alloy. Overall, the Mg-3Nd alloy with Al addition is a novel alloy with wide and potential application prospects.

  16. Numerical study of stress distribution and size effect during AZ31 nanoindentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šiška, Filip; Guo, T.; Stratil, Luděk; Čížek, J.; Barnett, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, JAN (2017), s. 393-399 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21292Y Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Crystal plasticity * FEM * Magnesium alloys * Nano indentation * Twinning Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.292, year: 2016

  17. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  18. Two main and a new type rare earth elements in Mg alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys stand for the lightest structure engineering materials. Moreover, the strengthening of Mg alloys in ductility, toughness and corrosion predominates their wide applications. With adding rare earth elements in Mg, the mechanical properties will be improved remarkably, especially their plasticity and strength. A brief overview of the addition of rare earth elements for Mg alloys is shown. The basic mechanisms of strengthening Mg alloys with rare earth elements are reviewed, including the solid solution strengthening, grain refinement and long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. Furthermore, the available rare earth elements are summarized by type, chemical or physical effects and other unique properties. Finally, some challenge problems that the research is facing and future expectations of ra-re-earth Mg alloys are stated and discussed.

  19. Biodegradability engineering of biodegradable Mg alloys: Tailoring the electrochemical properties and microstructure of constituent phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Pil-Ryung; Han, Hyung-Seop; Yang, Gui-Fu; Kim, Yu-Chan; Hong, Ki-Ha; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jung, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Kim, Young-Yul; Cho, Sung-Youn; Byun, Ji Young; Lee, Kang-Sik; Yang, Seok-Jo; Seok, Hyun-Kwang

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-based alloys with a distinct reduction in hydrogen evolution were prepared through both electrochemical and microstructural engineering of the constituent phases. The addition of Zn to Mg-Ca alloy modified the corrosion potentials of two constituent phases (Mg + Mg2Ca), which prevented the formation of a galvanic circuit and achieved a comparable corrosion rate to high purity Mg. Furthermore, effective grain refinement induced by the extrusion allowed the achievement of much lower corrosion rate than high purity Mg. Animal studies confirmed the large reduction in hydrogen evolution and revealed good tissue compatibility with increased bone deposition around the newly developed Mg alloy implants. Thus, high strength Mg-Ca-Zn alloys with medically acceptable corrosion rate were developed and showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants. PMID:23917705

  20. Thermomechanical Treatments on High Strength Al-Zn-Mg(-Cu) Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Di Russo, E; Conserva, M; Gatto, F

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the metallurgical properties of Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy products processed according to newly developed Final Thermomechanical Treatments (FTMT) of T-AHA type...

  1. Adsorption of arginine, glycine and aspartic acid on Mg and Mg-based alloy surfaces: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhe; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu; Liu, Hairong; Xi, Tingfei; Guan, Shaokang

    2017-07-01

    Studying the adsorption behaviors of biomolecules on the surface of Mg and Mg-based alloy has a fundamental and important role for related applications in biotechnology. In the present work, we systematically investigate and compare the adsorption properties of three typical amino acids, i.e., Arg (arginine), Gly (glycine) and Asp (aspartic acid), which form RGD tripeptide, on the Mg (0 0 0 1) surface with various doping (Zn, Y, and Nd), and aim to realize proper binding between biomolecules and Mg and Mg-based biomedical materials. Our results show that flat adsorption configurations of the functional groups binding to the surfaces are favored in energy for all the three selected amino acids. In specific, for the amino acids adsorped on clean Mg (0 0 0 1) surface, the adsorption energy (Eads) of Arg is found to be -1.67 eV for the most stable configuration, with amino and guanidyl groups binding with the surface. However, Gly (Asp) is found to binding with the surface through amino and carboxyl groups, with a -1.16 eV (-1.15 eV) binding energy. On the 2% Zn doped Mg (0 0 0 1) alloy surface (Mg-Zn (2%)), the Eads are significantly increased to be -1.91 eV, -1.32 eV and -1.35 eV for Arg, Gly and Asp, respectively. While the Mg-Y (1%) and Mg-Nd (1%) slightly weaken the adsorption of three amino acids. Moreover, we have performed detail discussions of the binding properties between amino acids and surfaces by projected density of states (PDOS) combined with charge transfer analyses. Our studies provide a comprehensive understanding on the interactions between amino acids and Mg and Mg-based alloy surfaces, with respect to facilitate the applications of Mg and Mg-based biomedical alloys in biosensing, drug delivery, biomolecule coating and other fields in biotechnology.

  2. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kaczorowski; A. Krzyńska

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg) type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening ...

  3. Microstructure evolution of Al/Mg butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc with Zn filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fei; Zhang Zhaodong; Liu Liming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seam, Gas tungsten arc welding method with pure Zn filler metal was chosen to join Mg alloy and Al alloy. The microstructures, phases, element distribution and fracture morphology of welding seams were examined. The results indicate that there was a transitional zone in the width of 80–100 μm between the Mg alloy substrate and fusion zone. The fusion zone was mainly composed of MgZn 2 , Zn-based solid solution and Al-based solid solution. The welding seam presented distinct morphology in different location owning to the quite high cooling rate of the molten pool. The addition of Zn metal could prevent the formation of Mg–Al intermetallics and form the alloyed welding seam during welding. Therefore, the tensile strengths of joints have been significantly improved compared with those of gas tungsten arc welded joints without Zn metal added. Highlights: ► Mg alloy AZ31B and Al alloy 6061 are welded successfully. ► Zinc wire is employed as a filler metal to form the alloyed welding seam. ► An alloyed welding seam is benefit for improving of the joint tensile strength.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and damping properties of biomedical Mg-Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chang Yin dental clinic, No.46-1, Yangming St., Banqiao City, Taipei County 220, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chen, May-Show [Research Center for Biomedical Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ling-Hung [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Zong, E-mail: chinaowu@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang, E-mail: klou@tmu.edu.tw [Research Center for Biomedical Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduated Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chih-Hua [Research Center for Biomedical Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > When the as-quenched Mg-1Zr alloy was aged at temperatures ranging from 200 deg. C to 500 deg. C, a microstructural transformation sequence was found to be {alpha}-Mg {yields} ({alpha}-Mg + twin{sub dense}) {yields} ({alpha}-Mg + twin{sub loose}) {yields} ({alpha}-Mg + {alpha}-Zr). > As the as-quenched Mg-1Zr alloy was subjected to aging treatment at 300 deg. C for 16 h, it exhibited the maximum damping properties. > The twin structure plays a crucial role in increasing the damping capacity of the Mg-1Zr alloy. - Abstract: In this study, we elucidated the effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and damping properties of the biomedical Mg-1 wt% Zr (K1) alloy by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and experimental model analysis. The following microstructural transformation occurred when the as-quenched (AQ, i.e., solution heat treated and quenched) K1 alloy was subjected to aging treatment in the temperature range 200-500 deg. C: {alpha}-Mg {yields} ({alpha}-Mg + twin{sub dense}) {yields} ({alpha}-Mg + twin{sub loose}) {yields} ({alpha}-Mg + {alpha}-Zr). This microstructural transformation was accompanied by variations in the damping capacity. The damping properties of the AQ K1 alloy subjected to aging treatment at 300 deg. C for 16 h were the best among those of the alloys investigated in the present study. The presence of twin structures in the alloy matrix was thought to play a crucial role in increasing the damping capacity of the K1 alloy. Hence, we state that a combination of solution treatment and aging is an effective means of improving the damping capacity of biomedical K1 alloys.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and damping properties of biomedical Mg-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Chen, May-Show; Lin, Ling-Hung; Lin, Ming-Hong; Wu, Ching-Zong; Ou, Keng-Liang; Yu, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → When the as-quenched Mg-1Zr alloy was aged at temperatures ranging from 200 deg. C to 500 deg. C, a microstructural transformation sequence was found to be α-Mg → (α-Mg + twin dense ) → (α-Mg + twin loose ) → (α-Mg + α-Zr). → As the as-quenched Mg-1Zr alloy was subjected to aging treatment at 300 deg. C for 16 h, it exhibited the maximum damping properties. → The twin structure plays a crucial role in increasing the damping capacity of the Mg-1Zr alloy. - Abstract: In this study, we elucidated the effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and damping properties of the biomedical Mg-1 wt% Zr (K1) alloy by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and experimental model analysis. The following microstructural transformation occurred when the as-quenched (AQ, i.e., solution heat treated and quenched) K1 alloy was subjected to aging treatment in the temperature range 200-500 deg. C: α-Mg → (α-Mg + twin dense ) → (α-Mg + twin loose ) → (α-Mg + α-Zr). This microstructural transformation was accompanied by variations in the damping capacity. The damping properties of the AQ K1 alloy subjected to aging treatment at 300 deg. C for 16 h were the best among those of the alloys investigated in the present study. The presence of twin structures in the alloy matrix was thought to play a crucial role in increasing the damping capacity of the K1 alloy. Hence, we state that a combination of solution treatment and aging is an effective means of improving the damping capacity of biomedical K1 alloys.

