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Sample records for axion solar telescope

  1. The CERN axion solar telescope (CAST)

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Autiero, D; Avignone, F T; Barth, K; Bowyer, S M; Bräuninger, H; Brodzinski, R L; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Celebi, G; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Creswick, R; Delbart, A; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; De Oliveira, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Erdutan, N; Fanourakis, G K; Farach, H A; Fiorini, C; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Girard, T A; Gninenko, S N; Golubev, N A; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jeanneau, F; Knopf, M A; Kovzelev, A; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Krecak, Z; Lakic, B; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lutz, Gerhard; Longoni, A; Luzón, G; Mailov, A; Matveev, V A; Miley, H S; Morales, A; Morales, J; Mutterer, M; Nikolaidis, A; Nussinov, S; Ortiz, A; Pitts, W K; Placci, A; Postoev, V E; Raffelt, G G; Riege, H; Sampietro, M; Sarsa, M; Savvidis, I; Stipcevic, M; Thomas, C W; Thompson, R C; Valco, P; Villar, J A; Villierme, B; Walckiers, L; Wilcox, W; Zachariadou, K; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2002-01-01

    A decommissioned LHC test magnet is being prepared as the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 meters. It is being mounted on a platform to track the sun over +-8 deg. vertically and +-45 deg. , horizontally. A sensitivity in axion-photon coupling g alpha gamma gamma < 5 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 1 GeV sup - sup 1 can be reached for m subalpha <= 10 sup - sup 2 eV, and with a gas filled tube-can reach g alpha gamma gamma <= 10 sup - sup 1 sup 0 GeV sup - sup 1 for axion masses m subalpha < 2eV.

  2. Prospects for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope Sensitivity to 14.4 keV Axions

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovcic, K; Aune, S; Avignone, F T; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltrn, B; Bruninger, H; Carmona, J M; Cebrin, S; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Hasinoff, M D; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Kang, D; Knigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, a K; Kuster, M; Laki, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubici, A; Lutz, G; Luzn, G; Miller, D W; Morales, A; Morales, J; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Ruz, J; Riege, H; Semertzidis, Y K; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Stewart, o L; Vieira, J D; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K; Jakovcic, Kresimir

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions using the 9.0 T strong and 9.26 m long transverse magnetic field of a twin aperture LHC test magnet, where axions could be converted into X-rays via reverse Primakoff process. Here we explore the potential of CAST to search for 14.4 keV axions that could be emitted from the Sun in M1 nuclear transition between the first, thermally excited state, and the ground state of 57Fe nuclide. Calculations of the expected signals, with respect to the axion-photon coupling, axion-nucleon coupling and axion mass, are presented in comparison with the experimental sensitivity.

  3. New solar axion search using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 4He filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Bremer, J.; Burwitz, V.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for a →γ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the x-ray refractive mass mγ to the axion search mass ma. After the vacuum phase (2003-2004), which is optimal for ma≲0.02 eV , we used 4He in 2005-2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02-0.39 eV and 3He in 2009-2011 to scan from 0.39 to 1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to 4He in 2012 to investigate a narrow ma range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39-0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with 4He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to ga γ<1.47 ×10-10 GeV-1 (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to the vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  4. Search for sub-eV mass solar axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He buffer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-12-23

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using (3)He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with (4)He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV≲m(a)≲0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g(aγ)≲2.3×10(-10) GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to m(a)≲1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds.

  5. CrossRef The CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinoff, M D; Arik, E; Autiero, D; Avignone, F; Barth, K; Bingol, E; Brauninger, H; Brodzinski, R; Carmona, J; Chesi, E; Cebrian, S; Cetin, S; Collar, J; Creswick, R; Dafni, T; De Oliveira, R; Dedoussis, S; Delbart, A; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Farach, H; Fischer, H; Formenti, F; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Goloubev, N; Hartmann, R; Hoffmann, D; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Kang, D; Konigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Liolios, A; LJubicic, A; Lutz, G; Luzon, G; Miley, H; Morales, A; Morales, J; Mutterer, M; Nikolaidis, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Sarsa, M; Savvidis, I; Schopper, R; Semertzidis, I; Spano, C; Villar, J; Vullierme, B; Walckiers, L; Zachariadou, K; Zioutas, K

    2003-01-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN is using a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet to search for solar axions through their Primakoff conversion into x-ray photons. The magnet (B = 9.0 Tesla, L = 10 m) can track the sun each day for a total exposure time of ~180 minutes (sunrise + sunset). We expect to reach a sensitivity in axion-photon coupling, gaγγ ≲ 5 × 10-11 GeV-1 for ma ≲ 10-2 eV after ˜1 year's running time. By filling the beam tube with 4He or 3He gas we should be able to extend the sensitive axion mass region into the eV mass range.

  6. Search for Solar Axions with the CCD Detector and X-ray Telescope at CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, Madalin Mihai; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2015-06-09

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment that uses the world’s highest sensitivity Helioscope to date for solar Axions searches. Axions are weakly interacting pseudoscalar particles proposed to solve the so-called Strong Charge-Parity Problem of the Standard Model. The principle of detection is the inverse Primakoff Effect, which is a mechanism for converting the Axions into easily detectable X-ray photons in a strong transverse magnetic field. The solar Axions are produced due to the Primakoff effect in the hot and dense core of from the coupling of a real and a virtual photon. The solar models predict a peak Axion luminosity at an energy of 3 keV originating mostly from the inner 20% of the solar radius. Thus an intensity peak at an energy of 3 keV is also expected in the case of the X-ray radiation resulting from Axion conversion. CAST uses a high precision movement system for tracking the Sun twice a day with a LHC dipole twin aperture prototype magnet, 9.26 meters long and with a field of...

  7. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ( 4 He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with 4 He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g αγγ -10 GeV -1 (95%C.L.) for m a =0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  8. The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST): Status and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I. G.(Universidad de Zaragoza); Andriamonje, S (DAPNIA, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay); Arik, E (Bogazici Universitesi); Autiero, D (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Avignone, F T.(South Carolina, Univ Of); Barth, K (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Brauninger, H (Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik); Brodzinski, Ronald L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Carmona, J. M.(Universidad de Zaragoza); Cebrian, S (Unknown); Cetin, S (Bogazici Universitesi); Collar, J I.(Chicago, University Of); Creswick, R (South Carolina, Univ Of); De Oliveira, R (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Delbart, A (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay); Di Lella, L (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Eleftheriadis, Ch (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki); Fanourakis, G (National Research Center for Physical Sciences, Demokritos, Greece); Farach, H A.(South Carolina, Univ Of); Fischer, H (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg); Formenti, F (European Org for Nuclear Research); Geralis, Th. (National Research Center for Physical Sciences, Demokritos, Greece); Giomataris, I (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France); Gninenko, S. N.(Institue for Nuclear Research, Moscow, Russia); Goloubev, N (Institute for Nuclear Research); Hartman, R (Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik); Hasinoff, M (British Columbia,University of); Hoffmann, D (Technische Universitat Darmstadt); Jacoby, J (Technische Universitat Darmstadt); Kang, D (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg); Konigsmann, K (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg); Kotthaus, R (Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen, Germany); Krcmar, M (Ruder Boskovic Institute); Kuster, M (Max-Planck-Institute fur Extraterrestrische Physik); Lakic, B (Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia); Liolios, A (Universidade de Lisboa); Ljubicic, A (Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia); Lutz, G (Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen, Germany); Luzon, G (Universidad de Zaragoza); Miley, Harr

    2003-02-10

    The CAST experiment is being mounted at CERN. It will make use of a decommissioned LHC test magnet to look for solar axions through its conversion into Photons inside the magnetic field. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 m and is installed in a platform which allows to move it+ or - 8 degrees vertically and+ or - 10 to the 11th power horizontally. According to these numbers we expect a sensitivity in axion-photon coupling gaT"~ ,~< 5 10 -11 GeV -1 for ma~< 0.02 eV, and with a gas filled tube ga~~< 10 -l GeV -a for ma~< 1 eV.

  9. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with He3 Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P. M.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  10. Search for solar axions by the CERN axion solar telescope with 3He buffer gas: closing the hot dark matter gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gómez Marzoa, M; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Hauf, S; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Lang, P M; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-03-07

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with (3)He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV ≲ ma ≲ 1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ ≲ 3.3 × 10(-10)  GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  11. Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem CCD-Detektor in CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope)

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghwa

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment at CERN searches for solar axions with energies in the keV range. Axions could be produced in the Sun's core by the interaction of thermal photons with virtual photons of the strong electromagnetic field. In this experiment, the solar axions can be converted to photons in the field of a 9 Tesla superconducting magnet. At both ends of the 10 m long dipole magnet, three different X-ray detectors were installed, which are sensitive in the interesting photon energy range. This thesis is devoted to the determination of an upper limit on the axion-photon coupling constant g$_{a\\gamma}$. The analysis is based on the data taken by the CCD detector in the CAST experiment during the years 2003 and 2004. First results of the 2003 data taking were published showing no significant signal above background. However, these results constrain the upper limit of the axion-photon coupling constant by a factor 5 compared to previous axion search experiments. Moreover, the result of...

  12. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3 He Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P.M.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lozza, V.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  13. First results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Autiero, D; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltran, B; Bräuninger, H; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Collar, J I; Creswick, R; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Englhauser, J; Fanourakis, G K; Farach, H A; Ferrer, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Goloubev, N; Hasinoff, M D; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Kang, D; Königsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lutz, Gerhard; Luzón, G; Miller, D W; Morales, A; Mutterer, M; Nikolaidis, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, Georg G; Ruz, J; Riege, H; Sarsa, M L; Savvidis, I; Serber, W; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Semertzidis, Y K; Vieira, J D; Villar, José Angel; Walckiers, L; Zachariadou, K; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2005-01-01

    Hypothetical axion-like particles with a two-photon interaction would be produced in the Sun by the Primakoff process. In a laboratory magnetic field (``axion helioscope'') they would be transformed into X-rays with energies of a few keV. Using a decommissioned LHC test magnet, CAST has been running for about 6 months during 2003. The first results from the analysis of these data are presented here. No signal above background was observed, implying an upper limit to the axion-photon coupling < 1.16 10^{-10} GeV^-1 at 95% CL for m_a <~0.02 eV. This limit is comparable to the limit from stellar energy-loss arguments and considerably more restrictive than any previous experiment in this axion mass range.

  14. Commissioning and First Operation of the Cryogenics for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, K; Passardi, Giorgio; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Stewart, L; Vullierme, B; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    A new experiment, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) was installed and commissioned in 2002. Its aim is to experimentally prove the existence of an as yet hypothetical particle predicted by theory as a solution of the strong CP problem and possible candidate for galactic dark matter. The heart of the detector consists of a decommissioned 10-m long LHC superconducting dipole prototype magnet, providing a magnetic field of up to 9.5 T. The whole telescope assembly is aligned with high precision to the core of the sun. If they exist, axions could be copiously produced in the core of the sun and converted into photons within the transverse magnetic field of the telescope. The converted low-energy solar axion spectrum, peaked around a mean energy of 4.4 keV, can then be focused by a special x-ray mirror system and detected by low-background photon detectors, installed on each end of the telescopes twin beam pipes. This paper describes the external and proximity cryogenic system and magnet commissioning as well ...

  15. Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrián, S; Kuster, M.; Beltran, B.; Gomez, H.; Hartmann, R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Kotthaus, R.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Ruz, J.; Struder, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components (environmental gamma radiation, cosmic rays, intrinsic radioactive impurities in the set-up, ...) entangle it, a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the Phase I of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of different background components. This study will show that the observed background level (at a rate of (8.00+-0.07)10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 7 keV) s...

  16. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  17. Axion searches at CERN with the CAST Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Eleftheriadis, Christos; Arik, E.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F.; Barth, K.; Bingol, E.; Brauninger, H.; Brodzinski, R.; Carmona, J.; Chesi, E.; Cebrian, S.; Cetin, S.; Cipolla, G.; Collar, J.; Creswick, R.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; De Oliveira, R.; Dedoussis, S.; Delbart, A.; Di Lella, L.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.; Fischer, H.; Formenti, F.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Goloubev, N.; Hartmann, R.; Hasinoff, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miley, H.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Sarsa, M.; Savvidis, I.; Schopper, R.; Semertzidis, I.; Spano, C.; Vasileiou, V.; Villar, J.; Vullierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for axions coming from photon to axion conversion in the sun's core, as stated by the Primakoff effect. Axions arise in particle physics as a consequence of the breaking of Peccei-Quinn symmetry which has been introduced as a solution to the strong CP problem. As cosmological axions they are candidates for at least some part of cold Dark Matter.They are also expected to be produced copiously in stellar interiors with energies as high as the thermal photons undergoing photon to axion conversion. In our sun the axion energy spectrum peaks at about 4.4 keV, extending up to 10 keV. CAST collected preliminary data in 2002 and data taking with its full capability will start in the beginning of 2003.

  18. Solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S.

    2008-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside the magnet pipe of an LHC dipole. The analysis of the data recorded during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnet pipes has resulted in the most restrictive experimental limit on the coupling constant of axions to photons. In the second phase, CAST is operating with a buffer gas inside the magnet pipes in order to extent the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. We will present the first results on the $^4{He}$ data taking as well as the system upgrades that have been operated in the last year in order to adapt the experiment for the $^3{He}$ data taking. Expected sensitivities on the coupling constant of axions to photons will be given for the recent $^3{He}$ run just started in March 2008.

  19. Experimental Search for Solar Axions

    CERN Document Server

    Gattone, A.O.; Avignone, F.T., III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.J.; DiGregorio, D.E.; Farach, H.A.; Guerard, C.K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz de Solarzano, A.; Reeves, J.H.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique has been used to search for solar axions using a single crystal germanium detector. It exploits the coherent conversion of axions into photons when their angle of incidence satisfies a Bragg condition with a crystalline plane. The analysis of approximately 1.94 kg.yr of data from the 1-kg DEMOS detector in Sierra Grande, Argentina, yields a new laboratory bound on axion-photon coupling of g_{a,\\gamma\\gamma}<2.7\\times 10^{-9} GeV^{-1} independent of axion mass up to \\sim 1 keV.

  20. Experimental search for solar axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.; Abriola, D.; Avignone, F.T.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R. J.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Farach, H.A.; Guerard, C. K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Reeves, J.H.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique has been used to search for solar axions using a single crystal germanium detector. It exploits the coherent conversion of axions into photons when their angle of incidence satisfies a Bragg condition with a crystalline plane. The analysis of approximately 1.94 kg.yr of data from the 1 kg DEMOS detector in Sierra Grande, Argentina, yields a new laboratory bound on axion-photon coupling of g αγγ -9 GeV -1 , independent of axion mass up to ∼ 1 keV

  1. Axion Searches, Old and New

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Outline of the lecture: Constraints from laboratory searches and astrophysics, axion cosmology, the cavity detector of dark matter axions, solar axion searches, laser experiments, a telescope search, macroscopic forces mediated by axions.

  2. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II); Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem Roentgenteleskop des CAST-Experiments (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-10-14

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ({sup 4}He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with {sup 4}He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g{sub {alpha}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}<1.6-6.0 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1} (95%C.L.) for m{sub a}=0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  3. Search for Solar Axions with the CAST-Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, J.; Aune, S.; Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Borghi, S.; Bourlis, G.; Boydag, F. S.; Brauninger, H.; Carmona, J.; Cebrian, S.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Dogan, O. B.; Elefheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fisher, H.; Franz, J.; Galan, J.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, H.; Hikmet, I.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, D.; Morales, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Serpico, P.; Soufli, R.; Stewart, L.; Tzamarias, S.; Van Bibber, K.; Villar, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.; Morales, A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar axions can be produced in the Sun via the so-called Primakoff effect. The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) uses an LHC prototype magnet of about 9 T to reconvert these axions into photons. The magnet is able to follow the Sun for about 3 hours per day. Three different X-Ray detectors are mounted on its ends to detect photons from axion-to-photon conversion: a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), a MICROMEGAS (MICROMEsh GAseous Structure) and a Charge Coupled Device (CCD). For the CCD an X-ray focusing device is used to improve the signal-to-background ratio significantly. With the completion of CAST'S first phase, the current limits on the coupling constant gaγ for axion masses up to 0.02 eV have been improved. In its second phase, CAST extends the axion mass range by filling the magnet with a buffer gas. Masses up to about 0.4 eV have already been covered and thus the experiment is entering the regions favored by axion models. This paper will present the status of CAST'S second phase.

  4. The search for solar axions in the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghwa; Arsov, V.; Aune, S.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F.T.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Brauninger, H.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.; Ferrer, E.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Goloubev, N.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzlon, G.; Miller, David Wilkins; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Ruz, J.; Riege, H.; Sarsa, M.L.; Savvidis, I.; Serpico, P.; Semertzidis, Y.; Stewart, L.; Vieira, J.D.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.; Kang, Donghwa

    2006-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment at CERN searches for solar axions with energies in the keV range. It is possible that axions are produced in the core of the sun by the interaction of thermal photons with virtual photons of strong electromagnetic fields. In this experiment, the solar axions can be reconverted to photons in the transversal field of a 9 Tesla superconducting magnet. At both ends of the 10m-long dipole magnet three different X-ray detectors were installed, which are sensitive in the interesting photon energy range. Preliminary results from the analysis of the 2004 data are presented: g$_{a\\gamma}<0.9\\times10^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% C.L. for axion masses m$_{a} <$ 0.02 eV. At the end of 2005, data started to be taken with a buffer gas in the magnet pipes in order to extend the sensitivity to axion masses up to 0.8 eV.

  5. A Solar Axion Search Using a Decommissioned LHC Test Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Lozza, V; Christensen, F E; Jakobsen, A C; Neff, S H; Carmona martinez, J M; Giomataris, I; Krcmar, M; Vafeiadis, T; Luzon marco, G M; Gracia garza, J; Lakic, B; Cantatore, G; Solanki, S K; Ozbey, A; Davenport, M; Funk, W; Desch, K K; Villar, J A; Jakovcic, K; Eleftheriadis, C; Diago ortega, A; Zioutas, K; Gardikiotis, A; Cetin, S A; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D; Laurent, J; Castel pablo, J F; Gninenko, S; Ferrer ribas, E; Liolios, A; Anastasopoulos, V; Kaminski, J; Dafni, T; Garcia irastorza, I; Ruiz choliz, E; Pivovaroff, M J; Krieger, C; Lutz, G; Fanourakis, G; Ruz armendariz, J; Vogel, J K

    2002-01-01

    Previous solar axion searches have been carried out in Brookhaven (1990) and in Tokyo (2000- ), tracking the Sun with a dipole magnet. QCD inspired axions should be produced after the Big Bang, being thus candidates for the dark matter. The Sun is a very useful source of weakly interacting particles for fundamental research. Axions can be produced also in the Sun's core through the scattering of thermal photons in the Coulomb field of electric charges (Primakoff effect). In a transverse magnetic field the Primakoff effect can work in reverse, coherently converting the solar axions or other axion-like particles (ALPS) back into X-ray photons in the keV range. The conversion efficiency increases with $(B⋅L)^2$. In the CAST experiment an LHC prototype dipole magnet (B = 9 T and L = 10 m) with straight beam pipes provides a conversion efficiency exceeding that of the two earlier solar axion telescopes by almost a factor of 100. This magnet is mounted on a moving platform and coupled to both gas filled and soli...

  6. An application of space technology to the terrestrial search for axions The X-ray mirror telescope at CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Gerhard; Englhauser, J; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Kuster, M; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray mirror telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror assembly as used in X-ray astronomy and a new type X-ray CCD has been added to the CERN Axion Solar Telescope experiment. It will strongly improve the sensitivity in the search for axions, a so far elusive particle. The axion is predicted in order to explain the observed CP conservation in strong interaction which is not expected within the generally accepted "standard model". Construction and performance of the X-ray telescope are described. An improvement by two orders of magnitude in the signal over background S/B event ratio is estimated.

  7. A Decommissioned LHC Model Magnet as an Axion Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, Konstantin; Abriola, D; Avignone, F T; Brodzinski, R L; Collar, J I; Creswick, R J; Gregorio, D E D; Farach, H A; Gattone, A O; Guérard, C K; Hasenbalg, F; Hasinoff, M D; Huck, H; Liolios, A; Miley, H S; Morales, A; Morales, J; Nikas, D; Nussinov, S; Ortiz, A; Savvidis, E; Scopel, S; Sievers, P; Villar, J A; Walckiers, L

    1999-01-01

    The 8.4 Tesla, 10 m long transverse magnetic field of a twin aperture LHC bending magnet can be utilized as a macroscopic coherent solar axion-to-photon converter. Numerical calculations show that the integrated time of alignment with the Sun would be 33 days per year with the magnet on a tracking table capable of $\\pm 5^o$ in the vertical direction and $\\pm 40^o$ in the horizontal direction. The existing lower bound on the axion-to-photon coupling constant can be improved by a factor between 50 and 100 in 3 years, i.e., ${\\it g_{a\\gamma \\gamma}} \\lesssim 9\\cdot 10^{-11}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for axion masses The same set-up can simultaneously search for low- and high-energy celestial axions, or axion-like particles, scanning the sky as the Earth rotates and orbits the Sun.

  8. New solar axion search in CAST with $^4$He filling

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M; Barth, K; Belov, A; Brauninger, H; Bremer, J; Burwitz, V; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Marzoa, M Gomez; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; K.Jakovcic; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Luzon, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M .J; Raffelt, G; Rodriguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for $a\\to\\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the X-ray refractive mass $m_\\gamma$ to the axion search mass $m_a$. After the vacuum phase (2003--2004), which is optimal for $m_a\\lesssim0.02$ eV, we used $^4$He in 2005--2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02--0.39 eV and $^3$He in 2009--2011 to scan from 0.39--1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to $^4$He in 2012 to investigate a narrow $m_a$ range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39--0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with $^4$He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to $g_{a\\gamma}< 1.47\\times10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to vacuum and aim for a s...

  9. Searching for Axions from Celestial Objects with the X-Ray Telescope at CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Guthörl, T

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is designed to detect axions from the sun by making use of the inverse Primakoff effekt i.e. reconversion of axions into X-ray photons under the influence of a strong magnetic field. In order to track the sun the magnet used is mounted to a moveable device. This movability can also be used to track celestial objects of interest such as the galactic centre or Scorpio X-1, which is the brightest X-ray source besides the sun. The data gained with the CCD detector during trackings of these objects are analysed in this work. Since no signal above background can be observed an upper limit on the free parameter flux times axion-photon coupling constant^2 is determined. This upper limit in turn can be used to calculate a maximum energy loss due to axion emission for both the galactic centre and Sco X-1. The results presented in this work imply that e.g. the galactic centre can emit axions with up to 10^42 W without being detected by CAST.

  10. Solar Axion search with Micromegas detectors in the CAST Experiment with $^{3}$He as buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Axions are well motivated particles proposed in an extension of the Standard Model (SM) as a solution to the CP problem in strong interactions. On the other hand, there is the category of axion-like particles (ALPs) which appear in diverse extensions of the SM and share the same phenomenology of the axion. Axions and ALPs are hypothetical neutral particles that interact weakly with matter, being candidates to solve the Dark Matter problem. CAST, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope is looking for solar axions since 2003. CAST exploit the helioscope technique using a decommissioned LHC dipole magnet in which solar axions could be reconverted into photons. The magnet is mounted on a movable platform that allows tracking the Sun $\\sim$1.5 hours during sunset and during sunrise. The axion signal would be an excess of X-rays in the detectors located at the magnet bore ends and thus low background detectors are mandatory. Three of the four detectors operating at CAST are of the Micromegas type. The analysis of the data o...

  11. Search for low Energy solar Axions with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Cantatore, Giovanni; Aune, S.; Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Borghi, S.; Boydag, F.S.; Brauninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Dogan, O.B.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Galan, J.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hikmet, I.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kang, D.; Karageorgopoulou, T.; Karuza, M.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lozza, V.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, D.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.; Placci, A.; Raiteri, G.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Serpico, P.; Solanki, S.K.; Soufli, R.; Stewart, L.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have started the development of a detector system, sensitive to single photons in the eV energy range, to be suitably coupled to one of the CAST magnet ports. This system should open to CAST a window on possible detection of low energy Axion Like Particles emitted by the sun. Preliminary tests have involved a cooled photomultiplier tube coupled to the CAST magnet via a Galileian telescope and a switched 40 m long optical fiber. This system has reached the limit background level of the detector alone in ideal conditions, and two solar tracking runs have been performed with it at CAST. Such a measurement has never been done before with an axion helioscope. We will present results from these runs and briefly discuss future detector developments.

  12. Results and perspectives of the solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer Ribas, E.; Aunes, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Brauninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Ezer, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Friedrich, P.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Gruber, E.; Guthorl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Karuza, M.; Konigsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lozza, V.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Rashba, T.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomas, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2012-01-01

    The status of the solar axion search with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) will be presented. Recent results obtained by the use of $^3$He as a buffer gas has allowed us to extend our sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with $^4$He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV$ \\le m_{a} \\le $ 0.64 eV. From the absence of an excess of x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g$_{a\\gamma} \\le 2.3\\times 10^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. CAST published results represent the best experimental limit on the photon couplings to axions and other similar exotic particles dubbed WISPs (Weakly Interacting Slim Particles) in the considered mass range and for the first time the limit enters the region favored by QCD axion models. Preliminary sensitivities for axion masses up to 1.16 eV will also be s...

  13. CAST search for sub-eV mass solar axions with $^{3}$He buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Brauninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Gruber, E; Guthorl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovcic, K; Karuza, M; Konigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodriguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S.K; Stewart, L; Tomas, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using 3He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with 4He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV < m_a < 0.64 eV. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 2.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, the exact value depending on the pressure setting. KSVZ axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In future we will extend our search to m_a < 1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds.

  14. An application of space technology to the terrestrial search for axions: the X-ray mirror telescope at CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Gerhard E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Braeuninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Kotthaus, R.; Kuster, M.; Serber, W.; Strueder, L

    2004-02-01

    An X-ray mirror telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror assembly as used in X-ray astronomy and a new type X-ray CCD has been added to the CERN Axion Solar Telescope experiment. It will strongly improve the sensitivity in the search for axions, a so far elusive particle. The axion is predicted in order to explain the observed CP conservation in strong interaction which is not expected within the generally accepted 'standard model'. Construction and performance of the X-ray telescope are described. An improvement by two orders of magnitude in the signal over background S/B event ratio is estimated.

  15. Probing the eV-Mass Range for Solar Axions with the CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    VOGEL, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions, which could be produced in the core of the Sun via the so-called Primakoff effect. For this purpose, CAST uses a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet. In its magnetic field of 9 Tesla, axions could be reconverted into X-ray photons. The magnet is mounted on a structure built to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset for a total of about 3 hours per day. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnetic field region yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV. In order to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to a wider mass range, the CAST experiment continued its search for axions with helium in the magnet bores. In this way it is possible to restore coherence for larger masses. Changing the pressure of the helium gas enables the experiment to scan different axion masses. In the first part of this ...

  16. Solar axion experiments using coherent Primakoff conversion in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignone, F.T.; Abriola, D.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.J.; DiGregorio, D.E.; Farach, H.A.; Gattone, A.O.; Guerard, C.K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Reeves, J.H.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a 1.94 kg · y pilot search for solar axions with an ultralow background Ge detector are reviewed. The detection method is based on Bragg-coherent Primakoff conversion of axions into photons when the momentum vectors of the axion and photon satisfy the Bragg condition. The theory of the experiment are presented for Ge and Te0 2 crystals. Future prospects of large volume experiments are discussed

  17. Indirect signatures for axion(-like) particles

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, K; Grande, M; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Huovelin, J; Lakic, B; Orlando, S; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Semertzidis, Y K; Tzamarias, S; Vilhu, O; Papaevangelou, Th.; Tzamarias, Sp.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field dependent transient solar observations are suggestive for axion-photon oscillations with light axion(-like) particle involvement. Novel dark-moon measurements with the SMART X-ray detectors can be conclusive for radiatively decaying massive exotica like the generic solar Kaluza-Klein axions. Furthermore, the predicted intrinsic strong solar magnetic fields could be the reason of enhanced low energy axion production. Such an axion component could be the as yet unknown origin of the strong quiet Sun X-ray luminosity at energies below 1 keV. Solar axion telescopes should lower their threshold, aiming to copy processes that might occur near the solar surface, be it due to spontaneous or magnetically induced radiative decay of axion(-like) particles. This is motivated also by the recent claim of an axion-like particle detection by the laser experiment PVLAS.

  18. Prospects for solar axion searches with crystals via Bragg scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irastorza, I. G.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Peruzzi, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    A calculation of the expected signal due to Primakov coherent conversion of solar axions into photons via Bragg scattering in several solid-state detectors is presented and compared with present and future experimental sensitivities. The axion window m a > or approx. 0.03 eV (not accessible at present by other techniques) could be explored in the foreseeable future with crystal detectors to constrain the axion-photon coupling constant g aγγ below the latest bounds coming from helioseismology. On the contrary a positive signal in the sensitivity region of such devices would imply revisiting other more stringent astrophysical limits derived for the same range of the axion mass. The application of this technique to the COSME germanium detector which is taking data at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory leads to a 95% C.L. limit g aγγ ≤ 2.8 x 10 -9 GeV -1

  19. Searching for Solar Axions in the eV-MassRegion with the CCD Detector at CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, J K

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions, which could be produced in the core of the Sun via the so-called Primakoff effect. For this purpose, CAST uses a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet. In its magnetic field of 9 Tesla axions could be reconverted into X-ray photons. The magnet is mounted on a structure built to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset for a total of about 3 hours per day. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnetic field region yielded the best experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV. In order to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to a wider mass range, the CAST experiment continued its search for axions with helium in the magnet bores. In this way it is possible to restore coherence for larger masses. Changing the pressure of the helium gas enables the experiment to scan different axion masses. In the first part of this second phase ...

  20. IAXO - The International Axion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, J.K.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Caspi, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Christensen, F.E.; Dael, A.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Derbin, A.V.; Desch, K.; Diago, A.; Dudarev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Gimeno, B.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hailey, C.J.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Isern, J.; Jaeckel, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kaminski, J.; Kawasaki, M.; Krcmar, M.; Krieger, C.; Lakic, B.; Lindner, A.; Liolios, A.; Luzon, G.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Russenschuck, S.; Ruz, J.; Saikawa, K.; Savvidis, I.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; Tomas, A.; Troitsky, S.; van Bibber, K.; Vedrine, P.; Villar, J.A.; Walckiers, L.; Wester, W.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a next generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of a few 10^{-12} GeV^{-1}, i.e. 1-1.5 orders of magnitude beyond sensitivities achieved by the currently most sensitive axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). Crucial factors in improving the sensitivity for IAXO are the increase of the magnetic field volume together with the extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested at CAST. Electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) along with other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics could provide additional physics motivation for IAXO.

  1. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    -approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector......We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas detector of the microbulk technology. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a ~ 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m focal-length, cone...... of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10−3 counts per hour in the energy...

  2. Axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Peccei-Quinn symmetry is a possible solution to the strong C.P. violation problem resulting from instantons contributions. It is the objective of this dissertation to study models which incorporate the Paccei-Ouinn symmetry as well as its consequences, for instance, the exiatence of a Goldstone pseudoboson named axion and the appearence of topologically satble structures generated at the spontaneous breakdown of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry. We also study the interchanged between axion models and Cosmology, particularly the influence of axions on the process of galsxy formation. (author) [pt

  3. Axion experiment makes its debut

    CERN Multimedia

    Dumé, Belle

    2004-01-01

    An experiment built from components recycled from other experiments has put new limits on the properties of particles that might be the "dark matter" that makes up about 25% of the universe. The CERN Axion Solar telescope (CAST) was built to search for exotic particles called axions that might be produced inside the sun (1 page)

  4. Search for 14.4 keV solar axions emitted in the M1-transition of $^{57}$Fe nuclei with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, S; Autiero, D; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltrán, B; Bräuninger, H; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Englhauser, J; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Yu; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, D H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Kang, D; Königsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Miller, D; Morales, J; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y; Serpico, P; Stewart, L; Vieira, J; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for 14.4 keV solar axions or more general axion-like particles (ALPs), that may be emitted in the M1 nuclear transition of 57Fe, by using the axion-to-photon conversion in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) with evacuated magnet bores (Phase I). From the absence of excess of the monoenergetic X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set model-independent constraints on the coupling constants of pseudoscalar particles that couple to two photons and to a nucleon g_{a\\gamma} |-1.19 g_{aN}^{0}+g_{aN}^{3}|<1.36\\times 10^{-16} GeV^{-1} for m_{a}<0.03 eV at the 95% confidence level.

  5. Experimental Search for Solar Axions via Coherent Primakoff Conversion in a Germanium Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Avignone, F T; Brodzinski, R; Collar, J I; Creswick, R J; Di Gregorio, D E; Farach, H A; Gattone, A O; Guérard, C K; Hasenbalg, F; Huck, H; Miley, H S; Morales, A; Morales, J; Nussinov, S; De Solorzano, A O; Reeves, J H; Villar, J; Zioutas, Konstantin

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of an experimental search for the unique, rapidly varying temporal pattern of solar axions coherently converting into photons via the Primakoff effect in a single crystal germanium detector. This conversion is predicted when axions are incident at a Bragg angle with a crystalline plane. The analysis of approximately 1.94 kg.yr of data from the 1 kg DEMOS detector in Sierra Grande, Argentina, yields a new laboratory bound on axion-photon coupling of $g_{a\\gamma \\gamma} < 2.7\\cdot 10^{-9}$ GeV$^{-1}$, independent of axion mass up to ~ 1 keV.

  6. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar, F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Decker, T A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Garcia, J A; Giomataris, I; Gracia, J G; Hailey, C J; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Luzon, G; Mirallas, H; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas (micromesh gaseous structure) detector of the microbulk technique. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a $\\sim$~5 cm diameter, 1.3 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) comprised of thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for s...

  7. Solar X-rays from Axions: Rest-Mass Dependent Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, Konstantin; Semertzidis, Yannis; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Gardikiotis, Antonios; Dafni, Theopisti; Anastassopoulos, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The spectral shape of solar X-rays is a power law. The more active the Sun is, the less steep the distribution. This behaviour can be explained by axion regeneration to X-rays occurring ~400km deep into the photosphere. Their down-comptonization reproduces the measured spectral shape, pointing at axions with rest mass m_a~17 meV/c2, without contradicting astrophysical-laboratory limits. Directly measured soft X-ray spectra from the extremely quiet Sun during 2009 (SphinX mission), though hitherto overlooked, fitt the axion scenario.

  8. Search for solar axions the CAST experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, Berta; Arsov, V.; Aune, S.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Brauninger, H.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.; Ferrer, E.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Goloubev, N.; Hartmann, R.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, David Wilkins; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Ruz, J.; Riege, H.; Sarsa, M.L.; Savvidis, I.; Serber, W.; Serpico, P.; Semertzidis, Y.; Stewart, L.; Vieira, J.D.; Villar, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.; Beltran, Berta

    2006-01-01

    Hypothetical axion-like particles with a two-photon interaction would be produced in the sun by the Primakoff process. In a laboratory magnetic field they would be transformed into X-rays with energies of a few keV. The CAST experiment at CERN is using a decommissioned LHC magnet as an axion helioscope in order to search for these axion-like particles. The analysis of the 2003 data has shown no signal above the background, thus implying an upper limit to the axion-photon coupling < 1.16*10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL for m_{a} <~ 0.02 eV. The stable operation of the experiment during 2004 data taking allow us to anticipate that this value will be improved. At the end of 2005 we expect to start with the so-called second phase of CAST, when the magnet pipes will be filled with a buffer gas so that the axion-photon coherence will be extended. In this way we will be able to search for axions with masses up to 1 eV.

  9. The Next Generation of Axion Helioscopes: The International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, J.K.; Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F.T.

    2015-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a proposed 4th-generation axion helioscope with the primary physics research goal to search for solar axions via their Primakoff conversion into photons of 1 – 10 keV energies in a strong magnetic field. IAXO will achieve a sensitivity to the axion......-photon coupling gaγ down to a few ×10−12 GeV−1 for a wide range of axion masses up to ∼ 0.25eV. This is an improvement over the currently best (3rd generation) axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), of about 5 orders of magnitude in signal strength, corresponding to a factor ∼ 20 in the axion...... photon coupling. IAXO's sensitivity relies on the construction of a large superconducting 8-coil toroidal magnet of 20 m length optimized for axion research. Each of the eight 60cm diameter magnet bores is equipped with x-ray optics focusing the signal photons into ∼ 0.2cm2 spots that are imaged by very...

  10. In the footsteps of axions or the like

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Axions were invented to solve the strong CP-problem and are one of the leading dark matter particle candidates. Axions could be copiously produced in the Sun. In magnetic fields they can oscillate to photons and vice versa. The axion helioscope CAST uses an LHC magnet to convert solar axions to X-rays. Also, in the solar atmosphere the large scale magnetic fields reach occasionally several kGauss. Assuming the CAST working principle occurring there much more efficiently, it could explain the unexpected appearance of X-rays (from axions) or disappearance of light (into axions). Such processes can be behind persisting solar mysteries, suggesting the participation of a) solar magnetic fields, and b) radiatively decaying massive particles. Enigmatic behaviour leading to solar X-ray emission, coronal heating, flares, sunspots, etc. is considered as evidence of overlooked signature of axions or other particles with similar properties. New solar axion searches in the lab and with space X-ray telescopes, have been mo...

  11. The X-ray Telescope of the CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kotthaus, Rainer; Friedrich, P.; Kang, D.; Hartmann, R.; Kuster, M.; Lutz, G.; Strüder, L.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for solar axions employing a 9 Tesla superconducting dipole magnet equipped with 3 independent detection systems for X-rays from axion-photon conversions inside the 10 m long magnetic field. Results of the first 6 months of data taking in 2003 imply a 95 % CL upper limit on the axion-photon coupling constant of 1.16x10(-10) GeV(-1) for axion masses < 0.02 eV. The most sensitive detector of CAST is a X-ray telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror system and a fully depleted pn-CCD as focal plane detector. Exploiting the full potential of background suppression by focussing X-rays emerging from the magnet bore, the axion sensitivity obtained with telescope data taken in 2004, for the first time in a controlled laboratory experiment, will supersede axion constraints derived from stellar energy loss arguments.

  12. The Tokyo axion helioscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, R.; Akimoto, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.; Mizumoto, T.; Moriyama, S.; Namba, T.; Takasu, Y.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Tokyo Axion Helioscope experiment aims to detect axions which are produced in the solar core. The helioscope uses a strong magnetic field in order to convert axions into X-ray photons and has a mounting to follow the sun very accurately. The photons are detected by an X-ray detector which is made of 16 PIN-photodiodes. In addition, a gas container and a gas regulation system are adopted for recovering the coherence between axions and photons in the conversion region giving sensitivity to axions with masses up to 2 eV. In this paper, we report on the technical detail of the Tokyo Axion Helioscope.

  13. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has ... Key words. Space telescopes. 1. Introduction. The world wide development of solar space based observations went through two steps in the spatial resolution: low resolution .... the National Science Foundation of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology.

  14. A Radio Astronomy Search for Cold Dark Matter Axions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Katharine; Quinn, P. J.