  6. Preparation and characterization of porous Mg-Zn-Ca alloy by space holder technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annur, D.; Lestari, Franciska P.; Erryani, A.; Sijabat, Fernando A.; G. P. Astawa, I. N.; Kartika, I.

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium had been recently researched as a future biodegradable implant material. In the recent study, porous Mg-Zn-Ca alloys were developed using space holder technique in powder metallurgy process. Carbamide (10-20%wt) was added into Mg-6Zn-1Ca (in wt%) alloy system as a space holder to create porous structure material. Sintering process was done in a tube furnace under Argon atmosphere in 610 °C for 5 hours. Porous structure of the resulted alloy was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), while the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Further, mechanical properties of porous Mg-Zn-Ca alloy was examined through compression testing. Microstructure characterization showed higher content of Carbamide in the alloy would give different type of pores. However, compression test showed that mechanical properties of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy would decrease significantly when higher content of carbamide was added.

  7. Corrosion protection of Mg-5Li alloy with epoxy coatings containing polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yawei; Huang Hui; Zhang Tao; Meng Guozhe; Wang Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    The protective ability of epoxy coating containing polyaniline (PANI coating) on Mg-5Li alloy in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution has been studied by means of EIS and electrochemical noise measurements (EN). The results of EN and EIS revealed that the PANI coating protected Mg-5Li alloy from corrosion perfectly. XPS results indicated that the presence of polyaniline changed the chemical structure of the corrosion film on the alloy surface. An analysis of the electrochemical noise data based on stochastic analysis indicated that the corrosion growth probability of Mg-5Li alloy beneath the coating was decreased by the addition of polyaniline.

  8. The synthesis and characterization of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy by powder metallurgy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annur, Dhyah; Franciska, P.L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Amal, M. Ikhlasul; Kartika, Ika, E-mail: pepeng2000@yahoo.com [Research center for Metallurgy and Material, Indonesian Institute of Science (Indonesia); Sitorus, Lyandra S. [Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Known for its biodegradation and biocompatible properties, magnesium alloys have gained many interests to be researched as implant material. In this study, Mg-3Zn-1Ca, Mg-29Zn-1Ca, and Mg-53Zn-4.3Ca (in wt%) were synthesized by means of powder metallurgy method. The compression strength and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy were thoroughly examined. The microstructures of the alloy were characterized using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope, and also X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion resistance were evaluated using electrochemical analysis. The result indicated that Mg- Zn- Ca alloy could be synthesized using powder metallurgy method. This study showed that Mg-29Zn-1Ca would make the highest mechanical strength up to 159.81 MPa. Strengthening mechanism can be explained by precipitation hardening and grain refinement mechanism. Phase analysis had shown the formation of α Mg, MgO, and intermetallic phases: Mg2Zn11 and also Ca2Mg6Zn3. However, when the composition of Zn reach 53% weight, the mechanical strength will be decreasing. In addition, all of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy studied here had better corrosion resistance (Ecorr around -1.4 VSCE) than previous study of Mg. This study indicated that Mg- 29Zn- 1Ca alloy can be further analyzed to be a biodegradable implant material.

  9. Variation of equation of state parameters in the Mg2(Si 1-xSnx) alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, Jiji Thomas Joseph; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance peaks up for intermediate Mg2(Si 1-x:Snx) alloys, but not for isomorphic and isoelectronic Mg2(Si1-xGex) alloys. A comparative study of the equation of state parameters is performed using density functional theory, Green

  10. Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Hamzah, E; Low, H T; Kasiri-Asgarani, M; Farahany, S; Akbari, E; Cho, M H

    2017-04-01

    In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg 2 (Zn, Al) 11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5MgAl-0.3MgAl-0.1MgAl. The cytotoxicity tests exhibited that the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy presents higher viability of MC3T3-E1 cell compared to the Zn-0.5Al alloy, which suggested good biocompatibility. The antibacterial activity result of both Zn-0.5Al and Zn-0.5Al-Mg alloys against Escherichia coli presented some antibacterial activity, while the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg significantly prohibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Thus, Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy with appropriate mechanical properties, low corrosion rate, good biocompatibility and antibacterial activities was believed to be a good candidate as a biodegradable implant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  12. The Influence of Alloy Composition on the Hot Tear Susceptibility of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee-Hun; Jo, Jae-Sub; Sim, Woo-Jeong; Im, Hang-Joon

    2012-01-01

    Hot tearing was the most significant casting defect when the castability evaluation of the Al- Zn-Mg-Cu alloy system was conducted. It was related to the solidification range of the alloy. Therefore, the hot tear susceptibility of the AA7075 alloy, whose solidification range is the widest, was evaluated. The hot tear susceptibility was evaluated by using a mold for a hot tearing test designed to create the condition for the occurrence of hot tear in 8 steps. According to the tearing location and shape, a hot tear susceptibility index (HTS) score was measured. The solidification range of each alloy and hot tear susceptibility was compared and thereafter the microstructure of a near tear defect was observed. As a result, the HTS of the AA7075 alloy was found to be 67. Also, the HTS in relation to a change in Zn, Mg, Cu composition showed a difference of about 6-11% compared to the AA7075 alloy.

  13. In vitro study of nanostructured diopside coating on Mg alloy orthopedic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.razavi@okstate.edu [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savabi, Omid [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, Daryoosh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@okstate.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The high corrosion rate of Mg alloys has hindered their application in various areas, particularly for orthopedic applications. In order to decrease the corrosion rate and to improve the bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy, nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) has been coated on AZ91 Mg alloy using a combined micro arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The crystalline structure, the morphology and the composition of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, and compression test were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, the in vitro bioactivity and the mechanical stability of the samples, respectively. The cytocompatibility of the samples was tested by the cell viability and the cell attachment of L-929 cells. The results confirmed that the diopside coating not only slows down the corrosion rate, but also enhances the in vitro bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of AZ91 Mg alloy. Therefore, Mg alloy coated with nanostructured diopside offers a promising approach for biodegradable bone implants. - Highlights: • The diopside coating was applied on Mg alloy using the combined MAO and EPD methods. • The corrosion resistance of the diopside coated Mg alloy was noticeably improved. • The in vitro bioactivity of the diopside coated Mg alloy was considerably increased. • The mechanical stability of biodegradable Mg alloy was enhanced by diopside coating. • The cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy was improved employing diopside coating.