    2017-08-01

    The search for axions has gained ground in recent years, with laboratory searches for cold dark matter (CDM) axions, relativistic solar axions, and ultra-light axions as the subject of extensive literature. In particular, the interest in axions as CDM candidates has been motivated by their potential to account for all of the inferred values of {{{Ω }}}{DM}˜ 0.26 in the standard {{Λ }}{CDM} model. Indeed, the value of {{{Ω }}}{DM}˜ 0.26 could be provided by a light axion. We investigate the possibility of complementing existing axion search experiments with radio telescope observations in an attempt to detect axion conversion in astrophysical magnetic fields. Searching for a CDM axion signal from a large-scale astrophysical environment provides new challenges, with the magnetic field structure playing a crucial role in both the rate of interaction and the properties of the observed photon. However, with a predicted frequency in the radio band (200 MHz-200 GHz) and a distinguishable spectral profile, next-generation radio telescopes may offer new opportunities for detection. The SKA-mid telescope has a planned frequency range of 0.4-13.8 GHz with optimal sensitivity in the range of ˜2-7 GHz. Considering observations at ˜500 MHz, the limiting sensitivity is expected to be ˜0.04 mK based on a 24 hr integration time. This compares with a predicted CDM axion all-sky signal temperature of ˜0.04 mK using SKA Phase 1 telescopes and up to ˜1.17 mK using a collecting area of (1 km)2 as planned for Phase 2.

  15. Results on axion physics from the CAST Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Eleftheriadis, Christos A; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltran, B; Bräuninger, H; Carmona, J; Cebrián, S; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Englhauser, J; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, D H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovcic, K; Kang, D; Königsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Laki, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, cA; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Miller, D; Morales, A; Morales, J; Nordt, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege1, H; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y K; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Stewart, L; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    Axions are expected to be produced in the sun via the Primakoff process. They may be detected through the inverse process in the laboratory, under the influence of a strong magnetic field, giving rise to X-rays of energies in the range of a few keV. Such an Axion detector is the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), collecting data since 2003. Results have been published, pushing the axion-photon coupling g$_{a\\gamma}$ below the 10$^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ limit at 95% CL, for axion masses less than 0.02 eV. This limit is nearly an order of magnitude lower than previous experimental limits and surpassed for the first time limits set from astrophysical arguments based on the energy-loss concept. The experiment is currently exploring axion masses in the range of 0.02 eV $< m_a <$ 1.1 eV. In the next run, currently under preparation, the axion mass explored will be extended up to the limit of 1.1 eV, testing for the first time the region of theoretical axion models with the axion helioscope method.

  16. Pierre Sikivie from the University of Florida invented the working principle of all magnetic axion telescopes, such as CAST.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The possible existence of axions in the universe means that they are a candidate for (very) cold dark matter, as another axion pioneer, Pierre Sikivie, from the University of Florida explained during the first Joint ILIAS-CAST-CERN Axion Training workshop. He also described the technique that he invented in 1983 for detecting axions. The idea is that axions in the galactic halo may be resonantly converted to microwave photons in a cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field.

  17. arXiv New CAST Limit on the Axion-Photon Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Castel, J.F.; Cetin, S.A.; Christensen, F.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.A.; Dermenev, A.; Desch, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fischer, H.; Garć ia, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Hailey, C.J.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, Igor Garcia; Jakobsen, A.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčí c, K.; Kaminski, J.; Karuza, M.; Kralj, N.; Krčmar, M.; Kostoglou, S.; Krieger, Ch.; Lakić, B.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Maroudas, M.; Miceli, L.; Neff, S.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Paraschou, K.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Ruiz Chóliz, E.; Savvidis, I.; Schmidt, S.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2017-05-01

    During 2003--2015, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has searched for $a\\to\\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. In its final phase of solar axion searches (2013--2015), CAST has returned to evacuated magnet pipes, which is optimal for small axion masses. The absence of a significant signal above background provides a world leading limit of $g_{a\\gamma} < 0.66 \\times 10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.) on the axion-photon coupling strength for $m_a \\lesssim 0.02$ eV. Compared with the first vacuum phase (2003--2004), the sensitivity was vastly increased with low-background x-ray detectors and a new x-ray telescope. These innovations also serve as pathfinders for a possible next-generation axion helioscope.

  18. Proposed National Large Solar Telescope Jagdev Singh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 65-cm telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory has been used to take images and make polarization measurements in 1565nm line recently. (Cao et al. 2006a, 2006b). They could achieve a spatial resolution of 0.3arcsec using adaptive optics. Kiepenheuer Institute of Solar Physics, Germany is planning. Gregorian ...

  19. Search for solar axions emitted in the M1-transition of {sup 7}Li{sup *} with Borexino CTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, G.; Bonetti, S.; Caccianiga, B.; D' Angelo, D.; Franco, D.; Giammarchi, M.G.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Perasso, L.; Ranucci, G. [Dipt. di Fisica Universita and INFN Milano, Milano (Italy); Benziger, J. [Engineering Quadrangle, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, A-217, Princeton, NJ (United States); Calaprice, F.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.M.; Leung, M.; McCarty, K. [Princeton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kerret, H. de; Kryn, D.; Obolensky, M.; Vignaud, D. [Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, Paris cedex 13 (France); Derbin, A.; Muratova, V. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Etenko, A.; Litvinovich, E.; Machulin, I.; Sabelnikov, A.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sukhotin, S.; Tarasenkov, V. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fomenko, K.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Zaimidoroga, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Gazzana, S.; Ianni, A.; Korga, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Montanari, D.; Monzani, M.E.; Papp, L.; Razeto, A.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Goeger-Neff, M.; Niedermeier, L.; Oberauer, L.; Feilitzsch, F. von [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Grieb, C.; Hardy, S.; Joyce, M.; Raghavan, R.S.; Vogelaar, R.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Physics Dept., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kobychev, V.V. [Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); Manuzio, G.; Pallavicini, M.; Salvo, C.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S. [Dipt. di Fisica Universita and I.N.F.N. Genova, Genova (Italy); Masetti, F.; Ortica, F. [Dipt. di Chimica Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Misiaszek, M.; Wojcik, M. [Jagellonian Univ., M. Smoluchowski Inst. of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Schoenert, S.; Simgen, H.; Zuzel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103 980, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Results of background measurements with a prototype of the Borexino detector were used to search for 478 keV solar axions emitted in the M1-transitions of {sup 7}Li{sup *}. The Compton conversion of axion to a photon A+e{yields}e+{gamma}, axioelectric effect A+e+Z{yields}e+Z, decay of axion in two photons A{yields}2{gamma} and Primakoff conversion on nuclei A+Z{yields}{gamma}+Z are considered. The upper limit on constants of interaction of axion with electrons, photons and nucleons -g{sub Ae}g{sub AN}{<=}(1.0-2.4) x 10{sup -10} at m{sub A}{<=}450 keV and g{sub A{gamma}}g{sub AN}{<=}5 x 10{sup -9} GeV{sup -1} at m{sub A}{<=}10 keV are obtained (90%c.l.). For heavy axions with mass at 100axion model. These limits are stronger than obtained in previous laboratory-based experiments using nuclear reactor and artificial radioactive sources. (orig.)

  20. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  1. Probing eV-scale axions with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Ruz, J

    2009-01-01

    CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) is a helioscope looking for axions coming from the solar core to the Earth. The experiment, located at CERN, is based on the Primakoff effect and uses a magnetic field of 9 Tesla provided by a decommissioned LHC magnet. CAST is able to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset having four X-ray detectors mounted on both ends of the magnet to look for photons from axion-to-photon conversions. During its First Phase, which concluded in 2004, CAST searched for axions with masses up to 0.02 eV. By using a buffer gas the coherence needed to scan for axions with masses up to 1.20 eV is re-established in CAST’s Second Phase. This technique enables the experiment to study the theoretical regions for axions. During the years 2005 and 2006, the use of 4He has already enabled the search for axions with masses up to 0.39 eV. Up to present time, CAST has upgraded its experimental setup to operate with 3He in the magnetic field.

  2. Science with the solar optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S. D.; Hogan, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to provide the solar physics community with the data necessary for solving several fundamental problems in the energetics and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Among these problems are questions on the origin and evolution of the sun's magnetic field, heating of the outer solar atmosphere, and sources of the solar wind in the lower lying regions of the outer atmosphere. The SOT will be built under the management of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, with science instruments provided by teams led by Principal Investigators. The telescope will be built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, and the science instruments selected for the first flight will be provided by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) and the California Institute of Technology, with actual construction of a combined science instrument taking place at the LPARL. The SOT has a 1.3-meter-diameter primary mirror that will be capable of achieving diffraction-limited viewing in the visible of 0.1 arc-second. This dimension is less than a hydrodynamic scale-height or a mean-free-path of a continuum photon in the solar atmosphere. Image stability will be achieved by a control system in the telescope, which moves both the primary and tertiary mirrors in tandem, and will be further enhanced by a correlation tracker in the combined science instrument. The SOT Facility is currently scheduled for its first flight on Spacelab at the beginning of the 1990's.

  3. Chinese large solar telescopes site survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In order to observe the solar surface with unprecedentedly higher resolution, Chinse solar physics society decided to launch their solar site survey project in 2010 as the first step to look for the best candidate sites for the Chinese next-generation large-aperture solar telescopes, i.e., the 5-8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, and the 1 meter level coronagraph. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Daocheng, with altitudes of around 4800 meters above the sea level located in the large Shangri-La mountain area, and we have collected systematic site data since 2014. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that the large Shangri-La area owns the potential conditions of excellent seeing level and sufficient amount of clear-sky hours suitable for developing large solar telescopes. We will review the site survey progress and present the preliminary statistical results in this talk.

  4. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper. Author Affiliations. G. Ai1 S. Jin1 S. Wang1 B. Ye1 S. Yang1. Beijing Astronomical Observatory / National ...

  5. Open principle for large high-resolution solar telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerschlag, R.H.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Jägers, A.P.L.; Sliepen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum solar telescopes solve the problem of image deterioration inside the telescope due to refractive index fluctuations of the air heated by the solar light. However, such telescopes have a practical diameter limit somewhat over 1 m. The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) was the pioneering demonstrator

  6. The Superconducting Toroid for the New International AXion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    IAXO, the new International AXion Observatory, will feature the most ambitious detector for solar axions to date. Axions are hypothetical particles which were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. This detector aims at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions to detectable X-ray photons. Inspired by the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroid is being designed. The toroid comprises eight, one meter wide and twenty one meters long racetrack coils. The assembled toroid is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length and its mass is about 250 tons. The useful field in the bores is 2.5 T while the peak magnetic field in the windings is 5....

  7. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  8. Axion helioscopes update: the status of CAST and IAXO

    CERN Document Server

    Dafni, T.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 35 years since their suggestion as a good solution to the strong CP-problem, axions remain one of the few viable candidates for the Dark Matter, although still eluding detection. Most of the methods for their detection are based on their coupling to photons, one of the most sensitive ones being the helioscope technique. We report on the current status of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope and the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). Recent results from the second part of CAST phase II, where the magnet bores were filled with 3He gas at variable pressure achieving sensibilities on the axion mass up to 1.2 eV, are presented. Currently, CAST is expecting to improve its sensitivity to solar axions with rest mass below 0.02 eV/c^2 after the upgrade of the X-ray detectors and with the implementation of a second X-ray optic. At the same time, it is exploring other possibilities at the low energy physics frontier. On the other hand IAXO, the fourth generation axion helioscope, aims to improve CAST's perf...

  9. An improved limit on the axion-photon coupling from the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, Samuel A; Autiero, D; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltran, B; Bräuninger, H; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Englhauser, J; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovcic, K; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Kousouris, K; Krcmar, M; Königsmann, K C; Lakic, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, L; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; MKuster; Miller, D; Morales, A; Morales, J; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, P; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodrguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y K; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Stewart, L; Vieira, J; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    We have searched for solar axions or similar particles that couple to two photons by using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) setup with improved conditions in all detectors. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set an upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of 8.8 x 10^{-11} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL for m_a <~ 0.02 eV. This result is the best laboratory limit over a broad range of axion masses and for m_a <~ 0.02 eV also supersedes the previous limit derived from energy-loss arguments on globular-cluster stars.

  10. An improved limit on the axion-photon coupling from the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Dafni, T.; Ferrer Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Irastorza, I.G. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Lasseur, C.; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Stewart, L.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K. [CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva 23, (Switzerland); Belov, A.; Gninenko, S. [Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Gomez, H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J. [Univ Zaragoza, Inst Fis Nucl and Altas Energias, Zaragoza, (Spain); Brauninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Friedrich, P.; Kuster, M. [Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, (Germany); Collar, J.I.; Miller, D.; Vieira, J. [Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst and KICP, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Dafni, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kuster, M.; Riege, H. [Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Kernphys, D-64289 Darmstadt, (Germany); Eleftheriadis, C.; Liolios, A.; Savvidis, I. [Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, GR-54006 Thessaloniki, (Greece); Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kousouris, K. [Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, Athens, (Greece); Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Heinsius, F.H.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, K.; Vogel, J. [Univ Freiburg, Freiburg, (Germany)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    We have searched for solar axions or similar particles that couple to two photons by using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) set-up with improved conditions in all detectors. From the absence of excess x-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set an upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g{sub a{gamma}} {<=} 8.8 x 10{sup -11} GeV{sup -1} at 95% CL for m{sub a} {<=} 0.02 eV. This result is the best experimental limit over a broad range of axion masses and for m{sub a} {<=} 0.02 eV also supersedes the previous limit derived from energy-loss arguments on globular cluster stars. (authors)

  11. Axion helioscopes update: the status of CAST & IAXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafni, T; Iguaz, F. J.; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2014-01-01

    Almost 35 years since their suggestion as a good solution to the strong CP-problem, axions remainone of the few viable candidates for the Dark Matter, although still eluding detection. Mostof the methods for their detection are based on their coupling to photons, one of the most sensitiveones being...... the helioscope technique. We report on the current status of the CERN Axion SolarTelescope and the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). Recent results from the secondpart of CAST phase II, where the magnet bores were filled with 3He gas at variable pressureachieving sensibilities on the axion mass up...... to 1.2 eV, are presented. Currently, CAST is expectingto improve its sensitivity to solar axions with rest mass below 0.02 eV/c2 after the upgradeof the X-ray detectors and with the implementation of a second X-ray optic. At the same time,it is exploring other possibilities at the low energy physics...

  12. Probing eV-scale axions with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, E.; Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Borghi, S.; Bourlis, G.; Boydag, F.S.; Brauninger, H.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Dogan, O.B.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fischer, H.; Friedrich, P.; Franz, J.; Galan, J.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hartmann, R.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hikmet, I.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, D.; Morales, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Serpico, P.; Soufli, R.; Stewart, L.; van Bibber, K.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for solar axions or other pseudoscalar particles that couple to two photons by using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) setup. Whereas we previously have reported results from CAST with evacuated magnet bores (Phase I), setting limits on lower mass axions, here we report results from CAST where the magnet bores were filled with \\hefour gas (Phase II) of variable pressure. The introduction of gas generated a refractive photon mass $m_\\gamma$, thereby achieving the maximum possible conversion rate for those axion masses \\ma that match $m_\\gamma$. With 160 different pressure settings we have scanned \\ma up to about 0.4 eV, taking approximately 2 h of data for each setting. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of $\\gag\\lesssim 2.17\\times 10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ at 95% CL for $\\ma \\lesssim 0.4$ eV, the exact result depending on the pressure setting. The excluded parameter range covers realistic axio...

  13. Conceptual design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO wi...

  14. New Limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P-H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Haufe, C R S; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Reine, A L; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C-H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I; Zhu, B X

    2017-04-21

    We present new limits on exotic keV-scale physics based on 478 kg d of Majorana Demonstrator commissioning data. Constraints at the 90% confidence level are derived on bosonic dark matter (DM) and solar axion couplings, Pauli exclusion principle violating (PEPV) decay, and electron decay using monoenergetic peak signal limits above our background. Our most stringent DM constraints are set for 11.8 keV mass particles, limiting g_{Ae}1.2×10^{24}  yr for e^{-}→ invisible.

  15. New Superconducting Toroidal Magnet System for IAXO, the International AXion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I; Silva, H; Wagner, U; Kate, H H J ten

    2013-01-01

    Axions are hypothetical particles that were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. The new International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate the most promising solar axions detector to date, which is designed to enhance the sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling by one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into X-ray photons. Inspired by the successful realization of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a very large superconducting toroid is currently designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. This toroid will comprise eight, one meter wide and twenty one meter long, racetrack coils. The system is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length. Its peak magnetic field is 5.4 T with a stored e...

  16. Active control of the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong; Qin, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation solar telescope of China with diameter of 8 meter. The unique feature of CGST is that its primary is a ring, which facilitates the polarization detection and thermal control. In its present design and development phase, two primary mirror patterns are considered. For one thing, the primary mirror is expected to construct with mosaic mirror with 24 trapezoidal (or petal) segments, for another thing, a monolithic mirror is also a candidate for its primary mirror. Both of them depend on active control technique to maintain the optical quality of the ring mirror. As a solar telescope, the working conditions of the CGST are quite different from those of the stellar telescopes. To avoid the image deterioration due to the mirror seeing and dome seeing, especially in the case of the concentration of flux in a solar telescope, large aperture solar projects prefer to adopt open telescopes and open domes. In this circumstance, higher wind loads act on the primary mirror directly, which will cause position errors and figure errors of the primary with matters worse than those of the current 10-meter stellar telescopes with dome protect. Therefore, it gives new challenges to the active control capability, telescope structure design, and wind shielding design. In this paper, the study progress of active control of CGST for its mosaic and monolithic mirror are presented, and the wind effects on such two primary mirrors are also investigated.

  17. New Limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R. S.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. X.

    2017-04-01

    We present new limits on exotic keV-scale physics based on 478 kg d of MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning data. Constraints at the 90% confidence level are derived on bosonic dark matter (DM) and solar axion couplings, Pauli exclusion principle violating (PEPV) decay, and electron decay using monoenergetic peak signal limits above our background. Our most stringent DM constraints are set for 11.8 keV mass particles, limiting gAe < 4.5 × 10-13 for pseudoscalars and ðα0=αÞ < 9.7 × 10-28 for vectors. We also report a 14.4 keV solar axion coupling limit of geff AN × gAe < 3.8 × 10-17, a 1 2 β2 < 8.5 × 10-48 limit on the strength of PEPV electron transitions, and a lower limit on the electron lifetime of τe > 1.2 × 1024 yr for e- → invisible.

  18. Solar Hα and white light telescope at Hvar Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čalogovic, J.; Dumbovic, M.; Novak, S.; Vršnak, B.; Brajša, R.; Pötzi, W.; Hirtenfellner-Polanec, W.; Veronig, A.; Hanslmeier, A.; Klvaňa, Miroslav; Ambrož, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2012 (2012), s. 83-88 ISSN 1845-8319 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar observations * telescope * photosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Probing eV-mass scale axions with a Micromegas detector in the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galan Lacarra, Javier A.

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for axions, an hypothetical particle that emerges as a possible solution to the well known CP violation problem in strong interactions. CAST is using a decommissioned LHC dipole magnet able to track the Sun as a possible source of solar axions, and to convert them to X-rays photons detectable with low background X-ray detectors. CAST continues its data taking period scanning masses up to 1eV. This thesis presents the data obtained with a Micromegas detector for the scanned axion mass range up to 0.64eV. The working principle, characterization and analysis of the Micromegas detectors operating in CAST are detailed in this work. Moreover, the last detector data corresponding to the new data taking period, with 3He gas inside the bores, was used to obtain a preliminar and conservative upper limit on the axion-photon coupling for the new axion mass range explored, g_{a\\gamma} < 2.44 10^{-10} GeV^{-1}.

  20. Overlooked astrophysical signatures of axion(-like) particles

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, K; Papaevangelou, T; Zioutas, Konstantin; Semertzidis, Yannis; Papaevangelou, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The working principle of axion helioscopes can be behind unexpected solar X-ray emission, being associated with solar magnetic fields, which become the catalyst. Solar axion signals are transient brightenings, or, continuous radiation. We arrive at 2 exotica: a) trapped, radiatively decaying, massive axions and b) outstreaming light axions, explaining unpredictable transient solar phenomena. Then, the energy of a related phenomenon points at the birth place of the axions. The energy range below some 100 eV is a window of opportunity for direct axion searches. Indirect signatures support axions or the like as an explanation of enigmatic behaviour in the Sun and beyond. Axion antennas could take advantage of such a feed back.

  1. The Search of Axion Dark Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The axion provides a solution to the strong CP problem and is a cold dark matter candidate. I will review the limits on the axion from particle physics, stellar evolution and cosmology. The various constraints suggest that the axion mass is in the micro-eV to milli-eV range. In this range, axions contribute significantly to the energy density of the universe in the form of cold dark matter. Dark matter axions can be searched for on Earth by stimulating their conversion to microwave photons in an electromagnetic cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. Using this technique, limits on the local halo density have been placed by the Axion Dark Matter experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. I will give a status report on ADMX and its upgrade presently under construction. I will also discuss the results from solar axion searches (Tokyo helioscope, CAST) and laser experiments (PVLAS).

  2. An update on the Axion Helioscopes front: current activities at CAST and the IAXO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, T.; Arik, M.; Armengaud, E.; Aune, S.; Avignone, F. T.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Betz, M.; Bräuninger, H.; Brax, P.; Breijnholt, N.; Brun, P.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Carosi, G. P.; Caspers, F.; Caspi, S.; Cetin, S. A.; Chelouche, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Collar, J. I.; Dael, A.; Davenport, M.; Derbin, A. V.; Desch, K.; Diago, A.; Döbrich, B.; Dratchnev, I.; Dudarev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Geralis, T.; Gimeno, B.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; González-Díaz, D.; Gruber, E.; Guendelman, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hailey, C. J.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Horns, D.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Isern, J.; Imai, K.; Jacoby, J.; Jaeckel, J.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jakovčić, K.; Kaminski, J.; Kawasaki, M.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Krieger, C.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Limousin, O.; Lindner, A.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Matsuki, S.; Muratova, V. N.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nones, C.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Riege, H.; Ringwald, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Russenschuck, S.; Ruz, J.; Saikawa, K.; Savvidis, I.; Sekiguchi, T.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Shilon, I.; Sikivie, P.; Silva, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Tomas, A.; Troitsky, S.; Vafeiadis, T.; van Bibber, K.; Vedrine, P.; Villar, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Walckiers, L.; Weltman, A.; Wester, W.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.

    2016-04-01

    Although they have not yet been detected, axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) continue to maintain the interest (even increasingly so) of the rare-event searches community as viable candidates for the Dark Matter of the Universe but also as a solution for several other puzzles of astrophysics. Their property of coupling to photons has inspired different experimental methods for their detection, one of which is the helioscope technique. The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is the most sensitive helioscope built up to date and has recently published part of the latest data taken with the magnet bores gradually filled with 3He, probing the mass range up to 1.17 eV. The International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being proposed as a facility where different axion studies can be performed, with the primary goal to study axions coming from the Sun. Designed to maximize sensitivity, it will improve the levels reached by CAST by almost 5 orders of magnitude in signal detection, that is more than one order of magnitude in terms of gaγ. Here we will summarize the most important aspects of the helioscopes, and focus mainly on IAXO, based on the recent papers [1, 2].

  3. Search for solar Axion Like Particles in the low energy range at CAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantatore, G.; Karuza, M.; Lozza, V.; Raiteri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) could be continuously produced in the Sun via the Primakoff process. The ALP flux could be seen on Earth by observing the photons produced by the ALP decay. The expected energy distribution of reconverted photons is peaked at 3 keV. There could be, however, a low energy tail due to various processes active in the Sun. We report results of the first test measurements in the low energy range performed at CAST along with a description of the experimental setup. Future detector developments are discussed and preliminary results on a liquid nitrogen cooled Avalanche Photodiode are presented.

  4. Conceptual Design of a New Large Superconducting Toroid for IAXO, the New International AXion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate a new generation detector for axions, a hypothetical particle, which was postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP problem. The new IAXO experiment is aiming at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, represented by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into x-ray photons. Utilizing the designs of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroidal magnet is currently being designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. The new toroid will be built up from eight, one meter wide and 20 m long, racetrack coils. The toroid is sized about 4 m in diameter and 22 m in length. It is designed to realize a peak magnetic field of 5.4 T with a ...

  5. Proposed National Large Solar Telescope Jagdev Singh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Sun's atmosphere is an ideal place to study and test many magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes controlling turbulent plasma. We wish to resolve some of the finest solar features (which remain unresolved presently) and study their dynamics. Indian Institute of Astrophysics has proposed to design, fabricate and ...

  6. Search for Axions with the CDMS Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CDMS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first axion search results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. An energy threshold of 2 keV for electron-recoil events allows a search for possible solar axion conversion into photons or local Galactic axion conversion into electrons in the germanium crystal detectors. The solar axion search sets an upper limit on the Primakov coupling g aγγ of 2.4 x 10 ?9 GeV -1 at the 95% confidence level for an axion mass less than 0.1 keV/c 2 . This limit benefits from the first precise measurement of the absolute crystal plane orientations in this type of experiment. The Galactic axion search analysis sets a world-leading experimental upper limit on the axio-electric coupling g a# bar e# e of 1.4 x 10 -12 at the 90% confidence level for an axion mass of 2.5 keV/c 2 . This analysis excludes an interpretation of the DAMA annual modulation result in terms of Galactic axion interactions for axion masses above 1.4 keV/c 2

  7. Hydrogen axion star: metallic hydrogen bound to a QCD axion BEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Barger, Vernon; Berger, Joshua [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-23

    As a cold dark matter candidate, the QCD axion may form Bose-Einstein condensates, called axion stars, with masses around 10{sup −11} M{sub ⊙}. In this paper, we point out that a brand new astrophysical object, a Hydrogen Axion Star (HAS), may well be formed by ordinary baryonic matter becoming gravitationally bound to an axion star. We study the properties of the HAS and find that the hydrogen cloud has a high pressure and temperature in the center and is likely in the liquid metallic hydrogen state. Because of the high particle number densities for both the axion star and the hydrogen cloud, the feeble interaction between axion and hydrogen can still generate enough internal power, around 10{sup 13} W×(m{sub a}/5 meV){sup 4}, to make these objects luminous point sources. High resolution ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes can discover HAS via black-body radiation.

  8. Hydrogen axion star: metallic hydrogen bound to a QCD axion BEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Barger, Vernon; Berger, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    As a cold dark matter candidate, the QCD axion may form Bose-Einstein condensates, called axion stars, with masses around 10"−"1"1 M_⊙. In this paper, we point out that a brand new astrophysical object, a Hydrogen Axion Star (HAS), may well be formed by ordinary baryonic matter becoming gravitationally bound to an axion star. We study the properties of the HAS and find that the hydrogen cloud has a high pressure and temperature in the center and is likely in the liquid metallic hydrogen state. Because of the high particle number densities for both the axion star and the hydrogen cloud, the feeble interaction between axion and hydrogen can still generate enough internal power, around 10"1"3 W×(m_a/5 meV)"4, to make these objects luminous point sources. High resolution ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes can discover HAS via black-body radiation.

  9. Search for solar axion emission from $^7$Li and D(p,$\\gamma)^3$He nuclear decays with the CAST $\\gamma$-ray calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, S.; Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Brauninger, H.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, D.W.; Morales, J.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Serpico, P.; Stewart, L.; Vieira, J.D.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a search for a high-energy axion emission signal from 7Li (0.478 MeV) and D(p,gamma)3He (5.5 MeV) nuclear transitions using a low-background gamma-ray calorimeter during Phase I of the CAST experiment. These so-called "hadronic axions" could provide a solution to the long-standing strong-CP problem and can be emitted from the solar core from nuclear M1 transitions. This is the first such search for high-energy pseudoscalar bosons with couplings to nucleons conducted using a helioscope approach. No excess signal above background was found.

  10. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  11. The Lyman-alpha Imager onboard Solar Polar Orbit Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoquan; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Sizhong; Jiang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT) was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is currently being under background engineering study phase in China. SPORT will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. The Lyman-alpha Imager (LMI) is one of the key remotesensing instruments onboard SPORT with 45arcmin FOV, 2000mm effective focal length and 1.4arcsec/pixel spatial resolution . The size of LMI is φ150×1000mm, and the weight is less than10kg, including the 7kg telescope tube and 3kg electronic box. There are three 121.6nm filters used in the LMI optical path, so the 98% spectral purity image of 121.6nm can be achieved. The 121.6nm solar Lyman-alpha line is produced in the chromosphere and very sensitive to plasma temperature, plasma velocity and magnetism variation in the chromosphere. Solar Lyman-alpha disk image is an ideal tracker for corona magnetism variation.

  12. CCD - based guiding and control system for solar telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klvaňa, Miroslav; Bumba, Václav; Sobotka, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 4 (2003), s. 305-307 ISSN 0004-6337 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/0658; GA AV ČR IAA3003903; GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : solar telescopes * guiding and control system Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2003

  13. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  14. Molecular Contamination Assessment on Hinode Solar Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Fumitaka; Yano, Kei-Ichi; Yamanaka, Riyo; Miyazaki, Eiji; Kimoto, Yugo

    The Hinode (Solar-B) Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is sensitive to molecular contaminant deposition resulting from its organic materials outgassing on orbit. It was launched by M-V rocket on 22 September 2006 UT. The SOT telemetry data showed that temperature of the Heat Dump Mirror (HDM) rose rapidly during first two months, and that the SOT throughput at shorter wavelength decreased linearly over one year. These are attributed to the facts that molecular contamination deposition degrades a solar absorptance of the HDM, the reflectance of the Primary Mirror and the Secondary Mirror, and the transmittance of the Collimating Lens. The numerical analyses of molecular contamination deposition were conducted in order to identify a major contaminant source and contaminated optics. We found that a major contaminant source was silicone sealant DC6-1104 which was used in the Collimating Lens Unit.

  15. An Airborne Infrared Telescope and Spectrograph for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Edward E.; Cheimets, Peter; Golub, Leon

    2014-06-01

    The solar infrared spectrum offers great possibilities for direct spatially resolved measurements of the solar coronal magnetic fields, via imaging of the plasma that is constrained to follow the magnetic field direction and via spectro-polarimetry that permits measurement of the field strength in the corona. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. The large scale structure of the coronal field, and the opening up of the field in a transition zone between the closed and open corona determines the speed and structure of the solar wind, providing the background environment through which CMEs propagate. At present our only direct measurements of the solar magnetic fields are in the photosphere and chromosphere. The ability to determine where and why the corona transitions from closed to open, combined with measurements of the field strength via infrared coronal spectro-polarimetry will give us a powerful new tool in our quest to develop the next generation of forecasting models.We describe a first step in achieving this goal: a proposal for a new IR telescope, image stabilization system, and spectrometer, for the NCAR HIPER GV aircraft. The telescope/spectrograph will operate in the 2-6micron wavelength region, during solar eclipses, starting with the trans-north American eclipse in August 2017. The HIAPER aircraft flying at ~35,000 ft will provide an excellent platform for IR observations. Our imaging and spectroscopy experiment will show the distribution and intensity of IR forbidden lines in the solar corona.

  16. The pier and building of the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Codina, R.; Gómez Merchán, A.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Hartman, J. J. M.; Hernández Suárez, E.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Murga Llano, G.; Pelser, J. W.; Sliepen, G.

    2010-07-01

    EST (European Solar Telescope) is a 4-m class solar telescope, which is currently in the conceptual design phase. EST will be located in the Canary Islands and will aim at high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution observations in the photosphere and chromosphere, using a suite of instruments that can produce efficiently two-dimensional spectropolarimetric information of the thermal, dynamic and magnetic properties of the plasma over many scale heights. The pier is defined as the construction that supports the telescope and the enclosure. It needs a certain height to minimize daytime ground turbulence. At the bottom of the pier a large instrument lab is located, 16 m in diameter and 10 m high. To the pier is attached a service building that accommodates all auxiliary services, possibly together with a separate building. Solid concrete- and open framework piers are compared, in terms of stability, thermal properties and flow characteristics and building structures in terms of construction issues. FE and CFD analysis are used to give qualitative insight in the differences between the alternatives. The preferred alternative is a cone shaped pier surrounded by an open framework.

  17. Adaptation of Dunn Solar Telescope for Jovian Doppler spectro imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas A.; Voelz, David; Schmider, François-Xavier; Jackiewicz, Jason; Dejonghe, Julien; Bresson, Yves; Hull, Robert; Goncalves, Ivan; Gualme, Patrick; Morand, Frédéric; Preis, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes instrumentation used to adapt the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) located on Sacramento Peak in Sunspot, NM for observations using the Doppler Spectro Imager (DSI). The DSI is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and measures the Doppler shift of solar lines allowing for the study of atmospheric dynamics of giant planets and the detection of their acoustic oscillations. The instrumentation is being designed and built through a collaborative effort between a French team from the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) that designed the DSI and a US team at New Mexico State University (NMSU). There are four major components that couple the DSI to the DST: a guider/tracker, fast steering mirror (FSM), pupil stabilizer and transfer optics. The guider/tracker processes digital video to centroid-track the planet and outputs voltages to the DST's heliostat controls. The FSM removes wavefront tip/tilt components primarily due to turbulence and the pupil stabilizer removes any slow pupil "wander" introduced by the telescope's heliostat/turret arrangement. The light received at a science port of the DST is sent through the correction and stabilization components and into the DSI. The FSM and transfer optics designs are being provided by the OCA team and serve much the same functions as they do for other telescopes at which DSI observations have been conducted. The pupil stabilization and guider are new and are required to address characteristics of the DST.

  18. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  19. Low background x-ray detection with Micromegas for axion research

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gomez, H.; Garza, J.G.; Herrera, D.C.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jourde, D.; Luzon, G.; Mols, J.P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Yildiz, S.C.

    2014-01-07

    Axion helioscopes aim at the detection of solar axions through their conversion into x-rays in laboratory magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. Here we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The most recent Micromegas setups in CAST have achieved background levels of 1.5$\\times10^{-6}$\\ckcs, a factor of more than 100 lower than the ones obtained by the first generation of CAST detectors. This improvement is due to the development of active and passive shielding techniques, offline discrimination techniques allowed by highly granular readout patterns, as well as the use of radiopure detector components. The status of the intensive R&D to reduce the background levels will be described, including the operation of replica detectors in test benches and the detailed Geant4 simulation of the ...

  20. Reliability models applicable to space telescope solar array assembly system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A complex system may consist of a number of subsystems with several components in series, parallel, or combination of both series and parallel. In order to predict how well the system will perform, it is necessary to know the reliabilities of the subsystems and the reliability of the whole system. The objective of the present study is to develop mathematical models of the reliability which are applicable to complex systems. The models are determined by assuming k failures out of n components in a subsystem. By taking k = 1 and k = n, these models reduce to parallel and series models; hence, the models can be specialized to parallel, series combination systems. The models are developed by assuming the failure rates of the components as functions of time and as such, can be applied to processes with or without aging effects. The reliability models are further specialized to Space Telescope Solar Arrray (STSA) System. The STSA consists of 20 identical solar panel assemblies (SPA's). The reliabilities of the SPA's are determined by the reliabilities of solar cell strings, interconnects, and diodes. The estimates of the reliability of the system for one to five years are calculated by using the reliability estimates of solar cells and interconnects given n ESA documents. Aging effects in relation to breaks in interconnects are discussed.

  1. Dense Axion Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  2. An astro-comb calibrated solar telescope to search for the radial velocity signature of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David F.; Glenday, Alex G.; Dumusque, Xavier; Buchschacher, Nicolas; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Cecconi, Massimo; Charbonneau, David; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Haywood, Raphäelle; Latham, David W.; Li, Chih-Hao; Lodi, Marcello; Lovis, Christophe; Molinari, Emilio; Pepe, Francesco; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Udry, Stephane; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    We recently demonstrated sub-m/s sensitivity in measuring the radial velocity (RV) between the Earth and Sun using a simple solar telescope feeding the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Italian National Telescope, which is calibrated with a green astro-comb. We are using the solar telescope to characterize the effects of stellar (solar) RV jitter due to activity on the solar surface with the goal of detecting the solar RV signal from Venus, thereby demonstrating the sensitivity of these instruments to detect true Earth-twin exoplanets.

  3. Conceptual Design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Betz, M; Brax, P; Brun, P; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Carosi, G P; Caspers, F; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Chelouche, D; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dratchnev, I; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; González-Díaz, D; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Isern, J; Imai, K; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Karuza, M; Krčmar, M; Kousouris, K; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Limousin, O; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Matsuki, S; Muratova, V N; Nones, C; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Semertzidis, Y K; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Weltman, A; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO will be about 4-5 orders of magnitude more sensitive than CAST, currently the most powerful axion helioscope, reaching sensitivity to axion-photon couplings down to a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ GeV$^{-1}$ and thus probing a large fraction of the currently unexplored axion and ALP parameter space. IAXO will also be sensitive to solar axions produced by mechanisms mediated by the axion-electron coupling $g_{ae}$ with sensitivity $-$for the first time$-$ to values of $g_{ae}$ not previously excluded by astrophysics. With several other possible physics cases, IAXO has the potential to serve as a multi-purpose facility for generic axion and ALP research in the next decade. In this paper we present the conceptual design of IAXO, w...

  4. Do axions need inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.L.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1989-01-01

    Without inflation the energy density of relic axions in a Robertson-Walker universe arises not from coherent oscillations of a zero-momentum mode but from radiative decay of axion strings. An estimate of the upper bound on the PQ scale coming from these axions is in conflict with the lower bound from SN1987a. We present analytical and numerical evidence supporting this estimate. If true, then the axion needs inflation. With inflation the axion is safe, but the motivation for axion search experiments is weakened. (orig.)

  5. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  6. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  7. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  8. The x-ray telescope of CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuninger, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has been in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting x-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type x-ray mirror system. With the x-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} < 1 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}.

  9. Dark matter axions '96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses why axions have been postulated to exist, what cosmology implies about their presence as cold dark matter in the galactic halo, how axions might be detected in cavities wherein strong magnetic fields stimulate their conversion into photons, and relations between axions' energy spectra and galactic halos' properties

  10. Instrument design of 1.5-m aperture solar optical telescope for the Solar-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Katsukawa, Yukio; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-01

    A 1.5 m aperture optical telescope is planned for the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C as one of major three observing instruments. The optical telescope is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of lower atmosphere from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere with enhanced spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric capability covering a wide wavelength region from 280 nm to 1100 nm. The opto-mechanical and -thermal performance of the telescope is crucial to attain high-quality solar observations and we present a study of optical and structural design of the large aperture space solar telescope, together with conceptual design of its accompanying focal plane instruments: wide-band and narrow-band filtergraphs and a spectro-polarimeter for high spatial and temporal observations in the solar photospheric and chromospheric lines useful for sounding physical condition of dynamical phenomena.

  11. Axions in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the cosmological constraints on the axion mass is re-examined. It is argued that in the context of inflationary cosmology the constraint m a > or approx.10 -5 eV can be avoided even when the axion perturbations produced during inflation are taken into account. It is shown also that in most axion models the effective parameter f a rapidly changes during inflation. This modifies some earlier statements concerning isothermal perturbations in the axion cosmology. A hybrid inflation scenario is proposed which combines some advantages of chaotic inflation with specific features of new and/or extended inflation. Its implications for the axion cosmology are discussed. (orig.)

  12. The Design of Remote Control Terminal System for Three Channel Solar Telescope in Huairou in LAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Hu, Ke-Liang; Lin, Jia-Ben; Deng, Yuan-Yong

    2008-09-01

    Using Huairou three-channel solar magnetic field telescope to carry out multi-level sun synchronous observation can obtain active image of different levels at the same time, which has an important significance in solar physics. Based on the Huairou three-channel solar magnetic field telescope the authors develop remote terminal Observing System to carry out the observation of three-channel CCD synchronously, and through this system to achieve the synergy observation between three-channel telescope and small magnetic field telescope in Huairou station. By using VC.net integrated development environment, TC/IP protocol and socket programming, carry out the control of the three CCD of three-channel solar telescope synchronously and remotely. The system can complete the remote observing by image data and camera control command transmission in the LAN environment, and greatly reduce the cost of observation, and preliminary observations have been made.