  14. Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Mg-Al-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn-In Alloys as Anode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their corrosion mechanisms and discharge behaviors. The results suggested that indium exerts an improvement on both the corrosion rate and the discharge activity of Mg-Al-Zn alloy via the effects of grain refining, β-Mg17Al12 precipitation, dissolving-reprecipitation, and self-peeling. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.5%In alloy with the highest corrosion rate at free corrosion potential did not perform desirable discharge activity indicating that the barrier effect caused by the β-Mg17Al12 phase would have been enhanced under the conditions of anodic polarization. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.0%In alloy with a relative low corrosion rate and a high discharge activity is a promising anode material for both cathodic protection and chemical power source applications.

  15. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys. A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Miltin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on hydrogen sorption properties of cosputtered 1.5 micrometer thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. We show that ternary Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C, the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt.% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable for over 100 ab- and desorption cycles for Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. No degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. Based on these observations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. For Mg-Fe-Ti, encouraging preliminary results on multilayered systems are also presented. (orig.)

  16. High Temperature Properties and Recent Research Trend of Mg-RE Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soo Woo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    For the applications in automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries, the lightest structural Mg alloys have received much attention since 2000. There has been some progress for the improvement of the mechanical properties such as room temperature strength, formability and mechanical anisotropy. However, the high temperature strength of Mg alloys is very low to be used for the parts and structures of high temperature conditions. For the last decade, considerable efforts are concentrated for the development of Mg alloys to be used at high temperature. Newly developing Mg-RE alloys are the good examples for the high temperature use. In this regard, this review paper introduces the recent research trends for the development of Mg-RE alloys strengthened with some precipitates and the long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures related RE elements.

  17. High Temperature Properties and Recent Research Trend of Mg-RE Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Soo Woo

    2017-01-01

    For the applications in automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries, the lightest structural Mg alloys have received much attention since 2000. There has been some progress for the improvement of the mechanical properties such as room temperature strength, formability and mechanical anisotropy. However, the high temperature strength of Mg alloys is very low to be used for the parts and structures of high temperature conditions. For the last decade, considerable efforts are concentrated for the development of Mg alloys to be used at high temperature. Newly developing Mg-RE alloys are the good examples for the high temperature use. In this regard, this review paper introduces the recent research trends for the development of Mg-RE alloys strengthened with some precipitates and the long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures related RE elements.

  18. Phase diagrams of aluminium alloys of Al-Cu-Mg, Al-Mg-Si-Cu, and Al-Mg-Li system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ber, L.B.; Kaputkin, E.Ya.

    2001-01-01

    Isothermal diagrams of phase transformations (DPT) and temperature-time charts (TTC) of variation of electric conductivity and of mechanical features at tension were plotted following thermal treatment according to the pattern of direct hardening and ageing and according to the pattern of normal aging for D16 commercial alloy, Al-Cu-Mg model alloy of the same system, AD37 commercial alloys of Al-Mg-Si-Cu and 1424 one of Al-Li-Mg system. Phase transformations were studied by means of fluorescence electron microscopy, micro-X-ray spectral analysis, X-ray phase analysis of single crystals and polycrystals and differential scanning calorimetry. For every alloy comparison of TTC and DPT enables to clarity the mechanism of phase composition effect on features and to optimize conditions of hardening cooling and ageing [ru

  19. Facile fabrication of hydrophobic surfaces on mechanically alloyed-Mg/HA/TiO{sub 2}/MgO bionanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalajabadi, Shahrouz Zamani [Medical Devices and Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Devices and Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Izman, Sudin; Mohd Yusop, Mohd Zamri [Department of Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg/HA/TiO{sub 2}-based nanocomposite was produced using mechanical alloying. • The hydrophobic surface coverage was fabricated on the mechanical alloyed samples by annealing. • The morphological characteristics, phase evolution and wettability of nanocomposites and the hydrophobic surface coverage were investigated. • The activation energies and reaction kinetic of the powder mixture of nanocomposites were calculated. - Abstract: The effect of mechanical alloying and post-annealing on the phase evolution, microstructure, wettability and thermal stability of Mg–HA–TiO{sub 2}–MgO composites was investigated in this study. Phase evolution and microstructure analysis were performed using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, as well as the wettability determined by contact angle measurements with SBF. The 16-h mechanical alloying resulted in the formation of MgTiO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}, Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(OH){sub 2} phases and a decrease in wettability of the nanocomposites. A hydrophobic film with hierarchical structures comprising nanoflakes of MgTiO{sub 3}, nano-cuboids of CaTiO{sub 3}, microspheres of Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(OH){sub 2} was successfully constructed on the surface of the Mg-based nanocomposites substrates as a result of the post-annealing process. After 1-h annealing at 630 °C, the synthesized hydrophobic surface on the nanocomposite substrates decreased the wettability, as the 8-h-mechanically alloyed samples exhibited a contact angle close to 93°. The formation activation energies and reaction kinetics of the powder mixture were investigated using differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The released heat, weight loss percentage and reaction kinetics increased, while the formation activation energies of the exothermic reactions decreased following an increase in the milling time.

  20. Stability of rapidly quenched and hydrogenated Mg-Ni-Y and Mg-Cu-Y alloys in extreme alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebert, A.; Khorkounov, B.; Wolff, U.; Mickel, Ch.; Uhlemann, M.; Schultz, L.

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous-nanocrystalline Mg 50 Ni 30 Y 20 and Mg 63 Ni 30 Y 7 and amorphous Mg 65 Cu 25 Y 10 alloys were produced by melt-spinning and characterized regarding their microstructure and thermal behaviour using XRD, TEM and DSC. Their electrochemical behaviour in the as-quenched state and after hydrogen charging at -25 mA/cm 2 for up to 20 h was studied in electrolytes with pH 5-7 and 13, but mainly in a battery electrolyte: 6 M KOH with pH 14.8 by means of anodic and cathodic polarization measurements. In the as-quenched state, the highest alloys stability was observed at pH 13. At pH 14.8, gradual oxidation and dissolution of copper or nickel governs the anodic behaviour before a passive state is attained. The dissolution of nickel is much more inhibited than that of copper due to its lower tendency to form soluble oxidized ions and to a stabilizing effect of higher fractions of yttrium in the alloy on the passivation. By galvanostatic charging, the Mg 65 Cu 25 Y 10 alloy shows the highest hydrogen absorption capacity followed by Mg 50 Ni 30 Y 20 and Mg 63 Ni 30 Y 7 . During the charging process, the alloys exhibit a change in the surface state chemistry, i.e. an enrichment of nickel- or copper-rich species, causing preferential oxidation and dissolution during subsequent exposure under free corrosion and anodic conditions. Mg-Ni-Y alloys demonstrate a higher stability during this treatment in extreme alkaline medium. The reasons for this and consequences regarding the use as electrode materials are discussed in detail

  1. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  2. The Influence of MgH2 on the Assessment of Electrochemical Data to Predict the Degradation Rate of Mg and Mg Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Dieter Mueller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mg and Mg alloys are becoming more and more of interest for several applications. In the case of biomaterial applications, a special interest exists due to the fact that a predictable degradation should be given. Various investigations were made to characterize and predict the corrosion behavior in vitro and in vivo. Mostly, the simple oxidation of Mg to Mg2+ ions connected with adequate hydrogen development is assumed, and the negative difference effect (NDE is attributed to various mechanisms and electrochemical results. The aim of this paper is to compare the different views on the corrosion pathway of Mg or Mg alloys and to present a neglected pathway based on thermodynamic data as a guideline for possible reactions combined with experimental observations of a delay of visible hydrogen evolution during cyclic voltammetry. Various reaction pathways are considered and discussed to explain these results, like the stability of the Mg+ intermediate state, the stability of MgH2 and the role of hydrogen overpotential. Finally, the impact of MgH2 formation is shown as an appropriate base for the prediction of the degradation behavior and calculation of the corrosion rate of Mg and Mg alloys.