  13. Stellar axion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, Daniel; Kuster, Markus; Meister, Claudia V.; Fuelbert, Florian; Hoffmann, Dieter H.H. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Kernphysik; Weiss, Achim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    An axion helioscope is typically operated to observe the sun as an axion source. Additional pointings at celestial sources, e.g. stars in other galaxies, result in possible detections of axions from distant galactic objects. For the observation of supplementary axion sources we therefore calculate the thereotical axion flux from distant stars by extending axionic flux models for the axion Primakoff effect in the sun to other main sequence stars. The main sequence star models used for our calculations are based on full stellar structure calculations. To deduce the effective axion flux of stellar objects incident on the Earth the All-Sky catalogue was used to obtain the spectral class and distance of the stars treated. Our calculations of the axion flux in the galactic plane show that for a zero age main sequence star an maximum axion flux of {phi}{sub a}=303.43 cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} could be expected. Furthermore we present estimates of axion fluxes from time-evolved stars.

  14. Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Giomataris, I; Irastorza, I G; Papaevangelou, T; Rodriguez, A; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Yildiz, S C

    2014-01-01

    Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ ...

  15. Cooling a solar telescope enclosure: plate coil thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael; Galapon, Chriselle; Montijo, Guillermo; Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka

    2016-08-01

    The climate of Haleakalā requires the observatories to actively adapt to changing conditions in order to produce the best possible images. Observatories need to be maintained at a temperature closely matching ambient or the images become blurred and unusable. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is a unique telescope as it will be active during the day as opposed to the other night-time stellar observatories. This means that it will not only need to constantly match the ever-changing temperature during the day, but also during the night so as not to sub-cool and affect the view field of other telescopes while they are in use. To accomplish this task, plate coil heat exchanger panels will be installed on the DKIST enclosure that are designed to keep the temperature at ambient temperature +0°C/-4°C. To verify the feasibility of this and to validate the design models, a test rig has been installed at the summit of Haleakalā. The project's purpose is to confirm that the plate coil panels are capable of maintaining this temperature throughout all seasons and involved collecting data sets of various variables including pressures, temperatures, coolant flows, solar radiations and wind velocities during typical operating hours. Using MATLAB, a script was written to observe the plate coil's thermal performance. The plate coil did not perform as expected, achieving a surface temperature that was generally 2ºC above ambient temperature. This isn't to say that the plate coil does not work, but the small chiller used for the experiment was undersized resulting in coolant pumped through the plate coil that was not supplied at a low enough temperature. Calculated heat depositions were about 23% lower than that used as the basis of the design for the hillers to be used on the full system, a reasonable agreement given the fact that many simplifying assumptions were used in the models. These were not carried over into the testing. The test rig performance showing a 23% margin

  16. Axions and Their Relatives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    A summary of the status of axions and axion-like particles will be given. Special attention is devoted to the recent results of the PVLAS collaboration, which are in conflict with CAST data and with astrophysical constraints. Solutions to this puzzle and the implications for new physics are dicussed. The subject of axion-like particles as dark matter will be included in the lecture. Finally some new results on new forces mediated by light scalars are debated.

  17. Inflationary Axion Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-09-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.

  18. Experimental Axion Review

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Axions are a natural consequence of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the most compelling solution to the strong-CP problem. Similar axion-like particles (ALPs) also appear in a number of possible extensions of the Standard Model, notably in string theories. Both axions and ALPs are very well motivated candidates for the Dark Matter, and in addition would be copiously produced at the stellar cores. Some anomalous astrophysical observations could be hinting the existence of these particles. They are object of increasing interest by experimentalists. I will briefly review the motivation to search for axions and ALPs, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experimental landscape.

  19. Inflationary axion cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.

    1991-01-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10 -6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, θ 1 approx-lt[m a /10 -6 eV 0.59 .] We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative

  20. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  1. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irastorza, I G; Avignone, F T; Cantatore, G

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ (≳) few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IA...

  2. Solar cooker effect test and temperature field simulation of radio telescope subreflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deshen; Wang, Huajie; Qian, Hongliang; Zhang, Gang; Shen, Shizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar cooker effect test of a telescope subreflector is conducted for the first time. • The cause and temperature distribution regularities are analyzed contrastively. • Simulation methods are proposed using light beam segmentation and tracking methods. • The validity of simulation methods is evaluated using the test results. - Abstract: The solar cooker effect can cause a local high temperature of the subreflector and can directly affect the working performance of the radio telescope. To study the daily temperature field and solar cooker effect of a subreflector, experimental studies are carried out with a 3-m-diameter radio telescope model for the first time. Initially, the solar temperature distribution rules, especially the solar cooker effect, are summarized according to the field test results under the most unfavorable conditions. Then, a numerical simulation for the solar temperature field of the subreflector is studied by light beam segmentation and tracking methods. Finally, the validity of the simulation methods is evaluated using the test results. The experimental studies prove that the solar cooker effect really exists and should not be overlooked. In addition, simulation methods for the subreflector temperature field proposed in this paper are effective. The research methods and conclusions can provide valuable references for thermal design, monitoring and control of similar high-precision radio telescopes.

  3. Future cosmological sensitivity for hot dark matter axions

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We study the potential of a future, large-volume photometric survey to constrain the axion mass $m_a$ in the hot dark matter limit. Future surveys such as Euclid will have significantly more constraining power than current observations for hot dark matter. Nonetheless, the lowest accessible axion masses are limited by the fact that axions lighter than $\\sim 0.15$ eV decouple before the QCD epoch, assumed here to occur at a temperature $T_{\\rm QCD} \\sim 170$ MeV; this leaves an axion population of such low density that its late-time cosmological impact is negligible. For larger axion masses, $m_a \\gtrsim 0.15$ eV, where axions remain in equilibrium until after the QCD phase transition, we find that a Euclid-like survey combined with Planck CMB data can detect $m_a$ at very high significance. Our conclusions are robust against assumptions about prior knowledge of the neutrino mass. Given that the proposed IAXO solar axion search is sensitive to $m_a\\lesssim 0.2$ eV, the axion mass range probed by cosmology is n...

  4. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Structural analysis for the 4-m Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; Warner, Mark; Lee, Joon P.

    2005-08-01

    With a 4 m off-axis aspherical primary mirror, integrated adaptive optics, low scattered light, infrared coverage, and state-of-the-art post focus instrumentation, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the world's most powerful solar research telescope. In order to achieve the required performance specifications of the telescope, the ATST project selected an alt-az telescope mount to support and position the major optic assemblies. In addition, the telescope incorporates a large diameter (16.4m) coude rotator lab that is capable of supporting multiple large instrument assemblies. This lab can rotate about its azimuth axis independent of the alt/az mount above it. In this paper, we describe an overview of the telescope structure, discuss the basic design parameters, and summarize the results of initial finite element analyses. The results include static analyses (gravity and average static wind loading), telescope natural modes, dynamic response to wind loadings, and a seismic loading analysis. Image motion at the instrument focal plane is also calculated based on line of sight (LOS) sensitivity equations integrated into the finite element models.

  7. Solar synoptic telescope. Characteristics, possibilities, and limits of design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klvaňa, Miroslav; Sobotka, Michal; Švanda, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2011), s. 92-98 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.152, year: 2011

  8. Cross-Calibrating Sunspot Magnetic Field Strength Measurements from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Dunn Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Fraser T.; Beck, Christian; Penn, Matthew J.; Tritschler, Alexandra; Pillet, Valentín Martinez; Livingston, William C.

    2015-11-01

    In this article we describe a recent effort to cross-calibrate data from an infrared detector at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A synoptic observation program at the McMath-Pierce has measured umbral magnetic field strengths since 1998, and this data set has recently been compared with umbral magnetic field observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. To further improve on the data from McMath-Pierce, we compared the data with measurements taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope with far greater spectral resolution than has been possible with space instrumentation. To minimise potential disruption to the study, concurrent umbral measurements were made so that the relationship between the two datasets can be most accurately characterised. We find that there is a strong agreement between the umbral magnetic field strengths recorded by each instrument, and we reduced the FIRS data in two different ways to successfully test this correlation further.

  9. Strings, Axions and Solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish

    This thesis is divided into two chapters. Chapter I is about the dynamics of radiating axionic strings and the lower bound on the mass of the invisible axion. It has been suggested that, without inflation, the decay of axionic strings produced after the Peccei -Quinn phase transition is the primary source of cosmic relic axions. Knowing the density of these axions would then allow the derivation of a cosmological bound on the mass of the axion. In order to obtain a sharp bound it is essential to know the spectrum of the emitted axions and the detailed motion of a global string strongly coupled to the axionic field. To this end, following the analogy with Dirac's treatment of classical radiating electrons, self-consistent renormalized equations are obtained that describe the dynamics of a radiating global string interacting with its surrounding axionic field. The numerical formalism for evolving string trajectories using these equations is described, and is applied to the case of a circular loop. It is argued that for large wavelength oscillations of cosmic string loops, the motion is well approximated by the motion of a free Nambu-Goto string with appropriate renormalization. Consequently, a lower bound of 10 ^{-3} eV on the mass of the axion is obtained. Together with the recent upperbound of 4 times 10^{-4 } eV from the supernova SN1987a, it marginally rules out the invisible axion. Chapter II is about superstrings and solitons. It is shown that the quantum renormalization of the superstring tension vanishes to all orders in string perturbation theory. A low-energy analysis of macroscopic superstrings is presented and various analogies between these superstrings and solitons in supersymmetric theories are discussed. These include the existence of exact multi-string solutions of the low -energy supergravity super-Yang-Mills equations of motion and a Bogomol'nyi bound for the energy per unit length which is saturated by these solutions. Arguments are presented that

  10. In quest of axionic hairs in quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mandal, Bhaswati; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2018-03-01

    The presence of axionic field can provide plausible explanation to several long standing problems in physics such as dark matter and dark energy. The pseudo-scalar axion whose derivative corresponds to the Hodge dual of the Kalb-Ramond field strength in four dimensions plays crucial roles in explaining several astrophysical and cosmological observations. Therefore, the detection of axionic hairs/Kalb-Ramond field which appears as closed string excitations in the heterotic string spectrum may provide a profound insight to our understanding of the current universe. The current level of precision achieved in solar-system based tests employed to test general relativity, is not sufficient to detect the presence of axion. However, the near horizon regime of quasars where the curvature effects are maximum seems to be a natural laboratory to probe such additions to the matter sector. The continuum spectrum emitted from the accretion disk around quasars encapsulates the imprints of the background spacetime and hence acts as a storehouse of information regarding the nature of gravitational interaction in extreme situations. The surfeit of data available in the electromagnetic domain provides a further motivation to explore such systems. Using the optical data for eighty Palomar Green quasars we demonstrate that the theoretical estimates of optical luminosity explain the observations best when the axionic field is assumed to be absent. However, axion which violates the energy condition seems to be favored by observations which has several interesting consequences. Error estimators, including reduced χ2, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, index of agreement and modified versions of the last two are used to solidify our conclusion and the implications of our result are discussed.

  11. The hunt for axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-06-15

    Many theoretically well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of the axion and further ultralight axion-like particles. They may constitute the mysterious dark matter in the universe and solve some puzzles in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. There are new, relatively small experiments around the globe, which started to hunt for these elusive particles and complement the accelerator based search for physics beyond the Standard Model.

  12. The Large Millimeter Telescope and Solar Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, M.; Hughes, D.; LMT Project Team

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. It also briefly describes two astronomical branches in which the LMT will certainly have a major impact: the study of thermal emission of circumstellar material around main sequence stars and the analysis of the molecular contents of this material in relatively young stars. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction of the telescope structure is complete at the 4600 m LMT site on the summit of Volcán Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. First-light with the LMT was successfully conducted in June and July 2011 with observations at both 3 and 1.1 mm. The commissioning and future scientific operation of the LMT is divided into two major phases. As part of phase I, following the improvement in the alignment of the surface segments within the inner 32 meter diameter of the antenna, the project will begin the first shared risk scientific observations in the spring of 2013. In phase II, we will continue the installation and alignment of the remainder of the reflector surface, after which the final commissioning of the full 50m LMT will take place. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  13. Tidal streams from axion miniclusters and direct axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Tinyakov, Peter; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2016-01-19

    In some axion dark matter models a dominant fraction of axions resides in dense small-scale substructures, axion miniclusters. A fraction of these substructures is disrupted and forms tidal streams where the axion density may still be an order of magnitude larger than the average. We discuss implications of these streams for the direct axion searches. We estimate the fraction of disrupted miniclusters and the parameters of the resulting streams, and find that stream-crossing events would occur at a rate of about $1/(20 {\\rm yr})$ for 2-3 days, during which the signal in axion detectors would be amplified by a factor $\\sim 10$. These estimates suggest that the effect of the tidal disruption of axion miniclusters may be important for direct axion searches and deserves a more thorough study.

  14. Progress of site survey for large solar telescopes in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Song, Tengfei; Zhang, Xuefei; Liu, Shunqing; Zhao, Mingyu; Tian, Zhanjun; Miao, Yuhu; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Jing; Su, Baoyu; Lu, Yongyin; Li, Xiaobo; Song, Qiwu

    Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For very-high-resolution solar observations, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau. The project of solar site survey for the next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been launched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard instruments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We introduce the fresh site survey results in this report.

  15. A collider observable QCD axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; Hook, Anson; Huang, Junwu; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    We present a model where the QCD axion is at the TeV scale and visible at a collider via its decays. Conformal dynamics and strong CP considerations account for the axion coupling strongly enough to the standard model to be produced as well as the coincidence between the weak scale and the axion mass. The model predicts additional pseudoscalar color octets whose properties are completely determined by the axion properties rendering the theory testable.

  16. First results from Solax: A new technique to detect axions from the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignone, F.T. III; Creswick, R.J.; Farach, H.A.; Abriola, D.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Gattone, A.O.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Miley, H.S.; Reeves, J.H.; Collar, J.I.; Guerard, C.K.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Villar, J.A.; Nussinov, S.; Zioutas, K.

    1998-01-01

    A new technique has been used to seek solar axions with a single-crystal germanium detector. It exploits the coherent conversion of axions into photons when their angle of incidence satisfies the Bragg condition with a crystalline plane. The analysis of approximately 1.94 kg yr of data from the 1-kg DEMOS detector in Sierra Grande, Argentina, yields a new laboratory bound on the axion-photon coupling constant (g aγγ -9 GeV -1 ), irrespective of the axion mass up to ∼1 keV

  17. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J.G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Isern, J; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IAXO are an increased magnetic field volume together with extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested in CAST. Additional physics cases of IAXO could include the detection of electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) and other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics.

  18. The International Axion Observatory IAXO. Letter of Intent to the CERN SPS committee

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, Igor G; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.; Brax, P.; Brun, P.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Carosi, G. P.; Caspers, F.; Caspi, S.; Cetin, S. A.; Chelouche, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Dael, A.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Derbin, A.V.; Desch, K.; Diago, A.; Dobrich, B. D.; Dratchnev, I.; Dudarev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Geralis, T.; Gimeno, B.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Guendelman, E.; Hailey, C. J.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Horns, D.; Iguaz, F. J.; Isern, J.; Imai, K.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jaeckel, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kaminski, J.; Kawasaki, M.; Karuza, M.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Krieger, C.; Lakic, B.; Limousin, O.; Lindner, A.; Liolios, A.; Luzon, G.; Matsuki, S.; Muratova, V. N.; Nones, C.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Russenschuck, S.; Ruz, J.; Saikawa, K.; Savvidis, I.; Sekiguchi, T.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Shilon, I.; Sikivie, P.; Silva, H.; Kate, H. ten; Tomas, A.; Troitsky, S.; Vafeiadis, T.; van Bibber, K.; Vedrine, P.; Villar, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Walckiers, L.; Weltman, A.; Wester, W.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2013-01-01

    This Letter of Intent describes IAXO, the International Axion Observatory, a proposed 4th generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal to background ratio, IAXO will be about 4-5 orders of magnitude more sensitive than CAST, which means that this instrument will reach sensitivity to axion-photon couplings down to a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ GeV$^{-1}$. IAXO has the potential for the discovery of axions and other ALPs, since it will deeply enter into unexplored parameter space. At the very least it will firmly exclude a large region of this space of high cosmological and astrophysical relevance. In particular it will probe a large fraction of the high mass part (1 meV to 1 eV) of the QCD axion allowed window. Additional physics cases for IAXO include the possibility of detecting solar axions produced by mechanisms mediated by the axion-electron co...

  19. New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, Philip R; Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2012-01-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now providing the highest resolution solar data ever. These data have revealed surprises about the Sun on small-scales including the observation that bright points (BPs), which can be used as proxies for the intense, compact magnetic elements that are apparent in photospheric intergranular lanes. The BPs are ever more numerous on ever smaller spatial scales as though there were no limit to how small the BPs can be. Here we discuss high resolution NST data on BPs that provide support for the ideas that a turbulent regime of super-diffusivity dominates in the quiet Sun, and there are local dynamos operating near the solar surface. (comment)

  20. Axionic Mirage Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shuntaro; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In this talk, we propose a model of mirage mediation, in which Peccei-Quinn symmetry is incorporated. In this axionic mirage mediation, it is shown that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale is dynamically determined around 10 10 GeV to 10 12 GeV due to the supersymmetry breaking effects. The problems in the original mirage mediation such as the μ-problem and the moduli problem can be solved simultaneouly. Furthermore, in our model the axino, which is the superpartner of the axion, is the lightest sparticle.

  1. First Axion Results from the XENON100 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Colijn, A.P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A.D.; Fulgione, W.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L.W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R.F.; Calloch, M. Le; Lellouch, D.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Lung, K.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F.V.; Mayani Paras, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-09-09

    We present the first results of searches for axions and axion-like-particles with the XENON100 experiment. The axion-electron coupling constant, $g_{Ae}$, has been tested by exploiting the axio-electric effect in liquid xenon. A profile likelihood analysis of 224.6 live days $\\times$ 34 kg exposure has shown no evidence for a signal. By rejecting $g_{Ae}$, larger than $7.7 \\times 10^{-12}$ (90% CL) in the solar axion search, we set the best limit to date on this coupling. In the frame of the DFSZ and KSVZ models, we exclude QCD axions heavier than 0.3 eV/c$^2$ and 80 eV/c$^2$, respectively. For axion-like-particles, under the assumption that they constitute the whole abundance of dark matter in our galaxy, we constrain $g_{Ae}$, to be lower than $1 \\times 10^{-12}$ (90% CL) for masses between 5 and 10 keV/c$^2$.

  2. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  3. Cosmological Consequences of String Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, Ben

    2005-12-15

    Axion fluctuations generated during inflation lead to isocurvature and non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Following a previous analysis for the model independent string axion we consider the consequences of a measurement of these fluctuations for two additional string axions. We do so independent of any cosmological assumptions except for the axions being massless during inflation. The first axion has been shown to solve the strong CP problem for most compactifications of the heterotic string while the second axion, which does not solve the strong CP problem, obeys a mass formula which is independent of the axion scale. We find that if gravitational waves interpreted as arising from inflation are observed by the PLANCK polarimetry experiment with a Hubble constant during inflation of H{sub inf} {approx}> 10{sup 13} GeV the existence of the first axion is ruled out and the second axion cannot obey the scale independent mass formula. In an appendix we quantitatively justify the often held assumption that temperature corrections to the zero temperature QCD axion mass may be ignored for temperatures T {approx}< {Lambda}{sub QCD}.

  4. The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...

  5. Axions in String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2006-06-09

    In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.

  6. Evaluation and testing of image quality of the Space Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jilong; Yi, Zhong; Zhou, Shuhong; Yu, Qian; Hou, Yinlong; Wang, Shanshan

    2018-01-01

    For the space solar extreme ultraviolet telescope, the star point test can not be performed in the x-ray band (19.5nm band) as there is not light source of bright enough. In this paper, the point spread function of the optical system is calculated to evaluate the imaging performance of the telescope system. Combined with the actual processing surface error, such as small grinding head processing and magnetorheological processing, the optical design software Zemax and data analysis software Matlab are used to directly calculate the system point spread function of the space solar extreme ultraviolet telescope. Matlab codes are programmed to generate the required surface error grid data. These surface error data is loaded to the specified surface of the telescope system by using the communication technique of DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange), which is used to connect Zemax and Matlab. As the different processing methods will lead to surface error with different size, distribution and spatial frequency, the impact of imaging is also different. Therefore, the characteristics of the surface error of different machining methods are studied. Combining with its position in the optical system and simulation its influence on the image quality, it is of great significance to reasonably choose the processing technology. Additionally, we have also analyzed the relationship between the surface error and the image quality evaluation. In order to ensure the final processing of the mirror to meet the requirements of the image quality, we should choose one or several methods to evaluate the surface error according to the different spatial frequency characteristics of the surface error.

  7. Point-Focus Concentration Compact Telescoping Array: Extreme Environments Solar Power Base Phase Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachen, Michael E.; Murphy, Dave; Meinhold, Shen; Spink, Jim; Eskenazi, Mike; O'Neill, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Orbital ATK, in partnership with Mark ONeill LLC (MOLLC), has developed a novel solar array platform, PFC-CTA, which provides a significant advance in performance and cost reduction compared to all currently available space solar systems. PFC refers to the Point Focus Concentration of light provided by MOLLCs thin, flat Fresnel optics. These lenses focus light to a point of approximately 100 times the intensity of the ambient light, onto a solar cell of approximately 125th the size of the lens. CTA stands for Compact Telescoping Array, which is the solar array blanket structural platform originally devised by NASA and currently being advanced by Orbital ATK and partners under NASA and AFRL funding to a projected TRL 5+ by late-2018.The NASA Game Changing Development Extreme Environment Solar Power (EESP) Base Phase study has enabled Orbital ATK to refine component designs, perform component level and system performance analyses, and test prototype hardware of the key elements of PFC-CTA, and increased the TRL of PFC-specific technology elements to TRL 4. Key performance metrics currently projected are as follows: Scalability from 5 kW to 300 kW per wing (AM0); Specific Power 500 Wkg (AM0); Stowage Efficiency 100 kWm3; 5:1 margin on pointing tolerance vs. capability; 50 launched cost savings; Wide range of operability between Venus and Saturn by active andor passive thermal management.

  8. Axion as a Cold Dark Matter Candidate: Proof to Fully Nonlinear Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2017-09-01

    We present proof of the axion as a cold dark matter (CDM) candidate to the fully nonlinear order perturbations based on Einstein’s gravity. We consider the axion as a coherently oscillating massive classical scalar field without interaction. We present the fully nonlinear and exact, except for ignoring the transverse-tracefree tensor-type perturbation, hydrodynamic equations for an axion fluid in Einstein’s gravity. We show that the axion has the characteristic pressure and anisotropic stress; the latter starts to appear from the second-order perturbation. But these terms do not directly affect the hydrodynamic equations in our axion treatment. Instead, what behaves as the effective pressure term in relativistic hydrodynamic equations is the perturbed lapse function and the relativistic result coincides exactly with the one known in the previous non-relativistic studies. The effective pressure term leads to a Jeans scale that is of the solar-system scale for conventional axion mass. As the fully nonlinear and relativistic hydrodynamic equations for an axion fluid coincide exactly with the ones of a zero-pressure fluid in the super-Jeans scale, we have proved the CDM nature of such an axion in that scale.

  9. Method of composing two-dimensional scanned spectra observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun-Fang; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Yu-Chao; Xu, Jun; Li, Zheng-Gang; Fu, Yu; Ji, Kai-Fan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we illustrate the technique used by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) to increase the spatial resolution of two-dimensional (2D) solar spectroscopy observations involving two dimensions of space and one of wavelength. Without an image stabilizer at the NVST, large scale wobble motion is present during the spatial scanning, whose instantaneous amplitude can reach 1.3″ due to the Earth’s atmosphere and the precision of the telescope guiding system, and seriously decreases the spatial resolution of 2D spatial maps composed with scanned spectra. We make the following effort to resolve this problem: the imaging system (e.g., the TiO-band) is used to record and detect the displacement vectors of solar image motion during the raster scan, in both the slit and scanning directions. The spectral data (e.g., the Hα line) which are originally obtained in time sequence are corrected and re-arranged in space according to those displacement vectors. Raster scans are carried out in several active regions with different seeing conditions (two rasters are illustrated in this paper). Given a certain spatial sampling and temporal resolution, the spatial resolution of the composed 2D map could be close to that of the slit-jaw image. The resulting quality after correction is quantitatively evaluated with two methods. A physical quantity, such as the line-of-sight velocities in multiple layers of the solar atmosphere, is also inferred from the re-arranged spectrum, demonstrating the advantage of this technique.

  10. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  11. Axionic mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shuntaro; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Although mirage mediation is one of the most plausible mediation mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, it suffers from two crucial problems. One is the μ/Bμ problem, and the second is the cosmological one. The former stems from the fact that the B parameter tends to be comparable with the gravitino mass, which is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the other soft masses. The latter problem is caused by the decay of the modulus whose branching ratio into the gravitino pair is sizable. In this paper, we propose a model of mirage mediation, in which Peccei-Quinn symmetry is incorporated. In this axionic mirage mediation, it is shown that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale is dynamically determined around 10 10 GeV to 10 12 GeV due to the supersymmetry breaking effects, and the μ problem can be solved naturally. Furthermore, in our model, the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is the axino, that is, the superpartner of the axion. The overabundance of the LSPs due to decays of the modulus/gravitino, which is the most serious cosmological difficulty in the mirage mediation, can be avoided if the axino is sufficiently light. The next-LSPs (NLSPs) produced by the gravitino decay eventually decay into the axino LSPs, yielding the dominant component of the axinos remaining today. It is shown that the axino with a mass of O(100) MeV is naturally realized, which can constitute the dark matter of the Universe, with a free-streaming length of the order of 0.1 Mpc. The saxion, the real scalar component of the axion supermultiplet, can also be cosmologically harmless due to the dilution of the modulus decay. The lifetime of the NLSP is relatively long, but much shorter than 1 sec, when the big-bang nucleosynthesis commences. The decay of the NLSP would provide intriguing collider signatures

  12. Magnetogenesis from axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter; Scully, Timothy R.; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Giblin, John T., E-mail: adshead@illinois.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: tscully2@illinois.edu, E-mail: esfaki@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this work we compute the production of magnetic fields in models of axion inflation coupled to the hypercharge sector of the Standard Model through a Chern-Simons interaction term. We make the simplest choice of a quadratic inflationary potential and use lattice simulations to calculate the magnetic field strength, helicity and correlation length at the end of inflation. For small values of the axion-gauge field coupling strength the results agree with no-backreaction calculations and estimates found in the literature. For larger couplings the helicity of the magnetic field differs from the no-backreaction estimate and depends strongly on the comoving wavenumber. We estimate the post-inflationary evolution of the magnetic field based on known results for the evolution of helical and non-helical magnetic fields. The magnetic fields produced by axion inflation with large couplings to U(1) {sub Y} can reach B {sub eff} ∼> 10{sup −16} G, exhibiting a field strength B {sub phys} ≈ 10{sup −13} G and a correlation length λ{sub phys} ≈10 pc. This result is insensitive to the exact value of the coupling, as long as the coupling is large enough to allow for instantaneous preheating. Depending on the assumptions for the physical processes that determine blazar properties, these fields can be found consistent with blazar observations based on the value of B {sub eff}. Finally, the intensity of the magnetic field for large coupling can be enough to satisfy the requirements for a recently proposed baryogenesis mechanism, which utilizes the chiral anomaly of the Standard Model.

  13. Axions...The search continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Axion physics relates to the following areas discussed at the Theoretical Advanced Study Institute: 1. Topology; 2. Anomalies; 3. Current Algebra, Chiral Lagrangians; 4. Effective Lagrangians; 5. Dark Matter; 6. Inflation, Early Universe; 7. ''String'' Theories; 8. New Physics at Collider Energies-Technicolor; 9. Rare Kaon Decays; 10. Experimental Probes of High Energy Physics. In the course of this paper, the authors review axion physics, from its origins in theory, to the prospects for detection. In doing this, he demonstrates, using axions as an example, how particle physics manages to turn seemingly obscure mathematical formalism into the stuff from which experiments are born

  14. ADMX Dark-Matter Axion Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    The axion, a hypothetical elementary particle, emerged from a compelling solution to the Strong-CP Problem in QCD. Subsequently, the axion was recognized to be a good Cold Dark Matter candidate. Although dark-matter axions have only feeble couplings to matter and radiation, these axions may be detected through resonant conversion of axions into microwave photons in a high-Q cavity threaded by a strong static magnetic field. This technique is at present the only means whereby dark-matter axions with plausible couplings may be detected at the required sensitivity. This talk describes recent results from the Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), now the world's most sensitive search for axions. There will also be a short overview of the ADMX upgrade, which promises sensitivity to even the more feebly coupled dark matter axions even should they make up only a minority fraction of the local dark matter halo

  15. Slipping reconnection in a solar flare observed in high resolution with the GREGOR solar telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, Michal; Dudík, Jaroslav; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Jurčák, Jan; Liu, Wenjuan; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Kuckein, C.; Lagg, A.; Louis, R.E.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S.K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 596, December (2016), A1/1-A1/6 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04338S; GA ČR GAP209/12/1652 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLAR NET Grant - others:EC(XE) 606862 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * flares * chromosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  16. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% ± 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of –1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's –5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  17. Progress making the top end optical assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Arendt, J.; Bader, S.; Danyo, G.; Heller, C.

    2012-09-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to design and produce the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakal', Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot" at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we describe progress in the L-3 technical approach to meeting these challenges, including silicon carbide off-axis mirror design, fabrication, and high accuracy figuring and polishing all within L-3; mirror support design; the design for stray light control; subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning and high accuracy absolute mirror orientation sensing; Lyot stop design; and thermal management of all design elements to remain close to ambient temperature despite the imposed solar irradiance load.

  18. Close Binary Star Speckle Interferometry on the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Edward; Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Branston, Detrick; Boyce, Patrick; Rowe, David; Ridgely, John; Estrada, Reed; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Observations were made in April 2014 to assess the utility of the 0.8-meter solar telescope at the McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory for performing speckle interferometry observations of close binary stars. Several configurations using science cameras, acquisition cameras, eyepieces, and flip mirrors were evaluated. Speckle images were obtained and recommendations for further improvement of the acquisition system are presented.

  19. Eclipses could clarify axion mystery

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists in Europe have proposed an outlandish experiment that could determine once and for all whether ultralight particles called axions - one of the leading candidates for dark matter - exist." (1/2 page)

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  1. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  2. A Design of Solar Proton Telescope for Next Generation Small Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongdae Sohn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar proton telescope (SPT is considered as one of the scientific instruments to be installed in instruments for the study of space storm (ISSS which is determined for next generation small satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1. The SPT is the instrument that acquires the information on energetic particles, especially the energy and flux of proton, according to the solar activity in the space radiation environment. We performed the simulation to determine the specification of the SPT using geometry and tracking 4 (GEANT4. The simulation was performed in the range of 0.6-1,000 MeV considering that the proton, which is to be detected, corresponds to the high energy region according to the solar activity in the space radiation environment. By using aluminum as a blocking material and adjusting the energy detection range, we determined total 7 channels (0.6~5, 5~10, 10~20, 20~35, 35~52, 52~72, and >72 MeV for the energy range of SPT. In the SPT, the proton energy was distinguished using linear energy transfer to compare with or discriminate from relativistic electron for the channels P1-P3 which are the range of less than 20 MeV, and above those channels, the energy was determined on the basis of whether silicon semiconductor detector (SSD signal can pass or not. To determine the optimal channel, we performed the conceptual design of payload which uses the SSD. The designed SPT will improve the understanding on the capture and decline of solar energetic particles at the radiation belt by measuring the energetic proton.

  3. Stellar recipes for axion hunters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken'ichi

    2017-08-01

    There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion - the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments - the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO - can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.

  4. Vibration measurements of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope mount, Coudé rotator, and enclosure assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, with a 4-meter off-axis primary mirror and 16 meter rotating Coudé laboratory within the telescope pier. The off-axis design requires a mount similar to an 8-meter on-axis telescope. Both the telescope mount and the Coudé laboratory utilize a roller bearing technology in place of the more commonly used hydrostatic bearings. The telescope enclosure utilizes a crawler mechanism for the altitude axis. As these mechanisms have not previously been used in a telescope, understanding the vibration characteristics and the potential impact on the telescope image is important. This paper presents the methodology used to perform jitter measurements of the enclosure and the mount bearings and servo system in a high-noise environment utilizing seismic accelerometers and high dynamic-range data acquisition equipment, along with digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Data acquisition and signal processing were implemented in MATLAB. In the factory acceptance testing of the telescope mount, multiple accelerometers were strategically located to capture the six axes-of-motion of the primary and secondary mirror dummies. The optical sensitivity analysis was used to map these mirror mount displacements and rotations into units of image motion on the focal plane. Similarly, tests were done with the Coudé rotator, treating the entire rotating instrument lab as a rigid body. Testing was performed by recording accelerometer data while the telescope control system performed tracking operations typical of various observing scenarios. The analysis of the accelerometer data utilized noise-averaging fast Fourier transform (FFT) routines, spectrograms, and periodograms. To achieve adequate dynamic range at frequencies as low as 3Hz, the use of special filters and advanced windowing functions were necessary. Numerous identical automated tests were compared to identify and select the data sets

  5. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos

  6. Non-uniform Solar Temperature Field on Large Aperture, Fully-Steerable Telescope Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a 110-m fully steerable radio telescope was used as an analysis platform and the integral parametric finite element model of the antenna structure was built in the ANSYS thermal analysis module. The boundary conditions of periodic air temperature, solar radiation, long-wave radiation shadows of the surrounding environment, etc. were computed at 30 min intervals under a cloudless sky on a summer day, i.e., worstcase climate conditions. The transient structural temperatures were then analyzed under a period of several days of sunshine with a rational initial structural temperature distribution until the whole set of structural temperatures converged to the results obtained the day before. The non-uniform temperature field distribution of the entire structure and the main reflector surface RMS were acquired according to changes in pitch and azimuth angle over the observation period. Variations in the solar cooker effect over time and spatial distributions in the secondary reflector were observed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect. The results presented here not only provide valuable realtime data for the design, construction, sensor arrangement and thermal deformation control of actuators but also provide a troubleshooting reference for existing actuators.

  7. PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Rempel, M.; Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.

  8. Stray-light analyses of the multielement telescope for imaging and spectroscopy coronagraph on Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Paolo; Fineschi, Silvano; Romoli, Marco; Taccola, Matteo; Landini, Federico; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Morea, Danilo; Naughton, Denis; Antonucci, Ester

    2018-01-01

    The modeling of the scattering phenomena for the multielement telescope for imaging and spectroscopy (METIS) coronagraph on board the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter is reported. METIS is an inverted occultation coronagraph including two optical paths: the broadband imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (580 to 640 nm) and the narrow-band imaging of the full corona in the ultraviolet Lyman-α (121.6 nm). METIS will have the unique opportunity of observing the solar outer atmosphere as close to the Sun as 0.28 AU and from up to 35 deg out-of-ecliptic. The stray-light simulations performed on the UV and VL channels of the METIS analyzing the contributors of surface microroughness, particulate contamination, cosmetic defects, and diffraction are reported. The results obtained with the nonsequential modality of Zemax OpticStudio are compared with two different approaches: the Monte Carlo ray trace with Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP®) and a semianalytical model. The results obtained with the three independently developed approaches are in considerable agreement and show compliance to the requirement of stray-light level for both the UV and VL channels.

  9. Axion: Mass -- Dark Matter Abundance Relation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The axion is a hypothetical particle which would explain why QCD is approximately T-conserving, and is also an excellent Cold Dark Matter candidate. It should be possible to make a clean theoretical prediction relating the dark matter density in axions and the axion mass (under reasonable assumptions about inflation). But the axion's early-Universe dynamics, which establish its density as dark matter, are unexpectedly rich in a way which is only starting to yield to quantitative numerical study.

  10. Optical and thermal design of 1.5-m aperture solar UV visible and IR observing telescope for Solar-C mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Horiuchi, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2017-11-01

    The next Japanese solar mission, SOLAR-C, which has been envisaged after successful science operation of Hinode (SOLAR-B) mission, is perusing two plans: plan-A and plan-B, and under extensive study from science objectives as well as engineering point of view. The plan-A aims at performing out-of-ecliptic observations for investigating, with helioseismic approach, internal structure and dynamo mechanisms of the Sun. It also explores polar regions where fast solar wind is believed to originate. A baseline orbit for plan-A is a circular orbit of 1 AU distance from the Sun with its inclination at around or greater than 40 degrees. The plan-B aims to study small-scale plasma processes and structures in the solar atmosphere which attract researchers' growing interest, followed by many Hinode discoveries [1], for understanding fully dynamism and magnetic nature of the atmosphere. With plan-B, high-angular-resolution investigation of the entire solar atmosphere (from the photosphere to the corona, including their interface layers, i.e., chromosphere and transition region) is to be performed with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability as compared with Hinode, together with enhanced sensitivity towards ultra-violet wavelengths. The orbit of plan-B is either a solar synchronous polar orbit of altitude around 600 km or a geosynchronous orbit to ensure continuous solar observations. After the decision of any one of the two plans, the SOLAR-C will be proposed for launch in mid-2010s. In this paper, we will present a basic design of one of major planned instrumental payload for the plan-B: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (hereafter referred to as SUVIT). The basic concept in designing the SUVIT is to utilize as much as possible a heritage of successful telescope of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard Hinode [2]. Major differences of SUVIT from SOT are the three times larger aperture of 1.5 m, which enables to collect one

  11. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Martínez-Pillet, V.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.

    2010-06-01

    On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs) as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  12. Stellar recipes for axion hunters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Ave., Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor G.; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken' ichi, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: kenichi.saikawa@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion—the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments—the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO—can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.

  13. Development of a Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope for the Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term observations of full-disk Lyman-α irradiance have been made by the instruments on various satellites. In addition, several sounding rockets dating back to the 1950s and up through the present have measured the Lyman-α irradiance. Previous full disk Lyman-α images of the sun have been very interesting and useful scientifically, but have been only five-minute ``snapshots" obtained on sounding rocket flights. All of these observations to date have been snapshots, with no time resolution to observe changes in the chromospheric structure as a result of the evolving magnetic field, and its effect on the Lyman-α intensity. The Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope(LIST can provide a unique opportunity for the study of the sun in the Lyman-α region with the high time and spatial resolution for the first time. Up to the 2nd year development, the preliminary design of the optics, mechanical structure and electronics system has been completed. Also the mechanical structure analysis, thermal analysis were performed and the material for the structure was chosen as a result of these analyses. And the test plan and the verification matrix were decided. The operation systems, technical and scientific operation, were studied and finally decided. Those are the technical operation, mechanical working modes for the observation and safety, the scientific operation and the process of the acquired data. The basic techniques acquired through the development of satellite based solar telescope are essential for the construction of space environment forecast system in the future. The techniques which we developed through this study, like mechanical, optical and data processing techniques, could be applied extensively not only to the process of the future production of flight models of this kind, but also to the related industries. Also, we can utilize the scientific achievements which are obtained throughout the project. And these can be utilized to build a high

  14. The axion mass in modular invariant supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2005-01-01

    When supersymmetry is broken by condensates with a single condensing gauge group, there is a nonanomalous R-symmetry that prevents the universal axion from acquiring a mass. It has been argued that, in the context of supergravity, higher dimension operators will break this symmetry and may generate an axion mass too large to allow the identification of the universal axion with the QCD axion. We show that such contributions to the axion mass are highly suppressed in a class of models where the effective Lagrangian for gaugino and matter condensation respects modular invariance (T-duality)

  15. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2010-01-01

    The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle appearing in a simple and elegant extension to the Standard Model of particle physics that cancels otherwise huge CP-violating effects in QCD; this extension has a broken U(1) axial symmetry, where the resulting Goldstone Boson is the axion. A light axion of mass 10 -(6-3) eV (the so-called i nvisible axion ) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion would be a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared to other dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This restricted search space allows for 'definitive' searches, where non-observation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches employ a wide range of technologies and techniques, from astrophysical observations to laboratory electromagnetic signal detection. For some experiments, sensitivities are have reached likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This is a brief and selective overview of axion searches. With only very limited space, I briefly describe just two of the many experiments that are searching for dark-matter axions.

  16. Observing distant solar system objects with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Vicki; Isaacs, John C.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2008-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will provide a unique capability to observe Solar System objects such as Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, asteroids, and the outer planets and their moons in the near and mid-infrared. A recent study developed the conceptual design for a capability to track and observe these objects. In this paper, we describe how the requirements and operations concept were derived from the scientific goals and were distributed among the Observatory and Ground Segment components in order to remain consistent with the current event-driven operations concept of JWST. In the event-driven operations concept, the Ground Segment produces a high-level Observation Plan that is interpreted by on-board scripts to generate commands and monitor telemetry responses. This approach allows efficient and flexible execution of planned observations; precise or conservative timing models are not required, and observations may be skipped if guide star or target acquisition fails. The efficiency of this approach depends upon most observations having large time intervals in which they can execute. Solar System objects require a specification of how to track the object with the Observatory, and a guide star that remains within the field of view of the guider during the observation. We describe how tracking and guiding will be handled with JWST to retain the efficient and flexible execution characteristics of event-driven operations. We also describe how the implementation is distributed between the Spacecraft, Fine Guidance Sensor, On-board Scripts, and Proposal Planning Subsystem, preserving the JWST operations concept.

  17. Opening up the QCD axion window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo; Xue, Wei

    2018-03-01

    We present a new mechanism to deplete the energy density of the QCD axion, making decay constants as high as f a ≃ 1017 GeV viable for generic initial conditions. In our setup, the axion couples to a massless dark photon with a coupling that is moderately stronger than the axion coupling to gluons. Dark photons are produced copiously through a tachyonic instability when the axion field starts oscillating, and an exponential suppression of the axion density can be achieved. For a large part of the parameter space this dark radiation component of the universe can be observable in upcoming CMB experiments. Such dynamical depletion of the axion density ameliorates the isocurvature bound on the scale of inflation. The depletion also amplifies the power spectrum at scales that enter the horizon before particle production begins, potentially leading to axion miniclusters.

  18. Axion dark matter: strings and their cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, Leesa; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-01-01

    Axions constitute a well-motivated dark matter candidate, and if PQ symmetry breaking occurred after inflation, it should be possible to make a clean prediction for the relation between the axion mass and the axion dark matter density. We show that axion (or other global) string networks in 3D have a network density that depends logarithmically on the string separation-to-core ratio. This logarithm would be about 10 times larger in axion cosmology than what we can achieve in numerical simulations. We simulate axion production in the early Universe, finding that, for the separation-to-core ratios we can achieve, the changing density of the network has little impact on the axion production efficiency

  19. An in-orbit Thermal Design of Optical Window in Space Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Zhang, Hai-ying

    2017-10-01

    A complex space environment will influence a space solar telescope during its in-orbit operation, and the temperature change of the optical window will affect directly the imaging quality of the optical system behind it. The purpose of the thermal design is to ensure that all the parts of the optical window keep their temperature in a normal range, more importantly, to ensure that the window can rapidly return to its working state as soon as the Earth shadowing is ended, and to complete the operation in a whole period. In order to obtain the temperature distribution and the temperature variation of the window under the space thermal load in the whole period, we have made the steady-state simulation analysis and transient-state simulation analysis of the window with and without heating during the Earth-shadow time. A good thermal control result is obtained by comparing the two kinds of transient state simulation results of the temperature distribution, and by accordingly taking the appropriate thermal control measures on the window.

  20. Progress Report of the New Solar Submm-Wave Telescope (SST) Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, P.; Magun, A.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.; Arzner, K.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Kämpfer, N.; Raulin, J.-P.; Rolli, E.; Silva, A. V. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Solar Sub-Millimeter wave Telescope (SST) is now in its final stage of construction and a definite schedule has been established. The 1.5 m diameter reflector has been completed and presents an excellent surface with a deviation of 18 microns (r.m.s.). The reflector construction employed the new "slumping" technique (Martin et al. 1998). The SST building, including one 3.4 m gore-tex radome and a room for optical imaging spectrographs (from IAP, Bern and OV, UFRJ, Brasil), has been completed now at El Leoncito, San Juan, Argentina. Numerous electrical, electronical, mechanical tests, as well as software tests, have been performed at the IAP, Bern, Switzerland, and at Itapetinga, Brasil. The SST was assembled in Bern, consisting of the 1.5 m reflector, four 210 and two 405 GHz radiometers, the positioner, the interface box between the reflector and the radiometers, and the counter-weights. Part of the tests and integration of the SST is beeing done at Bern, with a co-participation of researchers and technicians of CRAAE and CASLEO. The shipment of the SST to El Leoncito will be in February 1999, and the final installation is scheduled for the period March-May 1999. The SST project received main financial support from the Brazilian Agency FAPESP (Proc. 93/3321-7), complemented by funds from the IAFE and CASLEO/CONICET, Argentina, and the IAP, Switzerland.

  1. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  2. Thermalized axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio, E-mail: rferreira@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: notari@ub.edu [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton φ to gauge fields of the form φ F F-tilde / f , as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= φ-dot /(2 fH ), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H , due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξ∼>2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξ∼>3.4; however, observations require ξ∼>6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} ≅ ξ H / g-bar where g-bar is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if φ is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H /(2 T ), if tensors do not thermalize.

  3. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  4. Axions and polarisation of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payez, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Hutsemekers, D.

    2008-01-01

    We present results showing that, thanks to axion-photon mixing in external magnetic fields, it is actually possible to produce an effect similar to the one needed to explain the large-scale coherent orientations of quasar polarisation vectors in visible light that have been observed in some regions of the sky

  5. Observational evidence for gravitationally trapped massive axion(-like) particles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2003-01-01

    Several unexpected astrophysical observations can be explained by gravitationally captured massive axions or axion-like particles, which are produced inside the Sun or other stars and are accumulated over cosmic times. Their radiative decay in solar outer space would give rise to a `self-irradiation' of the whole star, providing the time-independent component of the corona heating source (we do not address here the flaring Sun). In analogy with the Sun-irradiated Earth atmosphere, the temperature and density gradient in the corona$-$chromosphere transition region is suggestive for an omnipresent irradiation of the Sun, which is the strongest evidence for the generic axion-like scenario. The same mechanism is compatible with phenomena like the solar wind, the X-rays from the dark-side of the Moon, the X-Ray Background Radiation, the diffuse X-ray excesses (below $\\sim 1$ keV), the non-cooling of oldest Stars, etc. A temperature of $\\sim 10^6$ K is observed in various places, while the radiative decay of a popu...

  6. Planckian axions in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam

    2015-01-01

    We argue that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains can arise in Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory. In a theory with N axions θ i , the fundamental domain is a polytope defined by the periodicities of the axions, via constraints of the form −π√N. This result is robust in the presence of P>N constraints, while for P=N the diameter is further enhanced by eigenvector delocalization to N 3/2 f N . We directly verify our results in explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB string theory. In the classic example with h 1,1 =51 where parametrically controlled moduli stabilization was demonstrated by Denef et al. in http://dx.doi.org/10.4310/ATMP.2005.v9.n6.a1, the largest metric eigenvalue obeys f N ≈0.013M pl . The random matrix analysis then predicts, and we exhibit, axion diameters ≈M pl for the precise vacuum parameters found in http://dx.doi.org/10.4310/ATMP.2005.v9.n6.a1. Our results provide a framework for pursuing large-field axion inflation in well-understood flux vacua.

  7. HOT PLASMA FROM SOLAR ACTIVE-REGION CORES: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, J. T. [USRA, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Christian, G. M.; Matheny, P. O., E-mail: jschmelz@usra.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Mechanisms invoked to heat the solar corona to millions of degrees kelvin involve either magnetic waves or magnetic reconnections. Turbulence in the convection zone produces MHD waves, which travel upward and dissipate. Photospheric motions continuously build up magnetic energy, which is released through magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we concentrate on hot non-flaring plasma with temperatures of 5 MK <  T  < 10 MK because it is one of the few observables for which wave and reconnection models make different predictions. Wave models predict no (or little) hot plasma, whereas reconnection models predict it, although in amounts that are challenging to detect with current instrumentation. We used data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We requested a special XRT observing sequence, which cycled through the thickest XRT filter several times per hour so we could average these images and improve the signal-to-noise. We did differential emission measure (DEM) analysis using the time-averaged thick-filter data as well as all available channels from both the XRT and AIA for regions observed on 2014 December 11. Whereas our earlier work was only able to determine that plasma with a temperature greater than 5 MK was present , we are now able to find a well-constrained DEM distribution. We have therefore added a strong observational constraint that must be explained by any viable coronal heating model. Comparing state-of-the-art wave and reconnection model predictions, we can conclude that reconnection is heating the hot plasma in these active regions.

  8. Support optimization of the ring primary mirror of a 2m solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    A special 2-m Ring Solar Telescope (2-m RST) is to be built by YNAO-Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Kunming, China. Its distinct primary mirror is distinctively shaped in a ring with an outer diameter of 2.02 m and a ring width of 0.35 m. Careful calculation and optimization of the mirror support pattern have been carried out first of all to define optimum blank parameters in view of performance balance of support design, fabrication and cost. This paper is to review the special consideration and optimization of the support design for the unique ring mirror. Schott zerodur is the prevailing candidate for the primary mirror blank. Diverse support patterns with various blank thicknesses have been discussed by extensive calculation of axial support pattern of the mirror. We reached an optimum design of 36 axial supports for a blank thickness of 0.15 m with surface error of 5 nm RMS. Afterwards, lateral support scheme was figured out for the mirror with settled parameters. A classical push-and-pull scheme was used. Seeing the relative flexibility of the ring mirror, special consideration was taken to unusually set the acting direction of the support forces not in the mirror gravity plane, but along the gravity of the local virtual slices of the mirror blank. Nine couples of the lateral push-pull force are considered. When pointing to horizon, the mirror surface exhibits RMS error of 5 nm with three additional small force couples used to compensate for the predominant astigmatism introduced by lateral supports. Finally, error estimation has been performed to evaluate the surface degradation with introduced errors in support force and support position, respectively, for both axial and lateral supports. Monte Carlo approach was applied using unit seeds for amplitude and position of support forces. The comprehensive optimization and calculation suggests the support systems design meet the technic requirements of the ring mirror of the 2-m RST.

  9. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  10. On supersymmetric effective theories of axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kitano, Ryuichiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2011-04-15

    We study effective theories of an axion in spontaneously broken supersymmetric theories. We consider a system where the axion supermultiplet is directly coupled to a supersymmetry breaking sector whereas the standard model sector is communicated with those sectors through loops of messenger fields. The gaugino masses and the axion-gluon coupling necessary for solving the strong CP problem are both obtained by the same effective interaction. We discuss cosmological constraints on this framework. (orig.)

  11. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (<10-3 and a high resolution spectrograph (bandwidth <70mÅ. The magnetic vectorial map can be extracted thanks to the well-know Zeeman effect, which takes place in the solar atoms, allowing to relate polarization and spectral measurements to magnetic fields. The technological challenge of the IMaX development has a special relevance due to the utilization of innovative technologies in the Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  12. RE-EVALUATION OF THE NEUTRON EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR FLARE OF 2005 SEPTEMBER 7, DETECTED BY THE SOLAR NEUTRON TELESCOPE AT SIERRA NEGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, L. X. [SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58190, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510, D. F. Mexico (Mexico); Sánchez, F. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, 1429, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Shibata, S. [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Sakai, T. [College of Industrial Technologies, Nihon University, Narashino 275-0005 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of 2005 September 7 released high-energy neutrons that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In three separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, several of its unique characteristics were studied; in particular, a power-law energy spectra was estimated. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis, based on improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT4, and a different technique for processing the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index that best fits the neutron flux is around 3, in agreement with previous works. Based on the numerically calculated neutron energy deposition on the SNT, we confirm that the detected neutrons might have reached an energy of 1 GeV, which implies that 10 GeV protons were probably produced; these could not be observed at Earth, as their parent flare was an east limb event.

  13. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa

    2013-10-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3σ by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f a 10 ) GeV, if they are produced by the saxion decay and the domain wall annihilation. We also investigate the cases of thermal QCD axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.

  14. R-axion detection at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Hock-Seng; /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley; Ibe, Masahiro; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    Supersymmetric models with spontaneously broken approximate R-symmetry contains a light spin 0 particle, the R-axion. The properties of the particle can be a powerful probe of the structure of the new physics. In this paper, we discuss the possibilities of the R-axion detection at the LHC experiments. It is challenge to observe this light particle in the LHC environment. However, for typical values in which the mass of the R-axion is a few hundred MeV, we show that those particles can be detected by searching for displaced vertices from R-axion decay.

  15. Constraints on axion couplings from the CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. K.; Yue, Q.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Wong, H. T.; Li, Y. J.; Li, H. B.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Jiang, H.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Lin, F. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Ma, J. L.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Sharma, V.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. W.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We report the results of searches for solar axions and galactic dark matter axions or axionlike particles with the CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, using 335.6 kg days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector. The data are compatible with the background model, and no excess signals are observed. Limits of solar axions on the model-independent coupling gA e<2.5 ×10-11 from Compton, bremsstrahlung, atomic-recombination, and deexcitation channels and gAN eff×gA e<6.4 ×10-17 from a 57Fe M1 transition at 90% confidence level are derived. Within the framework of the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitskiy and Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov models, our results exclude the axion mass heavier than 0.9 and 177 eV /c2 , respectively. The derived constraints for dark matter axions below 1 keV improve over the previous results.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  17. Detection of zero anisotropy at 5.2 AU during the November 1998 solar particle event: Ulysses Anisotropy Telescopes observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    Full Text Available For the first time during the mission, the Anisotropy Telescopes instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft measured constant zero anisotropy of protons in the 1.3-2.2 MeV energy range, for a period lasting more than three days. This measurement was made during the energetic particle event taking place at Ulysses between 25 November and 15 December 1998, an event characterised by constant high proton fluxes within a region delimited by two interplanetary forward shocks, at a distance of 5.2 AU from the Sun and heliographic latitude of 17°S. We present the ATs results for this event and discuss their possible interpretation and their relevance to the issue of intercalibration of the two telescopes.

    Key words: Interplanetary physics (energetic particles - Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles - Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  18. Updated analysis of the upwind interplanetary hydrogen velocity as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope during solar cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, F.; Ben-Jaffel, L.; Harris, W.

    2011-12-01

    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the ionized component of the incoming ISM deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS, and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. As a consequence, it corrects the discrepancy with SWAN data near solar maximum (2001) and we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1σ, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We suggest that this discrepancy at solar minimum could be due to an indirect effect of the local interstellar magnetic field, which should be included in future modeling efforts. There may be extra features as the geocoronal deuterium or a possible Fermi effect from the heliospheric interface but the diagnostic is difficult because the resolution of these observations is limited. We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed

  19. Axions in cosmology and laboratory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Axions are dark matter candidates [3]. Let us summarize how they are created. Consider the early Universe at high temperatures qcd ≪ T < f but with a broken PQ symmetry. In this period of the early Universe, we have a vacuum with θi = 0. In the expansion, the Universe cools down. When T ∼ qcd is reached, the vacuum ...

  20. US Participation in the Solar Orbiter Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, METIS, investigation has been conceived to perform off-limb and near-Sun coronagraphy and is motivated by...

  1. Gregor@night: The future high-resolution stellar spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strassmeier, K.G.; Ilyin, I.V.; Woche, M.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.; Weingrill, J.; Bauer, S.-M.; Popow, E.; Denker, C.; Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Berdyugina, S.; Collados Vera, M.; Koubský, Pavel; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, č. 9 (2012), s. 901-910 ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : spesctrographs * telescope Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2012

  2. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  3. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit

  4. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten, E-mail: gaoyuan.wang@stud.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institute for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit.

  5. Nonthermal axion dark radiation and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Qutub, Saleh; Saikawa, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism presents a neat solution to the strong C P problem. As a by-product, it provides an ideal dark matter candidate, "the axion", albeit with a tiny mass. Axions therefore can act as dark radiation if excited with large momenta after the end of inflation. Nevertheless, the

  6. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...

  7. Axion wormholes in AdS compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We find regular axionic Euclidean wormhole solutions in Type IIB string theory compactified on {AdS}_5× {S}^5/{Z}_k . AdS/CFT enables a precise derivation of the axion content of the Euclidean theory, placing the string theory embedding of the wormholes on firm footing. This further sharpens the paradox posed by these solutions.

  8. Axions: on the way to invisibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1982-01-01

    We present a survey of the theoretical motivation which lead to the axion and we summarize its properties. A brief account of the experimental situation is given, which in addition to cosmological constraints imposes to the axion the way of invisibility in Grand Unified Theories

  9. New Solar System Researches expected by a New Telescope Project at Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagitani, Masato; Okano, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Kuhn, J.; Berdyugina, S.

    2009-09-01

    We Tohoku University starts the project for the new ground-based telescope dedicated to planets and exoplanets, in collaboration with the Institute for Astronomy of University of Hawaii(IfA/UH) and ETH Zurich. The summit of Mt. Haleakala in Maui, Hawaii is one of the best sites with clear skies, good seeing, and low humidity conditions as well as good accessibility despite its high altitude (elv. 3,000m). Haleakala High Altitude Observatory is operated by IfA/UH, and we have been making observation of planets there since 2000. Currently, our observation facility consists of a 40cm telescope. We have been making observations of faint atmospheric and plasma features around bright planets, Io plasma torus, Mercury and Lunar sodium tail, and so on. Atmospheric escapes from Mars and Venus, the exoplanets close to mother stars are also possible future important topics. When we try to observe those faint emissions surrounding the bright objects, intense scattered light causes a serious problem. The new telescope shall avoid the diffraction due to a spider structure that holds a secondary mirror and to minimize the scattered light from mirror surfaces as far as possible. Such telescope with a wide dynamic range dedicated to planetary and exoplanetary sciences does not exist yet. The project, called PLANETS (Poralized Light from Atmospheres of Nearby Extra Terrestrial Planets), develops a new telescope (tentatively named as JHET; Japan Hawaii Europe Telescope) which consists of an off-axis primary mirror with a diameter of 1.8m, and Gregorian optics on an equatorial mount. State-of-art adaptive optics and masking technologies will also be adopted to eliminate the scattering light. This telescope will enables us to do spectro-polarimetric observations and faint plasma and atmospheres around the bright bodies. We will introduce the progress of our ground-based observations and the future plan involving the wide area of the international communities.

  10. Exploring the role of axions and other WISPs in the dark universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-10-18

    Axions and other very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) may be non-thermally produced in the early universe and survive as constituents of the dark universe. We describe their theoretical motivation and their phenomenology. A huge region in parameter space spanned by their couplings to photons and their masses can give rise to the observed cold dark matter abundance. A wide range of experiments - direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities, searches for solar axions or WISPs, and lightshining-through-a-wall searches - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future.

  11. Fermion production during and after axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.

    2015-01-01

    We study derivatively coupled fermions in axion-driven inflation, specifically m ϕ 2 ϕ 2 and monodromy inflation, and calculate particle production during the inflationary epoch and the post-inflationary axion oscillations. During inflation, the rolling axion acts as an effective chemical potential for helicity which biases the gravitational production of one fermion helicity over the other. This mechanism allows for efficient gravitational production of heavy fermion states that would otherwise be highly suppressed. Following inflation, the axion oscillates and fermions with both helicities are produced as the effective frequency of the fermion field changes non-adiabatically. For certain values of the fermion mass and axion-fermion coupling strength, the two helicity states are produced asymmetrically, resulting in unequal number-densities of left- and right-helicity fermions

  12. A search for axions and massive neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment relies on the production of a strong, contamination-free (10$ ^{-12} $) source of radioactive $^{125}$I at the ISOLDE facility. Technical developments to achieve the necessary beam intensity are in progress. \\\\ \\\\The possible emission of axions in the 35.5 keV M1 transition of the $^{125}$Te daughter isotope is searched for by the axion analogue of the Mössbauer effect, i.e. the axion resonance absorption in a $^{125}$Te resonance absorber. For this purpose all other radiation emitted from the source is shielded by a non-resonant absorber, which is transparent, however, to axions. The resonance absorption is detected by measurement of subsequently emitted X-rays. A sensitivity to the axion emission branching ratio in the nuclear decay of 10$ ^{-7} $ is strived for.

  13. The search for axion dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1998-01-01

    This talk reviews the original motivation for the axion as a solution to the strong CP problem and the constraints that have been placed on the axion by experimental searches and by astrophysical and cosmological considerations. As a result of the bounds, the axion mass is presently restricted to a window extending from about 10 -2 ampersand hthinsp;eV to about 10 -6 ampersand hthinsp;eV. In this window, axions are a form of cold dark matter. It is possible to detect galactic halo axions by stimulating their conversion to photons in a laboratory magnetic field. I close-quote ll report on two experiments of this type, one at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other at Kyoto University. I close-quote ll also discuss what can be learned about the structure of our galactic halo if a signal is found. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Modeling and verification of the diffraction-limited visible light telescope aboard the solar observing satellite HINODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Shimizu, T.

    2011-09-01

    HINODE, Japanese for "sunrise", is a spacecraft dedicated for observations of the Sun, and was launched in 2006 to study the Sun's magnetic fields and how their explosive energies propagate through the different atmospheric layers. The spacecraft carries the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), which has a 50 cm diameter clear aperture and provides a continuous series of diffraction-limited visible light images from space. The telescope was developed through international collaboration between Japan and US. In order to achieve the diffraction-limited performance, thermal and structural modeling of the telescope was extensively used in its development phase to predict how the optical performance changes dependent on the thermal condition in orbit. Not only the modeling, we devoted many efforts to verify the optical performance in ground tests before the launch. The verification in the ground tests helped us to find many issues, such as temperature dependent focus shifts, which were not identified only through the thermal-structural modeling. Another critical issue was micro-vibrations induced by internal disturbances of mechanical gyroscopes and momentum wheels for attitude control of the spacecraft. Because the structural modeling was not accurate enough to predict how much the image quality was degraded by the micro-vibrations, we measured their transmission in a spacecraft-level test.

  15. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda; Gary, Dale [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Ding, Mingde [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kleint, Lucia [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Institute of 4D technologies Bahnhofstr. 6, CH-5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Su, Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji, Haisheng [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 Beijing Xi Lu, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyungsuk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdae-ro 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.

  16. NEAT: an astrometric space telescope to search for habitable exoplanets in the solar neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Kern, P.; Feautrier, P.; Preiss, O.; Martin, G.; Henault, F.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Behar, E.; Saintpe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Lagage, P.-O.; Cara, C.; Leger, A.; Leduigou, J.-M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.

    2014-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spectacular development of exoplanet detection techniques, which led to an exponential number of discoveries and a great diversity of known exoplanets. However, it must be noted that the quest for the holy grail of astrobiology, i.e. a nearby terrestrial exoplanet in habitable zone around a solar type star, is still ongoing and proves to be very hard. Radial velocities will have to overcome stellar noise if there are to discover habitable planets around stars more massive than M ones. For very close systems, transits are impeded by their low geometrical probability. Here we present an alternative concept: space astrometry. NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) is a concept of astrometric mission proposed to ESA which goal is to make a whole sky survey of close (less then 20 pc) planetary systems. The detection limit required for the instrument is the astrometric signal of an Earth analog (at 10 pc). Differential astrometry is a very interesting tool to detect nearby habitable exoplanets. Indeed, for F, G and K main sequence stars, the astrophysical noise is smaller than the astrometric signal, contrary to the case for radial velocities. The difficulty lies in the fact that the signal of an exo-Earth around a G type star at 10 pc is a tiny 0.3 micro arc sec, which is equivalent to a coin on the moon, seen from the Earth: the main challenge is related to instrumentation. In order to reach this specification, NEAT consists of two formation flying spacecraft at a 40m distance, one carries the mirror and the other one the focal plane. Thus NEAT has a configuration with only one optical surface: an off-axis parabola. Consequently, beamwalk errors are common to the whole field of view and have a small effect on differential astrometry. Moreover a metrology system projects young fringes on the focal plane, which can characterize the pixels whenever necessary during the mission. NEAT has two main scientific objectives: combined with

  17. The Hadean, Through a Glass Telescopically: Observations of Young Solar Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the Earth's surface environment during the Hadean eon (prior to 3.8 Ga) are hampered by the paucity of the geological and geochemical record and the relative inaccessibility of better-preserved surfaces with possibly similar early histories (i.e., Mars). One approach is to observe nearby, young solar-mass stars as analogs to the Hadean Sun and its environment. A catalog of 38 G and early K stars within 25 pc was constructed based on main-sequence status, bolometric luminosity, lack of known stellar companions within 800 AU, and coronal X-ray luminosities commensurate with the higher activity of solar-mass stars that influenced Hadean atmosphere, ocean, and surface evolution (and potential ecosystems), including solar luminosity evolution, the flux and spectrum of solar ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the solar wind, and the intensity and duration of a late period of heavy bombardment. The standard model of solar evolution predicts a luminosity of 0.75 solar luminosity at the end of the Hadean, implying a terrestrial surface temperature inconsistent with the presence of liquid water and motivating atmospheric greenhouse models. An alternative model fo solar evolution that invokes mass loss, constructed to explain solar Li depletion, attenuates or reverses this luminosity evolution of the atmospheres of Earth and the other terrestrial planets. This model can be tested by Li abundance measurements. The continuum emission from stellar wind plasma during significant mass loss may be detectable at millimeter and radio wavelengths. The Earth (and Moon) experienced a period of intense bombardment prior to 3.8 Ga, long after accretion was completed in the inner solar system and possibly associated with the clearing of residual planetesimals in the outer solar system. Such a bombardment may have contributed volatiles and organics to the surface, but also have limited the appearacne of a biosphere. While planetary systems around solar systems

  18. Challenges and Approach for Making the Top End Optical Assembly for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Hull, T.

    2012-01-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to make the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakala, Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot” at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we will describe the L-3 IOS technical approach to meet these challenges, including subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning, rejected and stray light control, wavefront tip-tilt compensation, and thermal management. Key words: ATST, TEOA, L-3 IOS, thermal management, silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, hexapods, solar astronomy

  19. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  20. Gamma-ray boxes from axion-mediated dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Gehler, Sergio López; Pato, Miguel; Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Wan-Il

    2013-01-01

    We compute the gamma-ray output of axion-mediated dark matter and derive the corresponding constraints set by recent data. In such scenarios the dark matter candidate is a Dirac fermion that pair-annihilates into axions and/or scalars. Provided that the axion decays (at least partly) into photons, these models naturally give rise to a box-shaped gamma-ray spectrum that may present two distinct phenomenological behaviours: a narrow box, resembling a line at half the dark matter mass, or a wide box, spanning an extensive energy range up to the dark matter mass. Remarkably, we find that in both cases a sizable gamma-ray flux is predicted for a thermal relic without fine-tuning the model parameters nor invoking boost factors. This large output is in line with recent Fermi-LAT observations towards the galactic centre region and is on the verge of being excluded. We then make use of the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. data to derive robust, model-independent upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section for the narrow and wide box scenarios. H.E.S.S. constraints, in particular, turn out to match the ones from Fermi-LAT at hundreds of GeV and extend to multi-TeV masses. Future Čerenkov telescopes will likely probe gamma-ray boxes from thermal dark matter relics in the whole multi-TeV range, a region hardly accessible to direct detection, collider searches and other indirect detection strategies

  1. Cyclotron Line in Solar Microwave Radiation by Radio Telescope RATAN-600 Observations of the Solar Active Region NOAA 12182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterova, N. G.; Topchilo, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of observation of a rare phenomenon—a narrowband increase in the brightness of cyclotron radiation of one of the structural details of a radio source located in the solar corona above the solar active region NOAA 12182 in October 2014 at a frequency of 4.2 ± 0.1 GHz. The brightness of radiation in the maximum of the phenomenon has reached 10 MK; its duration was equal to 3 s. The exact location of the source of the narrowband cyclotron radiation is indicated: it is a corona above a fragmented (4-nuclear) sunspot, on which a small UV flare loop was closed.

  2. Fine-scale structures and material flows of quiescent filaments observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Zhi-Ke; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Li-Heng

    2015-10-01

    Study of the small-scale structures and material flows associated with solar quiescent filaments is very important for understanding the formation and equilibrium of solar filaments. Using high resolution Hα data observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present the structures of barbs and material flows along the threads across the spine in two quiescent filaments on 2013 September 29 and on 2012 November 2, respectively. During the evolution of the filament barb, several parallel tube-shaped structures formed and the width of the structures ranged from about 2.3 Mm to 3.3 Mm. The parallel tube-shaped structures merged together accompanied by material flows from the spine to the barb. Moreover, the boundary between the barb and surrounding atmosphere was very neat. The counter-streaming flows were not found to appear alternately in the adjacent threads of the filament. However, the large-scale patchy counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The flows in one patch of the filament have the same direction but flows in the adjacent patch have opposite direction. The patches of two opposite flows with a size of about 10″ were alternately exhibited along the spine of the filament. The velocity of these material flows ranged from 5.6 km s-1 to 15.0 km s-1. The material flows along the threads of the filament did not change their direction for about two hours and fourteen minutes during the evolution of the filament. Our results confirm that the large-scale counter-streaming flows with a certain width along the threads of solar filaments exist and are coaligned well with the threads.

  3. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to low Earth orbital (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and atomic oxygen (AO) interaction. Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical property deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cu cm/atom), of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6- 1.7 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  4. Axion mass bound in very special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, R.; Upadhyay, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we propose a very special relativity (VSR)-inspired description of the axion electrodynamics. This proposal is based upon the construction of a proper study of the SIM(2)-VSR gauge-symmetry. It is shown that the VSR nonlocal effects give a health departure from the usual axion field theory. The axionic classical dynamics is analyzed in full detail, first by a discussion of its solution in the presence of an external magnetic field. Next, we compute photon-axion transition in VSR scenario by means of Primakoff interaction, showing the change of a linearly polarized light to a circular one. Afterwards, duality symmetry is discussed in the VSR framework.

  5. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-10-15

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3{sigma} by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.

  6. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The lecture will cover the searches for dark matter axions based on the microwave cavity experiment of Sikivie. The topics will begin with a brief overview of halo dark matter, and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described, and practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of the lecture will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons - the "photon-as-wave" approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon quantum-limited SQUID devices), and "photon-as-particle" (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The lecture will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave ca...

  7. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-10-06

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There's no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10(-(6-3)) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and experiments

  8. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleanski, P.; Groebelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Fárník, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 732, December (2013), s. 295-298 ISSN 0168-9002. [Vienna Conference on Instrumentation /13./. Vienna, 11.02.2013-15.02.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Fourier optics * X-ray imaging * solar flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  9. Spectropolarimetric observations of an arch filament system with the GREGOR solar telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balthasar, H.; Gömöry, P.; Gonzalez Manrique, S. J.; Kuckein, C.; Kavka, J.; Kučera, A.; Schwartz, P.; Vašková, R.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Denker, C.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, Michal; Solanki, S.K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 10 (2016), s. 1050-1056 ISSN 0004-6337. [Dynamic Sun - Exploring the Many Facets of Solar Eruptive Events. Potsdam, 26.10.2015-29.10.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * photosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.916, year: 2016

  10. Evidence for inflation in an axion landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pran; Piskunov, Maksim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss inflation models within supersymmetry and supergravity frameworks with a landscape of chiral superfields and one U(1) shift symmetry which is broken by non-perturbative symmetry breaking terms in the superpotential. We label the pseudo scalar component of the chiral fields axions and their real parts saxions. Thus in the models only one combination of axions will be a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-boson which will act as the inflaton. The proposed models constitute consistent inflation for the following reasons: the inflation potential arises dynamically with stabilized saxions, the axion decay constant can lie in the sub-Planckian region, and consistency with the Planck data is achieved. The axion landscape consisting of m axion pairs is assumed with the axions in each pair having opposite charges. A fast roll-slow roll splitting mechanism for the axion potential is proposed which is realized with a special choice of the axion basis. In this basis the 2 m coupled equations split into 2 m - 1 equations which enter in the fast roll and there is one unique linear combination of the 2 m fields which controls the slow roll and thus the power spectrum of curvature and tensor perturbations. It is shown that a significant part of the parameter space exists where inflation is successful, i.e., N pivot = [50, 60], the spectral index n s of curvature perturbations, and the ratio r of the power spectrum of tensor perturbations and curvature perturbations, lie in the experimentally allowed regions given by the Planck experiment. Further, it is shown that the model allows for a significant region of the parameter space where the effective axion decay constant can lie in the sub-Planckian domain. An analysis of the tensor spectral index n t is also given and the future experimental data which constraints n t will further narrow down the parameter space of the proposed inflationary models. Topics of further interest include implications of the model for gravitational waves

  11. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A.O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleański, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Howard, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar Orbiter is a Sun-observing mission led by the European Space Agency, addressing the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. It will carry ten instruments, among them the X-ray imaging spectrometer STIX. STIX will determine the intensity, spectrum, timing, and location of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their bremsstrahlung X-ray emission. This report gives a brief overview of the STIX scientific goals and covers in more detail the instrument design and challenges

  12. RESOLVING THE FAN-SPINE RECONNECTION GEOMETRY OF A SMALL-SCALE CHROMOSPHERIC JET EVENT WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Chen, Bin; Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Ji, Haisheng [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Jets are ubiquitously present in both quiet and active regions on the Sun. They are widely believed to be driven by magnetic reconnection. A fan-spine structure has been frequently reported in some coronal jets and flares, and has been regarded as a signature of ongoing magnetic reconnection in a topology consisting of a magnetic null connected by a fan-like separatrix surface and a spine. However, for small-scale chromospheric jets, clear evidence of such structures is rather rare, although it has been implied in earlier works that showed an inverted-Y-shaped feature. Here we report high-resolution (0.″16) observations of a small-scale chromospheric jet obtained by the New Solar Telescope (NST) using 10830 Å filtergrams. Bi-directional flows were observed across the separatrix regions in the 10830 Å images, suggesting that the jet was produced due to magnetic reconnection. At the base of the jet, a fan-spine structure was clearly resolved by the NST, including the spine and the fan-like surface, as well as the loops before and after the reconnection. A major part of this fan-spine structure, with the exception of its bright footpoints and part of the base arc, was invisible in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray images (observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly and the X-Ray Telescope, respectively), indicating that the reconnection occurred in the upper chromosphere. Our observations suggest that the evolution of this chromospheric jet is consistent with a two-step reconnection scenario proposed by Török et al.

  13. Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Katherine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kucera, Theresa A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kano, Ryouhei

    2011-01-01

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during July 2008 that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity "cores" with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21 and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  14. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  15. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  16. Dutch Open Telescope: Status and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope represents a new solar telescope concept. Being open rather than evacuated, it leads the way to large- aperture high resolution telescopes. It is now being installed on La Palma.

  17. Dynamical axion string, screw dislocation in Weyl semimetals and Axion insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhi; Cho, Gil Young; Hughes, Taylor

    We study the interplay between the geometry and axion string resulting from a chiral symmetry breaking in 3D. The chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken by charge density wave (CDW) order parameter nesting two Weyl points, which turns it into an axion insulator. The phase fluctuation of the CDW order parameter acts as a dynamical axion field coupled to electromagnetic field via θF ∧ F term. When the axion insulator is coupled with the background geometry with torsional defects, i.e. screw dislocations, there is a novel interplay between the dislocation and the dynamical axion string. First, we show that the screw dislocation traps an axial charge. This then implies that if an axion string braids with a parallel screw dislocation, there is Berry phase accumulated during the braiding procedure. In addition, the cubic coupling between the axial current and the torsion bilinear shows the Berry phase accumulated by the three-loop braiding procedure, where we braid one dislocation loop around the other dislocation loop where the both are linked by an axion string loop. We also observe a chiral magnetic effect induced by a screw dislocation in the absence of chemical potential imbalance between Weyl points.

  18. Response properties of axion insulators and Weyl semimetals driven by screw dislocations and dynamical axion strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yizhi; Cho, Gil Young; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the theory of dynamical axion strings emerging from chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional Weyl semimetals. The chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken by a charge density wave (CDW) order which opens an energy gap and converts the Weyl semimetal into an axion insulator. Indeed, the phase fluctuations of the CDW order parameter act as a dynamical axion field θ (x ⃗,t ) and couple to electromagnetic field via Lθ=θ/(x ⃗,t ) 32 π2 ɛσ τ ν μFσ τFν μ. Additionally, when the axion insulator is coupled to deformations of the background geometry/strain fields via torsional defects, e.g., screw dislocations, there is interesting interplay between the crystal dislocations and dynamical axion strings. For example, the screw dislocation traps axial charge, and there is a Berry phase accumulation when an axion string (which carries axial flux) is braided with a screw dislocation. In addition, a cubic coupling between the axial current and the geometry fields is nonvanishing and indicates a Berry phase accumulation during a particular three-loop braiding procedure where a dislocation loop is braided with another dislocation and they are both threaded by an axion string. We also observe a chiral magnetic effect induced by a screw dislocation density in the absence of a nodal energy imbalance between Weyl points and describe an additional chiral geometric effect and a geometric Witten effect.

  19. Axion forces, gravity experiments and T violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of light, weakly-coupled bosons have recently been suggested. Among them is the axion. This thesis considers the possibility of detecting axions or other light bosons via the macroscopic forces they mediate. The motivation for the axion is reviewed along with a detailed calculation of its mass and couplings. The microphysical basis of macroscopic forces is described and the three distinct axion force laws are thereby obtained. Of particular interest is the unique P and T violating monopole-dipole force. The magnitudes and ranges of axion forces are compared with the existing experimental limits. The possibilities for searching for (monopole) 2 , spin-spin and monopole-dipole forces are evaluated. Monopole-dipole experiments seem promising because the sensitive high-Q techniques of gravity wave research are applicable. Ultimate sensitivity, as limited by thermal noise, is evaluated for crystal oscillators and levitated systems. The very interesting problem of quantum uncertainty in weak force measurement is considered along with a way of getting around it called back action evasion. This is followed by a presentation of signal to noise analysis which folds together amplifier noise, quantum uncertainty, and Langevin noise

  20. Axion-dilaton cosmology and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.; Moeller, J.

    2007-09-15

    We discuss a class of flat FRW cosmological models based on D=4 axion-dilaton gravity universally coupled to cosmological background fluids. In particular, we investigate the possibility of recurrent acceleration, which was recently shown to be generically realized in a wide class of axion-dilaton models, but in absence of cosmological background fluids. We observe that, once we impose the existence of radiation - and matter - dominated earlier stages of cosmic evolution, the axion-dilaton dynamics is altered significantly with respect to the case of pure axion-dilaton gravity. During the matter dominated epoch the scalar fields remain either frozen, due to the large expansion rate, or enter a cosmological scaling regime. In both cases, oscillations of the effective equation of state around the acceleration boundary value are impossible. Models which enter an oscillatory stage in the low redshift regime, on the other hand, are disfavored by observations. We also comment on the viability of the axion-dilaton system as a candidate for dynamical dark energy. In a certain subclass of models, an intermediate scaling regime is succeeded by eternal acceleration. We also briefly discuss the issue of dependence on initial conditions. (orig.)