  3. Corrosion behaviour of powder metallurgical and cast Al-Zn-Mg base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameljuk, A.V.; Neikov, O.D.; Krajnikov, A.V.; Milman, Yu.V.; Thompson, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg base alloys produced by powder metallurgy and casting has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation in 0.3% and 3% NaCl solutions. The influence of alloy production route on microstructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. An improvement in performance of powder metallurgy (PM) materials, compared with the cast alloy, was evident in solutions of low chloride concentration; less striking differences were revealed in high chloride concentration. Both powder metallurgy and cast alloys show two main types of precipitates, which were identified as Zn-Mg and Zr-Sc base intermetallic phases. The microstructure of the PM alloys is refined compared with the cast material, which assists understanding of the corrosion performance. The corrosion process commences with dissolution of the Zn-Mg base phases, with the relatively coarse phases present in the cast alloy showing ready development of corrosion

  4. A study on the composition optimization and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.H.; Su, G.C.; Han, Y.Y.; Ai, X.H.; Yan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si cast alloys with different chemical compositions were investigated using an orthogonal test method. The optimized chemical compositions of Al alloy are given in wt% as follows: 7.0%Si-0.35%Mg-2.0%Cu-0.2%Mn-0.2%Ni-0.1%V-0.8%RE-89.35%Al. The optimized Al-Mg-Si alloy with metal mold casting had excellent mechanical properties. The softening resistance of the optimized alloy was better than that of ZL101 at elevated temperatures. The scanning electron microscopy fractographs of the tensile samples of ZL101 and optimized Al alloy at different magnifications revealed that all the specimens were fractured in a ductile manner, consisting of well-developed dimples over the entire surface. The alloys failed in a mixed-mode fracture, comprised predominantly of transgranular shears and a small amount of quasi-cleavages.

  5. Microstructure evolution and texture development in thermomechanically processed Mg-Li-Al based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Govind [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (India); Shekhar, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermomechanical processing of novel LAT 971 and LATZ 9531 Mg-Al-Li based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural deviation from the equilibrium phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disparity in texture of these alloys after hot-rolling (recrystallization and grain growth). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of alloying and phase distribution in affecting the texture/interplaner spacing. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of alloying and thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and texture evolution on the two Mg-Li-Al based alloys, namely Mg-9 wt% Li-7 wt% Al-1 wt% Sn (LAT971) and Mg-9 wt% Li-5 wt% Al-3 wt% Sn-1 wt% Zn (LATZ9531) has been elicited. Novel Mg-Li-Al based alloys were cast (induction melting under protective atmosphere) followed by hot rolling at {approx}573 K with a cumulative reduction of five. A contrary dual phase dendritic microstructure rich in {alpha}-Mg, instead of {beta}-Li phase predicted by equilibrium phase diagram of Mg-Li binary alloy was observed. Preferential presence of Mg-Li-Sn primary precipitates (size 4-10 {mu}m) within {alpha}-Mg phase and Mg-Li-Al secondary precipitates (<3 {mu}m) interspersed in {beta}-Li indicated their degree of dissolution during hot-rolling and homogenization in the dual phase matrix. Presence of Al, Sn and Zn alloying elements in the Mg-Li based alloy has resulted an unusual dual-phase microstructure, change in the lattice parameter, and intriguing texture evolution after hot-rolling of cast LAT 971 and LATZ9531 alloy. Strong texture was absent in the as-cast samples whereas texture development after hot-rolling revealed an increased activity of the non-basal (101{sup Macron }0) slip planes. The quantification of the grain average misorientation (less than 2 Degree-Sign ) using electron backscattered diffraction confirmed the presence of strain free grains in majority of the grains (fraction >0.75) after hot-rolling of Mg

  6. Reactive wetting of amorphous silica by molten Al–Mg alloys and their interfacial structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Laixin [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Ping, E-mail: shenping@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhang, Dan [Editorial Office, Journal of Bionic Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Jiang, Qichuan [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • The wettability improves with increasing Mg concentration and temperature. • Reaction product zone consists of layered structures relating with Mg concentration. • Formation of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO at the interface does not promote the wettability. • Formation of Mg{sub 2}Si plays a dominant role in promoting the wettability. • Anomalous recession of the triple line was mainly due to diminishing Mg in the alloy. - Abstract: The reactive wetting of amorphous silica substrates by molten Al–Mg alloys over a wide composition range was studied using a dispensed sessile drop method in a flowing Ar atmosphere. The effects of the nominal Mg concentration and temperature on the wetting and interfacial microstructures were discussed. The initial contact angle for pure Al on the SiO{sub 2} surface was 115° while that for pure Mg was 35° at 1073 K. For the Al–Mg alloy drop, it decreased with increasing nominal Mg concentration. The reaction zone was characterized by layered structures, whose formation was primarily controlled by the variation in the alloy concentration due to the evaporation of Mg and the interfacial reaction from the viewpoint of thermodynamics as well as by the penetration or diffusion of Mg, Al and Si from the viewpoint of kinetics. In addition, the effects of the reaction and the evaporation of Mg on the movement of the triple line were examined. The spreading of the Al–Mg alloy on the SiO{sub 2} surface was mainly attributed to the formation of Mg{sub 2}Si at the interface and the recession of the triple line to the diminishing Mg concentration in the alloy.

  7. A Stochastic mesoscopic model for predicting the globular grain structure and solute redistribution in cast alloys at low superheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastac, Laurentiu; El Kaddah, Nagy

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that casting at low superheat has a strong influence on the solidification morphology and macro- and microstructures of the cast alloy. This paper describes a stochastic mesoscopic solidification model for predicting the grain structure and segregation in cast alloy at low superheat. This model was applied to predict the globular solidification morphology and size as well as solute redistribution of Al in cast Mg AZ31B alloy at superheat of 5°C produced by the Magnetic Suspension Melting (MSM) process, which is an integrated containerless induction melting and casting process. The castings produced at this low superheat have fine globular grain structure, with an average grain size of 80 μm, which is about 3 times smaller than that obtained by conventional casting techniques. The stochastic model was found to reasonably predict the observed grain structure and Al microsegregation. This makes the model a useful tool for controlling the structure of cast magnesium alloys.