  1. Coupled Boltzmann computation of mixed axion neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lessa, Andre, E-mail: bae@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: lessa@fma.if.usp.br, E-mail: serce@ou.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo – SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    The supersymmetrized DFSZ axion model is highly motivated not only because it offers solutions to both the gauge hierarchy and strong CP problems, but also because it provides a solution to the SUSY μ-problem which naturally allows for a Little Hierarchy. We compute the expected mixed axion-neutralino dark matter abundance for the SUSY DFSZ axion model in two benchmark cases—a natural SUSY model with a standard neutralino underabundance (SUA) and an mSUGRA/CMSSM model with a standard overabundance (SOA). Our computation implements coupled Boltzmann equations which track the radiation density along with neutralino, axion, axion CO (produced via coherent oscillations), saxion, saxion CO, axino and gravitino densities. In the SUSY DFSZ model, axions, axinos and saxions go through the process of freeze-in—in contrast to freeze-out or out-of-equilibrium production as in the SUSY KSVZ model—resulting in thermal yields which are largely independent of the re-heat temperature. We find the SUA case with suppressed saxion-axion couplings (ξ=0) only admits solutions for PQ breaking scale f{sub a}∼< 6× 10{sup 12} GeV where the bulk of parameter space tends to be axion-dominated. For SUA with allowed saxion-axion couplings (ξ =1), then f{sub a} values up to ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV are allowed. For the SOA case, almost all of SUSY DFSZ parameter space is disallowed by a combination of overproduction of dark matter, overproduction of dark radiation or violation of BBN constraints. An exception occurs at very large f{sub a}∼ 10{sup 15}–10{sup 16} GeV where large entropy dilution from CO-produced saxions leads to allowed models.

  2. Dark matter through the axion portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Thaler, Jesse

    2009-04-01

    Motivated by the galactic positron excess seen by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we propose that dark matter is a TeV-scale particle that annihilates into a pseudoscalar “axion.” The positron excess and the absence of an antiproton or gamma ray excess constrain the axion mass and branching ratios. In the simplest realization, the axion is associated with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry, in which case it has a mass around 360-800 MeV and decays into muons. We present a simple and predictive supersymmetric model implementing this scenario, where both the Higgsino and dark matter obtain masses from the same source of TeV-scale spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  3. Dark matter through the axion portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Thaler, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the galactic positron excess seen by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we propose that dark matter is a TeV-scale particle that annihilates into a pseudoscalar 'axion'. The positron excess and the absence of an antiproton or gamma ray excess constrain the axion mass and branching ratios. In the simplest realization, the axion is associated with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry, in which case it has a mass around 360-800 MeV and decays into muons. We present a simple and predictive supersymmetric model implementing this scenario, where both the Higgsino and dark matter obtain masses from the same source of TeV-scale spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  4. Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.

  5. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  6. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  7. CAST constraints on the axion-electron coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, K.; Beltran, B.; Bräuninger, H.; Carmona, J.M.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kang, D.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Kousouris, K.; Krcmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, D.W.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Stewart, L.; Van Bibber, K.; Vieira, J.D.; Villar, J.A.; Vogel, J.K.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2013-01-01

    In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axio-recombination, the "BCA processes." Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling g_ae and axion-photon interaction strength g_ag using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For m_a < 10 meV/c2 we find g_ag x g_ae< 8.1 x 10^-23 GeV^-1 at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellar energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.

  8. Axion excursions of the landscape during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Gonzalo A.; Riquelme, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Because of their quantum fluctuations, axion fields had a chance to experience field excursions traversing many minima of their potentials during inflation. We study this situation by analyzing the dynamics of an axion field ψ , present during inflation, with a periodic potential given by v (ψ )=Λ4[1 -cos (ψ /f )]. By assuming that the vacuum expectation value of the field is stabilized at one of its minima, say, ψ =0 , we compute every n -point correlation function of ψ up to first order in Λ4 using the in-in formalism. This computation allows us to identify the distribution function describing the probability of measuring ψ at a particular amplitude during inflation. Because ψ is able to tunnel between the barriers of the potential, we find that the probability distribution function consists of a non-Gaussian multimodal distribution such that the probability of measuring ψ at a minimum of v (ψ ) different from ψ =0 increases with time. As a result, at the end of inflation, different patches of the Universe are characterized by different values of the axion field amplitude, leading to important cosmological phenomenology: (a) Isocurvature fluctuations induced by the axion at the end of inflation could be highly non-Gaussian. (b) If the axion defines the strength of standard model couplings, then one is led to a concrete realization of the multiverse. (c) If the axion corresponds to dark matter, one is led to the possibility that, within our observable Universe, dark matter started with a nontrivial initial condition, implying novel signatures for future surveys.

  9. Universal constraints on axions from inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, R. Z.; Sloth, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    through this mechanism, larger than the vacuum ones, without violating the observational constraints unless we combine this mechanism with a curvaton or if the sigma field becomes heavy and decays during inflation. Even in this last case there are non-trivial constraints coming from the slow......-roll evolution of the curvature perturbation on super horizon scales which should be taken into account. We also comment on implications for inflationary models where axions play an important role as, for example, models of natural inflation where more than one axion are included and models where the curvaton...

  10. Non-Gaussianity from Axion Monodromy Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen; Haugboelle, Troels; R. Jarnhus, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We study the primordial non-Gaussinity predicted from simple models of inflation with a linear potential and superimposed oscillations. This generic form of the potential is predicted by the axion monodromy inflation model, that has recently been proposed as a possible realization of chaotic...... inflation in string theory, where the monodromy from wrapped branes extends the range of the closed string axions to beyond the Planck scale. The superimposed oscillations in the potential can lead to new signatures in the CMB spectrum and bispectrum. In particular the bispectrum will have a new distinct...

  11. Limits on Axion Couplings from the First 80 Days of Data of the PandaX-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changbo; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Cui, Xiangyi; Fang, Deqing; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Han, Ke; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ren, Xiangxiang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jimin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Ning; PandaX-II Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report new searches for solar axions and galactic axionlike dark matter particles, using the first low-background data from the PandaX-II experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory, corresponding to a total exposure of about 2.7 ×104 kg day . No solar axion or galactic axionlike dark matter particle candidate has been identified. The upper limit on the axion-electron coupling (gA e) from the solar flux is found to be about 4.35 ×10-12 in the mass range from 10-5 to 1 keV /c2 with 90% confidence level, similar to the recent LUX result. We also report a new best limit from the 57Fe deexcitation. On the other hand, the upper limit from the galactic axions is on the order of 10-13 in the mass range from 1 to 10 keV /c2 with 90% confidence level, slightly improved compared with the LUX.

  12. Limits on Axion Couplings from the First 80 Days of Data of the PandaX-II Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changbo; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Cui, Xiangyi; Fang, Deqing; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Han, Ke; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ren, Xiangxiang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jimin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Ning

    2017-11-03

    We report new searches for solar axions and galactic axionlike dark matter particles, using the first low-background data from the PandaX-II experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory, corresponding to a total exposure of about 2.7×10^{4}  kg day. No solar axion or galactic axionlike dark matter particle candidate has been identified. The upper limit on the axion-electron coupling (g_{Ae}) from the solar flux is found to be about 4.35×10^{-12} in the mass range from 10^{-5} to 1  keV/c^{2} with 90% confidence level, similar to the recent LUX result. We also report a new best limit from the ^{57}Fe deexcitation. On the other hand, the upper limit from the galactic axions is on the order of 10^{-13} in the mass range from 1 to 10  keV/c^{2} with 90% confidence level, slightly improved compared with the LUX.

  13. Generating a synthetic axion signal for cold cark matter axion searches using microwave cavities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108502; Miceli, Lino

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated that an axion signal in a RF resonator can be synthesized and controlled with commercially available instrumentation. Although this signal needs refinements, it can be customized to the needs of a specific cold dark matter axion search experiment. Since the modulator in the setup has arbitrary function generator capabilities, this apparatus is already capable to produce the necessary refinements, for instance a maxwellian line shape.

  14. The pooltable analogy to axion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-01-01

    An imaginary character named TSP finds himself in a playroom whose floor is tilted to one side. However, the pooltable in the playroom is horizontal. TSP wonders how this can be. In doing so, he embarks upon an intellectual journey which parallels that which has been travelled during the past two decades by physicists interested in the Strong CP Problem and axion physics

  15. The pooltable analogy to axion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-01-01

    An imaginary character named TSP finds himself in a playroom whose floor is tilted to one side. However, the pooltable in the playroom is horizontal. TSP wonders how this can be. In doing so, he embarks upon an intellectual journey which parallels that which has been travelled during the past two decades by physicists interested in the Strong CP Problem and axion physics.

  16. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosi, G; van Bibber, K

    2007-01-22

    This chapter will cover the search for dark matter axions based on microwave cavity experiments proposed by Pierre Sikivie. We will start with a brief overview of halo dark matter and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described as well as practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of this chapter will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons--the 'photon-as-wave' approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon to be quantum-limited SQUID devices), and 'photon-as-particle' (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The section will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave cavity experiment.

  17. Topology in QCD and the axion abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Norikazu [KEK Theory Center,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai),Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-10-21

    The temperature dependence of the topological susceptibility in QCD, χ{sub t}, essentially determines the abundance of the QCD axion in the Universe, and is commonly estimated, based on the instanton picture, to be a certain negative power of temperature. While lattice QCD should be able to check this behavior in principle, the temperature range where lattice QCD works is rather limited in practice, because the topological charge is apt to freezes at high temperatures. In this work, two exploratory studies are presented. In the first part, we try to specify the temperature range in the quenched approximation. Since our purpose here is to estimate the range expected in unquenched QCD through quenched simulations, hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm is employed instead of heatbath algorithm. We obtain an indication that unquenched calculations of χ{sub t} encounter the serious problem of autocorrelation already at T∼2 T{sub c} or even below with the plain HMC. In the second part, we revisit the axion abundance. The absolute value and the temperature dependence of χ{sub t} in real QCD can be significantly different from that in the quenched approximation, and is not well established above the critical temperature. Motivated by this fact and precedent arguments which disagree with the conventional instanton picture, we estimate the axion abundance in an extreme case where χ{sub t} decreases much faster than the conventional power-like behavior. We find a significant enhancement of the axion abundance in such a case.

  18. Ultra Light Axionic Dark Matter: Galactic Halos and Implications for Observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan de Martino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold dark matter (CDM paradigm successfully explains the cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshifts. However, it fails when probing the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. Moreover, the lack of experimental detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP favors alternative candidates such as light axionic dark matter that naturally arise in string theory. Cosmological N-body simulations have shown that axionic dark matter forms a solitonic core of size of ≃150 pc in the innermost region of the galactic halos. The oscillating scalar field associated to the axionic dark matter halo produces an oscillating gravitational potential that induces a time dilation of the pulse arrival time of ≃400 ns/(m B /10 − 22 eV for pulsar within such a solitonic core. Over the whole galaxy, the averaged predicted signal may be detectable with current and forthcoming pulsar timing array telescopes.

  19. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  20. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  1. Dielectric haloscopes: sensitivity to the axion dark matter velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, Alexander J.; Redondo, Javier; Steffen, Frank D., E-mail: millar@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: steffen@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of the axion dark matter velocity in the recently proposed dielectric haloscopes, a promising avenue to search for well-motivated high mass (40–400 μeV) axions. We describe non-zero velocity effects for axion-photon mixing in a magnetic field and for the phenomenon of photon emission from interfaces between different dielectric media. As velocity effects are only important when the haloscope is larger than about 20% of the axion de Broglie wavelength, for the planned MADMAX experiment with 80 dielectric disks the velocity dependence can safely be neglected. However, an augmented MADMAX or a second generation experiment would be directionally sensitive to the axion velocity, and thus a sensitive measure of axion astrophysics.

  2. Broadband and Resonant Approaches to Axion Dark Matter Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; Safdi, Benjamin R; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-09-30

    When ultralight axion dark matter encounters a static magnetic field, it sources an effective electric current that follows the magnetic field lines and oscillates at the axion Compton frequency. We propose a new experiment to detect this axion effective current. In the presence of axion dark matter, a large toroidal magnet will act like an oscillating current ring, whose induced magnetic flux can be measured by an external pickup loop inductively coupled to a SQUID magnetometer. We consider both resonant and broadband readout circuits and show that a broadband approach has advantages at small axion masses. We estimate the reach of this design, taking into account the irreducible sources of noise, and demonstrate potential sensitivity to axionlike dark matter with masses in the range of 10^{-14}-10^{-6}  eV. In particular, both the broadband and resonant strategies can probe the QCD axion with a GUT-scale decay constant.

  3. A Search for Axions by Nuclear Resonance Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experimental efforts to prove the existence of an axion - a light neutral pseudoscalar boson predicted theoretically from a solution of the CP conservation problem - have failed so far. The most stringent laboratory limit on the axion mass $ m _{a} $ $<$20 keV makes a search by the axion analog to the Moessbauer effect, which is restricted to $ m _{a} $ $\\leq$100 keV, an attractive possibility. We conduct an experiment utilizing a strong high-purity source of $^1

  4. Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Leedom, Jacob M.

    2017-08-01

    Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.

  5. Study of Solar-Terrestrial Connections in the Highlight of Simultaneous Observations with STEREO and UTR-2, URAN, NDA Ground-Based Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Lecacheux, A.; Falkovich, I. S.

    In the present paper new opportunities, which will be appeared at simultaneous observations by STEREO and ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2, URAN, NDA), in study of solar sporadic phenomena, having essential effects on the Earth, are discussed. CMEs, which manifest themselves in radio emission as Type II and Type IY bursts, are the most important of them. Studying of these bursts during simultaneous observations with the help of STEREO and ground-based radio telescopes will allow to find the direction of CME movement, 3D images of CME, its beaming pattern, bulk energy of both CME and shock before it, particle acceleration sites and directions of propagation of accelerated particles. Analyses of radio observations of active and quiet Sun will allow to understand pre-CME conditions in the solar corona and will give an opportunity to forecast CME appearance. Observations of different types of sporadic radio emissions (Type III bursts, drift pairs, s-bursts, bursts in absorption etc.) with high sensitivity, high frequency and time resolutions in decameter range by ground-based radio telescopes and detection of regions, where this radio emission goes out from (using STEREO results), will allow to diagnose the coronal plasmas (to define their density, magnetic fields, parameters of inhomogenieties) at altitudes 0.5-2Rs and to build adequate model of CME formation and its evolution. Using of interplanetary scintillation methods tested on UTR-2 and URAN radio telescope as well as in situ measurements on STEREO will give the information about both CME structure and shock associated with it, about spectra of density fluctuations and turbulences connected with CME at distances about 1a.u. from the Sun.

  6. First results from a second generation galactic axion experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hagmann, C A; Stoeffl, W; Van Bibber, K; Daw, E J; McBride, J; Peng, H; Rosenberg, L J; Xin, H; La Veigne, J D; Sikivie, P; Sullivan, N; Tanner, D B; Moltz, D M; Nezrick, F A; Turner, M; Golubev, N A; Kravchuk, L V

    1996-01-01

    We report first results from a large scale search for dark matter axions. The experiment probes axion masses of 1.3-13 micro-eV at a sensitivity which is about 50 times higher than previous pilot experiments. We have already scanned part of this mass range at a sensitivity better than required to see at least one generic axion model, the KSVZ axion. Data taking at full sensitivity commenced in February 1996 and scanning the proposed mass range will require three years.

  7. Constraining axion dark matter with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Kfir; D' Agnolo, Raffaele Tito [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We show that Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) significantly constrains axion-like dark matter. The axion acts like an oscillating QCD θ angle that redshifts in the early Universe, increasing the neutron–proton mass difference at neutron freeze-out. An axion-like particle that couples too strongly to QCD results in the underproduction of {sup 4}He during BBN and is thus excluded. The BBN bound overlaps with much of the parameter space that would be covered by proposed searches for a time-varying neutron EDM. The QCD axion does not couple strongly enough to affect BBN.

  8. Constraining axion dark matter with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kfir Blum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN significantly constrains axion-like dark matter. The axion acts like an oscillating QCD θ angle that redshifts in the early Universe, increasing the neutron–proton mass difference at neutron freeze-out. An axion-like particle that couples too strongly to QCD results in the underproduction of He4 during BBN and is thus excluded. The BBN bound overlaps with much of the parameter space that would be covered by proposed searches for a time-varying neutron EDM. The QCD axion does not couple strongly enough to affect BBN.

  9. Constraining axion dark matter with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Kfir; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    We show that Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) significantly constrains axion-like dark matter. The axion acts like an oscillating QCD θ angle that redshifts in the early Universe, increasing the neutron–proton mass difference at neutron freeze-out. An axion-like particle that couples too strongly to QCD results in the underproduction of 4 He during BBN and is thus excluded. The BBN bound overlaps with much of the parameter space that would be covered by proposed searches for a time-varying neutron EDM. The QCD axion does not couple strongly enough to affect BBN

  10. Constraining axion dark matter with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2014-10-01

    We show that Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) significantly constrains axion-like dark matter. The axion acts like an oscillating QCD θ angle that redshifts in the early Universe, increasing the neutron-proton mass difference at neutron freeze-out. An axion-like particle that couples too strongly to QCD results in the underproduction of 4He during BBN and is thus excluded. The BBN bound overlaps with much of the parameter space that would be covered by proposed searches for a time-varying neutron EDM. The QCD axion does not couple strongly enough to affect BBN.

  11. Mixed axion-wino dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jung Bae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of supersymmetric models give rise to a split mass spectrumcharacterized by very heavy scalars but sub-TeV gauginos, usually with awino-like LSP. Such models predict a thermally-produced underabundance ofwino-like WIMP dark matter so that non-thermal DM production mechanisms arenecessary.We examine the case where theories with a wino-like LSP are augmented by aPeccei-Quinn sector including an axion-axino-saxion supermultiplet in either theSUSY KSVZ or SUSY DFSZ models and with/without saxion decays to axions/axinos.We show allowed ranges of PQ breaking scale f_a for various cases which aregenerated by solving the necessary coupled Boltzmann equations.We also present results for a model with radiatively-driven naturalnessbut with a wino-like LSP.

  12. Axion monodromy and the weak gravity conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Axions with broken discrete shift symmetry (axion monodromy) have recently played a central role both in the discussion of inflation and the 'relaxion' approach to the hierarchy problem. We suggest a very minimalist way to constrain such models by the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls: While the electric side of the conjecture is always satisfied if the cosine-oscillations of the axion potential are sufficiently small, the magnetic side imposes a cutoff, Λ 3 ∝mfM pl , independent of the height of these 'wiggles'. We compare our approach with the recent related proposal by Ibanez, Montero, Uranga and Valenzuela. We also discuss the non-trivial question which version, if any, of the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls should hold. In particular, we show that string compactifications with branes of different dimensions wrapped on different cycles lead to a 'geometric weak gravity conjecture' relating volumes of cycles, norms of corresponding forms and the volume of the compact space. Imposing this 'geometric conjecture', e.g. on the basis of the more widely accepted weak gravity conjecture for particles, provides at least some support for the (electric and magnetic) conjecture for domain walls.

  13. Photon - axion conversion cross sections in an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Van Soa; Ha Huy Bang

    1999-12-01

    Photon - axion conversions in static magnetic fields and in a periodic field with frequency equal to the axion mass are reconsidered in detail by Feynman methods. The differential cross sections are presented and numerical evaluations are given. It is shown that there is a resonant conversion for the considered process. Some estimates for experiments are given from our results. (author)

  14. Studies on Axions as the Energy Source in Magnetar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranita Das

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... is not expected to rise in the magnetosphere (Phillips. 1999). Therefore the rise in temperature in magneto- sphere will not cause X-rays. Axion emitted from .... from some SGRs and. AXPs are also shown in the plot for comparison with the observation. The curves, m1, m2 and m3 represent axion masses.

  15. Studies on Axions as the Energy Source in Magnetar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranita Das

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... Abstract. Highly magnetized neutron stars known as magnetars are some of the most interesting objects in the Universe. Non-baryonic dark matter candidate axions are produced in the highly magnetized neutron star via Bremsstrahlung process in the highly dense medium. These axions thus produced are ...

  16. Searching for Axion-Like Particles with X-ray Polarimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Day

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray telescopes are an exceptional tool for searching for new fundamental physics. In particular, X-ray observations have already placed world-leading bounds on the interaction between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs. ALPs are hypothetical new ultra-light particles motivated by string theory models. They can also act as dark matter and dark energy, and provide a solution to the strong CP problem. In a background magnetic field, ALPs and photons may interconvert. This leads to energy dependent modulations in both the flux and polarisation of the spectra of point sources shining through large magnetic fields. The next generation of polarising X-ray telescopes will offer new detection possibilities for ALPs. Here we present techniques and projected bounds for searching for ALPs with X-ray polarimetry. We demonstrate that upcoming X-ray polarimetry missions have the potential to place world-leading bounds on ALPs.

  17. New micromegas for axion searches in CAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafni, T.; Aune, S.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Gardikiotis, A.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gomez, H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Papaevangelou, T.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Tomas, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Yildiz, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Micromegas detectors have been taking data in the CAST experiment since 2002, occupying one opening (out of the two looking for sunrise axions) of the magnet and showing good performance and stability. Currently, three of the four X-ray detectors used in the experiment are micromegas. The new detectors are of the Microbulk technology, which have attracted a lot of attention because of the advantages they present, among them the low-material construction, high radiopurity and good energy resolution. Here, their performance during the last year will be commented. In particular, the low background levels reached in some detectors have triggered a set of studies in order to understand the effect.

  18. Relating a Prominence Observed from the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode Satellite to Known 3-D Structures of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Agah, Y.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We address only a first step in relating limb and disk observations by illustrating and comparing the spines and barbs of three different quiescent prominences and filaments observed in Hα by three different telescopes. Although the appearance of the three quiescent prominences is quite different, we show that each consists of a spine, barbs extending from the spine, and arcs at the base of some of the curtains of barb threads.

  19. CAST constraints on the axion-electron coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, K.; Davenport, M.; Lella, L. Di [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Dafni, T.; Galan, J.; García, J.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Braeuninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Friedrich, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Collar, J.I. [Enrico Fermi Institute and KICP, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Eleftheriadis, C. [Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T. [National Center for Scientific Research ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I. [IRFU, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fischer, H.; Franz, J., E-mail: Jaime.Ruz@cern.ch, E-mail: Julia.Vogel@cern.ch, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2013-05-01

    In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axio-recombination, the ''BCA processes.'' Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling g{sub ae} and axion-photon interaction strength g{sub aγ} using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For m{sub a}∼<10 meV/c{sup 2} we find g{sub aγ} g{sub ae} < 8.1 × 10{sup −23} GeV{sup −1} at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellar energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.

  20. Cosmological bounds on sub-MeV mass axions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadamuro, Davide; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Axions with mass ma >~ 0.7 eV are excluded by cosmological precision data because they provide too much hot dark matter. While for ma >~ 20 eV the a → 2γ lifetime drops below the age of the universe, we show that the cosmological exclusion range can be extended to 0.7eV lesssim ma lesssim 300 ke......V, primarily by the cosmic deuterium abundance: axion decays would strongly modify the baryon-to-photon ratio at BBN relative to the one at CMB decoupling. Additional arguments include neutrino dilution relative to photons by axion decays and spectral CMB distortions. Our new cosmological constraints...

  1. Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Harigaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei–Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.

  2. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  3. Non-Gaussianity from Axion Monodromy Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen; Jarnhus, Philip R; Sloth, Martin S

    2010-01-01

    We study the primordial non-Gaussinity predicted from simple models of inflation with a linear potential and superimposed oscillations. This generic form of the potential is predicted by the axion monodromy inflation model, that has recently been proposed as a possible realization of chaotic inflation in string theory, where the monodromy from wrapped branes extends the range of the closed string axions to beyond the Planck scale. The superimposed oscillations in the potential can lead to new signatures in the CMB spectrum and bispectrum. In particular the bispectrum will have a new distinct shape. We calculate the power spectrum and bispectrum of curvature perturbations in the model, as well as make analytic estimates in various limiting cases. From the numerical analysis we find that for a wide range of allowed parameters the model produces a feature in the bispectrum with fnl ~ 50 or larger while the power spectrum is almost featureless. This model is therefore an example of a string-inspired inflationary ...

  4. Vacuum statistics and stability in axionic landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, Ali; Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We investigate vacuum statistics and stability in random axionic landscapes. For this purpose we developed an algorithm for a quick evaluation of the tunneling action, which in most cases is accurate within 10%. We find that stability of a vacuum is strongly correlated with its energy density, with lifetime rapidly growing as the energy density is decreased. On the other hand, the probability P(B) for a vacuum to have a tunneling action B greater than a given value declines as a slow power law in B. This is in sharp contrast with the studies of random quartic potentials, which found a fast exponential decline of P(B). Our results suggest that the total number of relatively stable vacua (say, with B>100) grows exponentially with the number of fields N and can get extremely large for N∼> 100. The problem with this kind of model is that the stable vacua are concentrated near the absolute minimum of the potential, so the observed value of the cosmological constant cannot be explained without fine-tuning. To address this difficulty, we consider a modification of the model, where the axions acquire a quadratic mass term, due to their mixing with 4-form fields. This results in a larger landscape with a much broader distribution of vacuum energies. The number of relatively stable vacua in such models can still be extremely large.

  5. Cosmic axion background propagation in galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Francesca V., E-mail: francesca.day@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2016-02-10

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). Here we study ALP to photon conversion in the magnetic field of the Milky Way and starburst galaxies. By modelling the effects of the coherent and random magnetic fields, the warm ionized medium and the warm neutral medium on the conversion process, we simulate maps of the conversion probability across the sky for a range of ALP energies. In particular, we consider a diffuse cosmic ALP background (CAB) analogous to the CMB, whose existence is suggested by string models of inflation. ALP–photon conversion of a CAB in the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters has been proposed as an explanation of the cluster soft X-ray excess. We therefore study the phenomenology and expected photon signal of CAB propagation in the Milky Way. We find that, for the CAB parameters required to explain the cluster soft X-ray excess, the photon flux from ALP–photon conversion in the Milky Way would be unobservably small. The ALP–photon conversion probability in galaxy clusters is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the morphology of the unresolved cosmic X-ray background is incompatible with a significant component from ALP–photon conversion. We also consider ALP–photon conversion in starburst galaxies, which host much higher magnetic fields. By considering the clumpy structure of the galactic plasma, we find that conversion probabilities comparable to those in clusters may be possible in starburst galaxies.

  6. The Dutch Open Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is now being installed at La Palma. It is intended for optical solar observations with high spatial resolution. Its open design aims to minimize disturbances of the local air ow and so re- duce the locally-generated component of the atmospheric seeing. This paper brie y

  7. Neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, J

    2002-01-01

    This review presents the scientific objectives and status of Neutrino Telescope Projects. The science program of these projects covers: neutrino astronomy, dark matter searches and measurements of neutrino oscillations. The two neutrino telescopes in operation: AMANDA and BAIKAL will be described together with the ANTARES neutrino telescope being built in the Mediterranean. (18 refs).

  8. Anomalous axion interactions and topological currents in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlitski, Max A.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2005-01-01

    Recently an effective Lagrangian for the interactions of photons, Nambu-Goldstone bosons and superfluid phonons in dense quark matter has been derived using anomaly matching arguments. In this paper we illuminate the nature of certain anomalous terms in this Lagrangian by an explicit microscopic calculation. We also generalize the corresponding construction to introduce the axion field. We derive an anomalous axion effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of axions with photons and superfluid phonons in the dense matter background. This effective Lagrangian, among other things, implies that an axion current will be induced in the presence of magnetic field. We speculate that this current may be responsible for the explanation of neutron star kicks

  9. Non-thermal axion dark radiation and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2016-07-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism presents a neat solution to the strong CP problem. As a by-product, it provides an ideal dark matter candidate, ''the axion'', albeit with a tiny mass. Axions therefore can act as dark radiation if excited with large momenta after the end of inflation. Nevertheless, the recent measurement of relativistic degrees of freedom from cosmic microwave background radiation strictly constrains the abundance of such extra relativistic species. We show that ultra-relativistic axions can be abundantly produced if the Peccei-Quinn field was initially displaced from the minimum of the potential. This in lieu places an interesting constraint on the axion dark matter window with large decay constant which is expected to be probed by future experiments. Moreover, an upper bound on the reheating temperature can be placed, which further constrains the thermal history of our Universe.

  10. Radio-loud magnetars as detectors for axions and axion-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.; Chelouche, D.

    2011-01-01

    We show that, by studying the arrival times of radio pulses from highly-magnetized transient beamed sources, it may be possible to detect light pseudo-scalar particles, such as axions and axion-like particles, whose existence could have considerable implications for the strong-CP problem of QCD as well as the dark matter problem in cosmology. Specifically, such light bosons may be detected with a much greater sensitivity, over a broad particle mass range, than is currently achievable by terrestrial experiments, and using indirect astrophysical considerations. The observable effect was discussed in Chelouche & Guendelman (2009), and is akin to the Stern-Gerlach experiment: the splitting of a photon beam naturally arises when finite coupling exists between the electro-magnetic field and the axion field. The splitting angle of the light beams linearly depends on the photon wavelength, the size of the magnetized region, and the magnetic field gradient in the transverse direction to the propagation direction of the photons. If radio emission in radio-loud magnetars is beamed and originates in regions with strong magnetic field gradients, then splitting of individual pulses may be detectable. We quantify the effect for a simplified model for magnetars, and search for radio beam splitting in the 2GHz radio light curves of the radio loud magnetar XTEJ1810-197. (author)

  11. pn-CCDs in a Low-Background Environment: Detector Background of the CAST X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Rodriquez, A.; Kotthaus, R.; Brauninger, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Lutz, G.; Struder, L.

    2005-01-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 0.1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, a Wolter I ty...

  12. Search for axion production in Υ(1S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, K.H.

    1988-06-01

    We present a search for axion production in radiative Υ(1S) decays using the Crystal Ball detector. We find no evidence for a signal and give a new upper limit, Br[Υ(1S)→a/degree/γ] < 4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/, for m/sub a/ < 2m/sub e/. Results from previous axion searches in both the Υ and J//psi/ systems are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions

  13. Solar flares as harbinger of new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, K; Semertzidis, Y.; Papaevangelou, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Gardikiotis, A.; Dafni, T.; Tsagri, M.; Semertzidis, Y.; Papaevangelou, T.; Dafni, T.

    2011-01-01

    This work provides additional evidence on the involvement of exotic particles like axions and/or other WISPs, following recent measurements during the quietest Sun and flaring Sun. Thus, SPHINX mission observed a minimum basal soft X-rays emission in the extreme solar minimum in 2009. The same scenario (with ~17 meV axions) fits also the dynamical behaviour of white-light solar flares, like the measured spectral components in the visible and in soft X-rays, and, the timing between them. Solar chameleons remain a viable candidate, since they may preferentially convert to photons in outer space.

  14. Conversion and Operation of CAST as a massive axion detector

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Nuno; Bordalo, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The axion was postulated after an elegant solution proposed by R. Peccei and H. Quinn to solve the strong CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics. The CAST experiment searches for axions created in the core of the Sun. It uses an LHC superconducting prototype magnet to trigger the axion conversion into detectable X-ray photons. During its First Phase, with the magnetic field region kept under vacuum, CAST searched with high sensitivity for axion masses up to 0.02 eV/c2, for higher values the conversion coherence is lost. This thesis reflects the work that allows CAST to extend its search up to axion masses of 1 eV/c2. To restore the lost coherence a buffer gas is introduced in the magnet cold bores, such that the photon arising from the Primakoff conversion acquires an effective mass. The axion mass can be effectively scanned by fine tuning the gas density. The conversion of the experiment required the study, design and construction of a complex gas handling system to deal with a rare helium isotope, 3He. It rep...

  15. Axions and the strong CP problem in M theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the possibility that the strong CP problem is solved by string-theoretic axions in the strong-coupling limit of the E 8 xE 8 ' heterotic string theory (M theory). We first discuss some generic features of gauge kinetic functions in compactified M theory, and examine in detail the axion potential induced by the explicit breakings other than the QCD anomaly of the nonlinear U(1) PQ symmetries of string-theoretic axions. It is argued based on supersymmetry and discrete gauge symmetries that if the compactification radius is large enough, there can be a U(1) PQ symmetry whose breaking other than the QCD anomaly, whatever its microscopic origin is, is suppressed enough for the axion mechanism to work. Phenomenological viability of such a large radius crucially depends upon the quantized coefficients in gauge kinetic functions. We note that the large radius required for the axion mechanism is viable only in a limited class of models. For instance, for compactifications on a smooth Calabi-Yau manifold with a vanishing E 8 ' field strength, it is viable only when the quantized flux of the antisymmetric tensor field in M theory has a minimal nonzero value. It is also stressed that this large compactification radius allows the QCD axion in M theory to be cosmologically viable in the presence of a late time entropy production. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. New results from ADMX -- an ultra sensitive axion detection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Steven J.

    2009-11-01

    Axions are hypothetical pseudoscalar particles that exist as a consequence of the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong-CP problem. Light axions (ueV-meV) are also a natural cold dark matter candidate. One important detection technique is via resonant conversion to microwave photons in a high-Q cavity immersed in a strong magnetic field. In this class of experiment, the signal from the cavity is amplified by an ultralow noise amplifier, and mixed down to the audio frequency range using a double-heterodyne receiver. The power spectrum results by a Fast Fourier Transform, with the putative axion appearing as a narrow line at a frequency corresponding to its rest mass. This detection strategy provides the basis for the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) which has been taking data at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since 1996. ADMX has established limits in two distinct data channels - a medium resolution channel configured to search for ``thermalized'' axions and a high resolution channel for detecting axions that have recently fallen into the gravitational well of our galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the newly reconfigured experiment featuring an ultralow-noise first stage cryogenic SQUID amplifiers and present latest results from the two data channels.

  17. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/12} GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 11/12} GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/10} GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  18. Spectral calibration of filters and detectors of solar EUV telescope for 13.2 nm for the TESIS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, S.V.; Shestov, S.V.; Pertsov, A.A.; Reva, A.A.; Zuev, S.Yu.; Lopatin, A.Ya.; Luchin, V.I.; Zhou, Kh.; Khuo, T.

    2008-01-01

    The full-sun EUV telescope for 13.2 nm spectral band for the TESIS experiment is designed to produce images of hot coronal plasma (T ∼ 10 MK). Calibration process of optical elements is presented. Spectral transmission of multilayer Zr/Si filters, sensitivity and radiation tolerance of CCD detector have been measured. Peak transmission of EUV filters in working, spectral band reaches 40-50% (filters with 50 and 55 layers are used), spectral dependence of transmission is close to calculated one. Transmission of filters in white light is equal to (1-2)x10 -6 . Sensitivity of CCD ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 ADC units per photon, radiation tolerance is better than 10 9 rad [ru

  19. Anisotropic plasmas from axion and dilaton deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,Prince Consort Rd., London (United Kingdom); Sosa-Rodriguez, Omar [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-02

    We construct black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity that are holographically dual to anisotropic plasmas arising from deformations of an infinite class of four-dimensional CFTs. The CFTs are dual to AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5}, where X{sub 5} is an Einstein manifold, and the deformations involve the type IIB axion and dilaton, with non-trivial periodic dependence on one of the spatial directions of the CFT. At low temperatures the solutions approach smooth domain wall solutions with the same AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5} solution appearing in the far IR. For sufficiently large deformations an intermediate scaling regime appears which is governed by a Lifshitz-like scaling solution. We calculate the DC thermal conductivity and some components of the shear viscosity tensor.

  20. Can gravitational instantons really constrain axion inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Mangat, Patrick; Theisen, Stefan; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2017-02-01

    Axions play a central role in inflationary model building and other cosmological applications. This is mainly due to their flat potential, which is protected by a global shift symmetry. However, quantum gravity is known to break global symmetries, the crucial effect in the present context being gravitational instantons or Giddings-Strominger wormholes. We attempt to quantify, as model-independently as possible, how large a scalar potential is induced by this general quantum gravity effect. We pay particular attention to the crucial issue which solutions can or cannot be trusted in the presence of a moduli-stabilisation and a Kaluza-Klein scale. An important conclusion is that, due to specific numerical prefactors, the effect is surprisingly small even in UV-completions with the highest possible scale offered by string theory.

  1. Bifid Throats for Axion Monodromy Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retolaza, Ander

    2015-04-01

    We construct a simple explicit local geometry providing a 'bifid throat' for 5-brane axion monodromy. A bifid throat is a throat that splits into two daughter throats in the IR, containing a homologous 2-cycle family reaching down into each daughter throat. Our example consists of a deformed Z 3 x Z 2 orbifold of the conifold, which provides us with an explicit holographic dual of the bifid throat including D3-branes and fractional 5-branes at the toric singularities of our setup. Having the holographic description in terms of the dual gauge theory allows us to address the effect of 5-brane-antibrane pair backreaction including the warping effects. This leads to the size of the backreaction being small and controllable after imposing proper normalization of the inflaton potential and hence the warping scales.

  2. Minimal models for axion and neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PQ mechanism resolving the strong CP problem and the seesaw mechanism explaining the smallness of neutrino masses may be related in a way that the PQ symmetry breaking scale and the seesaw scale arise from a common origin. Depending on how the PQ symmetry and the seesaw mechanism are realized, one has different predictions on the color and electromagnetic anomalies which could be tested in the future axion dark matter search experiments. Motivated by this, we construct various PQ seesaw models which are minimally extended from the (non- supersymmetric Standard Model and thus set up different benchmark points on the axion–photon–photon coupling in comparison with the standard KSVZ and DFSZ models.

  3. Cosmic axion background propagation in galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca V. Day

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many extensions of the Standard Model include axions or axion-like particles (ALPs. Here we study ALP to photon conversion in the magnetic field of the Milky Way and starburst galaxies. By modelling the effects of the coherent and random magnetic fields, the warm ionized medium and the warm neutral medium on the conversion process, we simulate maps of the conversion probability across the sky for a range of ALP energies. In particular, we consider a diffuse cosmic ALP background (CAB analogous to the CMB, whose existence is suggested by string models of inflation. ALP–photon conversion of a CAB in the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters has been proposed as an explanation of the cluster soft X-ray excess. We therefore study the phenomenology and expected photon signal of CAB propagation in the Milky Way. We find that, for the CAB parameters required to explain the cluster soft X-ray excess, the photon flux from ALP–photon conversion in the Milky Way would be unobservably small. The ALP–photon conversion probability in galaxy clusters is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the morphology of the unresolved cosmic X-ray background is incompatible with a significant component from ALP–photon conversion. We also consider ALP–photon conversion in starburst galaxies, which host much higher magnetic fields. By considering the clumpy structure of the galactic plasma, we find that conversion probabilities comparable to those in clusters may be possible in starburst galaxies.

  4. The Dutch Open Telescope: History, Status, Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    After many years of persistent telescope design and telescope construction, R.H. Hammerschlag has installed his Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. I brie y review its history and design. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science

  5. The extended Einstein-Maxwell-aether-axion model: Exact solutions for axionically controlled pp-wave aether modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, Alexander B.

    2018-03-01

    The extended Einstein-Maxwell-aether-axion model describes internal interactions inside the system, which contains gravitational, electromagnetic fields, the dynamic unit vector field describing the velocity of an aether, and the pseudoscalar field associated with the axionic dark matter. The specific feature of this model is that the axion field controls the dynamics of the aether through the guiding functions incorporated into Jacobson’s constitutive tensor. Depending on the state of the axion field, these guiding functions can control and switch on or switch off the influence of acceleration, shear, vorticity and expansion of the aether flow on the state of physical system as a whole. We obtain new exact solutions, which possess the pp-wave symmetry, and indicate them by the term pp-wave aether modes in contrast to the pure pp-waves, which cannot propagate in this field conglomerate. These exact solutions describe a specific dynamic state of the pseudoscalar field, which corresponds to one of the minima of the axion potential and switches off the influence of shear and expansion of the aether flow; the model does not impose restrictions on Jacobson’s coupling constants and on the axion mass. Properties of these new exact solutions are discussed.

  6. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G.J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  7. Cosmological axion and a quark nugget dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuailiang; Liang, Xunyu; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2018-02-01

    We study a dark matter (DM) model offering a very natural explanation of two (naively unrelated) problems in cosmology: the observed relation ΩDM˜Ωvisible and the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe, known as the "baryogenesis" problem. In this framework, both types of matter (dark and visible) have the same QCD origin, form at the same QCD epoch, and are proportional to one and the same dimensional parameter of the system, ΛQCD, which explains how these two naively distinct problems could be intimately related, and could be solved simultaneously within the same framework. More specifically, the DM in this model is composed by two different ingredients: the (well-studied) DM axions and the (less-studied) quark nuggets made of matter or antimatter. We focus on the quantitative analysis of the relation between these two distinct components contributing to the dark sector of the theory determined by ΩDM≡[ΩDM(nuggets)+ΩDM(axion)] . We argue that the nuggets' DM component always traces the visible matter density, i.e., ΩDM(nuggets)˜Ωvisible , and this feature is not sensitive to the parameters of the system such as the axion mass ma or the misalignment angle θ0. It should be contrasted with conventional axion production mechanisms due to the misalignment when ΩDM(axion) is highly sensitive to the axion mass ma and the initial misalignment angle θ0. We also discuss the constraints on this model related to the inflationary scale HI, nonobservation of the isocurvature perturbations and the tensor modes. We also comment on some constraints related to various axion search experiments.

  8. An update on the Axion Helioscopes front: Current activities at CAST and the IAXO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafni, T.; Arik, M.; Armengaud, E.

    2016-01-01

    gradually filled with 3He, probing the mass range up to 1.17 eV. The International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being proposed as a facility where different axion studies can be performed, with the primary goal to study axions coming from the Sun. Designed to maximize sensitivity, it will improve the levels...

  9. Studies of Isolated and Non-isolated Photospheric Bright Points in an Active Region Observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxiao; Xiang, Yongyuan; Erdélyi, Robertus; Liu, Zhong; Li, Dong; Ning, Zongjun; Bi, Yi; Wu, Ning; Lin, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Properties of photospheric bright points (BPs) near an active region have been studied in TiO λ 7058 Å images observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope of the Yunnan Observatories. We developed a novel recognition method that was used to identify and track 2010 BPs. The observed evolving BPs are classified into isolated (individual) and non-isolated (where multiple BPs are observed to display splitting and merging behaviors) sets. About 35.1% of BPs are non-isolated. For both isolated and non-isolated BPs, the brightness varies from 0.8 to 1.3 times the average background intensity and follows a Gaussian distribution. The lifetimes of BPs follow a log-normal distribution, with characteristic lifetimes of (267 ± 140) s and (421 ± 255) s, respectively. Their size also follows log-normal distribution, with an average size of about (2.15 ± 0.74) × 104 km2 and (3.00 ± 1.31) × 104 km2 for area, and (163 ± 27) km and (191 ± 40) km for diameter, respectively. Our results indicate that regions with strong background magnetic field have higher BP number density and higher BP area coverage than regions with weak background field. Apparently, the brightness/size of BPs does not depend on the background field. Lifetimes in regions with strong background magnetic field are shorter than those in regions with weak background field, on average.

  10. Cosmological perturbations of extreme axion in the radiation era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ui-Han; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2017-09-01

    Subhorizon perturbations under the extreme initial condition of the axion model are investigated, where initial axion angles start near the potential maximum and the mass oscillation is substantially delayed. This work focuses on a few new features found in the extreme axion model but absent in the free-particle model. A particularly novel new feature is the spectral excess relative to the cold dark matter model in some wave number range, where the excess may be so large that landscapes of high-redshift universe beyond z =10 can be significantly altered. For axions of particle mass 10-22 eV , this range of wave number corresponds to first galaxies of few times 1 09- 1010 M⊙ . We demonstrate that subhorizon perturbations are accurately described by Mathieu's equation and subject to parametric instability, which explains this novel feature. Actually the axion model is not a special one; perturbations in a wide range of scalar field models can share the similar characteristic.

  11. Quantitative analysis of the thermal damping of coherent axion oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Unruh and Wald have recently discussed a new mechanism for damping coherent axion oscillations, ''thermal damping,'' which occurs due to the temperature dependence of the axion mass and neutrino viscosity. We investigate the effect quantitatively and find that the present energy density in axions can be written as rho/sub a/ = rho/sub a0//(1+J/sub UW/), where rho/sub a/0 is what the axion energy density would be in the absence of the thermal-damping effect and J/sub UW/ is an integral whose integrand depends upon (dm/sub a//dT) 2 . As a function of f(equivalentPeccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale) J/sub UW/ achieves its maximum value for f/sub PQ/approx. =3 x 10 12 GeV; unless the axion mass turn-on is very sudden, Vertical Bar(T/m/sub a/)(dm/sub a//dT)Vertical Bar>>1, J/sub UW/ is <<1, implying that this damping mechanism is not significant

  12. Constraining axion by polarized prompt emission from gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2008-01-01

    A polarized gamma ray emission spread over a sufficiently wide energy band from a strongly magnetized astrophysical object like gamma ray bursts (GRBs) offers an opportunity to test the hypothesis of invisible axion. The axionic induced dichroism of gamma rays at different energies should cause a misalignment of the polarization plane for higher energy events relative to that one for lower energies events resulting in the loss of statistics needed to form a pattern of the polarization signal to be recognized in a detector. According to this, any evidence of polarized gamma rays coming from an object with extended magnetic field could be interpreted as a constraint on the existence of the invisible axion for a certain parameter range. Based on reports of polarized MeV emission detected in several GRBs we derive a constraint on the axion-photon coupling. This constraint $\\g_{a\\gamma\\gamma}\\le 2.2\\cdot 10^{-11} {\\rm GeV^{-1}}$ calculated for the axion mass $m_a=10^{-3} {\\rm eV}$ is competitive with the sensitivi...

  13. Solar chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R∼0.7R sun ) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

  14. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_hPierce, the Solar-Stellar Spectrograph also will target ISON (320-900 nm, R approx. 21,000, r_h<0.3 AU). Assuming survival, the intent is to target ISON over r_h<0.4 AU, characteristic of prior Na detections.

  15. Axion production from Landau quantization in the strong magnetic field of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Balantekin, A. Baha; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2018-04-01

    We utilize an exact quantum calculation to explore axion emission from electrons and protons in the presence of the strong magnetic field of magnetars. The axion is emitted via transitions between the Landau levels generated by the strong magnetic field. The luminosity of axions emitted by protons is shown to be much larger than that of electrons and becomes stronger with increasing matter density. Cooling by axion emission is shown to be much larger than neutrino cooling by the Urca processes. Consequently, axion emission in the crust may significantly contribute to the cooling of magnetars. In the high-density core, however, it may cause heating of the magnetar.

  16. Leptogenesis from Left-Handed Neutrino Production during Axion Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I

    2016-03-04

    We propose that the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry can be naturally produced as a by-product of axion-driven slow-roll inflation by coupling the axion to standard model neutrinos. We assume that grand unified theory scale right-handed neutrinos are responsible for the masses of the standard model neutrinos and that the Higgs field is light during inflation and develops a Hubble-scale root-mean-square value. In this setup, the rolling axion generates a helicity asymmetry in standard model neutrinos. Following inflation, this helicity asymmetry becomes equal to a net lepton number as the Higgs condensate decays and is partially reprocessed by the SU(2)_{L} sphaleron into a net baryon number.

  17. Axion-dilaton domain walls and fake supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Townsend, Paul K

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate domain-wall solutions of a two-parameter family of models in which gravity is coupled to an axion and to a dilaton with an exponential potential of either sign. A complete global analysis is presented for (i) constant axion and (ii) flat walls, including a study of bifurcations and a new exact domain-wall solution with non-constant axion. We reconsider 'fake-supergravity' issues in light of these results. We show, by example, how domain walls determine multi-valued superpotentials that branch at stationary points that are not stationary points of the potential, and we apply this result to potentials with anti-de Sitter vacua. We also show by example that 'adapted' truncation to a single-scalar model may be inconsistent, and we propose a 'generalized' fake-supergravity formalism that applies in some such cases

  18. Axionic D3-D7 Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Postma, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the motion of a D3 brane moving within a Type IIB string vacuum compactified to 4D on K3 x T_2/Z_2 in the presence of D7 and O7 planes. We work within the effective 4D supergravity describing how the mobile D3 interacts with the lightest bulk moduli of the compactification, including the effects of modulus-stabilizing fluxes. We seek inflationary solutions to the resulting equations, performing our search numerically in order to avoid resorting to approximate parameterizations of the low-energy potential. We consider uplifting from D-terms and from the supersymmetry-breaking effects of anti-D3 branes. We find examples of slow-roll inflation (with anti-brane uplifting) with the mobile D3 moving along the toroidal directions, falling towards a D7-O7 stack starting from the antipodal point. The inflaton turns out to be a linear combination of the brane position and the axionic partner of the K3 volume modulus, and the similarity of the potential along the inflaton direction with that of racetrack inflat...

  19. Can gravitational instantons really constrain axion inflation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Mangat, Patrick [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 19, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik,Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Witkowski, Lukas T. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 19, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    Axions play a central role in inflationary model building and other cosmological applications. This is mainly due to their flat potential, which is protected by a global shift symmetry. However, quantum gravity is known to break global symmetries, the crucial effect in the present context being gravitational instantons or Giddings-Strominger wormholes. We attempt to quantify, as model-independently as possible, how large a scalar potential is induced by this general quantum gravity effect. We pay particular attention to the crucial issue which solutions can or cannot be trusted in the presence of a moduli-stabilisation and a Kaluza-Klein scale. An important conclusion is that, due to specific numerical prefactors, the effect is surprisingly small even in UV-completions with the highest possible scale offered by string theory. As we go along, we discuss in detail Euclidean wormholes, cored and extremal instantons, and how the latter arise from 5d Reissner-Nordström black holes. We attempt to dispel possible doubts that wormholes contribute to the scalar potential by an explicit calculation. We analyse the role of stabilised dilaton-like moduli. Finally, we argue that Euclidean wormholes may be the objects satisfying the Weak Gravity Conjecture extended to instantons.

  20. Solitons of axion-dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    1996-01-01

    We use soliton techniques of the two-dimensional reduced beta-function equations to obtain non-trivial string backgrounds from flat space. These solutions are characterized by two integers (n, m) referring to the soliton numbers of the metric and axion-dilaton sectors respectively. We show that the Nappi-Witten universe associated with the SL(2) x SU(2) / SO(1, 1) x U(1) CFT coset arises as an (1, 1) soliton in this fashion for certain values of the moduli parameters, while for other values of the soliton moduli we arrive at the SL(2)/SO(1, 1) x SO(1, 1)^2 background. Ordinary 4-dim black-holes arise as 2-dim (2, 0) solitons, while the Euclidean worm-hole background is described as a (0, 2) soliton on flat space. The soliton transformations correspond to specific elements of the string Geroch group. These could be used as starting point for exploring the role of U-dualities in string compactifications to two dimensions.

  1. On the 3-form formulation of axion potentials from D-brane instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Valdecasas, Eduardo [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,C/Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Uranga, Angel [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,C/Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-16

    The study of axion models and quantum corrections to their potential has experienced great progress by phrasing the axion potential in terms of a 3-form field eating up the 2-form field dual to the axion. Such reformulation of the axion potential has been described for axion monodromy models and for axion potentials from non-perturbative gauge dynamics. In this paper we propose a 3-form description of the axion potentials from non-gauge D-brane instantons. Interestingly, the required 3-form field does not arise in the underlying geometry, but rather shows up in the KK compactification in the generalized geometry obtained when the backreaction of the D-brane instanton is taken into account.

  2. Solar quiescent Active Region temperature distribution inferred from the Miniature Solar X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat soft X-ray spectra, Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) soft X-ray filter images and EUV measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. S.; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Mason, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Soft X-rays serve as an important diagnostic tool for hot (T > 106 K) solar coronal plasma elemental composition, elemental ionization states, density of emitting plasma and dynamical events triggered by magnetic field structures. Spectrally resolved, solar disc averaged, soft X-ray spectra from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat combined with spatially resolved soft X-ray filter images from the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and complimentary EUV data can yield unique inferences of the quiescent (non-flaring) active regions' emitting plasma temperature distribution and chemical composition. This talk will discuss how the MinXSS spectra and Hinode XRT images from the sparsely measured 0.7 - 10 keV ( 0.124 - 1.77 nm) region, can augment estimations of active region temperature distribution and elemental abundance variations that are currently being assessed primarily from typical EUV and hard X-ray observations.

  3. Axion-like particle searches with sub-THz photons

    CERN Document Server

    Capparelli, L.; Ferretti, J.; Giazotto, F.; Polosa, A.D.; Spagnolo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a variation, based on very low energy and extremely intense photon sources, on the well established technique of Light-Shining-through-Wall (LSW) experiments for axion-like particle searches. With radiation sources at 30 GHz, we compute that present laboratory exclusion limits on axion-like particles might be improved by at least four orders of magnitude, for masses m_a <~ 0.01~meV. This could motivate research and development programs on dedicated single-photon sub-THz detectors.

  4. Oblique corrections in the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki axion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanaeva Alisa

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki (DFS model, which extends the two-Higgs doublet model with an additional Peccei-Quinn symmetry and leads to a physically acceptable axion. The non-linear parametrization of the DFS model is exploited in the generic case where all scalars except the lightest Higgs and the axion have masses at or beyond the TeV scale. We compute the oblique corrections and use their values from the electroweak experimental fits to put constraints on the mass spectrum of the DFS model.

  5. Collider probes of axion-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Neubert, Matthias; Thamm, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Axion-like particles (ALPs), which are gauge-singlets under the Standard Model (SM), appear in many well-motivated extensions of the SM. Describing the interactions of ALPs with SM fields by means of an effective Lagrangian, we discuss ALP decays into SM particles at one-loop order, including for the first time a calculation of the a → πππ decay rates for ALP masses below a few GeV. We argue that, if the ALP couples to at least some SM particles with couplings of order (0.01 - 1) TeV-1, its mass must be above 1 MeV. Taking into account the possibility of a macroscopic ALP decay length, we show that large regions of so far unconstrained parameter space can be explored by searches for the exotic, on-shell Higgs and Z decays h → Za, h → aa and Z → γa in Run-2 of the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 300 fb-1. This includes the parameter space in which ALPs can explain the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Considering subsequent ALP decays into photons and charged leptons, we show that the LHC provides unprecedented sensitivity to the ALP-photon and ALP-lepton couplings in the mass region above a few MeV, even if the relevant ALP couplings are loop suppressed and the a → γγ and a → ℓ+ℓ- branching ratios are significantly less than 1. We also discuss constraints on the ALP parameter space from electroweak precision tests.

  6. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment Cryogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Hannah; ADMX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) searches for dark matter axions by looking for their resonant conversion to photons in a microwave cavity in a high magnetic field. The mass of the axion (unknown) determines the frequency at which the axion couples to the magnetic field, so the cavity is tuned through a wide range of frequencies while measuring the power deposited in it with ultra-sensitive quantum electronics. The dominant systematic noise is from the noise temperature of the electronics; during the last data run they were cooled to 1.5K with a pumped He-4 refrigerator. Currently, we are installing a large dilution refrigerator, which will cool the cavity and first stage amplifiers to ~100 mK. I will discuss our progress, describe some of the challenges we have faced and how we have overcome them, and describe our plans for operation. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  7. Limits on the abundance and coupling of cosmic axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePanfilis, S.; Melissinos, A.C.; Moskowitz, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    We report preliminary results from a search for galactic axions in the mass range 4.5 -13 eV, we obtain the experimental limit (g/sub aγγ/m/sub a/) 2 rho/sub a/ -41 . The theoretical prediction is (g/sub aγγ/m/sub a/) 2 rho/sub a/ = 3.9 x 10 -44 with the local galactic axion density rho/sub a/ = 300 MeV/cm 3 . We have also searched for the presence of a continuous spectrum of light pseudoscalar particles; assuming that the local galactic axion density is composed of axions with masses uniformly distributed between 4.5 and 5.0 μeV, we find that g/sub aγγ/ -30 MeV/sup 1/2/ cm/sup 3/2/ ≅ 10 11 GeV -1 . Limits have also been set on the production of light pseudoscalar x particles; we find g/sub xγγ/ -24 MeV/sup 1/2/ cm/sup 3/2/ ≅ 10 -5 GeV -1 for 0< m/sub x/ ≤ 4μeV. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Studies on Axions as the Energy source in Magnetar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    Highly magnetized neutron stars known as magnetars are some of the most interesting objects in the Universe. Non-baryonic dark matter candidate ax- ions are produced in the highly magnetized neutron star via bremsstrahlung process in the highly dense medium . These axions thus produced are then converted into ...

  9. Brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Collinucci, A; Gran, U; Roest, D; Vandoren, S; Lukierski, J; Sorokin, D

    2005-01-01

    We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2, R).

  10. Searching for Axion Dark Matter with the ADMX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, G.; Asztalos, S. J.; Bradley, R.; Hagmann, C.; Hoskins, J.; Hotz, M.; Hwang, J.; Kinion, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Rybka, G.; Sikivie, P.; Tanner, D. B.; van Bibber, K.

    2010-02-01

    Axions are hypothetical pseudoscalar particles that exist as a consequence of the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong-CP problem. Light axions (μeV-meV) are also a natural cold dark matter candidate and may be detected by their resonant conversion to microwave photons in a high-Q cavity immersed in a strong magnetic field. This detection strategy provides the basis for the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) which has been taking data at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for over a decade. In this experiment, the signal from the cavity is amplified by an ultralow noise amplifier, and mixed down to the audio frequency range in a double-heterodyne receiver. The signal is digitized and a Fourier transform produces a power spectrum, in which the axion would appear as a narrow line at f=mac^2/h. This talk will present an overview of ADMX, with particular attention to the successful implementation of new ultralow-noise first stage cryogenic SQUID amplifiers, and the first results from this new configuration. )

  11. Brane Solutions of Gravity–Dilaton–Axion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Collinucci, A.; Gran, U.; Roest, D.; Vandoren, S.; Lukierski, J.; Sorokin, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2,R).

  12. arXiv Axion-photon conversion caused by dielectric interfaces: quantum field calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannisian, Ara N.; Millar, Alexander J.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2017-09-05

    Axion-photon conversion at dielectric interfaces, immersed in a near-homogeneous magnetic field, is the basis for the dielectric haloscope method to search for axion dark matter. In analogy to transition radiation, this process is possible because the photon wave function is modified by the dielectric layers ("Garibian wave function") and is no longer an eigenstate of momentum. A conventional first-order perturbative calculation of the transition probability between a quantized axion state and these distorted photon states provides the microwave production rate. It agrees with previous results based on solving the classical Maxwell equations for the combined system of axions and electromagnetic fields. We argue that in general the average photon production rate is given by our result, independently of the detailed quantum state of the axion field. Moreover, our result provides a new perspective on axion-photon conversion in dielectric haloscopes because the rate is based on an overlap integral between unpertu...

  13. Limits on axion and light Higgs boson production in Υ(1S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antreasyan, D.; Irion, J.; McBride, P.; Strauch, K.

    1990-08-01

    We have searched for axion and light Higgs boson production in the channel Υ(1S)→{a 0 or h 0 }+γ, where the non-interacting axion a 0 and the Higgs boson h 0 do not decay in the detector. We find no evidence for an axion and give an upper limit, Br(Υ(1S)→a 0 γ) -5 (90% C.L.) for long-lived axions. Combining our limit with the previous axion search in J/ψ decays, we are able to rule out the standard light axion. Our Υ(1S) data also rule out a Higgs boson with mass m h <86 MeV. (orig.)

  14. The GammeV suite of experimental searches for axion-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Upadhye, Amol; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI

    2009-08-01

    We report on the design and results of the GammeV search for axion-like particles and for chameleon particles. We also discuss plans for an improved experiment to search for chameleon particles, one which is sensitive to both cosmological and power-law chameleon models. Plans for an improved axion-like particle search using coupled resonant cavities are also presented. This experiment will be more sensitive to axion-like particles than stellar astrophysical models or current helioscope experiments.

  15. The GammeV suite of experimental searches for axion-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2009-01-01

    We report on the design and results of the GammeV search for axion-like particles and for chameleon particles. We also discuss plans for an improved experiment to search for chameleon particles, one which is sensitive to both cosmological and power-law chameleon models. Plans for an improved axion-like particle search using coupled resonant cavities are also presented. This experiment will be more sensitive to axion-like particles than stellar astrophysical models or current helioscope experiments

  16. Cryogenic cavity detector for a large-scale cold dark-matter axion search

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, H; Daw, E; Golubev, N A; Hagmann, C A; Kinion, D; Laveigne, J; Moltz, D M; Nezrick, F A; Powell, J; Rosenberg, L J; Sikivie, P; Stoeffl, W; Sullivan, N S; Tanner, D B; Turner, M S; Bibber, K V

    2000-01-01

    An axion detector consisting of a tunable high-Q cavity, a superconducting magnet, and a superheterodyne receiver with an ultra-low noise pre-amplifier has been built to search for galactic halo axions in the mass range of 1.3-13 mu eV. The detector instrumentation, search process, and data analysis are described. For the first time, this class of detector has reached sufficient sensitivity to detect halo axions with high confidence.

  17. Proxy magnetometry with the Dutch Open Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Superb movies from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma have proven the validity of the open concept of this innovative telescope for high-resolution imaging of the solar atmosphere. A five- camera speckle-burst registration system is being installed that should permit consistent and

  18. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  19. Axion-photon conversion in space and in low symmetrical dielectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S

    2016-01-01

    The opportunities of axions detection as the result of axion-photon conversion processes in the space and in low symmetrical dielectric crystals are discussed. In accordance with the modern theory predictions, axions are pseudoscalar vacuum particles having very small (0.001-1.0 meV) rest energy. The possibility of axions conversion into photons and vice-versa processes in vacuum at the presence of outer magnetic field has been analyzed before. Pseudoscalar (axion type) modes are existing in some types of crystals. Polar pseudoscalar lattice and exciton modes in low symmetrical crystals are strongly interacted with axions. In this work, optical excitation of axion-type modes in low symmetrical crystals is proposed for observation of axion - photon conversion processes. Instead of outer magnetic field, the crystalline field of such crystals may be used. The experimental schemes for axion-photon conversion processes observation with recording the secondary emission of luminescence, infrared or Stimulated Raman Scattering in some dielectric crystals are discussed. (paper)

  20. Axion Searches in the Past, at Present, and in the Near Future

    CERN Document Server

    Battesti, R; Davoudiasl, H; Kuster, M; Pugnat, P; Rabadan, R; Ringwald, A; Spooner, N J C; Zioutas, K

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical axion models state that axions are very weakly interacting particles. In order to experimentally detect them, the use of colorful and inspired techniques becomes mandatory. There is a wide variety of experimental approaches that were developed during the last 30 years, most of them make use of the Primakoff effect, by which axions convert into photons in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We review the experimental techniques used to search for axions and will give an outlook on experiments planned for the near future.

  1. 5th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs (PATRAS 2009). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Lindner, Axel; Redondo, Javier

    2010-06-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Direct searches for dark matter, indirect searches for WIMPS, photon generation and laser polarization experiments, direct axion signals, theoretic WISP developments. (HSI)

  2. 5th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs (PATRAS 2009). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Lindner, Axel; Redondo, Javier (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Direct searches for dark matter, indirect searches for WIMPS, photon generation and laser polarization experiments, direct axion signals, theoretic WISP developments. (HSI)

  3. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  4. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  5. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzetto, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Conference Series 'Un Altro Modo di guardare il Cielo', held in Venice, started in 1988. It included 13.editions of 'Neutrino Telescopes' and four editions of 'Neutrino Oscillations in Venice'. The conference Series ideated , created and conducted by Prof. Milla Baldo Ceolin, after her guidance 'Un Altro Modo di guardare il Cielo' became one of the most important fixed appointments of thr neutrino physics and astrophysics community.

  6. Schmidt Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A type of telescope, invented by the Estonian optician Bernhard Schmidt (1879-1935), that is used to photograph large areas of the sky. Because, in its original design, it was useable only for photography, the instrument is also known as the Schmidt camera. The Schmidt uses a concave spherical mirror as its light collector and corrects for the optical defect, known as spherical aberration, that i...

  7. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Borsanyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ(T of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ(T in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA. A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  8. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, S.; Fodor, Z.; Mages, S.W.; Nogradi, D.; Szabo, K.K.

    2015-08-01

    Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ(T) of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ(T) in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses) and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA). A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  9. Axionic dark matter signatures in various halo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergados, J.D., E-mail: vergados@uoi.gr [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In the present work we study possible signatures in the Axion Dark Matter searches. We focus on the dependence of the expected width in resonant cavities for various popular halo models, leading to standard velocity distributions, e.g. Maxwell–Boltzmann, as well as phase-mixed and non-virialized axionic dark matter (flows, caustic rings). We study, in particular, the time dependence of the resonance width (modulation) arising from such models. We find that the difference between the maximum (in June) and the minimum (in December) can vary by about 10% in the case of standard halos. In the case of mixed phase halos the variation is a bit bigger and for caustic rings the maximum is expected to occur a bit later. Experimentally such a modulation is observable with present technology.

  10. Literature in Focus: "Axions: Theory, Cosmology, and Experimental Searches"

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Axions are peculiar hypothetical particles that could both solve the CP problem of quantum chromodynamics and at the same time account for the dark matter of the universe. Based on a series of lectures by world experts in this field held at CERN, this volume provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory, cosmology and astrophysics of these fascinating particles and gives an up-to-date account of the status and prospect of ongoing and planned experimental searches. Learners and practitioners of astroparticle physics will find in this book both a concise introduction and a current reference work to a showcase topic that connects the "inner space" of the elementary particle world with the "outer space" of the universe at large. The book will be presented by Markus Kuster. "Axions: Theory, Cosmology, and Experimental Searches", edited by M. Kuster (Technische Universität Darmstadt), G. Raffelt (Max-Planck-Institu...

  11. Cosmologically safe QCD axion without fine-tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong CP problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous PQ symmetry. In this letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop the chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to the original Kim's model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of the chiral symmetry breaking in the Abelian gauge theory.

  12. Minimal Composite Dynamics versus Axion Origin of the Diphoton excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinaro, Emiliano; Sannino, Francesco; Vignaroli, Natascia

    2016-01-01

    observed. The new state can be interpreted both as an axion or as a {highly natural} composite state arising from minimal models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We further show how to disentangle the two scenarios. Beyond the possible explanation of the diphoton excess the results show...... that it is possible to directly test and constrain composite dynamics via processes stemming from its distinctive topological sector....

  13. Entropy of charged dilaton-axion black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Tanwi; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2008-01-01

    Using the brick wall method, the entropy of the charged dilaton-axion black hole is determined for both asymptotically flat and nonflat cases. The entropy turns out to be proportional to the horizon area of the black hole confirming the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy formula for black holes. The leading order logarithmic corrections to the entropy are also derived for such black holes.

  14. Optical gyrotropy from axion electrodynamics in momentum space

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Shudan; Orenstein, Joseph; Moore, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    Several emergent phenomena and phases in solids arise from configurations of the electronic Berry phase in momentum space that are similar to gauge field configurations in real space such as magnetic monopoles. We show that the momentum-space analogue of the "axion electrodynamics" term $\\mathbf{E}\\cdot\\mathbf{B}$ plays a fundamental role in a unified theory of Berry-phase contributions to optical gyrotropy in time-reversal invariant materials and the chiral magnetic effect. The Berry-phase m...

  15. The quest for axions and other new light particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Physics Dept.; Cantatore, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy); INFN Trieste (Italy); Cetin, S.A. [Dogus Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)] [and others; Collaboration: Working Group

    2013-05-15

    Standard Model extensions often predict low-mass and very weakly interacting particles, such as the axion. A number of small-scale experiments at the intensity/ precision frontier are actively searching for these elusive particles, complementing searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at colliders. Whilst a next generation of experiments will give access to a huge unexplored parameter space, a discovery would have a tremendous impact on our understanding of fundamental physics.

  16. Surface theorem for the Chern-Simons axion coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Taherinejad, Maryam; Vanderbilt, David

    2017-01-01

    The Chern-Simons axion coupling of a bulk insulator is only defined modulo a quantum of e2/h. The quantized part of the coupling is uniquely defined for a bounded insulating sample, but it depends on the specific surface termination.Working in a slab geometry and representing the valence bands in...... cyclic, the Chern pumping is obstructed by chiral touchings between valence and conduction surface bands....

  17. Solar Public Observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.

    2002-01-01

    Now in Japan, there are more than fifty astronomical educational facilities which have solar telescopes, for example, public observatories and science museums. Because many of the solar telescopes have H-alpha filters, such active chromospheric phenomena as solar flares and prominences are easily presented to the public. Though the objects of these solar telescopes must be mainly education and public outreach, they have enough good performance to contribute to solar research. But, the staff in the most of facilities don't know well how to observe the sun and how to understand the solar phenomena. So, we started two attempts in order to support their solar observations. One is the administration of the "Solar Telescope Mailing List (solnet ML)". The purpose is exchanges of information on solar daily phenomena, instruments of solar telescopes, and solar articles. Almost one hundred solar observers use actively this mailing list. The other is the arrangement of the "Solar Telescope Workshop", which were held in 2000 and 2001. These workshops provide a chance for staff in public observational facilities to study observational methods, to learn educational techniques using solar observations, and to show their observational results on solar active phenomena. These two attempts also play a role to link public observers with professional solar researchers. In this presentation, we review the current situation of public solar observations in Japan and introduce solar images observed with the public educational facilities. In addition, we would like to mention what we hope for professional solar researchers.

  18. Oscillations in the CMB from Axion Monodromy Inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flauger, Raphael; /Texas U.; McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Westphal, Alexander; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xu, Gang; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-12-01

    We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.

  19. Axion-assisted production of sterile neutrino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2017-04-12

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  20. Gauge-preheating and the end of axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Giblin, John T. Jr.; Scully, Timothy R., E-mail: adshead@illinois.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: tscully2@illinois.edu, E-mail: esfaki@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We study the onset of the reheating epoch at the end of axion-driven inflation where the axion is coupled to an Abelian, U(1), gauge field via a Chern-Simons interaction term. We focus primarily on m{sup 2φ2} inflation and explore the possibility that preheating can occur for a range of coupling values consistent with recent observations and bounds on the overproduction of primordial black holes. We find that for a wide range of parameters preheating is efficient. In certain cases the inflaton transfers all of its energy to the gauge fields within a few oscillations. In most cases, we find that the gauge fields on sub-horizon scales end preheating in an unpolarized state due to the existence of strong rescattering between the inflaton and gauge-field modes. We also present a preliminary study of an axion monodromy model coupled to U(1) gauge fields, seeing a similarly efficient preheating behavior as well as indications that the coupling strength has an effect on the creation of oscillons.

  1. Gauge-preheating and the end of axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.; Giblin, John T. Jr.; Scully, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the onset of the reheating epoch at the end of axion-driven inflation where the axion is coupled to an Abelian, U(1), gauge field via a Chern-Simons interaction term. We focus primarily on m 2φ2 inflation and explore the possibility that preheating can occur for a range of coupling values consistent with recent observations and bounds on the overproduction of primordial black holes. We find that for a wide range of parameters preheating is efficient. In certain cases the inflaton transfers all of its energy to the gauge fields within a few oscillations. In most cases, we find that the gauge fields on sub-horizon scales end preheating in an unpolarized state due to the existence of strong rescattering between the inflaton and gauge-field modes. We also present a preliminary study of an axion monodromy model coupled to U(1) gauge fields, seeing a similarly efficient preheating behavior as well as indications that the coupling strength has an effect on the creation of oscillons

  2. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  3. Exploring 0.1–10 eV axions with a new helioscope concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galán, J.; Dafni, T.; Iguaz, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility to develop a new axion helioscope type, sensitive to the higher axion mass region favored by axion models. We propose to use a low background large volume TPC immersed in an intense magnetic field. Contrary to traditional tracking helioscopes, this detection technique takes advantage of the capability to directly detect the photons converted on the buffer gas which defines the axion mass sensitivity region, and does not require pointing the magnet to the Sun. The operation flexibility of a TPC to be used with different gas mixtures (He, Ne, Xe, etc.) and pressures (from 10 mbar to 10 bar) will allow to enhance sensitivity for axion masses from few meV to several eV. We present different helioscope data taking scenarios, considering detection efficiency and axion absorption probability, and show the sensitivities reachable with this technique to be few × 10 −11  GeV −1 for a 5 T, m 3 scale TPC. We show that a few years program taking data with such setup would allow to probe the KSVZ axion model for axion masses above 0∼> 10 meV

  4. The search for axion-like dark matter using magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, Alexander; Casper Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The nature of dark matter is one of the most important open problems in modern physics, and it is necessary to develop techniques to search for a wide class of dark-matter candidates. Axions, originally introduced to resolve the strong CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and axion-like particles (ALPs) are strongly motivated dark matter candidates. Nuclear spins interacting with axion-like background dark matter experience an energy shift, oscillating at the frequency equal to the axion Compton frequency. The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiments (CASPEr) use precision magnetometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to search for the effects of this interaction. The experimental signature is precession of the nuclear spins under the condition of magnetic resonance: when the bias magnetic field is tuned such that the nuclear spin sublevel splitting is equal to the axion Compton frequency. These experiments have the potential to detect axion-like dark matter in a wide mass range (10-12 eV to 10-6 eV, scanned by changing the bias magnetic field from approximately 1 gauss to 20 tesla) and with coupling strengths many orders of magnitude beyond the current astrophysical and laboratory limits, and all the way down to those corresponding to the QCD axion. Supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  5. Spontaneous CP breaking and the axion potential: an effective Lagrangian approach

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When we add to the model a generic axion field (in order to ensure CP at all values of $\\theta$) the above considerations have a bearing on the shape of the axion potential near the boundary of its periodicity interval. This ...

  6. The QUAX proposal: a search of galactic axion with magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ruoso, Giuseppe; Ortolan, Antonello; Pengo, Ruggero; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Gallo, Carmelo Sebastiano; Speake, Clive C.

    2016-06-09

    Aim of the QUAX (QUaerere AXion) proposal is to exploit the interaction of cosmological axions with the spin of electrons in a magnetized sample. Their effect is equivalent to the application of an oscillating rf field with frequency and amplitude which are fixed by axion mass and coupling constant, respectively. The rf receiver module of the QUAX detector consists of magnetized samples with the Larmor resonance frequency tuned to the axion mass by a polarizing static magnetic field. The interaction of electrons with the axion-equivalent rf field produces oscillations in the total magnetization of the samples. To amplify such a tiny field, a pump field at the same frequency is applied in a direction orthogonal to the polarizing field. The induced oscillatory magnetization along the polarizing field is measured by a SQUID amplifier operated at its quantum noise level.

  7. Application of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry to the Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Kelley, Sean R. O.'; Wickenbrock, Arne; Fang, Jiancheng; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-03-01

    The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr) seeks to measure oscillating torques on nuclear spins caused by axion or axion-like-particle (ALP) dark matter via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A sample spin-polarized along a leading magnetic field experiences a resonance when the Larmor frequency matches the axion/ALP Compton frequency, generating precessing transverse nuclear magnetization. Here we demonstrate a Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) magnetometer with sensitivity ≈ 1 fT /√{ Hz } and an effective sensing volume of 0.1 cm3 that may be useful for NMR detection in CASPEr. A potential drawback of SERF-magnetometer-based NMR detection is the SERF's limited dynamic range. Use of a magnetic flux transformer to suppress the leading magnetic field is considered as a potential method to expand the SERF's dynamic range in order to probe higher axion/ALP Compton frequencies.

  8. Chiral anomaly, charge density waves, and axion strings from Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    We study dynamical instability and chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional Weyl semimetals, which turns Weyl semimetals into “axion insulators.” Charge density waves (CDWs) are found to be the natural consequence of chiral symmetry breaking. The phase mode of this charge density wave state is identified as the axion, which couples to an electromagnetic field in the topological θE·B term. One of our main results is that “axion strings” can be realized as the (screw or edge) dislocations in the charge density wave, which provides a simple physical picture for the elusive axion strings. These axion strings carry gapless chiral modes, therefore they have important implications for dissipationless transport properties of Weyl semimetals with broken symmetry.

  9. Solving the tension between high-scale inflation and axion isocurvature perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa

    2014-03-01

    The BICEP2 experiment determined the Hubble parameter during inflation to be about 10 14 GeV. Such high inflation scale is in tension with the QCD axion dark matter if the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry remains broken during and after inflation, because too large axion isocurvature perturbations would be generated. The axion isocurvature perturbations can be suppressed if the axion acquires a sufficiently heavy mass during inflation. We show that this is realized if the PQ symmetry is explicitly broken down to a discrete symmetry and if the breaking is enhanced during inflation. We also show that, even when the PQ symmetry becomes spontaneously broken after inflation, such a temporarily enhanced PQ symmetry breaking relaxes the constraint on the axion decay constant.

  10. Probing axions with the neutrino signal from the next galactic supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Tobias; Giannotti, Maurizio; Payez, Alexandre; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    We study the impact of axion emission in simulations of massive star explosions, as an additional source of energy loss complementary to the standard neutrino emission. The inclusion of this channel shortens the cooling time of the nascent protoneutron star and hence the duration of the neutrino signal. We treat the axion-matter coupling strength as a free parameter to study its impact on the protoneutron star evolution as well as on the neutrino signal. We furthermore analyze the observability of the enhanced cooling in current and next-generation underground neutrino detectors, showing that values of the axion mass m a >or similar 8 x 10 -3 eV can be probed. Therefore a galactic supernova neutrino observation would provide a valuable possibility to probe axion masses in a range within reach of the planned helioscope experiment, the International Axion Observatory (IAXO).

  11. The 7 keV axion dark matter and the X-ray line signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). Theory Center; Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2014-03-15

    We propose a scenario where the saxion dominates the energy density of the Universe and reheats the standard model sector via the dilatonic coupling, while its axionic partner contributes to dark matter decaying into photons via the same operator in supersymmetry. Interestingly, for the axion mass m{sub a} ≅ 7 keV and the decay constant f{sub a} ≅10{sup 14-15} GeV, the recently discovered X-ray line at 3.5 keV in the XMM Newton X-ray observatory data can be explained. We discuss various cosmological aspects of the 7 keV axion dark matter such as the production of axion dark matter, the saxion decay process, hot dark matter and isocurvature constraints on the axion dark matter, and the possible baryogenesis scenarios.

  12. Phenomenology and Astrophysics of Gravitationally-Bound Condensates of Axion-Like Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua Armstrong [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Light, spin-0 particles are ubiquitous in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model, and many of these make good candidates for the identity of dark matter. One very well-motivated candidate of this type is the axion. Due to their small mass and adherence to Bose statistics, axions can coalesce into heavy, gravitationally-bound condensates known as boson stars, also known as axion stars (in particular). In this work, we outline our recent progress in attempts to determine the properties of axion stars. We begin with a brief overview of the Standard Model, axions, and bosonic condensates in general. Then, in the context of axion stars, we will present our recent work, which includes: numerical estimates of the macroscopic properties (mass, radius, and particle number) of gravitationally stable axion stars; a calculation of their decay lifetime through number-changing interactions; an analysis of the gravitational collapse process for very heavy states; and an investigation of the implications of axion stars as dark matter. The basic conclusions of our work are that weakly-bound axion stars are only stable up to some calculable maximum mass, whereas states with larger masses collapse to a small radius, but do not form black holes. During collapse, a rapidly increasing binding energy implies a fast rate of decay to relativistic particles, giving rise to a Bosenova. Axion stars that are otherwise stable could be caused to collapse either by accretion of free particles to masses above the maximum, or through astrophysical collisions; in the latter case, we estimate the rate of collisions and the parameter space relevant to induced collapse.

  13. Development of Solar Scintillometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... A photodiode is used as the detector. The telescope along with detector was obtained from National Solar Observatory (NSO), and is similar to the one used for Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) site survey. At USO we developed the amplifier and data acquisition system for the scintillometer.

  14. Cosmological Implications of a Solid Upper Mass Limit Placed on DFSZ Axions Thanks to Pulsating White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.