  8. The study on binary Mg-Co hydrogen storage alloys with BCC phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Tsushio, Yoshinori; Enoki, Hirotoshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2005-01-01

    Novel Mg-Co binary alloys were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. These alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), pressure-composition-isotherms measurements (P-C-T) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both XRD Rietveld analysis and TEM observation confirmed that these binary alloys contain BCC phase and that the BCC phase existed in the range from 37 to 80 at.% Co. The lattice parameter of the BCC phase increased with the increase of the Co content from 37 to 50 at.%. When the Co content reached 50 at.%, the lattice parameter reached a maximum value, and then turned to decrease gradually with further increase of the Co content. Most of Mg-Co BCC alloys absorbed hydrogen at 373 K under 6 MPa of hydrogen pressure. The Mg 60 Co 40 alloy showed the highest hydrogen absorption capacity, about 2.7 mass% hydrogen. However, all the Mg-Co alloys studied did not desorb hydrogen at 373 K. By means of DSC measurements and in situ XRD analysis, it was found that under 4 MPa hydrogen atmosphere, Mg 50 Co 50 alloy transformed from BCC solid solution to Mg 2 CoH 5 tetragonal hydride at 413 K

  9. Wear Behavior and Microstructure of Mg-Sn Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Shen, Yen-Chen; Chao, Chuen-Guang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2017-11-16

    Mg-5wt.% Sn alloy is often used in portable electronic devices and automobiles. In this study, mechanical properties of Mg-5wt.% Sn alloy processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) were characterized. More precisely, its hardness and wear behavior were measured using Vickers hardness test and a pin-on-disc wear test. The microstructures of ECAE-processed Mg-Sn alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. ECAE process refined the grain sizes of the Mg-Sn alloy from 117.6 μm (as-cast) to 88.0 μm (one pass), 49.5 μm (two passes) and 24.4 μm (four passes), respectively. Meanwhile, the hardness of the alloy improved significantly. The maximum wear resistance achieved in the present work was around 73.77 m/mm³, which was obtained from the Mg-Sn alloy treated with a one-pass ECAE process with a grain size of 88.0 μm. The wear resistance improvement was caused by the grain size refinement and the precipitate of the second phase, Mg₂Sn against the oxidation of the processed alloy. The as-cast Mg-Sn alloy with the larger grain size, i.e., 117.6 μm, underwent wear mechanisms, mainly adhesive wear and abrasive wear. In ECAE-processed Mg-Sn alloy, high internal energy occurred due to the high dislocation density and the stress field produced by the plastic deformation, which led to an increased oxidation rate of the processed alloy during sliding. Therefore, the oxidative wear and a three-body abrasive wear in which the oxide debris acted as the three-body abrasive components became the dominant factors in the wear behavior, and as a result, reduced the wear resistance in the multi-pass ECAE-processed alloy.

  10. Properties of mechanically alloyed Mg-Ni-Ti ternary hydrogen storage alloys for Ni-MH batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Stéphane; Roué, Lionel; Huot, Jacques; Schulz, Robert; Aymard, Luc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    MgNiTi x, Mg 1- xTi xNi and MgNi 1- xTi x (with x varying from 0 to 0.5) alloys have been prepared by high energy ball milling and tested as hydrogen storage electrodes. The initial discharge capacities of the Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys are inferior to the MgNi electrode capacity. However, an exception is observed with MgNi 0.95Ti 0.05, which has an initial discharge capacity of 575 mAh/g compared to 522 mAh/g for the MgNi electrode. The Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys show improved cycle life compared to Mg-Ni binary alloys with the same Mg/Ni atomic ratio. The best cycle life is observed with Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode which retains 75% of initial capacity after 10 cycles in comparison to 39% for MgNi electrodes, in addition to improved high-rate dischargeability (HRD). According to the XPS analysis, the cycle life improvement of the Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode can be related to the formation of TiO 2 which limits Mg(OH) 2 formation. The anodic polarization curve of Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode shows that the current related to the active/passive transition is much less important and that the passive region is more extended than for the MgNi electrode but the corrosion of the electrode is still significant. This suggests that the cycle life improvement would be also associated with a decrease of the particle pulverization upon cycling.

  11. Density functional theory (DFT) study on the hydrolysis behavior of degradable Mg/Mg alloys for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Marjan

    Magnesium-based (Mg and/or Mg alloys) materials possess many advantageous physicochemical/biological characteristics such as good biocompatibility and similarity of the mechanical properties to the human bone tissue, which renders this material a promising candidate for the biomedical and implant applications. One of the most attractive features of Mg-based materials is the degradability in the physiological environment. With the burst of research on the biodegradable materials for the healthcare device applications, Mg and its alloys attracted a strong attention in the bioengineering field in recent years. However, the major limitation of applying Mg-based materials to biomedical applications is the fast degradation/corrosion rate with regards to the healing process time-span. In the present thesis, an atomistic model employing the density-functional theory (DFT) has been developed to study the hydrolysis process by understanding the influences of commonly used alloying elements (zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), aluminum (Al), and yttrium (Y)) and the crystallographic orientation of the dissolution surfaces (basal (0001), prism (1010), and pyramidal (1011) planes) on the corrosion behavior. These parameters are known to strongly impact the initial hydrolysis phenomena of Mg-based materials. To develop the atomistic computational model, we have implemented the Dmol3 software package in conjunction with PBE (Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof) correlation energy functional in the GGA (generalized gradient approximation) scheme. Throughout the thesis, we performed three sets of calculations, i) surface energy, ii) dissolution potential, and iii) water adsorption computations, to examine the hydrolysis mechanism and the subsequent corrosion/degradation of Mg/Mg alloys. The total energy changes of various Mg-based systems in different conditions for these surface energies, dissolution behavior, and tendency of the system for adsorbing the water molecule were quantified. The results

  12. Non-isothermal precipitation behaviors of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, M.X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.K.; Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The non-isothermal precipitation behaviors of Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys with different Zn contents were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, hardness measurement and high resolution transmission electron microscope characterization. The results show that Zn addition has a significant effect on the GP zone dissolution and precipitation of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys. And their activation energies change with the changes of Zn content and aging conditions. Precipitation kinetics can be improved by adding 0.5 wt% or 3.0 wt%Zn, while be suppressed after adding 1.5 wt%Zn. The Mg-Si precipitates (GP zones and β″) are still the main precipitates in the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys after heated up to 250 °C, and no Mg-Zn precipitates are observed in the Zn-added alloy due to the occurrence of Mg-Zn precipitates reversion. The measured age-hardening responses of the alloys are corresponding to the predicted results by the established precipitation kinetic equations. Additionally, a double-hump phenomenon of hardness appears in the artificial aging of pre-aged alloy with 3.0 wt% Zn addition, which resulted from the formation of pre-β″ and β″ precipitates. Finally, the precipitation mechanism of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents was proposed based on the microstructure evolution and interaction forces between Mg, Si and Zn atoms.

  13. Effects of Sm addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Mg-10Y alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Quanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further increase the mechanical properties, 0.5wt.% Sm was introduced to a Mg-10Y alloy in this study. The effects of Sm addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the Mg-10Y alloy, especially the aged Mg-10Y alloy, were investigated. The microstructure observation and tensile tests were performed by using an optical microscopy, a scanning electron microscopy and a universal material testing machine, respectively. The phase analysis was performed using X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the 0.5wt.% Sm addition can not only promote the formation of fine and dispersed Mg24Y5 phases, but also improve their morphology and distribution; it also increases the thermal stability of Mg24Y5 phases. Sm addition is seen to increase the ultimate tensile strength of Mg-10Y alloy at elevated temperatures (200, 250, 300 and 350 ℃, while decrease the elongation. But the elongation is still up to 7.5% even at 350 ℃. In the range of 250 ℃ to 300℃, the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy reaches its maximum (with a range average of 235 MPa and is not sensitive to the temperature change, which is very useful to the application of heat-resistant magnesium alloys. Even at 350 ℃, the ultimate tensile strength of Mg-10Y-0.5Sm is still up to 155 MPa. Considering both of the ultimate tensile strength and elongation, the maximum application temperature of the Mg-10Y-0.5Sm alloy can be up to 300 ℃. The strengthening mechanisms of Mg-10Y-0.5Sm alloy are mainly attributed to dispersion strengthening of Mg24Y5 phase particles with a certain solubility of Sm and grain refinement strengthening of α-Mg matrix.