    2006-09-01

    Axions are theoretical particles that provide an elegant solution to the strong CP problem in the Standard Model of particle physics. In addition, they are potential dark matter candidates. The problem is that the theory of axions does not really constrain their mass, and axions can only account for dark matter if they have the right mass. Several searches are underway that try to find axions and/or constrain their mass. With pulsating white dwarfs, we can place a solid upper limit on the mass of DFSZ axions (a model for axions that interact with electrons, tep{dfsz}). We present how this can be done and how it can be improved. We then try to see if we can draw any conclusion about axions as dark matter candidates by looking at the different cosmological models of their formation in the early universe.

  15. Axion particle production in a laser-induced dynamical spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, M. A.; King, B.; Bingham, R.; Gregori, G.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the dynamics of a charged particle (e.g., an electron) oscillating in a laser field in flat spacetime and describe it in terms of the variable mass metric. By applying Einstein's equivalence principle, we show that, after representing the electron motion in a time-dependent manner, the variable mass metric takes the form of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric. We quantize a pseudo-scalar field in this spacetime and derive the production rate of electrically neutral, spinless particles. We show that this approach can provide an alternative experimental method to axion searches.

  16. On axionic field ranges, loopholes and the weak gravity conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this short note we clarify some aspects of the impact that the Weak Gravity Conjecture has on models of (generalized) natural inflation. We address in particular certain technical and conceptual concerns recently raised regarding the stringent constraints and conclusions found in our previous work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2015)023. We also point out the difficulties faced by attempts to evade these constraints. These new considerations improve the understanding of the quantum gravity constraints we found and further support the conclusion that it remains challenging for axions to drive natural inflation.

  17. Axion-photon conversion caused by dielectric interfaces: quantum field calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannisian, Ara N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Kazarian, Narine [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Millar, Alexander J.; Raffelt, Georg G., E-mail: ara.ioannisyan@cern.ch, E-mail: narinkaz@gmail.com, E-mail: millar@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Axion-photon conversion at dielectric interfaces, immersed in a near-homogeneous magnetic field, is the basis for the dielectric haloscope method to search for axion dark matter. In analogy to transition radiation, this process is possible because the photon wave function is modified by the dielectric layers ('Garibian wave function') and is no longer an eigenstate of momentum. A conventional first-order perturbative calculation of the transition probability between a quantized axion state and these distorted photon states provides the microwave production rate. It agrees with previous results based on solving the classical Maxwell equations for the combined system of axions and electromagnetic fields. We argue that in general the average photon production rate is given by our result, independently of the detailed quantum state of the axion field. Moreover, our result provides a new perspective on axion-photon conversion in dielectric haloscopes because the rate is based on an overlap integral between unperturbed axion and photon wave functions, in analogy to the usual treatment of microwave-cavity haloscopes.

  18. Axion-photon conversion caused by dielectric interfaces: quantum field calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannisian, Ara N.; Kazarian, Narine; Millar, Alexander J.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2017-09-01

    Axion-photon conversion at dielectric interfaces, immersed in a near-homogeneous magnetic field, is the basis for the dielectric haloscope method to search for axion dark matter. In analogy to transition radiation, this process is possible because the photon wave function is modified by the dielectric layers ("Garibian wave function") and is no longer an eigenstate of momentum. A conventional first-order perturbative calculation of the transition probability between a quantized axion state and these distorted photon states provides the microwave production rate. It agrees with previous results based on solving the classical Maxwell equations for the combined system of axions and electromagnetic fields. We argue that in general the average photon production rate is given by our result, independently of the detailed quantum state of the axion field. Moreover, our result provides a new perspective on axion-photon conversion in dielectric haloscopes because the rate is based on an overlap integral between unperturbed axion and photon wave functions, in analogy to the usual treatment of microwave-cavity haloscopes.

  19. Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Chiossi, Federico; Lieto, Alberto Di; Guarise, Marco; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Ortolan, Antonello; Ruoso, Giuseppe; Santamaria, Luigi; Tasseva, Jordanka; Tonelli, Mauro

    2017-11-09

    We present a detection scheme to search for QCD axion dark matter, that is based on a direct interaction between axions and electrons explicitly predicted by DFSZ axion models. The local axion dark matter field shall drive transitions between Zeeman-split atomic levels separated by the axion rest mass energy m a c 2 . Axion-related excitations are then detected with an upconversion scheme involving a pump laser that converts the absorbed axion energy (~hundreds of μeV) to visible or infrared photons, where single photon detection is an established technique. The proposed scheme involves rare-earth ions doped into solid-state crystalline materials, and the optical transitions take place between energy levels of 4f N electron configuration. Beyond discussing theoretical aspects and requirements to achieve a cosmologically relevant sensitivity, especially in terms of spectroscopic material properties, we experimentally investigate backgrounds due to the pump laser at temperatures in the range 1.9 - 4.2 K. Our results rule out excitation of the upper Zeeman component of the ground state by laser-related heating effects, and are of some help in optimizing activated material parameters to suppress the multiphonon-assisted Stokes fluorescence.

  20. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C. [Univ. Federal do ABC - UFABC, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Machado, A.C.B. [Teorica-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe

    2014-03-15

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10{sup 13} GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10{sup 9} GeV and 10{sup 13} GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  1. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C.; Machado, A.C.B.; Vaudrevange, P.

    2014-03-01

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10 13 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10 9 GeV and 10 13 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  2. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  3. Flavor connections and neutrino mass hierarchy in variant invisible axion models without domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, C.Q.; Ng, J.N.

    1988-08-01

    New types of invisible axion model based on the recent variant axion models are presented. They belong to the N=1 type model and hence are free of domain wall problems. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry transformations are not totally generation and flavor blind, which may help in understanding the small values of electron and u-quark and large t-quark masses. The light neutrino mass pattern in the two Higgs singlet models can have a very different hierarchy that differs from the other type invisible axion model. (Author) (25 refs.)

  4. Axion dark matter and Planck favor non-minimal couplings to gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.folkerts@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Germani, Cristiano, E-mail: cristiano.germani@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Redondo, Javier, E-mail: javier.redondo@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    Constraints on inflationary scenarios and isocurvature perturbations have excluded the simplest and most generic models of dark matter based on QCD axions. Considering non-minimal kinetic couplings of scalar fields to gravity substantially changes this picture. The axion can account for the observed dark matter density avoiding the overproduction of isocurvature fluctuations. Finally, we show that assuming the same non-minimal kinetic coupling to the axion (dark matter) and to the standard model Higgs boson (inflaton) provides a minimal picture of early time cosmology.

  5. Finding the Axion: The Search for the Dark Matter of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosi, G

    2006-11-03

    The nature of dark matter has been a mystery for over 70 years. One plausible candidate is the axion, an extremely light and weakly interacting particle, which results from the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. In this proceedings I will briefly review the evidence for dark matter as well as the motivation for the existence of the axion as a prime dark matter candidate. I will then discuss the experimental methods to search for axion dark matter focusing on a sensitive cavity experiment (ADMX) being run at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  6. New model of axion monodromy inflation and its cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yi-Fu [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology,Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Chen, Fang [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Quintin, Jerome [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    We propose a new realization of axion monodromy inflation in which axion monodromy arises from torsional cycles in a type IIB compactification. A class of monomial potentials is obtained with specific values for the power index. Moreover, the inflaton mass changes profile due to the couplings between various fields after compactification. Consequently, the potential obtains a step-like profile at some critical scale. We study the cosmological implications of one concrete realization of this model. At the background level, it realizes a sufficiently long inflationary stage, which allows for the violation of the slow-roll conditions for a short period of time when the inflaton is close to the critical scale. Accordingly, the Hubble horizon is perturbed and affects the dynamics of primordial cosmological perturbations. In particular, we analyze the angular power spectrum of B-mode polarization and find a boost on very large scales. We also find that the amplitude of scalar perturbations is suppressed near the critical scale. Thus our model provides an interpretation for the low-ℓ suppression of temperature anisotropies in the CMB power spectrum. We examine these effects and confront the model to observations.

  7. Tunable Supermode Dielectric Resonators for Axion Dark-Matter Haloscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ben T.; Flower, Graeme; Tobar, Lucas E.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    We present frequency-tuning mechanisms for dielectric resonators, which undergo "supermode" interactions as they tune. The tunable schemes are based on dielectric materials strategically placed inside traditional cylindrical resonant cavities, necessarily operating in transverse-magnetic modes for use in axion haloscopes. The first technique is based on multiple dielectric disks with radii smaller than that of the cavity. The second scheme relies on hollow dielectric cylinders similar to a Bragg resonator, but with a different location and dimension. Specifically, we engineer a significant increase in form factor for the TM030 mode utilizing a variation of a distributed Bragg reflector resonator. Additionally, we demonstrate an application of traditional distributed Bragg reflectors in TM modes which may be applied to a haloscope. Theoretical and experimental results are presented showing an increase in Q factor and tunability due to the supermode effect. The TM030 ring-resonator mode offers a between 1 and 2-order-of-magnitude improvement in axion sensitivity over current conventional cavity systems and will be employed in the forthcoming ORGAN experiment.

  8. Axion monodromy inflation with warped KK-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Moritz, Jakob; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a particularly simple model of axion monodromy inflation: Our axion is the lowest-lying KK-mode of the RR-2-form-potential C 2 in the standard Klebanov-Strassler throat. One can think of this inflaton candidate as being defined by the integral of C 2 over the S 2 cycle of the throat. It obtains an exponentially small mass from the IR-region in which the S 2 shrinks to zero size. Crucially, the S 2 cycle has to be shared between two throats, such that the second locus where the S 2 shrinks is also in a warped region. Well-known problems like the potentially dangerous back-reaction of brane/antibrane pairs and explicit supersymmetry breaking are not present in our scenario. The inflaton back-reaction on the geometry turns out to be controlled by the string coupling g s . We hope that our setting is simple enough for many critical consistency issues of large-field inflation in string theory to be addressed at a quantitative level.

  9. Axion monodromy inflation with warped KK-modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Moritz, Jakob; Westphal, Alexander; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2016-03-01

    We present a particularly simple model of axion monodromy inflation: Our axion is the lowest-lying KK-mode of the RR-2-form-potential C2 in the standard Klebanov-Strassler throat. One can think of this inflaton candidate as being defined by the integral of C2 over the S2 cycle of the throat. It obtains an exponentially small mass from the IR-region in which the S2 shrinks to zero size. Crucially, the S2 cycle has to be shared between two throats, such that the second locus where the S2 shrinks is also in a warped region. Well-known problems like the potentially dangerous back-reaction of brane/antibrane pairs and explicit supersymmetry breaking are not present in our scenario. The inflaton back-reaction on the geometry turns out to be controlled by the string coupling gs. We hope that our setting is simple enough for many critical consistency issues of large-field inflation in string theory to be addressed at a quantitative level.

  10. Solar Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  11. 6th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs (PATRAS 2010). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudis, Laura; Schumann, Marc

    2010-11-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Axions, WIMPs, WISPs, and neutrinos in the universe, laboratory experimental searching for WISPs, astrophysical experimental searching for WISPs, direct and indirect detection of WIMPs, new ideas and developments, visions, large laboratories. (HSI)

  12. Academic Training: Joint ILIAS-CAST-CERN Axion Training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME 30 November, 1 and 2 December PLACE - DETAILS: http://agenda.cern.ch/fullAgenda.php?ida=a056218 Joint ILIAS-CAST-CERN Axion Training at CERN The ILIAS (Integrated Large Infrastructure for Astroparticle Science) is co-organising a 3 day academic training session together with the CAST collaboration and the CERN Academic Training Programme on physics related to axion research, including open discussions between theorists and experimentalists. The intention of the lectures is to provide academic training for scientists engaged in axion research and to facilitate the often missing link between experiment and theory with the aim of encouraging young researchers to communicate with experts in the field. The lectures include topics which are not regularly covered by standard lectures at universities and should lead to a deeper understanding of the physics related to axions, which covers a broad field from QCD to astrophysics and cosmology. There will be an opportunity for ...

  13. Einstein-Maxwell-axion theory: dyon solution with regular electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Zayats, Alexei E. [Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-axion theory we consider static spherically symmetric solutions which describe a magnetic monopole in the axionic environment. These solutions are interpreted as the solutions for an axionic dyon, the electric charge of which is composite, i.e. in addition to the standard central electric charge it includes an effective electric charge induced by the axion-photon coupling. We focus on the analysis of those solutions which are characterized by the electric field regular at the center. Special attention is paid to the solutions with the electric field that is vanishing at the center, and that has the Coulombian asymptote, and thus displays an extremum at some distant sphere. Constraints on the electric and effective scalar charges of such an object are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Electromagnetic waves in an axion-active relativistic plasma non-minimally coupled to gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Muharlyamov, Ruslan K.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider cosmological applications of a new self-consistent system of equations, accounting for a non-minimal coupling of the gravitational, electromagnetic and pseudoscalar (axion) fields in a relativistic plasma. We focus on dispersion relations for electromagnetic perturbations in an initially isotropic ultrarelativistic plasma coupled to the gravitational and axion fields in the framework of isotropic homogeneous cosmological model of the de Sitter type. We classify the longitudinal and transversal electromagnetic modes in an axionically active plasma and distinguish between waves (damping, instable or running), and nonharmonic perturbations (damping or instable). We show that for the special choice of the guiding model parameters the transversal electromagnetic waves in the axionically active plasma, non-minimally coupled to gravity, can propagate with the phase velocity smaller than the speed of light in vacuum, thus displaying a possibility for a new type of resonant particle-wave interactions. (orig.)

  15. Einstein-Maxwell-axion theory: dyon solution with regular electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-axion theory we consider static spherically symmetric solutions which describe a magnetic monopole in the axionic environment. These solutions are interpreted as the solutions for an axionic dyon, the electric charge of which is composite, i.e. in addition to the standard central electric charge it includes an effective electric charge induced by the axion-photon coupling. We focus on the analysis of those solutions which are characterized by the electric field regular at the center. Special attention is paid to the solutions with the electric field that is vanishing at the center, and that has the Coulombian asymptote, and thus displays an extremum at some distant sphere. Constraints on the electric and effective scalar charges of such an object are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Proceedings of the 4th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Axel; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Physical foundations for WIMPs, axions, and WISPS, signals from astrophysical sources, direct searches for dark matter WIMPs, new theoretical developments, new experimental approaches. (HSI)

  17. Proceedings of the 4th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Axel; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Physical foundations for WIMPs, axions, and WISPS, signals from astrophysical sources, direct searches for dark matter WIMPs, new theoretical developments, new experimental approaches. (HSI)

  18. Academic Training: Joint ILIAS-CAST-CERN Axion Training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME 30 November, 1 and 2 December PLACE - DETAILS: http://agenda.cern.ch/fullAgenda.php?ida=a056218 Joint ILIAS-CAST-CERN Axion Training at CERN The ILIAS (Integrated Large Infrastructure for Astroparticle Science) is co-organising a 3 day academic training session together with the CAST collaboration and the CERN Academic Training Programme on physics related to axion research, including open discussions between theorists and experimentalists. The intention of the lectures is to provide academic training for scientists engaged in axion research and to facilitate the often missing link between experiment and theory with the aim of encouraging young researchers to communicate with experts in the field. The lectures include topics which are not regularly covered by standard lectures at universities and should lead to a deeper understanding of the physics related to axions, which covers a broad field from QCD to astrophysics and cosmology. There will be an opportunity for ...

  19. 6th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs (PATRAS 2010). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Laura; Schumann, Marc (eds.)

    2010-11-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Axions, WIMPs, WISPs, and neutrinos in the universe, laboratory experimental searching for WISPs, astrophysical experimental searching for WISPs, direct and indirect detection of WIMPs, new ideas and developments, visions, large laboratories. (HSI)

  20. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  1. Development of Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  2. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  3. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0.6--16 {mu}eV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmann, C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Moltz, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bluele, A.I.; Geraskin, E.V.; Golubev, N.A.; Ishkin, V.V.; Kazachenko, O.V.; Kuzmin, V.; Polushkin, V.G. [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Anthony, P.L.; van Bibber, K.; Patrick, R.E.; Shen, S.; Slack, D.S.; Steele, J.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Villa, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet. This proposal capitalized on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho}{sub a}= 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.1. in the above mass range in 48 months.

  4. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0. 6--16. mu. eV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmann, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Moltz, D.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics); Bluele, A.I

    1991-11-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet. This proposal capitalized on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho}{sub a}= 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.1. in the above mass range in 48 months.

  5. A composite axion from a supersymmetric product group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Benjamin; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-11-01

    A global U(1)PQ symmetry is protected from gravitational effects in the s-confining SU( N) k product group theory with A + 4Q+N\\overline{Q} matter. If the SU(4) family symmetry is gauged and an appropriate tree-level superpotential is added, then the dynamically generated superpotential spontaneously breaks SU(4) × U(1)PQ → SU(3) c and produces a QCD axion. Small values of the CP -violating θ parameter are then possible without any fine-tuning, as long as the product group is suitably large. By introducing a second copy of the s-confining SU( N) product group also coupled to the gauged SU(4), we find that values as small as N = 7 are consistent with \\overline{θ}tree level.

  6. Unconventional Ideas for Axion and Dark Matter Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution an entirely different way compared to conventional approaches for axion, hidden photon and dark matter (DM) detection is proposed for discussion. The idea is to use living plants which are known to be very sensitive to all kind of environmental parameters, as detectors. A possible observable in such living plants could be the natural bio-photon level, a kind of metabolism related chemoluminescence. Another observable might be morphological changes or systematic leave movements. However a big problem for such kind of experiment would be the availability of a known, controllable and calibrated DM source. The objective of this small paper is primarily to trigger a debate and not so much to present a well-defined and clearly structured proposal.

  7. Axion like particles and the inverse seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, C.D.R.; Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C.; Sánchez-Vega, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Light pseudoscalars known as axion like particles (ALPs) may be behind physical phenomena like the Universe transparency to ultra-energetic photons, the soft γ-ray excess from the Coma cluster, and the 3.5 keV line. We explore the connection of these particles with the inverse seesaw (ISS) mechanism for neutrino mass generation. We propose a very restrictive setting where the scalar field hosting the ALP is also responsible for generating the ISS mass scales through its vacuum expectation value on gravity induced nonrenormalizable operators. A discrete gauge symmetry protects the theory from the appearance of overly strong gravitational effects and discrete anomaly cancellation imposes strong constraints on the order of the group. The anomalous U(1) symmetry leading to the ALP is an extended lepton number and the protective discrete symmetry can be always chosen as a subgroup of a combination of the lepton number and the baryon number.

  8. Optical gyrotropy from axion electrodynamics in momentum space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shudan; Orenstein, Joseph; Moore, Joel E

    2015-09-11

    Several emergent phenomena and phases in solids arise from configurations of the electronic Berry phase in momentum space that are similar to gauge field configurations in real space such as magnetic monopoles. We show that the momentum-space analogue of the "axion electrodynamics" term E·B plays a fundamental role in a unified theory of Berry-phase contributions to optical gyrotropy in time-reversal invariant materials and the chiral magnetic effect. The Berry-phase mechanism predicts that the rotatory power along the optic axes of a crystal must sum to zero, a constraint beyond that stipulated by point-group symmetry, but observed to high accuracy in classic experimental observations on alpha quartz. Furthermore, the Berry mechanism provides a microscopic basis for the surface conductance at the interface between gyrotropic and nongyrotropic media.

  9. Constraining resonant photon-axion conversions in the Early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter

    2009-05-01

    The presence of a primordial magnetic field would have induced resonant conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) during the thermal history of the Universe. These conversions would have distorted the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this context, we derive bounds on the photon-ALP resonant conversions using the high precision CMB spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. We obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant g times the magnetic field strength B down to gB -13 GeV -1 nG for ALP masses below the eV scale. (orig.)

  10. Polarization measurements of gamma ray bursts and axion like particles

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2008-01-01

    A polarized gamma ray emission spread over a sufficiently wide energy band from a strongly magnetized astrophysical object like gamma ray bursts (GRBs) offers an opportunity to test the hypothesis of axion like particles (ALPs). Based on evidences of polarized gamma ray emission detected in several gamma ray bursts we estimated the level of ALPs induced dichroism, which could take place in the magnetized fireball environment of a GRB. This allows to estimate the sensitivity of polarization measurements of GRBs to the ALP-photon coupling. This sensitivity $\\gag\\le 2.2\\cdot 10^{-11} {\\rm GeV^{-1}}$ calculated for the ALP mass $m_a=10^{-3}~{\\rm eV}$ and MeV energy spread of gamma ray emission is competitive with the sensitivity of CAST and becomes even stronger for lower ALPs masses.

  11. New ideas for axion like particle dark matter search

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    In the context of finding suitable large magnets for RF and microwave axion search, the Tore supra ring had been proposed. This Tokamak which could probably be made available for DM search has a huge volume and a strong magnetic field (30000 liter and 4.5 Tesla). It appears on a first glance, as an interesting candidate for this kind of experiment. One can find a suitable microwave mode which meets the condition that the RF electric field is parallel to the magnetostatic field. The eigenfrequency field pattern and Q factor for this mode and a few adjacent ones are calculated the some field patterns shown graphically. The use of the torus type cavity is not restricted to the Tore Supra. It can in principle be applied to any torus type structure also scaled up toward smaller dimensions and higher frequencies. In the second part of the slide presentation some alternatives and other cavity magnet concepts are shown and discussed.

  12. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated.

  13. Axion like particles and the inverse seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, C.D.R.; Dias, A.G. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas,Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Nishi, C.C. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição,Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Sánchez-Vega, B.L. [Argonne National Laboratory,9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Light pseudoscalars known as axion like particles (ALPs) may be behind physical phenomena like the Universe transparency to ultra-energetic photons, the soft γ-ray excess from the Coma cluster, and the 3.5 keV line. We explore the connection of these particles with the inverse seesaw (ISS) mechanism for neutrino mass generation. We propose a very restrictive setting where the scalar field hosting the ALP is also responsible for generating the ISS mass scales through its vacuum expectation value on gravity induced nonrenormalizable operators. A discrete gauge symmetry protects the theory from the appearance of overly strong gravitational effects and discrete anomaly cancellation imposes strong constraints on the order of the group. The anomalous U(1) symmetry leading to the ALP is an extended lepton number and the protective discrete symmetry can be always chosen as a subgroup of a combination of the lepton number and the baryon number.

  14. Fate of global symmetries in the Universe: QCD axion, quintessential axion and trans-Planckian inflaton decay constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihn E.; Nam, Soonkeon; Semetzidis, Yannis K.

    2018-01-01

    Pseudoscalars appearing in particle physics are reviewed systematically. From the fundamental point of view at an ultraviolet completed theory, they can be light if they are realized as pseudo-Goldstone bosons of some spontaneously broken global symmetries. The spontaneous breaking scale is parametrized by the decay constant f. The global symmetry is defined by the lowest order terms allowed in the effective theory consistent with the gauge symmetry in question. Since any global symmetry is known to be broken at least by quantum gravitational effects, all pseudoscalars should be massive. The mass scale is determined by f and the explicit breaking terms ΔV in the effective potential and also anomaly terms ΔΛG4 for some non-Abelian gauge groups G. The well-known example by non-Abelian gauge group breaking is the potential for the “invisible” QCD axion, via the Peccei-Quinn symmetry, which constitutes a major part of this review. Even if there is no breaking terms from gauge anomalies, there can be explicit breaking terms ΔV in the potential in which case the leading term suppressed by f determines the pseudoscalar mass scale. If the breaking term is extremely small and the decay constant is trans-Planckian, the corresponding pseudoscalar can be a candidate for a “quintessential axion.” In general, (ΔV )1/4 is considered to be smaller than f, and hence the pseudo-Goldstone boson mass scales are considered to be smaller than the decay constants. In such a case, the potential of the pseudo-Goldstone boson at the grand unification scale is sufficiently flat near the top of the potential that it can be a good candidate for an inflationary model, which is known as “natural inflation.” We review all these ideas in the bosonic collective motion framework.

  15. Optical Space Telescope Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  16. Virtual Telescope Alignment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-generation space telescopes require two spacecraft to fly in a coordinated fashion in space forming a virtual telescope. Achieving and maintaining this precise...

  17. Solar Observations in Public Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.

    In Japan, solar telescopes are now operated in more than fifty astronomical educational facilities, such as public observatories and science museums. Since most of these have the capability of observing the Sun in Hα, active chromospheric phenomena such as solar flares and prominence eruptions are often presented to the public there. Though these telescopes must be mainly used for education and public outreach, they have a good enough performance to contribute to professional solar research. The staff in most of the facilities do not have so much knowledge on how best to observe the Sun or how to understand solar phenomena. We started two efforts in order to support their solar observations. One is the administration of the "Solar Telescope Mailing List" (solnet ML). The other is the arrangement of the "Solar Telescope Workshops".

  18. String theoretic QCD axions in the light of PLANCK and BICEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang Sik; Seo, Min-Seok

    2014-05-01

    The QCD axion solving the strong CP problem may originate from antisymmetric tensor gauge fields in compactified string theory, with a decay constant around the GUT scale. Such possibility appears to be ruled out now by the detection of tensor modes by BICEP2 and the PLANCK constraints on isocurvature density perturbations. A more interesting and still viable possibility is that the string theoretic QCD axion is charged under an anomalous U(1) A gauge symmetry. In such case, the axion decay constant can be much lower than the GUT scale if moduli are stabilized near the point of vanishing Fayet-Illiopoulos term, and U(1) A -charged matter fields get a vacuum value far below the GUT scale due to a tachyonic SUSY breaking scalar mass. We examine the symmetry breaking pattern of such models during the inflationary epoch with the Hubble expansion rate 10 14 GeV, and identify the range of the QCD axion decay constant, as well as the corresponding relic axion abundance, consistent with known cosmological constraints. In addition to the case that the PQ symmetry is restored during inflation, there are other viable scenarios, including that the PQ symmetry is broken during inflation at high scales around 10 16 -10 17 GeV due to a large Hubble-induced tachyonic scalar mass from the U(1) A D-term, while the present axion scale is in the range 10 9 -5 x 10 13 GeV, where the present value larger than 10 12 GeV requires a fine-tuning of the axion misalignment angle. We also discuss the implications of our results for the size of SUSY breaking soft masses.

  19. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  20. Supernova 1987A Constraints on Sub-GeV Dark Sectors, Millicharged Particles, the QCD Axion, and an Axion-like Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jae Hyeok [YITP, Stony Brook; Essig, Rouven [YITP, Stony Brook; McDermott, Samuel D. [Fermilab

    2018-03-02

    We consider the constraints from Supernova 1987A on particles with small couplings to the Standard Model. We discuss a model with a fermion coupled to a dark photon, with various mass relations in the dark sector; millicharged particles; dark-sector fermions with inelastic transitions; the hadronic QCD axion; and an axion-like particle that couples to Standard Model fermions with couplings proportional to their mass. In the fermion cases, we develop a new diagnostic for assessing when such a particle is trapped at large mixing angles. Our bounds for a fermion coupled to a dark photon constrain small couplings and masses <200 MeV, and do not decouple for low fermion masses. They exclude parameter space that is otherwise unconstrained by existing accelerator-based and direct-detection searches. In addition, our bounds are complementary to proposed laboratory searches for sub-GeV dark matter, and do not constrain several "thermal" benchmark-model targets. For a millicharged particle, we exclude charges between 10^(-9) to a few times 10^(-6) in units of the electron charge; this excludes parameter space to higher millicharges and masses than previous bounds. For the QCD axion and an axion-like particle, we apply several updated nuclear physics calculations and include the energy dependence of the optical depth to accurately account for energy loss at large couplings. We rule out a hadronic axion of mass between 0.1 and a few hundred eV, or equivalently bound the PQ scale between a few times 10^4 and 10^8 GeV, closing the hadronic axion window. For an axion-like particle, our bounds disfavor decay constants between a few times 10^5 GeV up to a few times 10^8 GeV. In all cases, our bounds differ from previous work by more than an order of magnitude across the entire parameter space. We also provide estimated systematic errors due to the uncertainties of the progenitor.

  1. PHOTOSPHERIC FLOW FIELD RELATED TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE SUN'S POLAR MAGNETIC PATCHES OBSERVED BY HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaithakkal, Anjali John; Suematsu, Y.; Kubo, M. [Department of Astronomical Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Iida, Y.; Tsuneta, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Shiota, D., E-mail: anjali.johnk@nao.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the role of photospheric plasma motions in the formation and evolution of polar magnetic patches using time-sequence observations with high spatial resolution. The observations were obtained with the spectropolarimeter on board the Hinode satellite. From the statistical analysis using 75 magnetic patches, we found that they are surrounded by strong converging, supergranulation associated flows during their apparent lifetime and that the converging flow around the patch boundary is better observed in the Doppler velocity profile in the deeper photosphere. Based on our analysis, we suggest that the like-polarity magnetic fragments in the polar region are advected and clustered by photospheric converging flows, thereby resulting in the formation of polar magnetic patches. Our observations show that, in addition to direct cancellation, magnetic patches decay by fragmentation followed by unipolar disappearance or unipolar disappearance without fragmentation. It is possible that the magnetic patches of existing polarity fragment or diffuse away into smaller elements and eventually cancel out with opposite polarity fragments that reach the polar region around the solar cycle maximum. This could be one of the possible mechanisms by which the existing polarity decays during the reversal of the polar magnetic field.

  2. On the production of heavy axion-like particles in the accretion disks of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Matías M.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy axion-like particles have been introduced in several scenarios beyond the Standard Model and their production should be possible in some astrophysical systems. In this study, we re-examine the possibility that this type of particle can be generated in the accretion disks of gamma-ray bursts (GRB), which are the most powerful events in the universe. If the produced axions decay into photons or e+e- pairs at the correct distances, a fireball is generated. We calculate the structure of transient accretion disks in GRBs (density, temperature and thickness profiles) considering the effect of heavy axion emission as well as the rest of the relevant standard cooling processes. This allows us to obtain the values of the coupling constant gaN such that the axions do not become trapped, and we also compute the heavy axion luminosity emitted from the entire disk. We show that for the couplings within the ranges found, the mechanism for powering GRBs based on heavy axion production and decay is an alternative to the standard picture based on magnetohydrodynamic processes and neutrino-antineutrino annihilation. Alternatively, the mechanism fails if heavy axions are produced in the disk but their decay takes place further away. Still, the decay products (gamma rays or electrons and positrons) should leave observable signatures, which are not observed for different ranges of values of the coupling constants, depending on the mass of the heavy axion.

  3. Theorem: A Static Magnetic N-pole Becomes an Oscillating Electric N-pole in a Cosmic Axion Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab

    2016-06-15

    We show for the classical Maxwell equations, including the axion electromagnetic anomaly source term, that a cosmic axion field induces an oscillating electric N-moment for any static magnetic N-moment. This is a straightforward result, accessible to anyone who has taken a first year graduate course in electrodynamics.

  4. A New Signal Model for Axion Cavity Searches from N -body Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Rosenberg, Leslie J. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R.; Tremmel, Michael J., E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mjt29@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Signal estimates for direct axion dark matter (DM) searches have used the isothermal sphere halo model for the last several decades. While insightful, the isothermal model does not capture effects from a halo’s infall history nor the influence of baryonic matter, which has been shown to significantly influence a halo’s inner structure. The high resolution of cavity axion detectors can make use of modern cosmological structure-formation simulations, which begin from realistic initial conditions, incorporate a wide range of baryonic physics, and are capable of resolving detailed structure. This work uses a state-of-the-art cosmological N -body+Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics simulation to develop an improved signal model for axion cavity searches. Signal shapes from a class of galaxies encompassing the Milky Way are found to depart significantly from the isothermal sphere. A new signal model for axion detectors is proposed and projected sensitivity bounds on the Axion DM eXperiment (ADMX) data are presented.

  5. The cosmic axion spin precession experiment (CASPEr): a dark-matter search with nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcon, Antoine; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Figueroa, Nataniel L.; Graham, Peter W.; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Rajendran, Surjeet; Gil Sendra, Marina; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Trahms, Lutz; Wang, Tao; Wickenbrock, Arne; Wu, Teng; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic axion spin precession experiment (CASPEr) is a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment (NMR) seeking to detect axion and axion-like particles which could make up the dark matter present in the Universe. We review the predicted couplings of axions and axion-like particles with baryonic matter that enable their detection via NMR. We then describe two measurement schemes being implemented in CASPEr. The first method, presented in the original CASPEr proposal, consists of a resonant search via continuous-wave NMR spectroscopy. This method offers the highest sensitivity for frequencies ranging from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz, corresponding to masses {m}{{a}}∼ {10}-14–{10}-6 eV. Sub-Hz frequencies are typically difficult to probe with NMR due to the diminishing sensitivity of magnetometers in this region. To circumvent this limitation, we suggest new detection and data processing modalities. We describe a non-resonant frequency-modulation detection scheme, enabling searches from mHz to Hz frequencies ({m}{{a}}∼ {10}-17–{10}-14 eV), extending the detection bandwidth by three decades.

  6. Supersymmetry with Radiatively-Driven Naturalness: Implications for WIMP and Axion Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jung Bae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By insisting on naturalness in both the electroweak and quantum chromodynamics (QCD sectors of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM, the portrait for dark matter production is seriously modified from the usual weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP miracle picture. In supersymmetry (SUSY models with radiatively-driven naturalness (radiative natural SUSY or radiative natural SUSY (RNS which include a Dine–Fischler–Srednicki–Zhitnitsky (DFSZ-like solution to the strong charge-conjugation-parity (CP and SUSY \\(\\mu\\ problems, dark matter is expected to be an admixture of both axions and higgsino-like WIMPs. The WIMP/axion abundance calculation requires simultaneous solution of a set of coupled Boltzmann equations which describe quasi-stable axinos and saxions. In most of parameter space, axions make up the dominant contribution of dark matter although regions of WIMP dominance also occur. We show the allowed range of Peccei-Quinn (PQ scale \\(f_a\\ and compare to the values expected to be probed by the axion dark matter search experiment (ADMX axion detector in the near future. We also show WIMP detection rates, which are suppressed from usual expectations, because now WIMPs comprise only a fraction of the total dark matter. Nonetheless, ton-scale noble liquid detectors should be able to probe the entirety of RNS parameter space. Indirect WIMP detection rates are less propitious since they are reduced by the square of the depleted WIMP abundance.

  7. A New Signal Model for Axion Cavity Searches from N-body Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.; Tremmel, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    Signal estimates for direct axion dark matter (DM) searches have used the isothermal sphere halo model for the last several decades. While insightful, the isothermal model does not capture effects from a halo’s infall history nor the influence of baryonic matter, which has been shown to significantly influence a halo’s inner structure. The high resolution of cavity axion detectors can make use of modern cosmological structure-formation simulations, which begin from realistic initial conditions, incorporate a wide range of baryonic physics, and are capable of resolving detailed structure. This work uses a state-of-the-art cosmological N-body+Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics simulation to develop an improved signal model for axion cavity searches. Signal shapes from a class of galaxies encompassing the Milky Way are found to depart significantly from the isothermal sphere. A new signal model for axion detectors is proposed and projected sensitivity bounds on the Axion DM eXperiment (ADMX) data are presented.

  8. Search for short lived axions emitted from neutron capture on protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J.; Arnold, M.; Doehner, J.; Last, J.; Dubbers, D.

    1986-01-01

    A search has been conducted for light neutral particles like the axions which decay rapidly to electron positron pairs produced in the reaction n + p ..-->.. D + a. Instead the e/sup +/e/sup -/ signal expected from direct internal pair conversion has been detected. A preliminary analysis gives (GAMMA/sub p//GAMMA/sub ..gamma../)/sub expt//(GAMMA/sub p//GAMMA/sub ..gamma../)/sub theo/ = 1.06 +- 0.12. The results exclude existing axion models over the mass range 2 m/sub e/ < m/sub a/ < 2.22 MeV/c/sup 2/. The axion mass would fall in this range if they were responsible for the narrow positron lines observed in recent heavy-ion experiments at the GSI.

  9. Search for short lived axions emitted from neutron capture on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, S.J.; Arnold, M.; Doehner, J.; Last, J.; Dubbers, D.

    1986-01-01

    A search has been conducted for light neutral particles like the axions which decay rapidly to electron positron pairs produced in the reaction n + p → D + a. Instead the e + e - signal expected from direct internal pair conversion has been detected. A preliminary analysis gives (Γ/sub p//Γ/sub γ/)/sub expt//(Γ/sub p//Γ/sub γ/)/sub theo/ = 1.06 +- 0.12. The results exclude existing axion models over the mass range 2 m/sub e/ 2 . The axion mass would fall in this range if they were responsible for the narrow positron lines observed in recent heavy-ion experiments at the GSI

  10. Prospects for searching axion-like particle dark matter with dipole, toroidal and wiggler magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Oliver K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Betz, Michael; Caspers, Fritz [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Semertzidis, Yannis [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sikivie, Pierre [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Zioutas, Konstantin [Patras Univ. (Greece)

    2011-10-15

    In this work we consider searches for dark matter made of axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) using resonant radio frequency cavities inserted into dipole magnets from particle accelerators, wiggler magnets developed for accelerator based advanced light sources, and toroidal magnets similar to those used in particle physics detectors. We investigate the expected sensitivity of such ALP dark matter detectors and discuss the engineering aspects of building and tuning them. Brief mention is also made of even stronger field magnets that are becoming available due to improvements in magnetic technology. It is concluded that new experiments utilizing already existing magnets could greatly enlarge the mass region in searches for axion-like dark matter particles. (orig.)

  11. Searching for axion stars and Q -balls with a terrestrial magnetometer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Budker, D.; Eby, J.; Pospelov, M.; Pustelny, S.; Scholtes, T.; Stadnik, Y. V.; Weis, A.; Wickenbrock, A.

    2018-02-01

    Light (pseudo-)scalar fields are promising candidates to be the dark matter in the Universe. Under certain initial conditions in the early Universe and/or with certain types of self-interactions, they can form compact dark-matter objects such as axion stars or Q -balls. Direct encounters with such objects can be searched for by using a global network of atomic magnetometers. It is shown that for a range of masses and radii not ruled out by existing observations, the terrestrial encounter rate with axion stars or Q -balls can be sufficiently high (at least once per year) for a detection. Furthermore, it is shown that a global network of atomic magnetometers is sufficiently sensitive to pseudoscalar couplings to atomic spins so that a transit through an axion star or Q -ball could be detected over a broad range of unexplored parameter space.

  12. About the isocurvature tension between axion and high scale inflationary models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, M.; Santillan, O.

    2016-01-01

    The present work suggests that the isocurvature tension between axion and high energy inflationary scenarios may be avoided by considering a double field inflationary model involving the hidden Peccei-Quinn Higgs and the Standard Model one. Some terms in the lagrangian we propose explicitly violate the Peccei-Quinn symmetry but, at the present era, their effect is completely negligible. The resulting mechanism allows for a large value for the axion constant, of the order f a ∝ M p , thus the axion isocurvature fluctuations are suppressed even when the scale of inflation H inf is very high, of the order of H inf ∝ M gut . This numerical value is typical in Higgs inflationary models. An analysis about topological defect formation in this scenario is also performed, and it is suggested that, under certain assumptions, their effect is not catastrophic from the cosmological point of view. (orig.)

  13. Phases of planar AdS black holes with axionic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Christodoulou, Ariana [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, I 34136 Trieste (Italy); Skenderis, Kostas [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-03

    Planar AdS black holes with axionic charge have finite DC conductivity due to momentum relaxation. We obtain a new family of exact asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black branes with scalar hair, carrying magnetic and axion charge, and we study the thermodynamics and dynamic stability of these, as well as of a number of previously known electric and dyonic solutions with axion charge and scalar hair. The scalar hair for all solutions satisfy mixed boundary conditions, which lead to modified holographic Ward identities, conserved charges and free energy, relative to those following from the more standard Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that properly accounting for the scalar boundary conditions leads to well defined first law and other thermodynamic relations. Finally, we compute the holographic quantum effective potential for the dual scalar operator and show that dynamical stability of the hairy black branes is equivalent to positivity of the energy density.