  14. In vitro and in vivo corrosion measurements of Mg-6Zn alloys in the bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigang; Yan, Jun; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Song; Wang, Xiaohu; Yuan, Ziming; Zhang, Xiaonong; Zhao, Changli; Zheng, Qi

    2014-09-01

    Mg-6Zn alloy was studied as candidate biodegradable metallic implants for the common bile duct (CBD) in terms of its in vitro corrosion and in vivo corrosion. Electrochemical measurements, immersion tests and hydrogen evolution were performed in the bile and Hanks' solution to evaluate the in vitro degradation behavior of Mg-6Zn alloy. The results showed that the degradation rate and hydrogen evolution were higher when Mg-6Zn alloy immersed in the bile than in the Hanks' solution. The polarization resistance of the samples in the Hanks' solution was about 1.5 times to that in the bile. In the in vivo experiment, Mg-6Zn alloy stents were inserted in CBD of 42 rabbits, and CT scans, the value of total bilirubin (TB) and in vivo corrosion rate were determined. From the results of CT images and the fluctuations of TB values, it can be seen that the stent was degraded gradually in CBD. After 1 week post-implantation, the majority of the Mg-6Zn alloy sample remained in the CBD. Usually the required support time for CBD stent was approximately 7-10 days, thus the Mg-6Zn alloy stent was very close to the clinical requirement for CBD support materials. After three weeks, the residual weight of the Mg-6Zn alloy was only 9% of the original weight. The in vivo corrosion rate of Mg-6Zn alloy was ~0.107 mm·year(-1), which was much lower than that calculated in vitro (~0.72 mm·year(-1) by electrochemical test). Based on our research, there is promising for the Mg-6Zn alloy in CBD applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczorowski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening heat treatment. The age hardened specimens were evaluated using tensile test, hardness measurements and impact test. Moreover, the structure investigation were carried out using either conventional light Metallography and scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy. The two last methods were used for fractography observations and precipitation process observations respectively. It was concluded that the changes in chemical composition which can reach even 2,5wt.% cause essential differences of the structure and mechanical properties of the alloys. As followed from quantitative evaluation and as could be predicted theoretically, copper and silicon mostly influenced the mechanical properties of AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys. Moreover it was showed that the total concentration of alloying elements accelerated and intensifies the process of decomposition of supersaturated solid solution. The increase of Cu and Mg concentration increased the density of precipitates. It increases of strength properties of the alloys which are accompanied with decreasing in ductility.

  16. Hardness and microstructure of Al-10.0 wt% Zn-4.0 wt% Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmad, W.; Ali, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Al-Zn-Mg alloys are widely used in industries as these have excellent physical and mechanical properties. However some aspects of the effect of heat treatment on these alloys are not yet clear. In order to understand the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, microstructure of a locally prepared alloy Al-10.0 wt% Zn-4.0 wt% Mg heat treated under different conditions has been examined in scanning electron microscope/electron probe micro analyser. Precipitates MgZn/sub 2/, MgZn/sub 4/ and Mg/sub 2/Zn/sub 11/ have been observed and these are caused by heat treatment. Correlation between these precipitates and Vickers's hardness has also been studied. In the present paper results of this investigation have been presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Effects of Yb on the mechanical properties and microstructures of an Al-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Min; Wu Zhenggang; He Yuehui

    2008-01-01

    This paper reported a first study of the effects of Yb on the microstructures and mechanical properties of an extruded Al-Mg alloy. It has been shown that the addition of 0.3 wt.% Yb decreases the mechanical properties of the alloy since Mg- and Yb-containing constituents decrease the concentration of Mg solute atoms in Al matrix, and thus the solution strengthening effect. However, the addition of 1 wt.% Yb substantially improves the mechanical behavior of the alloy because the concentration of Yb solute atoms in Al matrix is high enough to generate solution strengthening effect. The improvement in the mechanical properties is due to the large work-hardening and high dislocation density caused by the interaction between dislocations and Yb and Mg solute atoms. The Yb and Mg atoms inhibit the dynamic recovery and recrystallization of the alloy, thus provide a uniformly distributed dislocation structure with high density

  18. Low cycle fatigue behavior of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is a main failure mode for magnesium and other alloys. It is beneficial for fatigue design and fatigue life improvement to investigate the low cycle fatigue behavior of magnesium alloys. In order to investigate the low cycle fatigue behavior of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy, the strain controlled fatigue experiments were performed at room temperature and fatigue fracture surfaces of specimens were observed with scanning election microscopy for the alloys under die-cast and aged states. Cyclic stress response curves, strain amplitude versus reversals to failure curve, total strain amplitude versus fatigue life curves and cyclic stress-strain curves of Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys were analyzed. The results show that the Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys under die-cast (F and aged (T5 states exhibit cyclic strain hardening under the applied total strain amplitudes, and aging treatment could greatly increase the cyclic stress amplitudes of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys. The relationships between the plastic strain amplitude, the elastic strain amplitude and reversals to failure of Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy under different treatment states could be described by Coffin-Manson and Basquin equations, respectively. Observations on the fatigue fracture surface of specimens reveal that the fatigue cracks initiate on the surface of specimens and propagate transgranularly.

  19. Mechanical and corrosion properties of binary Mg-Dy alloys for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lei, E-mail: lei.yang@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Yuanding, Huang; Qiuming, Peng; Feyerabend, Frank; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Willumeit, Regine; Hort, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of binary magnesium-dysprosium (Mg-5, 10, 15, 20 wt.% Dy) alloys were investigated for medical applications. In the as-cast condition, the distribution of Dy is quite inhomogeneous. Mg-10Dy alloy exhibits a moderate tensile and compression yield strength, and the best elongation and corrosion resistance. After T4 (solutionizing) treatment, the distribution of Dy becomes homogeneous. The tensile and compression yield strength of all Mg-Dy alloys decreases. The elongation remains unchanged, while the corrosion resistance is largely improved after T4 treatment.

  20. Microstructure and Aging Behavior of Nonflammable AZ91D Mg Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Seok Hong Min; Tae Kwon Ha

    2014-01-01

    Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450oC. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420oC and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y; howeve...

  1. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Xi, T F; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, D Y

    2009-01-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10 5 for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  2. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y; Xi, T F [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Z X [Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, D Y, E-mail: gxn139888@pku.edu.c, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c, E-mail: 8lanqiuxiang@163.co, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.c, E-mail: top5460@163.co, E-mail: xitingfei@tom.co, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.co [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Hi-Tech Park, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10{sup 5} for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  3. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  4. Corrosion of clean Mg-Zr alloys in various basic media for waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, D.; Frizon, F.; Blachere, A.; Bart, F.

    2012-01-01

    The dismantling of UNGG nuclear reactor generates a large volume of fuel decladding. These materials are based on Mg-Zr alloy. The strategy could be to encapsulate these wastes into an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or geo-polymer (aluminosilicate material) in a form suitable for storage. Studies have been performed on Mg or Mg-Al alloy in basic media but no data are available on Mg-Zr behaviour. The influence of representative pore solution of OPC and geo-polymer with Mg-Zr alloy has been studied on corrosion behaviour. Electrochemical methods have been used to determine the corrosion densities at room temperature. Results show that the corrosion densities of Mg-Zr alloy in OPC solution is one order of magnitude more important than in geo-polymer solution environment and effect of inhibiting agent has been undertaken with Mg-Zr alloy. The evaluation of encapsulation of Mg-Zr alloy in OPC and geo-polymer has been done in term of corrosion hydrogen production. (authors)

  5. Microstructure and in vitro degradation performance of Mg-Zn-Mn alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalbino, F; De Negri, S; Scavino, G; Saccone, A

    2013-03-01

    Manganese and zinc were selected as alloying elements to develop a Mg-based ternary alloy for biomedical applications, taking into account the good biocompatibility of these metals. The microstructures of Mg-Zn-Mn alloys containing 0.5 or 1.0 mass% of manganese and 1.0 or 1.5 mass% of zinc were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Their corrosion properties were assessed by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements performed in Ringer's physiological solution that simulates bodily fluids. All tested samples are two-phase alloys formed by a Mg-based matrix, consisting of a Mg-Zn-Mn solid solution, and a Mg-Zn binary phase. The electrochemical results show an improvement of the corrosion behavior of the investigated alloys with increasing Zn and Mn content. This is attributed to the formation of a partially protective Mg(OH)(2) surface film whose protective capabilities are increased by the alloying elements. The reduced influence of the Mg-Zn intermetallic compound on the corrosion rate of Mg-Zn-Mn alloys in the presence of a partially protective surface layer can be ascribed to an increasing resistance between the Mg-Zn-Mn solid solution and the second phase, thereby decreasing the effective driving force for microgalvanic corrosion. Owing to its highest corrosion protective ability, the Mg-1.5Zn-1Mn alloy is a promising candidate for the development of degradable implants, such as screws, plates, and rods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Microstructure features and mechanical properties of a UFG Al-Mg-Si alloy produced via SPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobruk, E; Kazykhanov, V; Valiev, R; Murashkin, M; Sabirov, I

    2014-01-01

    The effect of equal channel angular pressing in parallel channels (ECAP-PC) and subsequient artificial ageing on the microstructure and room temperature mechanical properties of the commercial aluminum alloys 6063 (Al-0.6Mg-0.5Si, wt.%) and 6010 (Al-0.8Mg-1.0Si-0.15Cu-0.25Mn, wt.%) was investigated. It was shown that mechanical strength of the ECAP-PC processed Al alloys is higher compared to that achieved in these alloys after conventional thermo-mechanical processing. Prior ECAP- PC solution treatment and post-ECAP-PC artificial aging can additionally increase the mechanical strength of both Al alloys. Under optimal artificial ageing conditions, the yield strength (YS) of 299 MPa and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 308 MPa was achieved in the 6063 alloy, whereas YS of 423 MPa and UTS of 436 MPa was achieved in the 6010 alloy

  7. Age hardening of a sintered Al-Cu-Mg-Si-(Sn) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, D.; Schaffer, G.B.; Drennan, J.

    2005-01-01

    The age hardening response of a sintered Al-3.8 wt% Cu-1.0 wt% Mg-0.70 wt% Si alloy with and without 0.1 wt% Sn was investigated. The sequence of precipitation was characterised using transmission electron microscopy. The ageing response of the sintered Al-Cu-Mg-Si-(Sn) alloy is similar to that of cognate wrought 2xxx series alloys. Peak hardness was associated with a fine, uniform dispersion of lath shaped precipitates, believed to be either the β'or Q' phase, oriented along α directions and θ' plates lying on {0 0 1} α planes. Natural ageing also resulted in comparable behaviour to that observed in wrought alloys. Porosity in the powder metallurgy alloys did not significantly affect the kinetics of precipitation during artificial ageing. Trace levels of tin, used to aid sintering, slightly reduced the hardening response of the alloy. However, this was compensated for by significant improvements in density and hardness

  8. Influence of Microstructure on Corrosion Property of Mg-Al-Zn Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ja; Na, Seung Chan; Yang, Won Seong; Hwang, WoonSuk; Jang, Si Sung; Yoo, Hwang Ryong

    2006-01-01

    Influence of microstructure on the corrosion property of Mg-Al-Zn Alloy was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization experiments, galvanic coupling experiments, and scanning electron microscopy in sodium chloride solutions. Pitting was the mot common form of attack in chloride solution, and filiform corrosion was also occurred in AZ91D-T4 alloy. On the contrary, filiform attack in the bulk matrix was predominant corrosion form in AZ91D-T6 alloy, and the number and size of pit were decreased than those of AZ91D-T4 alloy. Galvanic coupling effect between Mg 17 Al 12 and matrix was existed, but the propagation of galvanic corrosion was localized only near the Mg 17 Al 12 phase in AZ91D-6T alloy. The corrosion resistance of Mg-Al matrix increased with decreasing Al content in the matrix. And, it could be regarded that Al content in the matrix is decreased by precipitation of Mg 17 Al 12 curing the aging treatment and it decreases the anodic reaction rate of the matrix and galvanic effect in AZ91D-T6 alloy. It could be considered that the composition and macrostructure of surface protective layer would be varied by precipitation of Mg 17 Al 12 and subsequent decreasing of Al content in the matrix. And it would contribute the corrosion resistance of AZ91D-T6 aging alloy

  9. Cytotoxicity assessment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on synthesized biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Materials and Biomaterials Research Center (MBMRC), Tehran, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahermanesh, Kobra, E-mail: tahermanesh.k@iums.ac.ir [Endometriosis and Gynecologic Disorders Research Center, Department of Ob. & Gyn., Rasoul-e Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi [Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh [Tissue Engineering Lab, Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razmkhah, Mahboobeh [Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abed, Seyedeh Mehr [School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences (YUMS), Yasuj, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohtasebi, Maryam Sadat [Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, IR (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x = 1, 2 and 3 wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. To understand the in-vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa alloys, ASCs were cultured for 24 and 72 h in contact with 10%, 50% and 100% extraction of all alloys prepared in DMEM. Cell cytotoxicity and viability of ASCs were examined by MTT assay. Alloying elements including Zn and Ca improved the corrosion resistance of alloys were compared with pure Mg. The cytotoxicity results showed that all alloys had no significant adverse effects on cell viability in 24 h. After 72 h, cell viability and proliferation increased in the cells exposed to pure Mg and Mg-2Zn-1Ca extracts. The release of Mg, Zn and Ca ions in culture media had no toxic impacts on ASCs viability and proliferation. Mg-2Zn-1Ca alloy can be suggested as a good candidate to be used in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Short and long term corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys studied • Viability and toxicity of Adipose-derived Stem cells studied with Mg-Zn-Ca alloys • Understanding the morphology of cultured adipose stem cells on Mg alloys • Stem cells on Mg-Zn-Ca alloys could proliferate and expand.

  10. Cytotoxicity assessment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on synthesized biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas; Tahermanesh, Kobra; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Abed, Seyedeh Mehr; Mohtasebi, Maryam Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x = 1, 2 and 3 wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. To understand the in-vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa alloys, ASCs were cultured for 24 and 72 h in contact with 10%, 50% and 100% extraction of all alloys prepared in DMEM. Cell cytotoxicity and viability of ASCs were examined by MTT assay. Alloying elements including Zn and Ca improved the corrosion resistance of alloys were compared with pure Mg. The cytotoxicity results showed that all alloys had no significant adverse effects on cell viability in 24 h. After 72 h, cell viability and proliferation increased in the cells exposed to pure Mg and Mg-2Zn-1Ca extracts. The release of Mg, Zn and Ca ions in culture media had no toxic impacts on ASCs viability and proliferation. Mg-2Zn-1Ca alloy can be suggested as a good candidate to be used in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Short and long term corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys studied • Viability and toxicity of Adipose-derived Stem cells studied with Mg-Zn-Ca alloys • Understanding the morphology of cultured adipose stem cells on Mg alloys • Stem cells on Mg-Zn-Ca alloys could proliferate and expand

  11. FRACTIONAL RECRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS IN DIRECTLY COLD ROLLED Al-Mg, Al-Mg-Sc AND Al-Mg-Sc-Zr ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kaiser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of texture as a function of recrystallization has been characterized for directly cold rolled Al-6Mg, Al-6Mg-0.4Sc and Al-6Mg-0.4Sc-0.2Zr alloys. Samples were annealed isothermally at 400 °C for 1 to 240 minutes to allow recrystallization. Recrystallization kinetics of the alloys is analyzed from the micro-hardness variation. Isothermally annealed samples of aluminum alloys were also studied using JMAK type analysis to see if there exists any correlation between the methods. Recrystallization fraction behavior between two methods the scandium added alloys show the higher variation due to precipitation hardening and higher recrystallization behavior. The scandium and zirconium as a combined shows the more variation due to formation of Al3(Sc, Zr precipitate. From the microstructure it is also observed that the base Al-Mg alloy attained almost fully re-crystallized state after annealing at 400 °C for 60 minutes