  14. Searching for axion stars and Q-balls with a terrestrial magnetometer network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Kimball, D. F. [Cal State, East Bay; Budker, D. [UC, Berkeley; Eby, J. [Fermilab; Pospelov, M. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Pustelny, S. [Jagiellonian U.; Scholtes, T. [Fribourg U.; Stadnik, Y. V. [Helmholtz Inst., Mainz; Weis, A. [Fribourg U.; Wickenbrock, A. [Mainz U.

    2017-10-11

    Light (pseudo-)scalar fields are promising candidates to be the dark matter in the Universe. Under certain initial conditions in the early Universe and/or with certain types of self-interactions, they can form compact dark-matter objects such as axion stars or Q-balls. Direct encounters with such objects can be searched for by using a global network of atomic magnetometers. It is shown that for a range of masses and radii not ruled out by existing observations, the terrestrial encounter rate with axion stars or Q-balls can be sufficiently high (at least once per year) for a detection. Furthermore, it is shown that a global network of atomic magnetometers is sufficiently sensitive to pseudoscalar couplings to atomic spins so that a transit through an axion star or Q-ball could be detected over a broad range of unexplored parameter space.

  15. Tuning and backreaction in F-term axion monodromy inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Hebecker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We continue the development of axion monodromy inflation, focusing in particular on the backreaction of complex structure moduli. In our setting, the shift symmetry comes from a partial large complex structure limit of the underlying type IIB orientifold or F-theory fourfold. The coefficient of the inflaton term in the superpotential has to be tuned small to avoid conflict with Kähler moduli stabilisation. To allow such a tuning, this coefficient necessarily depends on further complex structure moduli. At large values of the inflaton field, these moduli are then in danger of backreacting too strongly. To avoid this, further tunings are necessary. In weakly coupled type IIB theory at the orientifold point, implementing these tunings appears to be difficult if not impossible. However, fourfolds or models with mobile D7-branes provide enough structural freedom. We calculate the resulting inflaton potential and study the feasibility of the overall tuning given the limited freedom of the flux landscape. Our preliminary investigations suggest that, even imposing all tuning conditions, the remaining choice of flux vacua can still be large enough for such models to provide a promising path to large-field inflation in string theory.

  16. White dwarf axions, PAMELA data, and flipped-SU(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Jihn E.; Kyae, Bumseok; Viollier, Raoul D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there are two hints arising from physics beyond the standard model. One is a possible energy loss mechanism due to emission of very weakly interacting light particles from white dwarf stars, with a coupling strength ∼0.7x10 -13 , and another is the high energy positrons observed by the PAMELA satellite experiment. We construct a supersymmetric flipped-SU(5) model, SU(5)xU(1) X with appropriate additional symmetries, [U(1) H ] gauge x[U(1) R xU(1) Γ ] global xZ 2 , such that these are explained by a very light electrophilic axion of mass 0.5 meV from the spontaneously broken U(1) Γ and two component cold dark matters from Z 2 parity. We show that in the flipped-SU(5) there exists a basic mechanism for allowing excess positrons through the charged SU(5) singlet leptons, but not allowing antiproton excess due to the absence of the SU(5) singlet quarks. We show the discovery potential of the charged SU(5) singlet E at the LHC experiments by observing the electron and positron spectrum. With these symmetries, we also comment on the mass hierarchy between the top and bottom quarks.

  17. Observational constraints on gauge field production in axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerburg, P.D.; Pajer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Models of axion inflation are particularly interesting since they provide a natural justification for the flatness of the potential over a super-Planckian distance, namely the approximate shift-symmetry of the inflaton. In addition, most of the observational consequences are directly related to this symmetry and hence are correlated. Large tensor modes can be accompanied by the observable effects of a the shift-symmetric coupling φF F-tilde to a gauge field. During inflation this coupling leads to a copious production of gauge quanta and consequently a very distinct modification of the primordial curvature perturbations. In this work we compare these predictions with observations. We find that the leading constraint on the model comes from the CMB power spectrum when considering both WMAP 7-year and ACT data. The bispectrum generated by the non-Gaussian inverse-decay of the gauge field leads to a comparable but slightly weaker constraint. There is also a constraint from μ-distortion using TRIS plus COBE/FIRAS data, but it is much weaker. Finally we comment on a generalization of the model to massive gauge fields. When the mass is generated by some light Higgs field, observably large local non-Gaussianity can be produced

  18. Primordial gravitational waves from axion-gauge fields dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Fasiello, Matteo; Fujita, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the chromo-natural inflation model of Adshead and Wyman, we reshape its scalar content to relax the tension with current observational bounds. Besides an inflaton, the setup includes a spectator sector in which an axion and SU(2) gauge fields are coupled via a Chern-Simons-type term. The result is a viable theory endowed with an alternative production mechanism for gravitational waves during inflation. The gravitational wave signal sourced by the spectator fields can be much larger than the contribution from standard vacuum fluctuations, it is distinguishable from the latter on the basis of its chirality and, depending on the theory parameters values, also its tilt. This production process breaks the well-known relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the energy scale of inflation. As a result, even if the Hubble rate is itself too small for the vacuum to generate a tensor amplitude detectable by upcoming experiments, this model still supports observable gravitational waves.

  19. A low-background Micromegas detector for axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, Samuel A; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Kousouris, K; Papaevangelou, T; Zachariadou, K

    2004-01-01

    A micropattern low-background detector based on the Micromegas technology has been designed and constructed for the CERN Axion Search experiment CAST. The detector is made of low natural radioactivity materials and has a two-dimensional readout with X-Y strip structure. It is operated with an Argon/Isobutane (95%/5%) mixture and is controlled by a VME data acquisition system. The detector is sensitive to photons in the energy range of 1-10 keV, it has a linear response, excellent stability and a very good energy resolution (14% FWHM at 5.9 keV). This device has been in stable operation since October 2002, taking data during the running periods of the CAST experiment. At the end of summer 2003, the detector was upgraded with a flash ADC readout of the grid signal to further improve its background rejection capability. The currently achieved background rate under normal operation is about 2.0 multiplied by 10 **-**5 events/keV/cm**2/s with better than 85% software efficiency.

  20. Spin precession experiments for light axionic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Kaplan, David E.; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Terrano, William A.; Trahms, Lutz; Wilkason, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Axionlike particles are promising candidates to make up the dark matter of the Universe, but it is challenging to design experiments that can detect them over their entire allowed mass range. Dark matter in general, and, in particular, axionlike particles and hidden photons, can be as light as roughly 10-22 eV (˜10-8 Hz ), with astrophysical anomalies providing motivation for the lightest masses ("fuzzy dark matter"). We propose experimental techniques for direct detection of axionlike dark matter in the mass range from roughly 10-13 eV (˜102 Hz ) down to the lowest possible masses. In this range, these axionlike particles act as a time-oscillating magnetic field coupling only to spin, inducing effects such as a time-oscillating torque and periodic variations in the spin-precession frequency with the frequency and direction of these effects set by the axion field. We describe how these signals can be measured using existing experimental technology, including torsion pendulums, atomic magnetometers, and atom interferometry. These experiments demonstrate a strong discovery capability, with future iterations of these experiments capable of pushing several orders of magnitude past current astrophysical bounds.

  1. Current status of top-specific variant axion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Fukuda, Hajime; Takeuchi, Michihisa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2018-02-01

    The invisible variant axion model is one of the very attractive models which solves the strong C P problem but does not provoke the domain wall problem. At the electroweak scale, this model requires at least two Higgs doublets, one of which carries a nonzero Peccei-Quinn (PQ) charge and the other is neutral. We consider a scenario where only the right-handed top quark is charged under the PQ symmetry and couples with the PQ-charged Higgs doublet. As a general prediction of this model, the top quark can decay to the observed standard model-like Higgs boson h and the charm or up quark, t →h c /u , which recently exhibited slight excesses at LHC run-I and run-II and will soon be testable at the LHC run-II. If the rare top decay excess stays at the observed central value, we show that tan β ˜1 or smaller is preferred by the Higgs data. The chiral nature of the Higgs flavor-changing interaction is a distinctive feature of this model and testable using the angular distribution of the t →c h decays at the LHC.

  2. The flux-scaling scenario. De Sitter uplift and axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Damian, Cesar; Herschmann, Daniela; Sun, Rui [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Font, Anamaria [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Non-geometric flux-scaling vacua provide promising starting points to realize axion monodromy inflation via the F-term scalar potential. We show that these vacua can be uplifted to Minkowski and de Sitter by adding an D3-brane or a D-term containing geometric and non-geometric fluxes. These uplifted non-supersymmetric models are analyzed with respect to their potential to realize axion monodromy inflation self-consistently. Admitting rational values of the fluxes, we construct examples with the required hierarchy of mass scales. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The flux-scaling scenario. De Sitter uplift and axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Damian, Cesar; Herschmann, Daniela; Sun, Rui; Font, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Non-geometric flux-scaling vacua provide promising starting points to realize axion monodromy inflation via the F-term scalar potential. We show that these vacua can be uplifted to Minkowski and de Sitter by adding an D3-brane or a D-term containing geometric and non-geometric fluxes. These uplifted non-supersymmetric models are analyzed with respect to their potential to realize axion monodromy inflation self-consistently. Admitting rational values of the fluxes, we construct examples with the required hierarchy of mass scales. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. On the validity of the perturbative description of axions during inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Ricardo J. Z.; Ganc, Jonathan; Noreña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    enhancement of the gauge fields, which in turn can decay into observable scalar or tensor curvature perturbations. Thus, a fully self-consistent treatment of axions during inflation is important, and in this work we discuss the perturbative constraints on axions coupled to gauge fields. We show how the recent...... proposal of generating tensor modes through these alternative mechanisms is in tension with perturbation theory in the in-in formalism. Interestingly, we point out that the constraints are parametrically weaker than one would estimate based on naive power counting of propagators of the gauge field...

  5. Impact of ultralight axion self-interactions on the large scale structure of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Ultralight axions have sparked attention because their tiny mass m ˜10-22 eV , which leads to a kiloparsec-scale de Broglie wavelength comparable to the size of a dwarf galaxy, could alleviate the so-called small-scale crisis of massive cold dark matter (CDM) candidates. However, recent analyses of the Lyman-α forest power spectrum set a tight lower bound on their mass of m ≳10-21 eV which makes them much less relevant from an astrophysical point of view. An important caveat to these numerical studies is that they do not take into account self-interactions among ultralight axions. Furthermore, for axions which acquired a mass through nonperturbative effects, this self-interaction is attractive and, therefore, could counteract the quantum "pressure" induced by the strong delocalization of the particles. In this work, we show that even a tiny attractive interaction among ultralight axions can have a significant impact on the stability of cosmic structures at low redshift. After a brief review of known results about solitons in the absence of gravity, we discuss the stability of filamentary and pancakelike solutions when quantum pressure, attractive interactions and gravity are present. The analysis based on 1 degree of freedom, namely the breathing mode, reveals that pancakes are stable, while filaments are unstable if the mass per unit length is larger than a critical value. However, we show that pancakes are unstable against transverse perturbations. We expect this to be true for halos and filaments as well. Instabilities driven by the breathing mode will not be seen in the low column density Lyman-α forest unless the axion decay constant is extremely small, f ≲1013 GeV . Notwithstanding, axion solitonic cores could leave a detectable signature in the Lyman-α forest if the normalization of the unknown axion core—filament mass relation is ˜100 larger than it is for spherical halos. We hope our work motivates future numerical studies of the impact of axion

  6. Search for axion-like particle production in 400 GeV proton-copper interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbiellini, G.; Berger, C.; Flegel, W.; Lanceri, L.; Metcalf, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Panman, J.; Winter, K.; Santoni, C.; Abt, I.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Hebbeker, T.; Niebergall, F.; Schuett, P.; Staehelin, P.; Baroncelli, A.; Tortora, L.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Bosio, C.; Capone, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dore, U.; Ferroni, F.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Monacelli, P.; Notaristefani, F. de; Pistilli, P.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, V.

    1985-01-01

    A search for axion-like particles was performed at the 400 GeV proton beam-pump experiment at CERN. Exploring an empty decay region of 35 m length and 9 m 3 cross section, we searched for decays of neutral and penetrating scalar particles into a pair of photons, electrons or muons. No evidence for the existence of such particles was found in this experiment. Limits are quoted as a function of the mass and the model independent decay constant of axions. (orig.)

  7. Astronomy in Hawaii: Telescopes, Research, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. K.

    2012-08-01

    Since early Polynesian way-finding combined observations of sky and ocean and allowed voyagers to locate and se ttle the far-flung islands of the Pacific, astronomy has impacted the islands of Hawaii. The Twentieth Century saw telescope development on both Haleakala on Maui and Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island. These complexes have developed libraries and information services to support and enhance their research. The University of Hawaii established the Institute for Astronomy (IfA). The IfA Library serves researchers and instrument developers at each of its three locations. Canada-France-Ha waii Telescope, the Joint Astronomy Center, the W. M. Keck Observatory, Gemini Northern Telescope and Subaru Telescope have each developed library services to respond to their unique needs. The librarians at these organizations have formed Astronomy Libraries of HAwaii (A LOHA) to share resources. As electronic research has developed, each library has responded to capitalize on these new capabilities. In coming years, projects such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope on Maui and the Thirty Meter Telescope on Hawaii Island have the promise of enlarging our understanding of the Universe. Astronomy libraries in Hawaii will con tinue to enhance their expertise to match the evolution of astronomy technologies and maximize research impact.

  8. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  9. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  10. On the production of heavy axion-like particles in the accretion disks of gamma-ray bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías M. Reynoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy axion-like particles have been introduced in several scenarios beyond the Standard Model and their production should be possible in some astrophysical systems. In this study, we re-examine the possibility that this type of particle can be generated in the accretion disks of gamma-ray bursts (GRB, which are the most powerful events in the universe. If the produced axions decay into photons or e+e− pairs at the correct distances, a fireball is generated. We calculate the structure of transient accretion disks in GRBs (density, temperature and thickness profiles considering the effect of heavy axion emission as well as the rest of the relevant standard cooling processes. This allows us to obtain the values of the coupling constant gaN such that the axions do not become trapped, and we also compute the heavy axion luminosity emitted from the entire disk. We show that for the couplings within the ranges found, the mechanism for powering GRBs based on heavy axion production and decay is an alternative to the standard picture based on magnetohydrodynamic processes and neutrino–antineutrino annihilation. Alternatively, the mechanism fails if heavy axions are produced in the disk but their decay takes place further away. Still, the decay products (gamma rays or electrons and positrons should leave observable signatures, which are not observed for different ranges of values of the coupling constants, depending on the mass of the heavy axion. Keywords: New physics, Axions, Gamma-ray bursts

  11. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  12. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-01-01

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  13. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  14. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero

    1998-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. With the addition of the partners from Ohio State and Germany in February 1997, the Large Binocular Telescope Corporation has the funding required to build the full telescope populated with both 8.4 meter optical trans. The first of two 8.4 meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT was cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in 1997. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance were important drivers for the design of the telescope in order to provide the best possible images for interferometric observations. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure was completed in 1997 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). A series of contracts for the fabrication and machining of the telescope structure had been placed at the end of 1997. The final enclosure design was completed at M3 Engineering & Technology (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia. During 1997, the telescope pier and the concrete ring wall for the rotating enclosure were completed along with the steel structure of the fixed portion of the enclosure. The erection of the steel structure for the rotating portion of the enclosure will begin in the Spring of 1998.

  15. Feasibility, engineering aspects and physics reach of microwave cavity experiments searching for hidden photons and axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (United Kingdom); Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Using microwave cavities one can build a resonant ''light-shining-through-walls'' experiment to search for hidden sector photons and axion like particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. In this note we make a feasibility study of the sensitivities which can be reached using state of the art technology. (orig.)

  16. Leptogenesis scenarios for natural SUSY with mixed axion-higgsino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyu Jung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma,Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Zhang, Yi-Fan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma,Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven electroweak naturalness require light higgsinos of mass ∼100–300 GeV. Naturalness in the QCD sector is invoked via the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion leading to mixed axion-higgsino dark matter. The SUSY DFSZ axion model provides a solution to the SUSY μ problem and the Little Hierarchy μ≪m{sub 3/2} may emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between PQ and hidden sector mass scales. The traditional gravitino problem is now augmented by the axino and saxion problems, since these latter particles can also contribute to overproduction of WIMPs or dark radiation, or violation of BBN constraints. We compute regions of the T{sub R} vs. m{sub 3/2} plane allowed by BBN, dark matter and dark radiation constraints for various PQ scale choices f{sub a}. These regions are compared to the values needed for thermal leptogenesis, non-thermal leptogenesis, oscillating sneutrino leptogenesis and Affleck-Dine leptogenesis. The latter three are allowed in wide regions of parameter space for PQ scale f{sub a}∼10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} GeV which is also favored by naturalness: f{sub a}∼√(μM{sub P}/λ{sub μ})∼10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} GeV. These f{sub a} values correspond to axion masses somewhat above the projected ADMX search regions.

  17. Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the gamma-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity and full-sky coverage of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this talk I will describe targets studied for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. I will also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, c...

  18. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    bands and multi layers) high resolution and continuous evolutions provide the major incentive for ... image, and continuous time evolution. .... Integration time. 100 ms. Frequency resolution. ∆ /f/f < 0.1 but ∆ fmax = 1 MHz. Frequency range 1 MHz to 10 MHz ∆ f = 100 KHz. Frequency range 10 MHz to 60 MHz ∆ f= 1 MHz.

  19. The AMANDA neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.C.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Bergstroem, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.; Dalberg, E.; DeYoung, T.; Edsjoe, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, S.; He, Y.; Heros, C.P. de los; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.C.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Porrata, R.; Potter, D.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriquez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwartz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wischnewski, R.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    1999-05-01

    With an effective telescope area of order 10{sup 4} m{sup 2} for TeV neutrinos, a threshold near {approx}50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of 2.5 degrees per muon track, the AMANDA detector represents the first of a new generation of high energy neutrino telescopes, reaching a scale envisaged over 25 years ago. We describe early results on the calibration of natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA's performance as a neutrino telescope.

  20. The AMANDA neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.C.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Bergstrom,L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson,M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad,J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.; Dalberg, E.; DeYoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, S.; He, Y.; de, los, Heros,C.P.; Hill, G.; Hulth, PO.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.C.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren,D.; Porrata, R.; Potter, D.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch,C.H.; Wischnewski, R.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.; AMANDACollaboration

    1999-04-01

    With an effective telescope area of order 10(4) m(2) for TeVneutrinos, a threshold near similar to 50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of2.5 degrees per muon track, the AMANDA detector represents the first of anew generation of high energy neutrino telescopes, reaching a scaleenvisaged over 25 years ago. We describe early results on the calibrationof natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA'sperformance as a neutrino telescope.

  1. James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is a 15 m diameter telescope of high surface accuracy, operating in the millimeter and submillimeter bands, and is situated on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The JCMT facility is described and a scientific report which includes a variety of scientific results over the years 1989 and 1990 showing the range of astronomical problems tackled with the telescope is presented. Operations, which note the decrease in both the time lost to faults and the time required for engineering and commissioning work, are described. Objectives and progress of the instrumentation program are described. A financial statement is presented.

  2. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  3. New catadioptric telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Acme telescope is a compound telescope that resembles the familiar Cassegrain type except that the main mirror is spherical and the secondary is an achromatic doublet mangin mirror. Three 6-in. aperture f/15 telescope designs are described. With a cemented, all spherical surface achromangin mirror, there is a small amount of coma which can be eliminated by redesigning with an air space between the crown and flint elements of the achromangin mirror, or by cementing them with one of the concave external surfaces of achromangin figured to an hyperboloid. In the examples, the spherical aberration is nil and the chromatic residual is roughly half that of an achromatic objective of the same speed, aperture, and glass types. Readily available crown and flint glasses such as Schott BK-7 and F-2 are entirely satisfactory for the achromangin mirror. Also considered are two examples of Acme-like telescopes with paraboloidal instead of spherical main mirrors.

  4. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  5. Telescopes in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The precise origins of the optical telescope are hidden in the depths of time. In the thirteenth century Roger Bacon claimed to have devised a combination of lenses which enabled him to see distant objects as if they were near. Others who have an unsubstantiated claim to have invented the telescope in the sixteenth century include an Englishman, Leonard DIGGES, and an Italian, Giovanni Batista Po...

  6. Eclipse telescope design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Trauger, John T.; Macenka, Steven A.; Moody, Dwight; Olarte, Guillermo; Sepulveda, Cesar; Tsuha, Walter; Cohen, David

    2003-02-01

    Very high contrast imagery, required for exoplanet image acquisition, imposes significantly different criteria upon telescope architecture than do the requirements imposed upon most spaceborne telescopes. For the Eclipse Mission, the fundamental figure-of-merit is a stellar contrast, or brightness reduction ratio, reaching a factor of 10-9 or better at star-planet distances as close as the 4th Airy ring. Factors necessary to achieve such contrast ratios are both irrelevant and largely ignored in contemporary telescope design. Although contemporary telescoeps now meet Hubble Space Telescope performance at substantially lower mass and cost than HST, control of mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, crucial to coronagraphy, has not been emphasized. Accordingly, roughness at MSF has advanced little since HST. Fortunately, HST primary mirror smoothness would nearly satisfy Eclipse requirements, although other aspects of HST are undesirable for stellar coronagraphy. Conversely, the narrow field required for Eclipse eases other drivers of traditional telescope design. A systematic approach to telescope definition, with primary and sub-tier figures-of-merit, will be discussed in the context of the Eclipse Mission.

  7. Space telescopes capturing the rays of the electromagnetic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Space telescopes are among humankind’s greatest scientific achievements of the last fifty years. This book describes the instruments themselves and what they were designed to discover about the Solar System and distant stars. Exactly how these telescopes were built and launched and the data they provided is explored. Only certain kinds of radiation can penetrate our planet's atmosphere, which limits what we can observe. But with space telescopes all this changed. We now have the means to "see" beyond Earth using ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In this book we meet the pioneers and the telescopes that were built around their ideas. This book looks at space telescopes not simply chronologically but also in order of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it possible to understand better why they were made.

  8. Solar Vector Magnetic Field Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rust, David

    1997-01-01

    The principal effort was development and flight of the Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE). The FGE is a balloon borne solar telescope that can provide the sharpest view ever of the evolution of activity on the Sun...

  9. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  10. Reply to “Comment on ‘Axion induced oscillating electric dipole moments’”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2017-03-28

    A recent paper of Flambaum, Roberts and Stadnik, [1], claims there is no induced oscillating electric dipole moment (OEDM), eg, for the electron, arising from the oscillating cosmic axion background via the anomaly. This claim is based upon the assumption that electric dipoles always be defined by their coupling to static (constant in time) electric fields. The relevant Feynman diagram, as computed by [1], then becomes a total divergence, and vanishes in momentum space. However, an OEDM does arise from the anomaly, coupled to time dependent electric fields. It shares the decoupling properties with the anomaly. The full action, in an arbitrary gauge, was computed in [2], [3]. It is nonvanishing with a time dependent outgoing photon, and yields physics, eg, electric dipole radiation of an electron immersed in a cosmic axion field.

  11. Unifying inflation with the axion, dark matter, baryogenesis and the seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesterose, Guillermo; Ringwald, Andreas; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    A minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) providing a complete and consistent picture of particle physics and cosmology up to the Planck scale is presented. We add to the SM three right-handed SM-singlet neutrinos, a new vector-like color triplet fermion and a complex SM singlet scalar σ whose vacuum expectation value at ∝10 11 GeV breaks lepton number and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry simultaneously. Primordial inflaton is produced by a combination of σ and the SM Higgs. Baryogenesis proceeds via thermal leptogenesis. At low energies, the model reduces to the SM, augmented by seesaw-generated neutrino masses, plus the axion, which solves the strong CP problem and accounts for the dark matter in the Universe. The model can be probed decisively by the next generation of cosmic microwave background and axion dark matter experiments.

  12. Ultralight Axion Dark Matter and Its Impact on Dark Halo Structure in N-body Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Sming Tsai, Yue-Lin; Kuo, Jui-Lin; Cheung, Kingman; Chu, Ming-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Ultralight axion is a dark matter candidate with mass { O }({10}-22){eV} and de Broglie wavelength of order kiloparsec. Such an axion, also called fuzzy dark matter (FDM), thermalizes via gravitational force and forms a Bose–Einstein condensate. Recent studies suggested that the quantum pressure from FDM can significantly affect structure formation in small scales, thus alleviating the so-called “small-scale crisis.” In this paper, we develop a new technique to discretize the quantum pressure and illustrate the interactions among FDM particles in an N-body simulation that accurately simulates the formation of the dark matter halo and its inner structure in the region outside the softening length. In a self-gravitationally bound virialized halo, we find a constant density solitonic core, which is consistent with theoretical prediction. The existence of the solitonic core reveals the nonlinear effect of quantum pressure and impacts structure formation in the FDM model.

  13. Cosmological Higgs-Axion Interplay for a Naturally Small Electroweak Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J R; Grojean, C; Panico, G; Pomarol, A; Pujolàs, O; Servant, G

    2015-12-18

    Recently, a new mechanism to generate a naturally small electroweak scale has been proposed. It exploits the coupling of the Higgs boson to an axionlike field and a long era in the early Universe where the axion unchains a dynamical screening of the Higgs mass. We present a new realization of this idea with the new feature that it leaves no sign of new physics at the electroweak scale, and up to a rather large scale, 10^{9}  GeV, except for two very light and weakly coupled axionlike states. One of the scalars can be a viable dark matter candidate. Such a cosmological Higgs-axion interplay could be tested with a number of experimental strategies.

  14. Optical Search for QED vacuum magnetic birefringence, Axions and photon Regeneration

    CERN Multimedia

    Pugnat, P; Hryczuk, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Kral, M

    2007-01-01

    Since its prediction in 1936 by Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf in the earlier development of the Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) theory, the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) is still a challenge for optical metrology techniques. According to QED, the vacuum behaves as an optically active medium in the presence of an external magnetic field. It can be experimentally probed with a linearly polarized laser beam. After propagating through the vacuum submitted to a transverse magnetic field, the polarization of the laser beam will change to elliptical and the parameters of the polarization are directly related to fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant and the electron Compton wavelength. Contributions to the VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles like axions that couple to two photons and this would manifest itself as a sizeable deviation from the initial QED prediction. On one side, the interest in axion search, providing an answer to the strong-CP p...

  15. Natural Higgs-Flavor-Democracy Solution of the μ Problem of Supersymmetry and the QCD Axion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihn E.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the hierarchically small μ term in supersymmetric theories is a consequence of two identical pairs of Higgs doublets taking a democratic form for their mass matrix. We briefly discuss the discrete symmetry S2×S2 toward the democratic mass matrix. Then, we show that there results an approximate Peccei-Quinn symmetry and hence the value μ is related to the axion decay constant.

  16. Leptogenesis scenarios for natural SUSY with mixed axion-higgsino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Zhang, Yi-Fan, E-mail: bae@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: serce@ou.edu, E-mail: zyf@ou.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven electroweak naturalness require light higgsinos of mass ∼ 100–300 GeV . Naturalness in the QCD sector is invoked via the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion leading to mixed axion-higgsino dark matter. The SUSY DFSZ axion model provides a solution to the SUSY μ problem and the Little Hierarchy μ|| m{sub 3/2} may emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between PQ and hidden sector mass scales. The traditional gravitino problem is now augmented by the axino and saxion problems, since these latter particles can also contribute to overproduction of WIMPs or dark radiation, or violation of BBN constraints. We compute regions of the T{sub R} vs. m{sub 3/2} plane allowed by BBN, dark matter and dark radiation constraints for various PQ scale choices f{sub a}. These regions are compared to the values needed for thermal leptogenesis, non-thermal leptogenesis, oscillating sneutrino leptogenesis and Affleck-Dine leptogenesis. The latter three are allowed in wide regions of parameter space for PQ scale f{sub a∼} 10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} GeV which is also favored by naturalness: f{sub a} ∼ √μM{sub P}/λ{sub μ} ∼ 10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} GeV . These f{sub a} values correspond to axion masses somewhat above the projected ADMX search regions.

  17. Corot telescope (COROTEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Thierry; Mathieu, Jean-Claude; Fer, Yann; Bouzou, Nathalie; Spalinger, Etienne; Chataigner, Bruno; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain; Baglin, Annie

    2017-11-01

    COROTEL is the telescope of the COROT Satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Alenia Space has proposed, manufactured and tested an original telescope concept associated with a high baffling performance. Since its delivery to LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) the telescope has passed successfully the qualification tests at instrument level performed by CNES. Now, the instrument is mounted on a Proteus platform and should be launched end of 2006. The satellite should bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  18. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  19. Entangled de Sitter from stringy axionic Bell pair I: an analysis using Bunch-Davies vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we study the quantum entanglement and compute entanglement entropy in de Sitter space for a bipartite quantum field theory driven by an axion originating from Type IIB string compactification on a Calabi-Yau three fold (CY^3) and in the presence of an NS5 brane. For this computation, we consider a spherical surface S^2, which divides the spatial slice of de Sitter (dS_4) into exterior and interior sub-regions. We also consider the initial choice of vacuum to be Bunch-Davies state. First we derive the solution of the wave function of the axion in a hyperbolic open chart by constructing a suitable basis for Bunch-Davies vacuum state using Bogoliubov transformation. We then derive the expression for density matrix by tracing over the exterior region. This allows us to compute the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy in 3+1 dimension. Furthermore, we quantify the UV-finite contribution of the entanglement entropy which contain the physics of long range quantum correlations of our expanding universe. Finally, our analysis complements the necessary condition for generating non-vanishing entanglement entropy in primordial cosmology due to the axion.

  20. Photogeneration of neutrino and axions under stimulating effect of strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Skobelev, V V

    2001-01-01

    The processes of the neutrino and axions photoproduction on the gamma(Ze) -> gamma(nu nu-bar), gamma alpha nuclei, as well as the photon inelastic scattering on the gamma gamma -> gamma(nu nu-bar), gamma alpha photon are considered within the frames of the developed two-dimensional co-variant theory for calculating the matrix of the Feynman diagrams in the strong magnetic field. The contribution of the neutrino radiative photoproduction on the nuclei to the luminosity of the magnetic neutron stars on the early stages of their evolution may compete with the URCA-processes, because the matrix elements in the four-pole diagram depend linearly on the induction of B magnetic field by the B values approx 10 sup 3 -10 sup 4 B sub 0 (B sub 0 = m sub e sup 2 /|e| = 4.41 x 10 sup 1 sup 3 Gs). The evaluation of the axion mass upper boundary, compatible with other independent results, is obtained from the condition of the neutrino luminosity prevailing over the axion one at supposed temperature and magnetic field inducti...

  1. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  2. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2007-05-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and private sponsors, the design and development efforts are well underway at many institutions, including top universities and leading national laboratories. The main science themes that drive the LSST system design are Dark Energy and Matter, the Solar System Inventory, Transient Optical Sky and the Milky Way Mapping. The LSST system, with its 8.4m telescope and 3,200 Megapixel camera, will be sited at Cerro Pachon in northern Chile, with the first light scheduled for 2014. In a continuous observing campaign, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two 15 second exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be observed about 1000 times, with the total exposure time of 8 hours distributed over six broad photometric bandpasses (ugrizY). This campaign will open a movie-like window on objects that change brightness, or move, on timescales ranging from 10 seconds to 10 years, and will produce a catalog containing over 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. The survey will have a data rate of about 30 TB/night, and will collect over 60 PB of raw data over its lifetime, resulting in an incredibly rich and extensive public archive that will be a treasure trove for breakthroughs in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics.

  3. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  4. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.

  5. The Falcon Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  6. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David H.; Jáuregui Correa, Juan-Carlos; Schloerb, F. Peter; Erickson, Neal; Romero, Jose Guichard; Heyer, Mark; Reynoso, David Huerta; Narayanan, Gopal; Perez-Grovas, Alfonso Serrano; Souccar, Kamal; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Volcán Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. The commissioning and scientific operation of the LMT is divided into two major phases. As part of phase 1, the installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation within the inner 32m-diameter of the LMT surface is now complete. The alignment of these surface segments is underway. The telescope (in its 32-m diameter format) will be commissioned later this year with first-light scientific observations at 1mm and 3mm expected in early 2011. In phase 2, we will continue the installation and alignment of the remainder of the reflector surface, following which the final commissioning of the full 50-m LMT will take place. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  7. Development of solar tower observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  8. Hypothetical Dark Matter/Axion rockets: What can be said about Dark Matter in terms of space physics propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    This paper discusses dark matter (DM) particle candidates from non-supersymmetry (SUSY) processes and explores how a DM candidate particle in the 100-400 GeV range could be created. Thrust from DM particles is also proposed for Photon rocket and Axion rockets. It would use a magnetic field to convert DM particles to near photonlike particles in a chamber to create thrust from the discharge of the near-photon-like particles. The presence of DM particles would suggest that thrust from the emerging near-photon-like particle would be greater than with conventional photon rockets. This amplifies and improves on an "axion rocket ramjet" for interstellar travel. It is assumed that the same methodology used in an axion ramjet could be used with DM, with perhaps greater thrust/power conversion efficiencies.

  9. Calibrating the Athena telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, J.; Guainazzi, M.; den Herder, J.; Bavdaz, M.; Burwitz, V.; Ferrando, P.; Lumb, D.; Natalucci, L.; Pajot, F.; Pareschi, G.

    2017-10-01

    Athena is ESA's upcoming X-ray mission, currently set for launch in 2028. With two nationally-funded, state-of-the-art instruments (a high-resolution spectrograph named X-IFU and a wide-field imager named WFI), and a telescope collecting area of 1.4-2 m^2 at 1 keV, the calibration of the spacecraft is a challenge in itself. This poster presents the current (spring 2017) plan of how to calibrate the Athena telescope. It is based on a hybrid approach, using bulk manufacturing and integration data as well as dedicated calibration measurements combined with a refined software model to simulate the full response of the optics.

  10. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  11. The Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  12. The COROT telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The COROT telescope, of which the customer is the French "INSU" / "CNES" (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers / Centre National des Etudes Spatiales) is in fact a very precise and stable imaging instrument, which will be pointed towards fixed areas in the sky (each containing more than 3000 target stars) for periods of at least 5 months, in order to carry out its two missions.

  13. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  14. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  15. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and is invisible to powerful telescopes in visible, X-ray or radio wavelengths. Photospheric features such as ..... gaps. 3000. 3100. 3200. GENERAL I ARTICLE which the light from entire solar disk is mixed together. In such observations, the Doppler shifts corresponding to the high degree modes, which have small structures ...

  16. On the mass of the world-sheet `axion' in SU(N) gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Teper, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is numerical evidence that the world sheet action of the confining flux tube in D=3+1 SU(N) gauge theories contains a massive excitation with 0- quantum numbers whose mass shows some decrease as one goes from SU(3) to SU(5). It has furthermore been shown that this particle is naturally described as arising from a topological interaction term in the world-sheet action, so that one can describe it as being `axion'-like. Recently it has been pointed out that if the mass of this `axion' van...

  17. New CAST limit on the axion–photon interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hypothetical low-mass particles, such as axions, provide a compelling explanation for the dark matter in the universe. Suchparticles are expected to emerge abundantly from the hot interior of stars. To test this prediction, the CERN Axion SolarTelescope (CAST) uses a 9 T refurbished Large Hadron...... Collider test magnet directed towards the Sun. In the strong magneticfield, solar axions can be converted to X-ray photons which can be recorded by X-ray detectors. In the 2013–2015 run, thanksto low-background detectors and a new X-ray telescope, the signal-to-noise ratio was increased by about a factor...

  18. Finding the chiral gravitational wave background of an axion-S U (2 ) inflationary model using CMB observations and laser interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Ben; Fujita, Tomohiro; Hazumi, Masashi; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2018-02-01

    A detection of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies would confirm the presence of a primordial gravitational wave background (GWB). In the inflation paradigm, this would be an unprecedented probe of the energy scale of inflation as it is directly proportional to the power spectrum of the GWB. However, similar tensor perturbations can be produced by the matter fields present during inflation, breaking the simple relationship between energy scale and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . It is therefore important to find ways of distinguishing between the generation mechanisms of the GWB. Without doing a full model selection, we analyze the detectability of a new axion-S U (2 ) gauge field model by calculating the signal-to-noise ratio of future CMB and interferometer observations sensitive to the chirality of the tensor spectrum. We forecast the detectability of the resulting CMB temperature and B-mode (TB) or E-mode and B-mode (EB) cross-correlation by the LiteBIRD satellite, considering the effects of residual foregrounds, gravitational lensing, and assess the ability of such an experiment to jointly detect primordial TB and EB spectra and self-calibrate its polarimeter. We find that LiteBIRD will be able to detect the chiral signal for r*>0.03 , with r* denoting the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the peak scale, and that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio for r*small scales inaccessible to the CMB, a highly significant detection could be made using space-based laser interferometers.

  19. Improved tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers for the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelley, Sean; Hansen, Jørn; Hilton, Gene; Mol, Jan-Michael; Clarke, John; ADMX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We describe a series of tunable microstrip SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) amplifiers (MSAs) used as the photon detector in the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX). Cooled to 100mK or lower, an optimized MSA approaches the quantum limit of detection. The axion dark matter candidate would be detected via Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q (~ 105) tunable microwave cavity, cooled to 1.6 K or lower, in the presence of a 7-tesla magnetic field. The MSA consists of a square loop of thin Nb film, incorporating two resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions biased to the voltage state, flux-coupled to a resonant microstrip. The photon frequency is determined by the unknown axion mass, so the cavity and amplifier must be tunable over a broad frequency range. MSA tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip with a GaAs varactor diode that operates at cryogenic temperatures. This voltage-controlled capacitance enables us to vary the resonant microstrip mode from nearly λ/2 to λ/4. We demonstrate gains exceeding 20 dB, at frequencies above 900 MHz. With proper design of the microwave environment, a noise temperature of 1/2 to 1/4 of the physical temperature is demonstrated. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, NSF Grant 1067242, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  20. 7th Patras workshop on axions, WIMPs and WISPs (PATRAS 2011). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zioutas, Konstantin; Schumann, Marc (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    The year 2011 was an exciting period to work on the ''dark side'' of the Universe. Several experimental claims of the direct detection of WIMP dark matter were challenged by the restrictive limits of several others. Dedicated experiments searching for axions, another well motivated dark matter candidate, and for axion-like particles continued to improve their limits and got an additional boost by puzzling astrophysical observations and new developments in theory. The LHC collected an unexpectedly large amount of data and started to produce results at an amazing speed. And finally, this year's Nobel price of physics was awarded to the observation of the accelerating expansion of the Universe, an effect which might be related to dark energy, whose nature remain among the biggest mysteries in physics. These exciting topics and many more important aspects of particle- and astroparticle physics were discussed between experimentalists and theorists at the 7th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs, and WISPs. The workshop took place from June 27 - July 1, 2011, in the Royal Myconian and Myconian Imperial Resorts Hotels on the Greek island of Mykonos. As in the previous years, it was a very fruitful and lively meeting in an inspiring and open atmosphere, which allowed for many open and constructive discussions also on controversial topics. The scientific exchange, the beautiful scenery of the island, the venue itself, the food, an excursion to the ancient ruins of Delos, and finally an amazing conference dinner made this meeting really unique. The ''spirit'' of the workshop and its atmosphere cannot be brought to paper, but many of its scientific highlights are collected in these proceedings. We are looking forward to the 8th Patras Workshop, which will be held in Chicago (USA) July 18-22, 2012. It will be organized jointly by our US colleagues Andrei Afanasev (JLAB), Oliver Baker (Yale), and William Wester (FNAL).