  12. Effect of Zr on the Corrosion Properties of Mg-Li-Al Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Ho; Choi, Sang Hyun; Kim, In Bae; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    1994-01-01

    Effect of Zr on the electrochemical corrosion characteristics of Mg-Li-Al alloy has been investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization study. The electrochemical behaviors were evaluated in 0.03% NaCl solution and the solution buffered with KH 2 PO 5 · NaOH at room temperature. It was found that the addition of very small quantity of Zr (0.03wt%) in Mg-Li-Al alloy increased corrosion rates and amount of corrosion products and decreased the pitting resistance of the alloy. From the results it was concluded that Zr which is added to increase the strength of Mg-Li-Al alloy is harmful to corrosion properties of the alloy

  13. Influence of boron addition on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of AZ91 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, M.; Srinivasan, A.; Ravi, K.R.; Pillai, U.T.S.; Pai, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the effect of boron addition on the grain refinement efficiency and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy. The results show that the addition of boron in the form of Al-4B master alloy, significantly refines the grain size of AZ91 alloy. This refinement is due to the presence of AlB 2 particles, which act as potential nucleants for Mg grains. Improved mechanical properties are obtained with the addition of boron due to the finer grains.

  14. Microstructural, mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of different tempers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Prasanta Kumar, E-mail: prasantonnet55@yahoo.com; Ghosh, M.M.; Ghosh, K.S., E-mail: ksghosh2001@yahoo.co.uk

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the investigation is to assess the microstructural features and associated physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of various tempers. A 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy was subjected to different ageing schedules to produce under-(T4), peak-(T6), over-(T7) and highly over-aged tempers. Optical microscopy, hardness measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, tensile testing and SEM fractographs, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical polarization studies have been used to characterize the alloy tempers. Hardness measurement and tensile testing showed the characteristic age hardening phenomenon of aluminium alloys. Optical and TEM micrographs have revealed the variation in size of matrix strengthening η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) and also the size and distribution of grain boundary η (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitate with ageing time. DSC thermograms exhibiting exothermic and endothermic peaks indicated the characteristic solid state reaction sequence of the 7017 alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization study of the 7017 alloy of various tempers in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at near neutral pH showed typical active metal dissolution behaviour, but at pH 12 an active–passive–transpassive transition behaviour has been observed. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of the 7017 aluminium alloy of various tempers (a, b) under aged (T4), (c, d) peak aged (T6), (e, f) over aged (T7) and (g, h) highly over-aged. Display Omitted - Highlights: • 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy was subjected to different artificial ageing treatments. • Characterization of 7017 alloy tempers by hardness, tensile, DSC, TEM and electrochemical behaviour. • Structure-properties relationship of the 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy of various tempers.

  15. Biodegradable Orthopedic Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa Alloys, Processing, and Corrosion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebin Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-Calcium (Mg-Ca alloy has received considerable attention as an emerging biodegradable implant material in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable Mg-Ca alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys is critical for the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic implants. This paper focuses on the functions and requirements of bone implants and critical issues of current implant biomaterials. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-Ca alloys, and the unique properties of novel magnesium-calcium implant materials have been reviewed. Various manufacturing techniques to process Mg-Ca based alloys have been analyzed regarding their impacts on implant performance. Corrosion performance of Mg-Ca alloys processed by different manufacturing techniques was compared. In addition, the societal and economical impacts of developing biodegradable orthopedic implants have been emphasized.

  16. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  17. Textures and mechanical behavior of Mg-3.3%Li alloy after ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, Y.D.; Wu, S.D.; Lin Peng, R.; Huang, C.X.; Jiang, C.B.; Li, S.X.

    2004-01-01

    The texture evolutions of the Mg-3.3%Li alloy after the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with two different routes have been investigated by neutron diffraction. The substantial enhancement of mechanical properties of the alloy after ECAP has been explained by the texture modifications and microstructure changes

  18. In vitro degradation and electrochemical corrosion evaluations of microarc oxidized pure Mg, Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaokun; He, Siyu; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Siqi; Dong, Pan; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2015-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic coatings were fabricated on pure magnesium (Mg) and self-designed Mg-0.6Ca, Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloys by microarc oxidation (MAO). The coating formation, growth and biomineralization mechanisms were discussed. The coating degradability and bioactivity were evaluated by immersion tests in trishydroxymethyl-aminomethane hydrochloric acid (Tris-HCl) buffer and simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions, respectively. The coatings and corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The electrochemical workstation was used to investigate the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of substrates and coatings. Results showed that Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloy exhibits the highest mechanical strength and electrochemical corrosion resistance among the three alloys. The MAO-coated Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloy has the potential to be served as a biodegradable implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradation testing of Mg alloys in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium: Influence of medium sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Iñigo; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Van der Biest, Omer

    2016-05-01

    This work studies the in vitro degradation of Mg alloys for bioabsorbable implant applications under near physiological conditions. For this purpose, the degradation behaviour of Mg alloys in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) which is a commonly used cell culture medium is analysed. Unfortunately, DMEM can be contaminated by microorganisms, acidifying the medium and accelerating the Mg degradation process by dissolution of protective degradation layers, such as (Mgx,Cay)(PO4)z. In this paper the influence of sterilization by applying UV-C radiation and antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin) is analysed with two implant material candidates: Mg-Gd and Mg-Ag alloys; and pure magnesium as well as Mg-4Y-3RE as a reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy with yttrium and neodymium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rare earth (RE elements Y and Nd on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy were investigated. The results show that a proper level of RE elements can obviously refi ne the microstructure of Mg-6Al magnesium alloys, reduce the quantity of β-Mg17Al12 phase and form Al2Y and Al2Nd phases. The combined addition of Y and Nd dramatically enhances the tensile strength of the alloys in the temperature range of 20-175℃. When the content of RE elements is up to 1.8%, the values of tensile strength at room temperature and at 150℃ simultaneously reach their maximum of 253 MPa and 196 MPa, respectively. The main mechanisms of enhancement in the mechanical properties of Mg-6Al alloy with Y and Nd are the grain refi ning strengthening and the dispersion strengthening.

  1. The influence of laser pulse waveform on laser-TIG hybrid welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Luo, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    By dividing laser pulse duration into two parts, three kinds of laser waveforms are designed, including a high power density pulse (HPDP) laser in a short duration set at the beginning of the laser waveform. This paper aims to find out the laser pulse waveform and idiographic critical values of HPDP, which can affect the magnesium penetration in laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) hybrid welding. Results show that when the laser pulse duration of HPDP is not more than 0.4 ms, the welding penetration values of lasers with HPDP are larger than otherwise. Also, the welding penetration values of laser with HPDP have increased by up to 26.1%. It has been found that with HPDP, the laser can form the keyhole more easily because the interaction between laser and the plate is changed, when the TIG arc preheats the plate. Besides, the laser with high power density and short duration strikes on the plates so heavily that the corresponding background power can penetrate into the bottom of the keyhole and maintain the keyhole open, which facilitates the final welding penetration.

  2. Effect of melt conditioning on heat treatment and mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy strips produced by twin roll casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevdas80@gmail.com [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Barekar, N.S. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); El Fakir, Omer; Wang, Liliang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll