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Sample records for avoidance memory role

  1. Implicit and explicit measures of spider fear and avoidance behavior: Examination of the moderating role of working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effting, M.; Salemink, E.; Verschuere, B.; Beckers, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory

  2. Implicit and explicit measures of spider fear and avoidance behavior: Examination of the moderating role of working memory capacity.

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    Effting, Marieke; Salemink, Elske; Verschuere, Bruno; Beckers, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory capacity (WMC). A total of 63 participants completed an approach-avoidance task, an implicit association test, a spider fear questionnaire and a behavioral avoidance test that included an assessment of approach distance as well as approach speed. WMC was measured by a complex operation span task. It was hypothesized that in individuals with low WMC, implicit avoidance tendencies and implicit negative associations predict avoidance behavior for a spider better than the explicit measure, whereas in high WMC individuals, the explicit measure should better predict avoidance behavior than the implicit measures. Results revealed that WMC moderated the influence of implicit negative associations, but not implicit avoidance tendencies, on spider approach distance but not the speed of approaching. Although explicit spider fear directly influenced avoidance behavior, its impact was not modulated by WMC. Participants in our study were from a non-clinical sample, which limits the generalizability of our findings. These findings suggest that implicit processes might become more pertinent for fear behavior as the ability to control such processes wanes, which may be particularly relevant for anxiety disorders given their association with lowered executive control functioning. As such, training procedures that specifically target implicit processes or control abilities might improve treatment outcomes for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hippocampal-dependent memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: The role of spatial cues and CA1 activity.

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    Leão, Anderson H F F; Medeiros, André M; Apolinário, Gênedy K S; Cabral, Alícia; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Silva, Regina H

    2016-05-01

    The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT) has been used to investigate interactions between aversive memory and an anxiety-like response in rodents. Suitable performance in this task depends on the activity of the basolateral amygdala, similar to other aversive-based memory tasks. However, the role of spatial cues and hippocampal-dependent learning in the performance of PMDAT remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of proximal and distal cues in the retrieval of this task. Animals tested under misplaced proximal cues had diminished performance, and animals tested under both misplaced proximal cues and absent distal cues could not discriminate the aversive arm. We also assessed the role of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) in this aversive memory task. Temporary bilateral inactivation of dorsal CA1 was conducted with muscimol (0.05 μg, 0.1 μg, and 0.2 μg) prior to the training session. While the acquisition of the task was not altered, muscimol impaired the performance in the test session and reduced the anxiety-like response in the training session. We also performed a spreading analysis of a fluorophore-conjugated muscimol to confirm selective inhibition of CA1. In conclusion, both distal and proximal cues are required to retrieve the task, with the latter being more relevant to spatial orientation. Dorsal CA1 activity is also required for aversive memory formation in this task, and interfered with the anxiety-like response as well. Importantly, both effects were detected by different parameters in the same paradigm, endorsing the previous findings of independent assessment of aversive memory and anxiety-like behavior in the PMDAT. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PMDAT probably requires an integration of multiple systems for memory formation, resembling an episodic-like memory rather than a pure conditioning behavior. Furthermore, the concomitant and independent assessment of emotionality and memory in rodents is relevant to

  4. Reduction in Memory Specificity Following an Approach/Avoidance Scrambled Sentences Task Relates to Cognitive Avoidant Coping

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    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    "Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally…

  5. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

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    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  6. Effects of zolpidem on sedation, anxiety, and memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task.

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    Zanin, Karina A; Patti, Camilla L; Sanday, Leandro; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Oliveira, Larissa C; Poyares, Dalva; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Zolpidem (Zolp), a hypnotic drug prescribed to treat insomnia, may have negative effects on memory, but reports are inconsistent. We examined the effects of acute doses of Zolp (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory formation (learning, consolidation, and retrieval) using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. Mice were acutely treated with Zolp 30 min before training or testing. In addition, the effects of Zolp and midazolam (Mid; a classic benzodiazepine) on consolidation at different time points were examined. The possible role of state dependency was investigated using combined pre-training and pre-test treatments. Zolp produced a dose-dependent sedative effect, without modifying anxiety-like behavior. The pre-training administration of 5 or 10 mg/kg resulted in retention deficits. When administered immediately after training or before testing, memory was preserved. Zolp post-training administration (2 or 3 h) impaired subsequent memory. There was no participation of state dependency phenomenon in the amnestic effects of Zolp. Similar to Zolp, Mid impaired memory consolidation when administered 1 h after training. Amnestic effects occurred when Zolp was administered either before or 2-3 h after training. These memory deficits are not related to state dependency. Moreover, Zolp did not impair memory retrieval. Notably, the memory-impairing effects of Zolp are similar to those of Mid, with the exception of the time point at which the drug can modify consolidation. Finally, the memory effects were unrelated to sedation or anxiolysis.

  7. About sleep's role in memory.

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    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  8. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  9. Gaze movements and spatial working memory in collision avoidance: a traffic intersection task

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    Gregor eHardiess

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Street crossing under traffic is an everyday activity including collision detection as well as avoidance of objects in the path of motion. Such tasks demand extraction and representation of spatio-temporal information about relevant obstacles in an optimized format. Relevant task information is extracted visually by the use of gaze movements and represented in spatial working memory. In a virtual reality traffic intersection task, subjects are confronted with a two-lane intersection where cars are appearing with different frequencies, corresponding to high and low traffic densities. Under free observation and exploration of the scenery (using unrestricted eye and head movements the overall task for the subjects was to predict the potential-of-collision (POC of the cars or to adjust an adequate driving speed in order to cross the intersection without collision (i.e., to find the free space for crossing. In a series of experiments, gaze movement parameters, task performance, and the representation of car positions within working memory at distinct time points were assessed in normal subjects as well as in neurological patients suffering from homonymous hemianopia. In the following, we review the findings of these experiments together with other studies and provide a new perspective of the role of gaze behavior and spatial memory in collision detection and avoidance, focusing on the following questions: (i which sensory variables can be identified supporting adequate collision detection? (ii How do gaze movements and working memory contribute to collision avoidance when multiple moving objects are present and (iii how do they correlate with task performance? (iv How do patients with homonymous visual field defects use gaze movements and working memory to compensate for visual field loss? In conclusion, we extend the theory of collision detection and avoidance in the case of multiple moving objects and provide a new perspective on the combined

  10. Additive effect of harmane and muscimol for memory consolidation impairment in inhibitory avoidance task.

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    Nasehi, Mohammad; Morteza-Zadeh, Parastoo; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-12-17

    In the current study, we examined the effect of bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) microinjections of GABA A receptor agents on amnesia induced by a β-carboline alkaloid, harmane in mice. We used a single-trial step-down passive avoidance task to assess memory retention and then, open-field test to assess locomotor activity. The results indicated that post-training intra-CA1 injections of bicuculline - a GABA A receptor antagonist - had no significant effect, while muscimol (0.01 and 0.1μg/mouse) - a GABA A receptor agonist - impaired memory consolidation. Post-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) infusion of harmane (3 and 5mg/kg) decreased memory consolidation. Furthermore, post-training intra-CA1 administration of sub-threshold dose of bicuculline (0.001μg/mouse) restored, whereas muscimol (0.001μg/mouse) potentiated impairment of memory consolidation induced by harmane. The isobologram analysis revealed that there is an additive effect between harmane and muscimol on impairment of memory consolidation. Moreover, all above doses of drugs did not alter locomotor activity. These findings suggest that GABA A receptors of the CA1 area, at least partly, play a role in modulating the effect of harmane on memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-Training Reversible Disconnection of the Ventral Hippocampal-Basolateral Amygdaloid Circuits Impairs Consolidation of Inhibitory Avoidance Memory in Rats

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    Wang, Gong-Wu; Liu, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2017-01-01

    The ventral hippocampus (VH) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are both crucial in inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory. However, the exact role of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation is unclear. This study investigated the effect of post-training reversible disconnection of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation. Male Wistar rats…

  12. Effect of Magnesium Administration on Passive Avoidance Memory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, one study has discussed the effect of diabetes on behavior, memory and learning [7]. Pain caused by peripheral nerve neuropathy is also one of the major clinical complaints described by patients with diabetes, and this affects the quality life of those concerned. Thus, alleviation of pain in these patients is of prime.

  13. Effect of Magnesium Administration on Passive Avoidance Memory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of oral consumption of magnesium on the memory and pain sensation of diabetic rats. Methods: A total of ... There was also a significant reduction in mean LT of untreated diabetic group (p < 0.001) as indicated by the increased number of animals that entered the dark compartment. Plasma ...

  14. The role of social cognition in parasite and pathogen avoidance.

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    Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2018-07-19

    The acquisition and use of social information are integral to social behaviour and parasite/pathogen avoidance. This involves social cognition which encompasses mechanisms for acquiring, processing, retaining and acting on social information. Social cognition entails the acquisition of social information about others (i.e. social recognition) and from others (i.e. social learning). Social cognition involves assessing other individuals and their infection status and the pathogen and parasite threat they pose and deciding about when and how to interact with them. Social cognition provides a framework for examining pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours and their associated neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we briefly consider the relationships between social cognition and olfactory-mediated pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours. We briefly discuss aspects of (i) social recognition of actual and potentially infected individuals and the impact of parasite/pathogen threat on mate and social partner choice; (ii) the roles of 'out-groups' (strangers, unfamiliar individuals) and 'in-groups' (familiar individuals) in the expression of parasite/pathogen avoidance behaviours; (iii) individual and social learning, i.e. the utilization of the pathogen recognition and avoidance responses of others; and (iv) the neurobiological mechanisms, in particular the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin and steroid hormones (oestrogens) associated with social cognition and parasite/pathogen avoidance.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

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    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A test of the functional avoidance hypothesis in the development of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

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    Hallford, D J; Austin, D W; Raes, F; Takano, K

    2018-04-18

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found. In Study 2 (N = 318), we revised our measurements and used an increased timeframe of 12 months for both negative life events and daily hassles. The results showed no interaction effect for negative life events, but they did show an interaction for daily hassles, whereby increased hassles and higher avoidance of thinking about them were associated with reduced AM specificity, independent of general cognitive avoidance and depressive symptoms. No evidence was found that cognitive avoidance or AM specificity moderated the effect of negative experiences on depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that life events over 6-12 months are not associated with AM specificity, but chronic daily hassles over 12 months predict reduced AM specificity when individuals avoid thinking about them. The findings provide evidence for the functional-avoidance hypothesis of OGM development and future directions for longitudinal studies.

  17. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

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    Erik B Oleson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: 1 fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, 2 the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, 3 over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety 4 the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain’s incentive-motivational circuitry.

  18. Auditory distraction and serial memory: The avoidable and the ineluctable

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    Dylan M Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the serial order processing of the visually presented items and the serial order coding that is the by-product of the streaming of the sound. However, recently emerging work shows that the distraction from a single sound (one deviating from a prevailing sequence results in attentional capture and is qualitatively distinct from that of a sequence in being restricted in its action to encoding, not to rehearsal of list members. Capture is also sensitive to the sensory task load, suggesting that it is subject to top-down control and therefore avoidable. These two forms of distraction-conflict of process and attentional capture-may be two consequences of auditory perceptual organization processes that serve to strike the optimal balance between attentional selectivity and distractability.

  19. Effects of Exercise on Memory Retrieval in Passive Avoidance Learning in Young Male Wistar Rats

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    M. Mashhadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise seems to be a simple and widely practiced behavior that activates molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. There has been more attention to the effects of exercise on nervous system and memory during recent years. So, we decided to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval in young rats by passive avoidance learning.MethodsIn this study fifty male Wistar rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Those in the control group were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min, 24 hrs, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised in treadmill one hour at 17 m/min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min and 24 hrs later. Data were analyzed using T and paired T tests. The other two groups for research effects of exercise in memory retrieval first were trained and tested 10 days and 24 hrs later and then exercised in treadmill like the other two groups; the latter groups were tested after exercise.ResultsThe obtained results showed that short–term (10 days and long – term(3 months exercise before training had significant (P<0.05 effects on memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning, but no difference was observed in latency time in passive avoidance between short–term (10 days and long–term(3 months exercise groups after training with before exercise. ConclusionOur results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement on learning and memory consolidation but there were no significant effects on memory retrieval. Keywords: Exercise; Mental Recall; Exercise Test; Retention (Psychology; rat, Avoidance Learning.

  20. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

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    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  1. Effects of glibenclamide on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats

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    MH. Esmaeili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose increases memory in rats, and inhibit memory impairments produced by morphine. One mechanism by which glucose might act on memory via regulating the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Objective: The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of glibenclamide on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Methods: This experimental study has been conducted in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (2016. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into: Control, DMSO and glibenclamide groups (n=8. All rats were trained in a passive avoidance task (50 Hz, 1 mA, 3 s. DMSO (0.2 ml or glibenclamide (1, 2, 5 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 10 days before training. Retention test was done 48 h later. Memory retention of each animal was measured as latency takes to enter the dark chamber. Findings: The time spent in the light chamber area before entering to the dark area and total time spent in the light chamber in the glibenclamide groups were less than control group. These times in the glibenclamide (5 mg/kg group was significantly lower than control group (P<0.05, conversely total time spent in the dark chamber in the glibenclamide groups were higher than control group. Conclusion: Glibenclamide, as an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, may reduce memory retention by increasing insulin levels and, consequently, reducing blood glucose levels.

  2. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

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    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  3. Memory Erasure Experiments Indicate a Critical Role of CaMKII in Memory Storage.

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    Rossetti, Tom; Banerjee, Somdeb; Kim, Chris; Leubner, Megan; Lamar, Casey; Gupta, Pooja; Lee, Bomsol; Neve, Rachael; Lisman, John

    2017-09-27

    The abundant synaptic protein CaMKII is necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. However, whether CaMKII is required only during initial processes or whether it also mediates memory storage remains unclear. The most direct test of a storage role is the erasure test. In this test, a putative memory molecule is inhibited after learning. The key prediction is that this should produce persistent memory erasure even after the inhibitory agent is removed. We conducted this test using transient viral (HSV) expression of dominant-negative CaMKII-alpha (K42M) in the hippocampus. This produced persistent erasure of conditioned place avoidance. As an additional test, we found that expression of activated CaMKII (T286D/T305A/T306A) impaired place avoidance, a result not expected if a process other than CaMKII stores memory. Our behavioral results, taken together with prior experiments on LTP, strongly support a critical role of CaMKII in LTP maintenance and memory storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

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    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  5. Critical period of memory enhancement during taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

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    Takahashi, Tomoyo; Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimal training procedure leading to long-lasting taste avoidance behavior in Lymnaea. A training procedure comprising 5 repeated pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS, sucrose), with an unconditional stimulus (US, a tactile stimulation to the animal's head), over a 4-day period resulted in an enhanced memory formation than 10 CS-US repeated pairings over a 2-day period or 20 CS-US repeated pairings on a single day. Backward conditioning (US-CS) pairings did not result in conditioning. Thus, this taste avoidance conditioning was CS-US pairing specific. Food avoidance behavior was not observed following training, however, if snails were immediately subjected to a cold-block (4°C for 10 min). It was critical that the cold-block be applied within 10 min to block long-term memory (LTM) formation. Further, exposure to the cold-block 180 min after training also blocked both STM and LTM formation. The effects of the cold-block on subsequent learning and memory formation were also examined. We found no long lasting effects of the cold-block on subsequent memory formation. If protein kinase C was activated before the conditioning paradigm, snails could still acquire STM despite exposure to the cold-block.

  6. Critical period of memory enhancement during taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

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    Tomoyo Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the optimal training procedure leading to long-lasting taste avoidance behavior in Lymnaea. A training procedure comprising 5 repeated pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS, sucrose, with an unconditional stimulus (US, a tactile stimulation to the animal's head, over a 4-day period resulted in an enhanced memory formation than 10 CS-US repeated pairings over a 2-day period or 20 CS-US repeated pairings on a single day. Backward conditioning (US-CS pairings did not result in conditioning. Thus, this taste avoidance conditioning was CS-US pairing specific. Food avoidance behavior was not observed following training, however, if snails were immediately subjected to a cold-block (4°C for 10 min. It was critical that the cold-block be applied within 10 min to block long-term memory (LTM formation. Further, exposure to the cold-block 180 min after training also blocked both STM and LTM formation. The effects of the cold-block on subsequent learning and memory formation were also examined. We found no long lasting effects of the cold-block on subsequent memory formation. If protein kinase C was activated before the conditioning paradigm, snails could still acquire STM despite exposure to the cold-block.

  7. The roles of the actin cytoskeleton in fear memory formation

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    Raphael eLamprecht

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation and storage of fear memory is needed to adapt behavior and avoid danger during subsequent fearful events. However, fear memory may also play a significant role in stress and anxiety disorders. When fear becomes disproportionate to that necessary to cope with a given stimulus, or begins to occur in inappropriate situations, a fear or anxiety disorder exists. Thus, the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning fear memory may shed light on the formation of memory and on anxiety and stress related disorders. Evidence indicates that fear learning leads to changes in neuronal synaptic transmission and morphology in brain areas underlying fear memory formation including the amygdala and hippocampus. The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to participate in these key neuronal processes. Recent findings show that the actin cytoskeleton is needed for fear memory formation and extinction. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton is involved in synaptic plasticity and in neuronal morphogenesis in brain areas that mediate fear memory. The actin cytoskeleton may therefore mediate between synaptic transmission during fear learning and long-term cellular alterations mandatory for fear memory formation.

  8. Effects of Exercise on Memory Retrieval in Passive Avoidance Learning in Young Male Wistar Rats

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    H Saadati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Exercise seems to be a simple and widely practiced behavior that activates molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. There has been more attention to the effects of exercise on nervous system and memory during recent years. So, we decided to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval in young rats by passive avoidance learning.

     

    Methods

    In this study fifty male Wistar rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Those in the control group were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min, 24 hrs, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised in treadmill one hour at 17 m/min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min and 24 hrs later. Data were analyzed using T and paired T tests.

    The other two groups for research effects of exercise in memory retrieval first were trained and tested 10 days and 24 hrs later and then exercised in treadmill like the other two groups; the latter groups were tested after exercise.

     

    Results

    The obtained results showed that short–term (10 days and long – term(3 months exercise before training had significant (P<0.05 effects on memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning, but no difference was observed in latency time in passive avoidance between short–term (10 days and long–term(3 months exercise groups after training with before exercise.

     

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement on learning and memory consolidation but there were no significant effects on memory retrieval

  9. Intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice via H2 receptors.

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    Gianlorenço, A C L; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

    2013-12-17

    Studies have demonstrated the relationship between the histaminergic system and the cerebellum, and we intend to investigate the role of the cerebellar histaminergic system on memory consolidation. This study investigated the effect of intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine on memory retention of inhibitory avoidance in mice, and the role of H1 and H2 receptors in it. The cerebellar vermis of male mice were implanted with guide cannulae, and after three days of recovery, the inhibitory avoidance test was performed. Immediately after a training session, animals received a microinjection of histaminergic drugs: in the experiment 1, saline (SAL) or histamine (HA 0.54, 1.36, 2.72 or 4.07 nmol); experiment 2, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 0.16 nmol chlorpheniramine (CPA) or SAL; and experiment 3, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 2.85 nmol ranitidine (RA) or SAL. Twenty-four hours later, a retention test was performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests. In experiment 1, animals microinjected with 1.36 nmol HA showed a higher latency to cross to the dark compartment compared to controls and to 2.72 and 4.07 nmol HA groups. In experiment 2, the combined infusions revealed difference between control (SAL+SAL) and SAL+HA and CPA+HA; while in the experiment 3 the analysis indicated differences in retention latency between mice injected with SAL+SAL and SAL+HA. The groups that received the H2 antagonist RA did not show difference compared to control. These results indicate that 1.36 nmol HA enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice and that the pretreatment with H2 antagonist RA was able to prevent this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Methylphenidate on Retention and Retrieval of Passive Avoidance Memory in Young and Aged Mice

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    Arzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies showed that dopamine and norepinephrine improve retention and retrieval of memory. Methylphenidate is an enhancer of dopamine and norepinephrine in brain. Objectives In the present study, the effect of methylphenidate was evaluated on retention and retrieval of memory in young and aged mice using passive avoidance apparatus. Materials and Methods Animals were divided into groups (n = 8 as follows: test groups received electric shock plus methylphenidate (2.5, 5 and 10mg kg-1, i. P., control group received electric shock plus normal saline and blank group received only electric shock. In all groups, step-down latency for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. Methylphenidate was administered immediately after receiving electric shock in the retention test, but methylphenidate was administered 23.5 hours after receiving electric shock in the retrieval test. Results The mean of step-down latency on day 4 was significantly higher compared to day 2 (P < 0.05 in all young and aged groups of mice. The best response was attained with 5 mg/kg of methylphenidate. In memory retention test, the mean of step-down latency in young groups that received 2.5 and 5 mg/kg methylphenidate was significantly longer(P < 0.05 than aged groups. However, this difference was not significant in memory retrieval test. Conclusions Methylphenidate may improve memory retention and retrieval.

  11. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

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    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  12. Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat Hippocampus.

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    Radiske, Andressa; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Conde-Ocazionez, Sergio A; Feitosa, Anatildes; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín

    2017-10-04

    Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. Disruption of reconsolidation, the process by which reactivated memories become susceptible to modifications, is a promising approach for treating PTSD patients. However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an

  13. The effect of pyrazine odor on avoidance learning and memory in wild robins Erithacus rubecula

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    Emma C. SIDDALL, Nicola M. MARPLES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic insects advertise their defended state to potential predators using warning displays. Frequently these displays use cues through more than one sensory modality, and combine color, smell and sound to produce a multimodal warning display. Signalling through more than one sensory pathway may enhance the rate of avoidance learning, and the memorability of the learned avoidance. A common insect warning odor, pyrazine, has previously been shown to increase the rate of learned avoidance of unpalatable yellow prey by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus, and the odor also improved memory of this learned avoidance. However, to date no research has examined this response to pyrazine odor using wild birds under natural conditions. This study used wild robins (Erithacus rubecula to investigate whether wild birds avoided yellow baits that smelled of pyrazine more strongly than those presented with no odor. The results provide some evidence that pyrazine odor does increase the level of protection an aposematic insect gains from a wild avian predator, but that the effect of pyrazine on learned avoidance was much weaker than was found with domestic chicks [Current Zoology 57 (2: 208–214, 2011].

  14. The anticancer estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen impairs consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory through estrogen receptor alpha.

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    Lichtenfels, Martina; Dornelles, Arethuza da Silva; Petry, Fernanda Dos Santos; Blank, Martina; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2017-11-01

    Over two-thirds of women with breast cancer have positive tumors for hormone receptors, and these patients undergo treatment with endocrine therapy, tamoxifen being the most widely used agent. Despite being very effective in breast cancer treatment, tamoxifen is associated with side effects that include cognitive impairments. However, the specific aspects and mechanisms underlying these impairments remain to be characterized. Here, we have investigated the effects of tamoxifen and interaction with estrogen receptors on formation of memory for inhibitory avoidance conditioning in female rats. In the first experiment, Wistar female rats received a single oral dose of tamoxifen (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg) or saline by gavage immediately after training and were tested for memory consolidation 24 h after training. In the second experiment, rats received a single dose of 1 mg/kg tamoxifen or saline by gavage 3 h after training and were tested 24 h after training for memory consolidation. In the third experiment, rats received a subcutaneous injection with estrogen receptor α agonist or estrogen receptor beta agonist 30 min before the training. After training, rats received a single oral dose of tamoxifen 1 mg/kg or saline and were tested 24 h after training. In the fourth experiment, rats were trained and tested 24 h later. Immediately after test, rats received a single dose of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) or saline by gavage and were given four additional daily test trials followed by a re-instatement. Tamoxifen at 1 mg/kg impaired memory consolidation when given immediately after training and the estrogen receptor alpha agonist improved the tamoxifen-related memory impairment. Moreover, tamoxifen impairs memory consolidation of the test. These findings indicate that estrogen receptors regulate the early phase of memory consolidation and the effects of tamoxifen on memory consolidation.

  15. Prelimbic cortex extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation is required for memory retrieval of long-term inhibitory avoidance.

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    Luo, Fei; Zheng, Jian; Sun, Xuan; Deng, Wei-Ke; Li, Bao Ming; Liu, Fang

    2017-04-15

    Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABA A -receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-h inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30min prior to test. The present study provides evidence that retrieval of long-lasting memory for inhibitory avoidance requires mPFC and involves the ERK-CREB signaling cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological differences between memory consolidation of habituation to an open field and inhibitory avoidance learning

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    Vianna M.R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex were submitted to either a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task, or to 5 min of habituation to an open field. Immediately after training, they received intrahippocampal or intraentorhinal 0.5-µl infusions of saline, of a vehicle (2% dimethylsulfoxide in saline, of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphono pentanoic acid (AP5, of the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMPs (0.5 µg/side, of the calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62, of the dopaminergic D1 antagonist SCH23390, or of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059. Animals were tested in each task 24 h after training. Intrahippocampal KN-62 was amnestic for habituation; none of the other treatments had any effect on the retention of this task. In contrast, all of them strongly affected memory of the avoidance task. Intrahippocampal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62 and AP5, and intraentorhinal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62, PD098059 and SCH23390 caused retrograde amnesia. In view of the known actions of the treatments used, the present findings point to important biochemical differences in memory consolidation processes of the two tasks.

  17. Effect of Royal Jelly on Improving Passive Avoidance Learning and Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats

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    H Alaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have proposed that royal jelly(RJ has various biological activities in different cells and tissues. Since it has been demonstrated that RJ contains compounds having desirable effects on central neurons system and neural functions, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of royal jelly on learning and memory in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into two groups, the royal jelly and the control. In the RJ group, the rats received a food that contained 3% RJ instead of regular food for 10 days. Then learning and memory were investigated in these animals through both passive avoidance learning test(1 day and 1 week after receiving electrical shock and Morris water maze test(1 day and 1 week after a 4-day learning period. Results: The study results indicated that the food containing RJ in the RJ group significantly increased the time of the first entrance to the dark room one week after the electrical shock in passive avoidance learning test. In other words, the findings suggest an improvement of learning and memory in RJ group. In the acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, rats receiving RJ found the underwater escape plate during less time and distance comparing with the control group. Furthermore, one week after the acquisition phase, in the retention phase, rats spent more time in the quadrant in which the escape plate was previously located. Conclusion: The present study findings propose that Royal Jelly can improve cognitive processes through positive effects on neural functions and probably has a significant influence on prevention and therapy of some neuronal disorders.

  18. The effects of intrahippocampus injection of progesterone on passive avoidance learning and memory in adult male rats

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    Tahmoores Shahrivar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone as a reproductive hormone is studied in the brain structure. New studies are mainly about systemic injection and have shown that the progesterone has different effects on memory. But it is not clear if hippocampus is mediator of progesterone in reinforcement of memory and learning. So, the effects of intra-hippocampal injection of progesterone on passive avoidance memory and learning was studied in male Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Animals were divided in eightgroups as a control, saline, almond oil (as a vehicle and progesterone groups (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3µg/Kg. body weight. All groups except the control were cannulated in left CA1 area by stereotaxic device. One week after recovery, all groups were trained by shuttle box and immediately after training different doses of progesterone in the volume of 0.5μL were injected through the cannula in CA1 of hippocampus and control groups received saline and almond oil at the same volume and condition respectively. After 48 hours passive avoidance memory and learning was evaluated. Results: Statistical analysis showed that 0.5, 1.5, 2 µg/µl progesterone groups had significantly improved passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group (p <0.001, but 1 and 3 µg/µl progesterone groups did not show significant effect on passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group. Also almond oil increased passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group (p <0.001. Conclusion: It seems that effects of progesterone as a neurosteroid on memory and learning depend on its dose. Also almond oil contains vitamin E, omega 3 and oleic acid that has beneficial effects on learning and memory.

  19. The effect of Resveratrol flavonoid on learning and memory in passive avoidance and Y maze in diabetic rat

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    Sima Nasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol-treated control, diabetic and resveratrol-treated diabetic groups. We used streptozotosin for inducing diabetes. Resveratrol (10mg/kg I.p. was administered for 8 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. For Statistical analysis, SPSS software and paired T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Resveratrol decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats (P<0.01. In passive avoidance learning, there wasn’t any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. Also, a significant decrease of step latency was observed in diabetic and treated diabetic rats (P<0.01. In Y maze, Resveratrol improved alternation percentage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn’t improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. In Y maze, method for determining the spatial memory, resveratrol improved spatial memory in diabetic rats. Resveratrol not only regulates glucose in diabetic rats but also it improves short term memory.

  20. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

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    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  1. Gap junctions and memory: an investigation using a single trial discrimination avoidance task for the neonate chick.

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    Verwey, L J; Edwards, T M

    2010-02-01

    Gap junctions are important to how the brain functions but are relatively under-investigated with respect to their contribution towards behaviour. In the present study a single trial discrimination avoidance task was used to investigate the effect of the gap junction inhibitor 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (alphaGA) on retention. Past studies within our research group have implied a potential role for gap junctions during the short-term memory (STM) stage which decays by 15 min post-training. A retention function study comparing 10 microM alphaGA and vehicle given immediately post-training demonstrated a significant main effect for drug with retention loss at all times of test (10-180 min post-training). Given that the most common gap junction in the brain is that forming the astrocytic network it is reasonable to conclude that alphaGA was acting upon these. To confirm this finding and interpretation two additional investigations were undertaken using endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-1+tolbutamide. Importantly, a retention function study using 10nM ET-1 replicated the retention loss observed for alphaGA. In order to confirm that ET-1 was acting on astrocytic gap junctions the amnestic action of ET-1 was effectively challenged with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. The present findings suggest that astrocytic gap junctions are important for memory processing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Inhibition in Avoiding Distraction by Salient Stimuli.

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    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have long debated whether salient stimuli can involuntarily 'capture' visual attention. We review here evidence for a recently discovered inhibitory mechanism that may help to resolve this debate. This evidence suggests that salient stimuli naturally attempt to capture attention, but capture can be avoided if the salient stimulus is suppressed before it captures attention. Importantly, the suppression process can be more or less effective as a result of changing task demands or lapses in cognitive control. Converging evidence for the existence of this suppression mechanism comes from multiple sources, including psychophysics, eye-tracking, and event-related potentials (ERPs). We conclude that the evidence for suppression is strong, but future research will need to explore the nature and limits of this mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential Effects of Inactivation of Discrete Regions of Medial Prefrontal Cortex on Memory Consolidation of Moderate and Intense Inhibitory Avoidance Training

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    María E. Torres-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in memory encoding of aversive events, such as inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Dissociable roles have been described for different mPFC subregions regarding various memory processes, wherein the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prelimbic cortex (PL, and infralimbic cortex (IL are involved in acquisition, retrieval, and extinction of aversive events, respectively. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intense training impedes the effects on memory of treatments that typically interfere with memory consolidation. The aim of this work was to determine if there are differential effects on memory induced by reversible inactivation of neural activity of ACC, PL, or IL produced by tetrodotoxin (TTX in rats trained in IA using moderate (1.0 mA and intense (3.0 mA foot-shocks. We found that inactivation of ACC has no effects on memory consolidation, regardless of intensity of training. PL inactivation impairs memory consolidation in the 1.0 mA group, while no effect on consolidation was produced in the 3.0 mA group. In the case of IL, a remarkable amnestic effect in LTM was observed in both training conditions. However, state-dependency can explain the amnestic effect of TTX found in the 3.0 mA IL group. In order to circumvent this effect, TTX was injected into IL immediately after training (thus avoiding state-dependency. The behavioral results are equivalent to those found after PL inactivation. Therefore, these findings provide evidence that PL and IL, but not ACC, mediate LTM of IA only in moderate training.

  4. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

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    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  5. Protein kinase C mediates memory consolidation of taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

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    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Kuzirian, Alan M; Alkon, Daniel L; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    In Lymnaea stagnalis, in order to obtain a 10 min short-term memory (STM) of taste avoidance conditioning (TAC) at least 10 paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS), sucrose, and an unconditioned stimulus (US), tactile stimulation to the animal's head, are required. Pre-exposure of snails to the protein kinase C (PKC) α and ε activator bryostatin (Bryo) facilitated STM formation in that only 5 paired CS-US trials were required. Typically 20 paired presentations of the CS-US are required for formation of STM and LTM. However, 20 paired presentations do not result in STM or LTM if snails are pre-incubated with a PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. We also found that LTM lasting longer than 48 h was acquired with Bryo incubation for 45 min even after termination of the conditioning paradigm. These data suggest that activation of the α and ε isozymes of PKC is crucially involved in the formation of LTM and provide further support for a mechanism that has been conserved across the evolution of species ranging from invertebrate molluscs to higher mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Caffeine prevents disruption of memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks by scopolamine in adult mice.

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    Botton, Paulo Henrique; Costa, Marcelo S; Ardais, Ana Paula; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Souza, Diogo O; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2010-12-25

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant with positive effects on cognition. Recent studies have suggested the participation of the cholinergic system in the effects of caffeine on wakefulness. However, there are few studies assessing the contribution of cholinergic system in the cognitive enhancer properties of caffeine. In the present study, the effects of a dose and schedule of administration of caffeine that improved memory recognition were investigated on scopolamine-induced impairment of memory in adult mice. Inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks were used to assess learning and memory. Caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during 4 consecutive days, and the treatment was interrupted 24h before scopolamine administration (2mg/kg, i.p.). Scopolamine was administered prior to or immediately after training. Short-term and long-term memory was evaluated in both tasks. In the novel object recognition task, pre treatment with caffeine prevented the disruption of short- and long-term memory by scopolamine. In the inhibitory avoidance task, caffeine prevented short- but not long-term memory disruption by pre training administration of scopolamine. Caffeine prevented short- and long-term memory disruption by post training administration of scopolamine. Both treatments did not affect locomotor activity of the animals. These findings suggest that acute treatment with caffeine followed by its withdrawal may be effective against cholinergic-induced disruption of memory assessed in an aversive and non-aversive task. Finally, our results revealed that the cholinergic system is involved in the positive effects of caffeine on cognitive functions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Damage of GABAergic neurons in the medial septum impairs spatial working memory and extinction of active avoidance: effects on proactive interference.

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    Pang, Kevin C H; Jiao, Xilu; Sinha, Swamini; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band (MSDB) are important in spatial learning and memory. On the basis of the excitotoxic damage of GABAergic MSDB neurons, we have recently suggested a role for these neurons in controlling proactive interference. Our study sought to test this hypothesis in different behavioral procedures using a new GABAergic immunotoxin. GABA-transporter-saporin (GAT1-SAP) was administered into the MSDB of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following surgery, rats were trained in a reference memory water maze procedure for 5 days, followed by a working memory (delayed match to position) water maze procedure. Other rats were trained in a lever-press avoidance procedure after intraseptal GAT1-SAP or sham surgery. Intraseptal GAT1-SAP extensively damaged GABAergic neurons while sparing most cholinergic MSDB neurons. Rats treated with GAT1-SAP were not impaired in acquiring a spatial reference memory, learning the location of the escape platform as rapidly as sham rats. In contrast, GAT1-SAP rats were slower than sham rats to learn the platform location in a delayed match to position procedure, in which the platform location was changed every day. Moreover, GAT1-SAP rats returned to previous platform locations more often than sham rats. In the active avoidance procedure, intraseptal GAT1-SAP impaired extinction but not acquisition of the avoidance response. Using a different neurotoxin and behavioral procedures than previous studies, the results of this study paint a similar picture that GABAergic MSDB neurons are important for controlling proactive interference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

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    Cadavid, Sara; Beato, Maria Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively) were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on recollection

  9. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cadavid

    Full Text Available Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on

  10. Effects of different doses of glucose and insulin on morphine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M R; Zarrindast, M R; Djahanguiri, B

    2004-10-01

    Behavioral effects of morphine, including its effect on memory, have been demonstrated to be influenced by glucose pretreatment. The measurement of step-down latency in passive avoidance has been used to study memory in laboratory animals. The pre-training injection of 5 mg/kg morphine impaired memory, which was restored when 24 h later the same dose of the drug was administered. To investigate the effects of glucose and insulin alone or in combination with morphine, on pre-test day, on memory recall in mice. The effects of different doses of glucose (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, IP) and insulin (5, 10, and 20 IU/kg, IP) alone or in combination with morphine, have been studied in mice. The blood glucose level and locomotor activity of the animals were also measured. Although the administration of glucose alone showed no effect on morphine-induced memory impairment, its co-administration with morphine resulted in a significant and dose-dependent memory enhancement compared with the effects of morphine administration alone. Like glucose, the administration of different doses of insulin alone produced no change in the memory, but when the drug was co-administered with morphine, it significantly reduced morphine-induced memory retrieval. The effect of insulin was the opposite of glucose. None of the animals subjected to insulin treatment showed convulsions. Glucose is suggested to increase, on the test day, the morphine-induced memory enhancement by three different mechanisms: cholinergic or opioidergic modulations, or regulation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels.

  11. The Role and Mechanisms of Action of Glucocorticoid Involvement in Memory Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Adrenal steroid hormones modulate learning and memory processes by interacting with specific glucocorticoid receptors at different brain areas. In this article, certain components of the physiological response to stress elicited by learning situations are proposed to form an integral aspect of the neurobiological mechanism underlying memory formation. By reviewing the work carried out in different learning models in chicks (passive avoidance learning) and rats (spatial orientation in the Morris water maze and contextual fear conditioning), a role for brain corticosterone action through the glucocorticoid receptor type on the mechanisms of memory consolidation is hypothesized. Evidence is also presented to relate post-training corticosterone levels to the strength of memory storage. Finally, the possible molecular mechanisms that might mediate the influences of glucocorticoids in synaptic plasticity subserving long-term memory formation are considered, mainly by focusing on studies implicating a steroid action through (i) glutamatergic transmission and (ii) cell adhesion molecules. PMID:9920681

  12. The role of novelty detection in food memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morin-Audebrand, L.; Mojet, J.; Chabanet, C.; Issanchou, S.; Moeller, P.; Koester, E.; Sulmont-Rossé, C.

    2012-01-01

    Memory plays a central role in food choice. Recent studies focusing on food memory in everyday eating and drinking behaviour used a paradigm based on incidental learning of target foods and unexpected memory testing, demanding recognition of the target among distractors, which deviate slightly from

  13. The role of novelty detection in food memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Audebrand, Léri; Mojet, Jos; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Møller, Per; Köster, Ep; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Memory plays a central role in food choice. Recent studies focusing on food memory in everyday eating and drinking behaviour used a paradigm based on incidental learning of target foods and unexpected memory testing, demanding recognition of the target among distractors, which deviate slightly from the target. Results question the traditional view of memory as reactivation of previous experiences. Comparison of data from several experiments shows that in incidentally learned memory, distractors are rejected, while original targets are not recognised better than by chance guessing. Food memory is tuned at detecting novelty and change, rather than at recognising a previously encountered food. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The role of NPY in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, C. R.; Woldbye, D. P. D.

    2016-01-01

    with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping......High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY...... acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region...

  15. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…

  16. Declarative vs. Procedural Memory: Roles in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Fakhraee Faruji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory is not a single faculty but is a combination of multiple distinct abilities (Schacter, 1987. The declarative-procedural distinction is used both with regard to knowledge and memory that stores this knowledge. Ellis (2008 used the terms explicit/implicit, and declarative/procedural interchangeably. In this article the researcher aims at identifying the different aspects of declarative/procedural memory, interaction between these two types of memory, and the role they may play in second language acquisition.

  17. Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Young Ki

    2015-09-15

    Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience of sexual violence, including initial post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive characteristics. Participants were recruited from the center for women and children victims of violence in a university hospital. Thirty-four sexual assault victims were assessed at the baseline and the second visit one to five months after the baseline. At the baseline, an array of posttraumatic symptoms and cognitive functions were measured: at follow-up, PTSD symptoms were determined by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P PTSD symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity. This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also suggested that early intervention targeting avoidance symptoms may be beneficial in decreasing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal exposure to genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, improves spatial learning and memory but impairs passive avoidance learning and memory in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Yumi; Kuwahara, Rika; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Jojima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2014-05-10

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal genistein (GEN) exposure on the central nervous system of rat offspring. Pregnant dams orally received GEN (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (1 ml/kg/day) from gestation day 10 to postnatal day 14. In order to assess the effects of GEN on rat offspring, we used a battery of behavioral tests, including the open-field, elevated plus-maze, MAZE and step-through passive avoidance tests. MAZE test is an appetite-motivation test, and we used this mainly for assessing spatial learning and memory. In the MAZE test, GEN groups exhibited shorter latency from start to goal than the vehicle-treated group in both sexes. On the other hand, performances in the step-through passive avoidance test were non-monotonically inhibited by GEN in both sexes, and a significant difference was observed in low dose of the GEN-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group in female rats. Furthermore, we found that perinatal exposure to GEN did not significantly alter locomotor activity or emotionality as assessed by the open-field and elevated-plus maze tests. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to GEN improved spatial learning and memory of rat offspring, but impaired their passive avoidance learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic cyanidin-3-glucoside administration improves short-term spatial recognition memory but not passive avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Sima; Roghani, Mehrdad; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Balvardi, Mahboubeh; Rabani, Tahereh

    2012-08-01

    This research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) on alleviation of learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats as a result of the observed antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of C3G. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, C3G-treated-control and -diabetic groups. The C3G was administered i.p. at a dose of 10 mg/kg on alternate days for eight weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL) and step-through latency (STL) were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, spatial recognition memory was assessed as alternation in the Y-maze task. Oxidative stress markers in brain tissue were also measured. It was found that the alternation score of the diabetic rats was lower than that of control (p chronic C3G could improve short-term spatial recognition memory disturbance in the Y-maze test but not retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Interactions of nitric oxide with α2‐adrenoceptors within the locus coeruleus underlie the facilitation of inhibitory avoidance memory by agmatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkar, Gajanan P; Gakare, Sukanya G; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Dravid, Shashank M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter, plays a vital role in learning and memory. Although it is considered an endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, agmatine exhibits high affinity for α‐adrenoceptors, NOS and NMDA receptors. These substrates within the locus coeruleus (LC) are critically involved in learning and memory processes. Experimental Approach The hippocampus and LC of male Wistar rat were stereotaxically cannulated for injection. Effects of agmatine, given i.p. or intra‐LC, on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory were measured. The NO donor S‐nitrosoglutathione, non‐specific (L‐NAME) and specific NOS inhibitors (L‐NIL, 7‐NI, L‐NIO), the α2‐adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine) or the corresponding agonist (clonidine) were injected intra‐LC before agmatine. Intra‐hippocampal injections of the NMDA antagonist, MK‐801 (dizocilpine), were used to modify the memory enhancing effects of agmatine, SNG and yohimbine. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and eNOS in the LC was assessed immunohistochemically. Key Results Agmatine (intra‐LC or i.p.) facilitated memory retrieval in the IA test. S‐nitrosoglutathione potentiated, while L‐NAME and L‐NIO decreased, these effects of agmatine. L‐NIL and 7‐NI did not alter the effects of agmatine. Yohimbine potentiated, whereas clonidine attenuated, effects of agmatine within the LC. The effects of agmatine, S‐nitrosoglutathione and yohimbine were blocked by intra‐hippocampal MK‐801. Agmatine increased the population of TH‐ and eNOS‐immunoreactive elements in the LC. Conclusions and Implications The facilitation of memory retrieval in the IA test by agmatine is probably mediated by interactions between eNOS, NO and noradrenergic pathways in the LC. PMID:27273730

  1. Interactions of nitric oxide with α2 -adrenoceptors within the locus coeruleus underlie the facilitation of inhibitory avoidance memory by agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkar, Gajanan P; Gakare, Sukanya G; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Dravid, Shashank M; Ugale, Rajesh R

    2016-09-01

    Agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter, plays a vital role in learning and memory. Although it is considered an endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, agmatine exhibits high affinity for α-adrenoceptors, NOS and NMDA receptors. These substrates within the locus coeruleus (LC) are critically involved in learning and memory processes. The hippocampus and LC of male Wistar rat were stereotaxically cannulated for injection. Effects of agmatine, given i.p. or intra-LC, on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory were measured. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione, non-specific (L-NAME) and specific NOS inhibitors (L-NIL, 7-NI, L-NIO), the α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine) or the corresponding agonist (clonidine) were injected intra-LC before agmatine. Intra-hippocampal injections of the NMDA antagonist, MK-801 (dizocilpine), were used to modify the memory enhancing effects of agmatine, SNG and yohimbine. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and eNOS in the LC was assessed immunohistochemically. Agmatine (intra-LC or i.p.) facilitated memory retrieval in the IA test. S-nitrosoglutathione potentiated, while L-NAME and L-NIO decreased, these effects of agmatine. L-NIL and 7-NI did not alter the effects of agmatine. Yohimbine potentiated, whereas clonidine attenuated, effects of agmatine within the LC. The effects of agmatine, S-nitrosoglutathione and yohimbine were blocked by intra-hippocampal MK-801. Agmatine increased the population of TH- and eNOS-immunoreactive elements in the LC. The facilitation of memory retrieval in the IA test by agmatine is probably mediated by interactions between eNOS, NO and noradrenergic pathways in the LC. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Chronic caffeine prevents changes in inhibitory avoidance memory and hippocampal BDNF immunocontent in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Cássia; Nunes, Fernanda; Costa, Marcelo S; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Ardais, Ana Paula; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Klaudat, Bruno; Forte, Thomás; Souza, Diogo O; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects of caffeine on memory processes have been observed in animal models relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and aging, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with memory formation and BDNF's actions are modulated by adenosine receptors, the molecular targets for the psychostimulant actions of caffeine, we here compare the effects of chronic caffeine (1 mg/mL drinking solution for 30 days) on short- and long term memory and on levels of hippocampal proBDNF, mature BDNF, TrkB and CREB in young (3 month old) and middle-aged (12 month old) rats. Caffeine treatment substantially reduced i) age-related impairments in the two types of memory in an inhibitory avoidance paradigm, and ii) parallel increases in hippocampal BDNF levels. In addition, chronic caffeine increased proBDNF and CREB concentrations, and decreased TrkB levels, in hippocampus regardless of age. These data provide new evidence in favor of the hypothesis that modifications in BDNF and related proteins in the hippocampus contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of caffeine on age-associated losses in memory encoding. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, enhances memory reconsolidation of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, M M; Blake, M G; Krawczyk, M C; Baratti, C M

    2011-07-07

    Intracellular levels of the second messengers cAMP and cGMP are maintained through a balance between production, carried out by adenyl cyclase (AC) and guanylyl cyclase (GC), and degradation, carried out by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Recently, PDEs have gained increased attention as potential new targets for cognition enhancement, with particular reference to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5A). It is accepted that once consolidation is completed memory becomes permanent, but it has also been suggested that reactivation (memory retrieval) of the original memory makes it sensitive to the same treatments that affect memory consolidation when given after training. This new period of sensitivity coined the term reconsolidation. Sildenafil (1, 3, and 10mg/kg, ip), a cGMP-PDE5 inhibitor, facilitated retention performance of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task, when administered to CF-1 male mice immediately after retrieval. The effects of sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip) were time-dependent, long-lasting and inversely correlated with memory age. The administration of sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip) 30 min prior to the 2nd retention test did not affect retention of mice given post-retrieval injections of either vehicle or sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip). Finally, an enhancement of retention was also observed in CF-1 female mice receiving sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip) immediately, but not 180 min after retrieval. In the present paper we reported for the first time that systemic administration of sildenafil after memory reactivation enhances retention performance of the original learning. Our results indirectly point out cGMP, a component of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway, as a necessary factor for memory reconsolidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining the Role of the Human Hippocampus in Approach-Avoidance Decision Making Using a Novel Conflict Paradigm and Multivariate Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Edward B; Newsome, Rachel N; Li, Iris H N; Thavabalasingam, Sathesan; Ito, Rutsuko; Lee, Andy C H

    2015-11-11

    and punishment. Although rodent work has implicated the hippocampus in approach-avoidance conflict processing, there is limited data on whether this role applies to learned, as opposed to innate, incentive values, and whether the human hippocampus plays a similar role. Using functional neuroimaging with a novel decision-making task that controlled for perceptual and mnemonic processing, we found that the human hippocampus was significantly active when approach-avoidance conflict was present for stimuli with learned incentive values. These findings demonstrate a role for the human hippocampus in approach-avoidance decision making that cannot be explained easily by hippocampal-dependent long-term memory or spatial cognition. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515040-11$15.00/0.

  5. The role of basolateral amygdala adrenergic receptors in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei A.L.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: There are extensive evidences indicating that the noradrenergic system of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is involved in memory processes. The present study investigated the role of the BLA adrenergic receptors (ARs in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in place avoidance task in male rat. Material and Methods: Long Evans rats (n=150 were trained to avoid footshock in a 60° segment while foraging for scattered food on a circular (80-cm diameter arena. The rats were injected bilaterally in the BLA specific ARS (Adrenergic receptors agonist norepinephrine (NE, 0.5 and 1 µg/µl and specific β-ARs antagonist propranolol (PRO, 0.5 and 1 µg/µl before acquisition, after training or before retrieval of the place avoidance task. Control rats received vehicle at the same volume. The learning in a single 30-min session was assessed 24h later by a 30-min extinction trial in which the time to first entrance and the number of entrances to the shocked area measured the avoidance memory. Results: Acquisition and consolidation were enhanced and impaired significantly by NE and PRO when the drugs were injected 10 min before or immediately after training, respectively. In contrast, neither NE nor PRO influenced animal performances when injected before retention testing. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicates that adrenergic system of the BLA plays an important role in regulation of memory storage and show further evidences for the opinion that the BLA plays an important role in integrating hormonal and neurotransmitter influences on memory storage.

  6. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; R?ssler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to...

  7. Bisphenol-A rapidly enhanced passive avoidance memory and phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits in hippocampus of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaohong; Li Tao; Luo Qingqing; Hong Xing; Xie Lingdan; Tian Dong

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is found to influence development of brain and behaviors in rodents. The previous study indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA impaired learning-memory and inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits expressions in hippocampus during the postnatal development in rats; and in cultured hippocampal neurons, BPA rapidly promotes dynamic changes in dendritic morphology through estrogen receptor-mediated pathway by concomitant phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit NR2B. In the present study, we examined the rapid effect of BPA on passive avoidance memory and NMDAR in the developing hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of postnatal day 18. The results showed that BPA or estradiol benzoate (EB) rapidly extended the latency to step down from the platform 1 h after footshock and increased the phosphorylation levels of NR1, NR2B, and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in hippocampus within 1 h. While 24 h after BPA or EB treatment, the improved memory and the increased phosphorylation levels of NR1, NR2B, ERK disappeared. Furthermore, pre-treatment with an estrogen receptors (ERs) antagonist, ICI182,780, or an ERK-activating kinase inhibitor, U0126, significantly attenuated EB- or BPA-induced phosphorylations of NR1, NR2B, and ERK within 1 h. These data suggest that BPA rapidly enhanced short-term passive avoidance memory in the developing rats. A non-genomic effect via ERs may mediate the modulation of the phosphorylation of NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B through ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: → BPA rapidly extended the latency to step down from platform 1 h after footshock. → BPA rapidly increased pNR1, pNR2B, and pERK in hippocampus within 1 h. → ERs antagonist or MEK inhibitor attenuated BPA-induced pNR1, pNR2B, and pERK.

  8. The Avoidance of Female Character to Fulfill Her Basic Roles in Danielle Steel's Irresistible Forces Novel

    OpenAIRE

    FIRMANI, FAHRIZAL N

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Avoidance, Basic Roles, Feminism, Motherhood Ideology, Career Woman, Irresistible Forces.For centuries, women are believed to have important roles in the family. It concerns with her primary task as a housewife and a mother. They are claimed to fulfill all of their husband's need, do all household task; namely to clean and to cook, and accept their maternal instinct; such as nurturing and raising children. However, in this novel, we will find a different phenomenon. Danielle Steel i...

  9. The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of memory representation in the vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Daniel M; Parasuraman, Raja

    2004-10-01

    Working memory load is critically important for the overall level of performance on vigilance tasks. However, its role in a key aspect of vigilance-sensitivity decrement over time-is unclear. We used a dual-task procedure in which either a spatial or a nonspatial working memory task was performed simultaneously with a spatial vigilance task for 20 min. Sensitivity in the vigilance task declined over time when the concurrent task involved spatial working memory. In contrast, there was no sensitivity decrement with a nonspatial working memory task. The results provide the first evidence of a specific role for working memory representation in vigilance decrement. The findings are also consistent with a multiple resource theory in which separate resources for memory representation and cognitive control operations are differentially susceptible to depletion over time, depending on the demands of the task at hand.

  11. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fornari, Raquel V.; Wichmann, Romy; Atucha, Erika; Desprez, Tifany; Eggens-Meijer, Ellie; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC) to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the

  13. The role of memory representation in the vigilance decrement

    OpenAIRE

    CAGGIANO, DANIEL M.; PARASURAMAN, RAJA

    2004-01-01

    Working memory load is critically important for the overall level of performance on vigilance tasks. However, its role in a key aspect of vigilance—sensitivity decrement over time—is unclear. We used a dual-task procedure in which either a spatial or a nonspatial working memory task was performed simultaneously with a spatial vigilance task for 20 min. Sensitivity in the vigilance task declined over time when the concurrent task involved spatial working memory. In contrast, there was no sensi...

  14. Modafinil Prevents Inhibitory Avoidance Memory Deficit Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, Karin Monteiro; Ferreira, Tatiana Lima; Hipolide, Debora Cristina; Fomari, Raquel Vecchio; Tufik, Sergio; Menezes Oliveira, Maria Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluation of modafinil effects on the inhibitory avoidance task (IA). Design: Rats were trained on a multiple trial IA task after receiving modafinil or vehicle injections. In experiment 1 they were trained with a weak protocol under baseline condition and in experiment 2, with a

  15. The role of working memory in auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles

    2009-11-01

    A growing body of research now demonstrates that working memory plays an important role in controlling the extent to which irrelevant visual distractors are processed during visual selective attention tasks (e.g., Lavie, Hirst, De Fockert, & Viding, 2004). Recently, it has been shown that the successful selection of tactile information also depends on the availability of working memory (Dalton, Lavie, & Spence, 2009). Here, we investigate whether working memory plays a role in auditory selective attention. Participants focused their attention on short continuous bursts of white noise (targets) while attempting to ignore pulsed bursts of noise (distractors). Distractor interference in this auditory task, as measured in terms of the difference in performance between congruent and incongruent distractor trials, increased significantly under high (vs. low) load in a concurrent working-memory task. These results provide the first evidence demonstrating a causal role for working memory in reducing interference by irrelevant auditory distractors.

  16. Modeling the Role of Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Behavioral Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Eric A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of goal-directed behavior have been studied using reinforcement learning theory, but these theoretical techniques have not often been used to address the role of memory systems in performing behavioral tasks. The present work addresses this shortcoming by providing a way in which working memory and episodic memory may be included in the reinforcement learning framework, then simulating the successful acquisition and performance of six behavioral tasks, drawn from or inspired by...

  17. The Impairing Role of Stress on Autobiographical Memory Reconsolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Azimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite some studies indicating improving role of stress on memory consolidation, very few animal and human studies show that stress impairs reconsolidation of memories. This study aimed to determine the effect of stress on autobiographical memory reconsolidation.Materials and Methods: The present study was done with an experimental method (Solomon Four-Group design. The statistical society of this study was all undergraduate female students in 2009-2010 academic year at Tabriz University. Forty students were selected using random cluster sampling, and we ensure about their physical and mental health by GHQ-28 and interview. Tools for this study were cueing autobiographical memory test, SECPT (for raising blood pressure and stress induction, autobiographical memory test, PANAS and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. MANOVA was used for data analysis by SPSS-17.Results: The results show that stress after activation of memory impairs memory for neutral events (p0.05. None of stress and memory activation alone had effect on memory performance (p>0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicate that stress impairs autobiographical memory reconsolidation, which is opposite to its effects on memory consolidation, so it supports the view that consolidation and reconsolidation are separate process.

  18. The role of NPY in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtzsche, C R; Woldbye, D P D

    2016-02-01

    High levels of NPY expression in brain regions important for learning and memory together with its neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects suggest a regulatory role for NPY in memory processes. Therefore it is not surprising that an increasing number of studies have provided evidence for NPY acting as a modulator of neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and memory. Here these results are presented in relation to the types of memory affected by NPY and its receptors. NPY can exert both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on memory, depending on memory type and phase, dose applied, brain region, and NPY receptor subtypes. Thus NPY act as a resilience factor by impairing associative implicit memory after stressful and aversive events, as evident in models of fear conditioning, presumably via Y1 receptors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In addition, NPY impairs acquisition but enhances consolidation and retention in models depending on spatial and discriminative types of associative explicit memory, presumably involving Y2 receptor-mediated regulations of hippocampal excitatory transmission. Moreover, spatial memory training leads to increased hippocampal NPY gene expression that together with Y1 receptor-mediated neurogenesis could constitute necessary steps in consolidation and long-term retention of spatial memory. Altogether, NPY-induced effects on learning and memory seem to be biphasic, anatomically and temporally differential, and in support of a modulatory role of NPY at keeping the system in balance. Obtaining further insight into memory-related effects of NPY could inspire the engineering of new therapeutics targeting diseases where impaired learning and memory are central elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina eFalibene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MB at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning — when ants still showed plant avoidance — MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning.

  20. Long-term avoidance memory formation is associated with a transient increase in mushroom body synaptic complexes in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to control for possible neuronal changes related to age and body size, we quantified synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in olfactory regions of the mushroom bodies (MBs) at different times after learning. Long-term avoidance memory formation was associated with a transient change in MG densities. Two days after learning, MG density was higher than before learning. At days 4 and 15 after learning-when ants still showed plant avoidance-MG densities had decreased to the initial state. The structural reorganization of MG triggered by long-term avoidance memory formation clearly differed from changes promoted by pure exposure to and collection of novel plants with distinct odors. Sensory exposure by the simultaneous collection of several, instead of one, non-harmful plant species resulted in a decrease in MG densities in the olfactory lip. We hypothesize that while sensory exposure leads to MG pruning in the MB olfactory lip, the formation of long-term avoidance memory involves an initial growth of new MG followed by subsequent pruning.

  1. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, B.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Ellis, J.; Schnitzspahn, K.M.; Krause, I.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task

  2. Place avoidance tasks as tools in the behavioral neuroscience of learning and memory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Petrásek, Tomáš; Prokopová, Iva; Holubová, Kristína; Hatalová, Hana; Valeš, Karel; Kubík, Štěpán; Dockery, C.; Wesierska, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl.1 (2013), S1-S19 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P191 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : AAPA * carousel * active allothetic place avoidance * rat * cognition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  3. Effects of 7-NI and ODQ on memory in the passive avoidance, novel object recognition, and social transmission of food preference tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2014-03-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory processes. Effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a GC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on different aspects of memory in passive avoidance (PA), novel object recognition (NOR), and social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3,10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency in PA test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ratio index in the NOR test. 7-NI and ODQ (10 mg/kg) decreased cued/non-cued food eaten in STFP test. Amount of time spent in center zone significantly increased in ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) groups in open field test, but there was no effect on total distance moved and speed of animals. ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased number of entries into new compartments in exploratory activity apparatus, while 7-NI had no effect. Administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) before 7-NI reversed 7-NI-induced effects, supporting the role of NO in cognition. Our results confirm that inhibition of NO/cGMP/GS pathway might disturb emotional, visual, and olfactory memory in mice. Also, 7-NI and ODQ had anxiolytic effects in open field test, and ODQ also enhanced exploratory activity.

  4. A specific role for the human amygdala in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tony W; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe is known to play a role in the processing of olfaction and memory. The specific contribution of the human amygdala to memory for odors has not been addressed, however. The role of this region in memory for odors was assessed in patients with unilateral amygdala damage due to temporal lobectomy (n = 20; 11 left, 9 right), one patient with selective bilateral amygdala damage, and in 20 age-matched normal controls. Fifteen odors were presented, followed 1 h later by an odor-name matching test and an odor-odor recognition test. Signal detection analyses showed that both unilateral groups were impaired in their memory for matching odors with names, these patients were not significantly impaired on odor-odor recognition. Bilateral amygdala damage resulted in severe impairment in both odor-name matching as well as in odor-odor recognition memory. Importantly, none of the patients were impaired on an auditory verbal learning task, suggesting that these findings reflect a specific impairment in olfactory memory, and not merely a more general memory deficit. Taken together, the data provide neuropsychological evidence that the human amygdala is essential for olfactory memory.

  5. Role of the hippocampus in memory functioning: modern view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Assonov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to develop the comprehensive conception of the hippocampus role in the functioning of human memory, based on data obtained by analysis of the latest scientific literature on the topic and make recommendations for further ways of researches in this topic. The scientific literature of the last 5 years on the role of the hippocampus in memory functioning was analyzed. Based on the reviewed literature, we made the next conclusions: the hippocampus is an extremely important for memory structure with various connections for different types of memory; the hippocampus is affected by a variety of substances, most studied now are glucocorticosteroids, whose effect on memory differs depending on the start time of action; the hippocampus volume in mental disorders affecting memory is less than normal, which makes it an important diagnostic criterion; at the moment, various promising methods that can help in the therapy of PTSD, depression, phobias and other disorders associated with memory impairment and based on the knowledge of the hippocampus for the treatment of memory disorders are being developed. Based on these conclusions and data, which were analyzed, we offered the following recommendations: to implement the hippocampal function examination in the diagnostics of mental disorders, which are accompanied by a violation of its work; to use the size of the hippocampus as one of the prognostic factors for the severity of the memory-associated disorders and the therapy progress; to carefully investigate the difference in the effect of various psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies on the hippocampus to determine exactly which of the therapies is the most morphologically reasonable; to find out how significant the decrease in the hippocampal volume is for the memory functioning; to use pathogenetically and morphologically based methods to improve the function of the hippocampus in the treatment of disorders that are

  6. The Role of Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Pecher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor affordances are important for object knowledge. Semantic tasks on visual objects often show interactions with motor actions. Prior neuro-imaging studies suggested that motor affordances also play a role in visual working memory for objects. When participants remembered manipulable objects (e.g., hammer greater premotor cortex activation was observed than when they remembered non-manipulable objects (e.g., polar bear. In the present study participants held object pictures in working memory while performing concurrent tasks such as articulation of nonsense syllables and performing hand movements. Although concurrent tasks did interfere with working memory performance, in none of the experiments did we find any evidence that concurrent motor tasks affected memory differently for manipulable and non-manipulable objects. I conclude that motor affordances are not used for visual working memory.

  7. The Role of Explicit and Impelicit Memory in Stutteres

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    Golavizh Karimi-Javan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders. However, its etiology is poorly understood, and is likely to be heterogeneous. Impairment of cognitive functions such as emotional memory and attention is one of the important factors. The aim of this research is to compare explicit and implicit memory between stutterers and normal individuals and also comparison of anxiety and depression between 2 groups. Materials & Methods: This is a case-control and analytical research.The participated individuals in this research were 30 male and female stutterers and the same number as the matched control group. The control group was matched for gender, age, education and bilingualism. The cue recall task performed to investigate explicit memory and the word stem completing task for implicit memory. The anxiety and depression of the individuals were measured by using general Hygiene Questionnaire (GHQ28 in this study. The performance of the individuals was measured based on positive and negative words in explicit and implicit memory and was compared with anxiety and depression score they obtained. Data was analyzed by using independent T-test, paired T-test, U-Man Witney and Willkaxon test. Results: The data indicated that stutterers recognized less emotionally positive words in explicit memory as compared with nonstutterers. Also, stutterers recognized more emotionally negative words as compared with emotionally positive words in explicit and implicit memory tasks (P<0/05. Additionally, stutterers showed more anxiety and depression as compared to nonstutterers. This difference was significant except for depression (P0.05. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the role of cognitive functions including emotional memory in motor speech programming and the difference in the function of positive versus negative emotional memories between stutterers and nonstutterers in this research, the role of emotional memory can be considered as an important

  8. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T.; Pullman, Mariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional, and because this system can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, it should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  9. Role of Prefrontal Persistent Activity in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Mitchell R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is activated during working memory, as evidenced by fMRI results in human studies and neurophysiological recordings in animal models. Persistent activity during the delay period of working memory tasks, after the offset of stimuli that subjects are required to remember, has traditionally been thought of as the neural correlate of working memory. In the last few years several findings have cast doubt on the role of this activity. By some accounts, activity in other brain areas, such as the primary visual and posterior parietal cortex, is a better predictor of information maintained in visual working memory and working memory performance; dynamic patterns of activity may convey information without requiring persistent activity at all; and prefrontal neurons may be ill-suited to represent non-spatial information about the features and identity of remembered stimuli. Alternative interpretations about the role of the prefrontal cortex have thus been suggested, such as that it provides a top-down control of information represented in other brain areas, rather than maintaining a working memory trace itself. Here we review evidence for and against the role of prefrontal persistent activity, with a focus on visual neurophysiology. We show that persistent activity predicts behavioral parameters precisely in working memory tasks. We illustrate that prefrontal cortex represents features of stimuli other than their spatial location, and that this information is largely absent from early cortical areas during working memory. We examine memory models not dependent on persistent activity, and conclude that each of those models could mediate only a limited range of memory-dependent behaviors. We review activity decoded from brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex during working memory and demonstrate that these areas alone cannot mediate working memory maintenance, particularly in the presence of distractors. We finally discuss the discrepancy between

  10. A role for CA3 in social recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ming-Ching; Huang, Arthur J Y; Wintzer, Marie E; Ohshima, Toshio; McHugh, Thomas J

    2018-02-02

    Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported. Here we employ conditional genetics to examine the differential contributions of the hippocampal subfields to social memory. We find that the deletion of NMDA receptor subunit 1 gene (NR1), which abolishes NMDA receptor synaptic plasticity, in CA3 pyramidal cells led to deficits in social memory; however, mice lacking the same gene in DG granule cells performed indistinguishable from controls. Further, we use conditional pharmacogenetic inhibition to demonstrate that activity in ventral, but not dorsal, CA3 is necessary for the encoding of a social memory. These findings demonstrated CA3 pyramidal cell plasticity and transmission contribute to the encoding of social stimuli and help further identify the distinct circuits underlying the role of the hippocampus in social memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  14. Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; McCallum, Fiona; Alloway, Ross G; Hoicka, Elena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception in children. We presented 6- and 7-year-olds with a temptation resistance paradigm; they played a trivia game and were then given an opportunity to peek at the final answers on the back of a card. Measures of both verbal and visuospatial working memory were included. The good liars performed better on the verbal working memory test in both processing and recall compared with the bad liars. However, there was no difference in visuospatial working scores between good liars and bad liars. This pattern suggests that verbal working memory plays a role in processing and manipulating the multiple pieces of information involved in lie-telling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Dorsal Hippocampal α2-Adrenegic Receptors on WIN55,212-2 State-Dependent Memory of Passive Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrindast M.R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids are a class of psychoactive compounds that produce a wide array of effects in a large number of species. In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-CA1 injections of an α2-adrenergic receptor agents, on WIN55,212-2 state-dependent learning were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus, trained in a step-down type inhibitory avoidance task, and tested 24h after training to measure step-down latency.Results: Post-training intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.25 and 0.5µg/rat induced impairment of memory retention. Amnesia produced by post-training WIN55,212-2 (0.5µg/rat was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of WIN55,212-2 that is due to a state-dependent effect. Pre-test intra-CA1 injection of clonidine (0.5 and 0.75µg/rat, intra-CA1 improved post-training WIN55,212-2 (0.5µg/rat, intra-CA1-induced retrieval impairment, while pre-test intra-CA1 injection of yohimbine (1µg/rat, intra-CA1 2min before the administration of WIN55,212-2 (0.5µg/rat, intra-CA1 inhibited WIN55,212-2 state-dependent memory. Conclusion: These results suggest that α2-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in Win55,212-2-induced amnesia and WIN55,212-2 state-dependent memory.

  16. Childhood Obesity and Academic Performance: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10-13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 "obese," 23 "overweight," and 92 "normal weight") filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink.

  17. The role of glucocorticoids in emotional memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir Drexler, Shira; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are secreted following exposure to stressful events. Their modulating role on memory reconsolidation, a post-retrieval process of re-stabilization, has been investigated only recently, at times with conflicting results. The goal of this review is twofold. First, to establish the modulating role of glucocorticoids on memory reconsolidation. Second, to point the potential factors and confounds that might explain the seemingly paradoxical findings. Here we review recent pharmacological studies, conducted in rodents and humans, which suggest a critical role of glucocorticoids in this post-retrieval process. In particular, the activation of glucocorticoid receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus is suggested to be involved in emotional memories reconsolidation, pointing to a similarity between post-retrieval reconsolidation and initial memory consolidation. In addition, based on the general reconsolidation literature, we suggest several factors that might play a role in determining the direction and strength of the reconsolidation effect following glucocorticoids treatment: memory-related factors, manipulation-related factors, and individual differences. We conclude that only when taking these additional factors into account can the paradox be resolved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Personality Traits and Endogenous Analgesia: The Role of Harm Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Granot, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Whether psychological factors such as anxiety and pain catastrophizing levels influence the expression of endogenous analgesia in general and, more specifically, the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response is still under debate. It may be assumed that other psychological characteristics also play a role in the CPM response. The neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are involved both in CPM, as well as personality traits such as harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD), which can be obtained by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). However, the associations between these traits (HA, NS, and RD) with endogenous analgesia revealed by CPM have not yet been explored. Healthy middle-age subjects (n = 28) completed the TPQ, Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and were assessed for CPM paradigms using thermal phasic temporal summation as the "test stimulus" and hand immersion into hot water bath (CPM water) or contact heat (CPM contact) for "conditioning stimulus." Higher levels of HA were associated with less-efficient CPM responses obtained by both paradigms: CPM water (r = 0.418, P = 0.027) and CPM contact (r = 0.374, P = 0.050). However, NS and RD were not associated with the other measurements. No significant relationship was observed between state anxiety and pain catastrophizing levels and the CPM responses. The relationship between the capacity of endogenous analgesia and the tendency to avoid aversive experience can be explained by mutual mechanisms involving similar neurotransmitters or brain areas. These findings illuminate the key role of harm avoidance obtained by the TPQ in determining the characteristics of pain modulation profile. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  19. The role of REM theta activity in emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Camilla Hutchison

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While NREM sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of REM sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity – which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex – is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale PGO waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and the gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces observed in both wake and REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep acetylcholine levels – which are thought to reduce hippocampal afferent inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate recurrent activation within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  20. Overgeneral autobiographical memory in healthy young and older adults: Differential age effects on components of the capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and impaired executive control (CaRFAX) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Laura; Latorre, Jose M; Serrano, Juan P; Ricarte, Jorge J

    2017-08-01

    The CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007) has been used to explain the causes of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM; the difficulty to retrieve specific autobiographical memories), a cognitive phenomenon generally related with different psychopathologies. This model proposes 3 different mechanisms to explain OGM: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA) and impaired executive functions (X). However, the complete CaRFAX model has not been tested in nonclinical populations. This study aims to assess the usefulness of the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in 2 healthy samples: a young sample and an older sample, to test for possible age-related differences in the underlying causes of OGM. A total of 175 young (age range: 19-36 years) and 175 older (age range: 53-88 years) participants completed measures of brooding rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and executive tasks (X). Using structural equation modeling, we found that memory specificity is mainly associated with lower functional avoidance and higher executive functions in the older group, but only with executive functions in young participants. We discuss the different roles of emotional regulation strategies used by young and older people and their relation to the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in healthy people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Portulaca oleracea L. prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced passive avoidance learning and memory and TNF-α impairments in hippocampus of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Karimi-Zandi, Leila

    2017-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammation can impair memory. It has been indicated that Portulaca oleracea Linn. (POL), possess anti-inflammatory activity and might improve memory disruption caused by inflammation. In this study the effect of pre-treatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL on memory retrieval investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Male Wistar rats (200-220g) received either a control diet or a diet containing of POL (400mg/kg, p.o.) for 14days. Then, they received injections of either saline or LPS (1mg/kg, i.p.). In all the experimental groups, 4h following the last injection, passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory test was performed. The retention test was done 24h after the training and then the animals were sacrificed. Hippocampal TNF-α levels measured using ELISA as one criteria of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. The results indicated that LPS significantly impaired PAL and memory and increased TNF-α levels in hippocampus tissue. Pre-treatment with POL improved memory in control rats and prevented memory and TNF-α deterioration in LPS treated rats. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL may improve memory deficits in LPS treated rats, possibly via inhibition of TNF-α and anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  3. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Gender, gender roles, and anxiety: perceived confirmability of self report, behavioral avoidance, and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of the hippocampus in recognition memory.

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    Bird, Chris M

    2017-08-01

    Many theories of declarative memory propose that it is supported by partially separable processes underpinned by different brain structures. The hippocampus plays a critical role in binding together item and contextual information together and processing the relationships between individual items. By contrast, the processing of individual items and their later recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), particularly when recognition is based on feelings of familiarity without the retrieval of any associated information. These theories are domain-general in that "items" might be words, faces, objects, scenes, etc. However, there is mixed evidence that item recognition does not require the hippocampus, or that familiarity-based recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions. By contrast, there is compelling evidence that in humans, hippocampal damage does not affect recognition memory for unfamiliar faces, whilst recognition memory for several other stimulus classes is impaired. I propose that regions outside of the hippocampus can support recognition of unfamiliar faces because they are perceived as discrete items and have no prior conceptual associations. Conversely, extrahippocampal processes are inadequate for recognition of items which (a) have been previously experienced, (b) are conceptually meaningful, or (c) are perceived as being comprised of individual elements. This account reconciles findings from primate and human studies of recognition memory. Furthermore, it suggests that while the hippocampus is critical for binding and relational processing, these processes are required for item recognition memory in most situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of memory in guiding attention during natural vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Ran; Itti, Laurent

    2006-08-10

    What is the time frame in which perceptual memory guides attention? Current estimates range from a few hundred milliseconds to several seconds, minutes, or even days. Here, we answer this question by establishing the time course of attentional selection in realistic viewing conditions. First, we transformed continuous video clips into MTV-style video clips by stringing together continuous clip segments using abrupt transitions (jump cuts). We then asked participants to visually explore either continuous or MTV-style clips and recorded their saccades as objective behavioral indicators of attentional selections. The utilization of perceptual memory was estimated across viewing conditions and over time by quantifying the agreement between human attentional selections and predictions made by a neurally grounded computational model. In the critical condition, jump cuts led to sharp declines in the impact of perceptual memory on attentional selection, followed by monotonic increases in memory utilization across seven consecutive saccades and 2.5 s. These results demonstrate that perceptual memory traces play an important role in guiding attention across several saccades during natural vision. We propose novel hypotheses and experiments using hybrid natural-artificial stimuli to further elucidate neurocomputational mechanisms of attentional selection.

  7. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  8. [Progress on metaplasticity and its role in learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Li; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-25

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two major forms of synaptic plasticity that are widely considered as important cellular models of learning and memory. Metaplasticity is defined as the plasticity of synaptic plasticity and thus is an advanced form of plasticity. The history of synaptic activity can affect the subsequent synaptic plasticity induction. Therefore, it is important to study metaplasticity to explore new mechanisms underlying various brain functions including learning and memory. Since the concept of metaplasticity was proposed, it has aroused widespread concerns and attracted numerous researchers to dig more details on this topic. These new-found experimental phenomena and cellular mechanisms have established the basis of theoretical studies on metaplasticity. In recent years, researchers have found that metaplasticity can not only affect the synaptic plasticity, but also regulate the neural network to encode specific content and enhance the learning and memory. These findings have greatly enriched our knowledge on plasticity and opened a new route to study the mechanism of learning and memory. In this review, we discuss the recent progress on metaplasticity on following three aspects: (1) the molecular mechanisms of metaplasticity; (2) the role of metaplasticity in learning and memory; and (3) the outlook of future study on metaplasticity.

  9. Extensive but not Limited Repeated Trials in Passive Avoidance Task Induce Stress-like Symptoms and Affect Memory Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida

    2018-02-10

    Stressful and emotionally arousing experiences are remembered, and previous reports show that repeated exposure to stressful condition enhances emotional learning. However, the usefulness of the repeated exposure depends on the intensity and duration. Although repeated training as a strategy to improve memory performance is receiving increased attention from researchers, repeated training may induce stressful effects that have not yet been considered. The present study investigated whether exposure to repetitive learning trials with limited or extensive durations in a passive avoidance task (PAT) would be beneficial or harmful to emotional memory performance in rats. Rats were exposed to repetitive learning trials for two different durations in the limited exposure (exposure to four repetitive trials) and extensive exposure groups (exposure to 16 repetitive trials) in a single day to compare the impact of both conditions on rat emotional memory performance. Alterations in corticosterone content and associated oxidative and neurochemical systems were assessed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for changes in emotional memory. Following extensive exposure, a negative impact on emotional memory was observed compared with the limited exposure group. A lack of any further improvement in memory function following extensive training exposure was supported by increased corticosterone levels, decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels and abnormal oxidative stress levels, which may induce negative effects on memory consolidation. It is suggested that limited exposure to repetitive learning trials is more useful for studying improvement in emotional memory, whereas extensive exposure may produce chronic stress-like condition that can be detrimental and responsible for compromised memory performance. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Roles of hippocampal subfields in verbal and visual episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L; Katz, Mindy J

    2017-01-15

    Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N.Y. All participants completed comprehensive EAS neuropsychological assessment. Visual episodic memory was assessed using the Complex Figure Delayed Recall subtest from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Delayed Recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). All participants underwent 3T MRI brain scanning with subsequent automatic measurement of the hemispheric hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2-CA3, CA4-dente gyrus, presubiculum, and subiculum). We used linear regressions to model the association between hippocampal subfield volumes and visual and verbal episodic memory tests while adjusting for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. Participants had a mean age of 78.9 (SD=5.1) and 60.2% were female. Total hippocampal volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.31, p=0.001) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.007); subiculum volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.002) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.24, p=0.010); CA1 was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.26, pepisodic memory. Our results suggest that hippocampal subfields have sensitive roles in the process of visual and verbal episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing speed and working memory span: their differential role in superficial and deep memory processes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S

    2011-05-01

    Previous work has suggested that decrement in both processing speed and working memory span plays a role in the memory impairment observed in patients with schizophrenia. We undertook a study to examine simultaneously the effect of these two factors. A sample of 49 patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy controls underwent a battery of verbal and visual memory tasks. Superficial and deep encoding memory measures were tallied. We conducted regression analyses on the various memory measures, using processing speed and working memory span as independent variables. In the patient group, processing speed was a significant predictor of superficial and deep memory measures in verbal and visual memory. Working memory span was an additional significant predictor of the deep memory measures only. Regression analyses involving all participants revealed that the effect of diagnosis on all the deep encoding memory measures was reduced to non-significance when processing speed was entered in the regression. Decreased processing speed is involved in verbal and visual memory deficit in patients, whether the task require superficial or deep encoding. Working memory is involved only insofar as the task requires a certain amount of effort.

  12. The role of experiential avoidance in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Michael G; Pinto, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is one of the most prevalent personality disorders, yet it remains an understudied phenomenon. Experiential avoidance (EA) has been investigated as a factor relevant in many forms of psychopathology, including borderline personality disorder. To date however, no study has yet investigated whether EA might also be relevant to OCPD. We administered a measure of EA and a multidimensional OCPD measure (assessing 5 OCPD trait dimensions and overall severity) to a large community sample (N = 571) as well as a group of individuals with self-identified OCPD features (N = 53). Results revealed that the OCPD group experienced heightened EA relative to the unscreened community sample, even controlling for group differences in distress symptoms. Correlational analyses showed significant relationships between EA and all 5 OCPD trait dimensions and overall severity. Moreover, EA accounted for OCPD traits and severity after controlling for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Implications for the role of EA in OCPD, including treatment implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Excitotoxic median raphe lesions aggravate working memory storage performance deficits caused by scopolamine infusion into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the inhibitory avoidance task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested in a light/dark step-through inhibitory avoidance task in which response latency to enter the dark compartment immediately after the shock served as a measure of immediate working memory storage. MRN lesion per se did not alter response latency. Post-training intrahippocampal scopolamine infusion (2 and 4 µg/side produced a more marked reduction in response latencies in the lesioned animals compared to the sham-lesioned rats. Results suggest that the immediate working memory storage performance is modulated by synergistic interactions between serotonergic projections of the MRN and the muscarinic cholinergic system of the hippocampus.

  14. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahiruddin Othman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and acetylcholine (ACh concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.

  15. Nostalgia as a repository of social connectedness: the role of attachment-related avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie; Cordaro, Filippo

    2010-04-01

    Individuals who are low (compared with high) in attachment-related avoidance rely on social bonds to regulate distress, and the authors hypothesized that nostalgia can be a repository of such social connectedness. Studies 1-3 showed a positive association between loneliness and nostalgia when attachment-related avoidance was low, but not when it was high. Study 4 revealed that low-avoidance individuals derived more social connectedness from nostalgia than did high-avoidance individuals. Study 5 extended these findings and demonstrated that, in addition to being a source of social connectedness, nostalgia increased participants' perceived capacity to provide emotional support to others. As in the case of social connectedness, this beneficial effect of nostalgia was significantly stronger when attachment-related avoidance was low (compared with high).

  16. Memory loss versus memory distortion: the role of encoding and retrieval deficits in Korsakoff patients' false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm have revealed that Korsakoff patients show reduced levels of false recognition and different patterns of false recall compared to controls. The present experiment examined whether this could be attributed to an encoding deficit, or rather to problems with explicitly retrieving thematic information at test. In a variation on the DRM paradigm, both patients and controls were presented with associative as well as categorised word lists, with the order of recall and recognition tests manipulated between-subjects. The results point to an important role for the automatic/controlled retrieval distinction: Korsakoff patients' false memory was only diminished compared to controls' when automatic or short-term memory processes could not be used to fulfil the task at hand. Hence, the patients' explicit retrieval deficit appears to be crucial in explaining past and present data. Results are discussed in terms of fuzzy-trace and activation-monitoring theories.

  17. The Role of Emotional Landmarks on Topographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory. Participants were instructed to learn and retain an eight-square path encompassing positive, negative or neutral emotional landmarks. Both egocentric and allocentric frames of references were considered. Egocentric representation encompasses the object’s relation to the self and it is generated from sensory data. Allocentric representation expresses a location with respect to an external frame regardless of the self and it is the basis for long-term storage of complex layouts. In particular, three measures of egocentric and allocentric topographical memory were taken into account: (1 the ability to learn the path; (2 the ability to recall by walking the path five minutes later; (3 the ability to reproduce the path on the outline of the WalCT. Results showed that both positive and negative emotional landmarks equally enhanced the learning of the path as compared to neutral emotional landmarks. In addition, positive emotional landmarks improved the reproduction of the path on the map as compared to negative and neutral emotional landmarks. These results generally show that emotional landmarks enhance egocentric-based topographical memory, whereas positive emotional landmarks seem to be more effective for allocentric-based topographical memory.

  18. The Role of Emotional Landmarks on Topographical Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT) was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory. Participants were instructed to learn and retain an eight-square path encompassing positive, negative or neutral emotional landmarks. Both egocentric and allocentric frames of references were considered. Egocentric representation encompasses the object's relation to the self and it is generated from sensory data. Allocentric representation expresses a location with respect to an external frame regardless of the self and it is the basis for long-term storage of complex layouts. In particular, three measures of egocentric and allocentric topographical memory were taken into account: (1) the ability to learn the path; (2) the ability to recall by walking the path five minutes later; (3) the ability to reproduce the path on the outline of the WalCT. Results showed that both positive and negative emotional landmarks equally enhanced the learning of the path as compared to neutral emotional landmarks. In addition, positive emotional landmarks improved the reproduction of the path on the map as compared to negative and neutral emotional landmarks. These results generally show that emotional landmarks enhance egocentric-based topographical memory, whereas positive emotional landmarks seem to be more effective for allocentric-based topographical memory.

  19. Reviewing the Mediator Role of Noreliance to Avoidance from Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Roosta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the reasons of users avoidance from Internet advertisements. In this research it has been reviewed about the ideas of 100 people sample of Internet users via Tehran city by using a 19 items questionnaire. The result of research has shown that no reliance on internet advertisements has mediation effect on the relation between perceived obstacles of purpose and behavioral avoidance changes Lp

  20. Gaming machine addiction: the role of avoidance, accessibility and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna C; Allen, Felicity L; Phillips, James; Karantzas, Gery

    2011-12-01

    Commonality in etiology and clinical expression plus high comorbidity between pathological gambling and substance use disorders suggest common underlying motives. It is important to understand common motivators and differentiating factors. An overarching framework of addiction was used to examine predictors of problem gambling in current electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships between antecedent factors (stressors, coping habits, social support), gambling motivations (avoidance, accessibility, social) and gambling behavior. Three hundred and forty seven (229 females: M = 29.20 years, SD = 14.93; 118 males: M = 29.64 years, SD = 12.49) people participated. Consistent with stress, coping and addiction theory, situational life stressors and general avoidance coping were positively related to avoidance-motivated gambling. In turn, avoidance-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and problems. Consistent with exposure theory, life stressors were positively related to accessibility-motivated gambling, and accessibility-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and gambling problems. These findings are consistent with other addiction research and suggest avoidance-motivated gambling is part of a more generalized pattern of avoidance coping with relative accessibility to EGM gambling explaining its choice as a method of avoidance. Findings also showed social support acted as a direct protective factor in relation to gambling frequency and problems and indirectly via avoidance and accessibility gambling motivations. Finally, life stressors were positively related to socially motivated gambling but this motivation was not related to either social support or gambling behavior suggesting it has little direct influence on gambling problems.

  1. Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks

    2017-03-01

    Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2  = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

  2. Somatic distress among Kosovar civilian war survivors:relationship to trauma exposure and the mediating role of experiential avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ford, J.D.; Risch, A.K.; Morina, B.; Stangier, U.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of somatic distress (SD) in the aftermath of war, and the role of a process hypothesized to contribute to posttraumatic stress: experiential avoidance. Methods: Civilian war survivors (n = 163) from Kosovo were assessed in structured

  3. Effects of traumatic experiences on obsessive-compulsive and internalizing symptoms: The role of avoidance and mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Emily B; Miller, Michelle L; Roche, Anne I; Kroska, Sydney K; O'Hara, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    Trauma exposure is associated with adverse psychological outcomes including anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a period of vulnerability for the onset of these types of psychological symptoms. The current study explored the mediating roles of experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes in the association between retrospective reports of childhood trauma and current internalizing and OC symptoms in adolescents. A group of at-risk adolescents (N = 51) and a group of college students (N = 400) reported on childhood trauma, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, anxiety, depressive, and OC symptoms. Mediation analyses were performed to examine the mechanistic roles of avoidance and mindfulness in the association between trauma and internalizing and OC-specific symptoms. In the group of at-risk adolescents, experiential avoidance and mindfulness both significantly mediated the association between childhood trauma and OC symptoms. In the college student sample, experiential avoidance mediated the association between trauma and OC symptoms. Experiential avoidance, as well as the observe, act with awareness, and nonjudgmental facets of mindfulness all significantly mediated the association between trauma and internalizing symptoms. The group of at-risk adolescents was small, and the college student group was demographically homogeneous. All data was self-report and cross-sectional. The current study demonstrated that experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes may be the mechanisms through which the association between trauma and obsessive-compulsive and trauma and internalizing symptoms exist in adolescents. These findings provide potential targets for clinical intervention to improve outcomes for adolescents who have experienced trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The n-butanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten enhances long-term memory in the passive avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Park, Dong Hyun; Jung, Seo Yun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Jin, Changbae; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-08-16

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino (Cactaceae) is used to treat burns, edema, dyspepsia, and asthma in traditional medicine. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of the n-butanolic extract of O. ficus-indica var. saboten (BOF) on memory performance in mice and attempts to uncover the mechanisms underlying its action. Memory performance was assessed with the passive avoidance task, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in protein expression and cell survival. After the oral administration of BOF for 7 days, the latency time in the passive avoidance task was significantly increased relative to vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-protein (pCREB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2 were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 7 days of BOF administration (P<0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining also revealed that BOF significantly enhanced the survival of immature neurons, but did not affect neuronal cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the subchronic administration of BOF enhances long-term memory, and that this effect is partially mediated by ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling and the survival of immature neurons. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein on formation of long-term memory in carps Cyprinus carpio in the model of active avoidance learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garina, D V; Mekhtiev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) that has property of disturbing formation of memory trace in mammals and of learning and memory in teleost fish was studied in the model of active avoidance learning. The experiment was performed in three stages: (1) fry of carps Cyprinus carpio L. was injected intracerebrovenricularly with the SMAP protein at a dose of 0.3 μg/g; control individuals were administered with equal amount of the buffered saline for poikilothermic animals; (2) 24 h after the injection, fish were learnt during 8 sèances for 2 days the conditioned reflex of active avoidance; (3) 48 h after the learning the testing of the skill was performed. The administration of the protein was shown to lead to disturbance of reproduction of the skill in the fish: the latent time of the skill reproduction in experimental individuals exceeded that in control fish more than two times, while the number of individuals succeeding the task in the experimental group was non-significantly lower than in the control group. However, unlike mammals, injection of the SMAP protein in this model produced no effect on the process of learning in carps. Thus, there was first demonstrated the inhibiting effect of the SMAP protein whose concentration correlated positively with the content of the neurotransmitter serotonin in brain on consolidation of memory traces in teleost fish.

  6. A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cunha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery almost three decades ago, the secreted neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been firmly implicated in the differentiation and survival of neurons of the CNS. More recently, BDNF has also emerged as an important regulator of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity mechanisms underlying learning and memory in the adult CNS. In this review we will discuss our knowledge about the multiple intracellular signalling pathways activated by BDNF, and the role of this neurotrophin in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation as well as in synaptogenesis. We will show that maturation of BDNF, its cellular localisation and its ability to regulate both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the CNS may result in conflicting alterations in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Lack of a precise knowledge about the mechanisms by which BDNF influences higher cognitive functions and complex behaviours may constitute a severe limitation in the possibility to devise BDNF-based therapeutics for human disorders of the CNS.

  7. Furoxans (oxadiazole-4N-oxides) with Attenuated Reactivity are Neuroprotective, Cross the Blood Brain Barrier, and Improve Passive Avoidance Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Austin; Nash, Kevin; Tackie-Yarboi, Ethel; Kostrevski, Alexander; Novak, Adam; Raghavan, Aparna; Tulsulkar, Jatin; Alhadidi, Qasim; Wamer, Nathan; Langenderfer, Bryn; Royster, Kalee; Ducharme, Maxwell; Hagood, Katelyn; Post, Megan; Shah, Zahoor A; Schiefer, Isaac T

    2018-04-23

    Nitric oxide (NO) mimetics and other agents capable of enhancing NO/cGMP signaling have demonstrated efficacy as potential therapies for Alzheimer's disease. A group of thiol-dependent NO mimetics known as furoxans may be designed to exhibit attenuated reactivity to provide slow onset NO effects. The present study describes the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a furoxan library resulting in the identification of a prototype furoxan, 5a, which was profiled for use in the CNS. 5a demonstrated negligible reactivity toward generic cellular thiols under physiological conditions. Nonetheless, cGMP dependent neuroprotection was observed. 5a (20 mg/kg) reversed cholinergic memory deficits in a mouse model of passive avoidance fear memory. Importantly, 5a can be prepared as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt and is observed in the brain 12 hr after oral administration, suggesting potential for daily dosing and excellent metabolic stability. Continued investigation into furoxans as attenuated NO mimetics for the CNS is warranted.

  8. The role of eye fixation in memory enhancement under stress - An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-04-01

    In a stressful situation, attention is shifted to potentially relevant stimuli. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that participants stressed perform superior in a recognition task involving objects of the stressful episode. In order to characterize the role of a stress induced alteration in visual exploration, the present study investigated whether participants experiencing a laboratory social stress situation differ in their fixation from participants of a control group. Further, we aimed at shedding light on the relation of fixation behaviour with obtained memory measures. We randomly assigned 32 male and 31 female participants to a control or a stress condition consisting of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a public speaking paradigm causing social evaluative threat. In an established 'friendly' control condition (f-TSST) participants talk to a friendly committee. During both conditions, the committee members used ten office items (central objects) while another ten objects were present without being used (peripheral objects). Participants wore eye tracking glasses recording their fixations. On the next day, participants performed free recall and recognition tasks involving the objects present the day before. Stressed participants showed enhanced memory for central objects, accompanied by longer fixation times and larger fixation amounts on these objects. Contrasting this, fixation towards the committee faces showed the reversed pattern; here, control participants exhibited longer fixations. Fixation indices and memory measures were, however, not correlated with each other. Psychosocial stress is associated with altered fixation behaviour. Longer fixation on objects related to the stressful situation may reflect enhanced encoding, whereas diminished face fixation suggests gaze avoidance of aversive, socially threatening stimuli. Modified visual exploration should be considered in future stress research, in particular when focussing on memory for a

  9. Post-training reversible inactivation of the rat’s basolateral amygdala interferes with hippocampus-dependent place avoidance memory in a time-dependent manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vafaei, A. A.; Ježek, Karel; Bureš, Jan; Fenton, André Antonio; Rashidy-Pour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2007), s. 87-93 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/97/0555; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/00/1656 Grant - others:-(XE) QLG3-CT-1999-00192; -(XE) 98-38 CNS-QUA.05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : avoidance * memory * amygdala Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.443, year: 2007

  10. The Role of Sexual Compulsivity, Impulsivity, and Experiential Avoidance in Internet Pornography Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Burgess, Angela J.; Short, Mary B.; Smith, Angela H.; Cervantes, Maritza E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a significant proportion of individuals who use Internet pornography (IP) report that their use is problematic in some area of functioning. Problematic IP use has been conceptualized as an aspect of sexual addiction and as having components of impulsivity and compulsivity. Experiential avoidance also has been…

  11. Insight in paranoia: The role of experiential avoidance and internalized stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Provencio, Maria; Espinosa, Regina; Duque, Almudena; Everts, Franziska

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggests that insight in psychosis has been related to treatment adherence, recovery and good prognosis, but also to depression, low self-esteem, and diminished quality of life. Thus, insight might not be advantageous under all circumstances. Internalized-stigma (i.e. self-acceptance of stigmatizing images of illness) and experiential avoidance (i.e. unwillingness to experience negative private events) have been proposed as moderating variables between insight, and psychological health variables and/or distress. We investigated the patterns of association of insight with satisfaction with life, self-esteem, depression, anxiety and psychotic psychopathology as moderated by self-stigmatizing beliefs and experiential avoidance, in a sample of 47 participants with persecutory beliefs and diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. Moderation analyses confirm the importance of internalized-stigma and experiential avoidance. The presence of insight was associated with more depression when there were high levels of self-stigma. Whereas, the absence of insight was associated with a greater life satisfaction when there were high levels of experiential avoidance. To summarize, our results help understand the complex relationship between insight, psychological health variables and emotional distress, pointing to a differential pattern of moderation for negative and positive outcomes. We discuss the implications of these results for research and treatment of paranoia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Children's selective attention to pain and avoidance behaviour: the role of child and parental catastrophizing about pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing about pain (ie, rumination, magnification, and helplessness). Participants were 59 children (31 boys) aged 10-16 years and one of their parents (41 mothers). Children performed a dot-probe task in which child facial pain displays of varying pain expressiveness were presented. Child avoidance behaviour was indexed by child pain tolerance during a cold-pressor task. Children and parents completed measures of child and parent pain catastrophizing, respectively. Findings indicated that both the nature of child selective attention to pain and the impact of selective attention upon child avoidance behaviour were differentially sensitive to specific dimensions of child and parental catastrophizing. Specifically, findings showed greater tendency to shift attention away from pain faces (i.e.,, attentional avoidance) among children reporting greater pain magnification. A similar pattern was observed in terms of parental characteristics, such that children increasingly shifted attention away from pain with increasing levels of parental rumination and helplessness. Furthermore, child attentional avoidance was associated with greater avoidance behaviour (i.e., lower pain tolerance) among children reporting high levels of pain magnification and those whose parents reported greater rumination about pain. The current findings corroborate catastrophizing as a multidimensional construct that may differentially impact outcomes and attest to the importance of assessing both child and parental characteristics in relation to child pain-related attention and avoidance behaviour. Further research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct roles of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in GABAA receptor blockade-induced enhancement of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-03-13

    It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced memory in the passive avoidance task, but not in the novel object recognition task. In the present study, we hypothesized that these different results are related to the characteristics of each task and the different roles of hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. A region-specific drug-treatment model was employed to clarify the role of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in object recognition memory. After a single habituation in the novel object recognition task, intra-perirhinal cortical injection of bicuculline increased and intra-hippocampal injection decreased the exploration time ratio to novel object. In addition, when animals were repeatedly habituated to the context, intra-perirhinal cortical administration of bicuculline still increased exploration time ratio to novel object, but the effect of intra-hippocampal administration disappeared. Concurrent increases of c-Fos expression and ERK phosphorylation were observed in the perirhinal cortex of the object with context-exposed group either after single or repeated habituation to the context, but no changes were noted in the hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that object recognition memory formation requires the perirhinal cortex but not the hippocampus, and that hippocampal activation interferes with object recognition memory by the information encoding of unfamiliar environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Memories in context: On the role of cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ast, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Memory can easily be reinstated by certain cues from the environment. Indeed, the ability to store memories into their original encoding context (i.e., memory contextualization) is highly adaptive as it can help to retrieve memories that are likely to be appropriate in a specific context, while at

  15. Does Proactive Interference Play a Significant Role in Visual Working Memory Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an online memory buffer that is typically assumed to be immune to source memory confusions. Accordingly, the few studies that have investigated the role of proactive interference (PI) in VWM tasks found only a modest PI effect at best. In contrast, a recent study has found a substantial PI effect in that performance…

  16. Recognition Memory for Hue: Prototypical Bias and the Role of Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura Jane; Heit, Evan

    2017-01-01

    How does the concurrent use of language affect perception and memory for exemplars? Labels cue more general category information than a specific exemplar. Applying labels can affect the resulting memory for an exemplar. Here 3 alternative hypotheses are proposed for the role of labeling an exemplar at encoding: (a) labels distort memory toward the…

  17. Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Mayra Tolentino Resk; Amaral, Fabio Agostini; Dong, Karis Ester; Bittencourt, Maria Fernanda Queiroz Prado; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Pesquero, João Bosco; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2010-04-01

    Under physiological conditions, elderly people present memory deficit associated with neuronal loss. This pattern is also associated with Alzheimer's disease but, in this case, in a dramatically intensified level. Kinin receptors have been involved in neurodegeneration and increase of amyloid-beta concentration, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considering these findings, this work evaluated the role of kinin receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process. Male C57Bl/6 (wt), knock-out B1 (koB1) or B2 (koB2) mice (3, 6, 12 and 18-month-old - mo; n=10 per group) were submitted to an acquisition session, reinforcement to learning (24h later: test 1) and final test (7days later: test 2), in an active avoidance apparatus, to evaluate memory. Conditioned avoidance responses (CAR, % of 50 trials) were registered. In acquisition sessions, similar CAR were obtained among age matched animals from all strains. However, a significant decrease in CAR was observed throughout the aging process (3mo: 8.8+/-2.3%; 6mo: 4.1+/-0.6%; 12mo: 2.2+/-0.6%, 18mo: 3.6+/-0.6%, Pprocess. In test 1, as expected, memory retention increased significantly (Pmemory retention. In test 2, 3- and 6-month-old wt and koB1 mice of all ages showed a significant improvement in memory (Pmemory retention. We suggest that, during the aging process, the B1 receptor could be involved in neurodegeneration and memory loss. Nevertheless, the B2 receptor is apparently acting as a neuroprotective factor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Language use and stereotyping: the role of approach and avoidance motivation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Montes, Lorena; Ortiz, Garbiñe; Valencia, José F; Larrañaga, Maider; Agirrezabal, Arrate

    2012-11-01

    The use of more abstract language to describe expected behaviors as opposed to unexpected behaviors has traditionally been considered a way of stereotype maintenance. This tendency is known as linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments examined the influence of approach and avoidance motivational orientations on the production of this linguistic expectancy bias. It was predicted that approach strategic orientation is likely to describe expectancy consistent behaviors at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent behaviors. In contrast, avoidance strategic orientation is likely to describe both expectancy consistent behaviors and expectancy inconsistent behaviors at a lower level of linguistic abstraction, thus facilitating the disappearance of linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments confirmed these expectations, using strategic orientation manipulations based either on communication goals or on motor action, and measuring linguistic abstraction either on forced-choice answer format or on free descriptions. Implications for the generalisation of linguistic expectancy bias are discussed.

  19. Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance in Developing Countries: The Role of International Profit Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Fuest; Nadine Riedel

    2010-01-01

    In the debate on the impact of illicit capital flows on developing countries, the view is widespread that profit shifting to low tax jurisdictions undermines the ability of developing countries to raise tax revenue. While the shifting of income out of developed countries is a widely debated issue, empirical evidence on the magnitude of the problem and on the factors driving income shifting is scarce. This paper reviews the literature on tax avoidance and evasion through border crossing income...

  20. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Latino Youth: The Moderating Role of Active and Avoidant Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G; Stiles, Allison A; Diaz, Kathleen I

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of exposure to community violence among Latino youth in urban communities, there is considerable variability in individual outcomes. This study examined (a) associations between coping and indices of Latino culture, (b) main effects of active/avoidant coping on psychopathology, and (c) whether coping moderates the impact of violence exposure on mental health in Latino youth. Participants included 168 Latino youth (56% female; ages 11-14) that took part in a short-term longitudinal study. Results indicate that youth acculturation was positively associated with active coping, but enculturation level and immigrant status were not associated with coping. Structural equation models suggested that active coping was negatively associated with internalizing problems (p = .046) while avoidant coping was positively associated with internalizing problems (p = .013) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (p = .024). Moderation analyses revealed that violence exposure was more strongly associated with internalizing problems as reliance on avoidance coping increased. However, at high levels of violence exposure, a greater reliance on active coping was related to increased posttraumatic stress problems. Findings suggest that consideration of the specific stressor, level of stress exposure, and mental health problem-type may be crucial in determining the effectiveness of a coping strategy. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  1. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Hirai, Daichi; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5–4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow...

  2. Zen meditation, Length of Telomeres, and the Role of Experiential Avoidance and Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Marta; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Rodero, Baltasar; Demarzo, Marcelo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Roca, Miquel; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    Mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally focusing on the present experience in a nonjudgmental or evaluative manner. Evidence regarding its efficacy has been increasing exponentially, and recent research suggests that the practice of meditation is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length. However, the psychological mechanisms underlying this potential relationship are unknown. We examined the telomere lengths of a group of 20 Zen meditation experts and another 20 healthy matched comparison participants who had not previously meditated. We also measured multiple psychological variables related to meditation practice. Genomic DNA was extracted for telomere measurement using a Life Length proprietary program. High-throughput quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (HT-Q-FISH) was used to measure the telomere length distribution and the median telomere length (MTL). The meditators group had a longer MTL ( p  = 0.005) and a lower percentage of short telomeres in individual cells ( p  = 0.007) than those in the comparison group. To determine which of the psychological variables contributed more to telomere maintenance, two regression analyses were conducted. In the first model, which applied to the MTL, the following three factors were significant: age, absence of experiential avoidance, and Common Humanity subscale of the Self Compassion Scale. Similarly, in the model that examined the percentage of short telomeres, the same factors were significant: age, absence of experiential avoidance, and Common Humanity subscale of the Self Compassion Scale. Although limited by a small sample size, these results suggest that the absence of experiential avoidance of negative emotions and thoughts is integral to the connection between meditation and telomeres.

  3. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, J?rgen; Becker, Eni S.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and...

  4. The Moderating Role of Avoidance Behavior on Anxiety Over Time: Is There a Difference Between Social Anxiety Disorder and Specific Phobia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen; Becker, Eni S.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and...

  5. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudaz, M.; Ledermann, T.; Margraf, J.; Becker, E.S.; Craske, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This

  6. The role of experiential avoidance, rumination and mindfulness in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Park, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa has been associated with high levels of ruminative thoughts about eating, shape and weight as well as avoidance of emotion and experience. This study examined the associations between disorder-specific rumination, mindfulness, experiential avoidance and eating disorder symptoms. A sample of healthy females (n=228) completed a battery of on-line self-report measures. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that ruminative brooding on eating, weight and shape concerns was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms, above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. In a small group (n=42) of individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa, only reflection on eating weight and shape was able to predict eating disorder symptoms when controlling for depression and anxiety. The results suggest that rumination (both brooding and reflection) on eating, weight and shape concerns may be a process which exacerbates eating disorder symptoms. Examining rumination may improve understanding of the cognitive processes which underpin anorexia nervosa and this may in turn aid the development of novel strategies to augment existing interventions. Replication in a larger clinical sample is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Short-term Consolidation in Memory Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Ricker

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...

  8. Spatial working memory maintenance: does attention play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, L.K.; Hayward, W.G.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that a common mechanism may underlie spatial attention and spatial working memory. One proposal is that spatial working memory is maintained by attention-based rehearsal [Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in spatial working memory. Journal of

  9. Strengthening a consolidated memory: the key role of the reconsolidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcato, Cecilia; Fernandez, Rodrigo S; Pedreira, María E

    2014-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis posits that the presentation of a specific cue, previously associated with a life event, makes the stored memory pass from a stable to a reactivated state. In this state, memory is again labile and susceptible to different agents, which may either damage or improve the original memory. Such susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase known as reconsolidation process. This process has been assigned two biological roles: memory updating, which suggests that destabilization of the original memory allows the integration of new information into the background of the original memory; and memory strengthening, which postulates that the labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens the original memory. The aim of this review is to analyze the strengthening as an improvement obtained only by triggering such process without any other treatment. In our lab, we have demonstrated that when triggering the labilization-reconsolidation process at least once the original memory becomes strengthened and increases its persistence. We have also shown that repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes strengthened the original memory by enlarging its precision, and said reinforced memories were more resistant to interference. Finally, we have shown that the strengthening function is not operative in older memories. We present and discuss both our findings and those of others, trying to reveal the central role of reconsolidation in the modification of stored information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants to trigger memory reconsolidation: The role of retrieval and updating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2017-07-01

    Long-term memories can undergo destabilization/restabilization processes, collectively called reconsolidation. However, the parameters that trigger memory reconsolidation are poorly understood and are a matter of intense investigation. Particularly, memory retrieval is widely held as requisite to initiate reconsolidation. This assumption makes sense since only relevant cues will induce reconsolidation of a specific memory. However, recent studies show that pharmacological inhibition of retrieval does not avoid memory from undergoing reconsolidation, indicating that memory reconsolidation occurs through a process that can be dissociated from retrieval. We propose that retrieval is not a unitary process but has two dissociable components; one leading to the expression of memory and the other to reconsolidation, referred herein as executer and integrator respectively. The executer would lead to the behavioral expression of the memory. This component would be the one disrupted on the studies that show reconsolidation independence from retrieval. The integrator would deal with reconsolidation. This component of retrieval would lead to long-term memory destabilization when specific conditions are met. We think that an important number of reports are consistent with the hypothesis that reconsolidation is only initiated when updating information is acquired. We suggest that the integrator would initiate reconsolidation to integrate updating information into long-term memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of trust in nurturing compliance: a study of accused tax avoiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kristina

    2004-04-01

    Why an institution's rules and regulations are obeyed or disobeyed is an important question for regulatory agencies. This paper discusses the findings of an empirical study that shows that the use of threat and legal coercion as a regulatory tool--in addition to being more expensive to implement--can sometimes be ineffective in gaining compliance. Using survey data collected from 2,292 taxpayers accused of tax avoidance, it will be demonstrated that variables such as trust need to be considered when managing noncompliance. If regulators are seen to be acting fairly, people will trust the motives of that authority, and will defer to their decisions voluntarily. This paper therefore argues that to shape desired behavior, regulators will need to move beyond motivation linked purely to deterrence. Strategies directed at reducing levels of distrust between the two sides may prove particularly effective in gaining voluntary compliance with an organization's rules and regulations.

  12. The Effect of Chronic Oral Administration of Withania Somnifera Root on Learning and Memory in Diabetic Rats Using Passive Avoidance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roghani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus (especially type I is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the potential anti-diabetic effect of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (ashwagandha and the augmenting effect of its consumption on the memory and mental health, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic oral administration of ashwagandha root on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance test. Materials & Methods: For this purpose, male Wistar diabetic rats were randomly divided into control, ashwagandha-treated control, diabetic, and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups. Ashwagandha treatment continued for 1 to 2 months. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. Serum glucose level was determined before the study and at 4th and 8th weeks after the experiment. In addition, for evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined after 1 and 2 months using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found that one- and two-month administration of ashwagandha root at a weight ratio of 1/15 has not any significant hypoglycemic effect in treated control and diabetic groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups after two months compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups. In addition, STL significantly increased in ashwagandha-treated control group after 1 (p<0.01 and 2 (p<0.05 month in comparison to control group. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in ashwagandha-treated diabetic group as compared to control group after two months. Conclusion: In summary, chronic oral administration of

  13. Role of estrogen replacement therapy in memory enhancement and the prevention of neuronal loss associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, J W; Green, P S; Gridley, K E; Singh, M; de Fiebre, N C; Rajakumar, G

    1997-09-22

    Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting a role for estrogen in the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. To explore these observations further, an animal model was developed using ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomy with estradiol replacement (E2) in female Sprague-Dawley rats to mimic postmenopausal changes. Using an active-avoidance paradigm and a spatial memory task, the effects of estrogen deprivation were tested on memory-related behaviors. OVX caused a decline in avoidance behavior, and estrogen replacement normalized the response. In the Morris water task of spatial memory, OVX animals showed normal spatial learning but were deficient in spatial memory, an effect that was prevented by estrogen treatment. Together these data indicate that OVX in rats results in an estrogen-reversible impairment of learning/memory behavior. Because a plethora of information has been generated that links decline in memory-related behavior to dysfunction of cholinergic neurons, the effects of estrogens on cholinergic neurons were tested. We demonstrated that OVX causes a decrease in high affinity choline uptake and choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex; ERT reverses this effect. Further, we showed that estrogens promote the expression of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), 2 neurotrophic substances that have been shown to ameliorate the effects of age and injury on cholinergic neurons. Tissue culture models were used to evaluate whether estrogen treatment increases the survival of neurons when exposed to a variety of insults. 17-beta-Estradiol (beta-E2) protects

  14. Avoiding escalation from play to aggression in adult male rats: The role of ultrasonic calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Candace J; Kisko, Theresa M; Pellis, Sergio M; Euston, David R

    2017-11-01

    Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded. While all pairs escalated their playful encounters to become rougher, only the pairs in which one member was devocalized escalated to serious biting. A Monte Carlo shuffling technique was used for the analysis of the correlations between the overt playful and aggressive actions performed and the types and frequencies of various 50-kHz calls that were emitted. The analysis revealed that lower frequency (20-30kHz) calls with a flat component maybe particularly critical for de-escalating encounters and so allowing play to continue. Moreover, coordinating calls reciprocally, with either the same call mimicked in close, temporal association or with complementary calls emitted by participants as they engage in complementary actions (e.g., attacking the nape, being attacked on the nape), appeared to be ways with which calls could be potentially used to avoid escalation to aggression and so sustain playful interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of state anxiety in children's memories for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the impact of experimentally manipulated state anxiety and the influence of anxiety-related variables on children's memories for pain. A total of 110 children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years were randomly assigned to complete a state anxiety induction task or a control task. Following experimental manipulation, children completed a laboratory pain task, pain ratings, and questionnaire measures of anxiety-related variables. 2 weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories of the pain task. The experimental manipulation effectively induced state anxiety; however, pain memories did not differ between groups. Irrespective of group assignment, children with higher state anxiety had more negative pain memories. State anxiety uniquely predicted children's pain memories over and above other well established factors. Anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety were significant predictors of recalled pain-related fear. These data highlight the importance of anxiety in the development of children's memories for pain.

  16. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and cortex during systems consolidation. We also review the mechanisms underlying the gradual decay of HPC dependency during systems consolidation from the perspective of memory erasures by adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, we discuss the relationship between systems consolidation and memory precision. PMID:24552281

  17. The Pivotal Role of Semantic Memory in Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past. In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualized as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context. The neural substrates of the episodic and semantic memory systems have been dissociated in healthy individuals during functional imaging studies, and in clinical cohorts, leading to the prevailing view that episodic and semantic memory represent functionally distinct systems subtended by discrete neurobiological substrates. Importantly, however, converging evidence focusing on widespread neural networks now points to significant overlap between those regions essential for retrieval of autobiographical memories, episodic learning, and semantic processing. Here we review recent advances in episodic memory research focusing on neurodegenerative populations which has proved revelatory for our understanding of the complex interplay between episodic and semantic memory. Whereas episodic memory research has traditionally focused on retrieval of autobiographical events from the past, we also include evidence from the recent paradigm shift in which episodic memory is viewed as an adaptive and constructive process which facilitates the imagining of possible events in the future. We examine the available evidence which converges to highlight the pivotal role of semantic memory in providing schemas and meaning whether one is engaged in autobiographical retrieval for the past, or indeed, is endeavoring to construct a plausible scenario of an event in the future. It therefore seems plausible to contend that semantic processing may underlie most, if not all, forms of episodic memory, irrespective of temporal condition. PMID:23565081

  18. A critical role of the human hippocampus in an electrophysiological measure of implicit memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addante, Richard James

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has traditionally been thought to be critical for conscious explicit memory but not necessary for unconscious implicit memory processing. In a recent study of a group of mild amnesia patients with evidence of MTL damage limited to the hippocampus, subjects were tested on a direct test of item recognition confidence while electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired, and revealed intact measures of explicit memory from 400–600ms (mid-frontal old-new effect, FN400). The current investigation re-analyzed this data to study event-related potentials (ERPs) of implicit memory, using a recently developed procedure that eliminated declarative memory differences. Prior ERP findings from this technique were first replicated in two independent matched control groups, which exhibited reliable implicit memory effects in posterior scalp regions from 400–600 msec, which were topographically dissociated from the explicit memory effects of familiarity. However, patients were found to be dramatically impaired in implicit memory effects relative to control subjects, as quantified by a reliable condition × group interaction. Several control analysis were conducted to consider alternative factors that could account for the results, including outliers, sample size, age, or contamination by explicit memory, and each of these factors were systematically ruled out. Results suggest that the hippocampus plays a fundamental role in aspects of memory processing that is beyond conscious awareness. The current findings therefore indicate that both memory systems of implicit and explicit memory may rely upon the same neural structures – but function in different physiological ways. PMID:25562828

  19. The role of reward and reward uncertainty in episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Alice; Farrell, Simon; Howard-Jones, Paul; Ludwig, Casimir

    2017-01-01

    Declarative memory has been found to be sensitive to reward-related changes in the environment. The reward signal can be broken down into information regarding the expected value of the reward, reward uncertainty and the prediction error. Research has established that high as opposed to low reward values enhance declarative memory. Research in neuroscience suggests that high uncertainty activates the reward system, which could lead to enhanced learning and memory. Here we present the results ...

  20. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Memory is Modulated by Diurnal Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Gage

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in the olfactory system. This modulation has been suggested to be particularly important for olfactory learning and memory in the antennal lobe (the primary olfactory network in invertebrates. We are using the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to further investigate the role of NO in olfactory memory. Recent findings suggest that NO affects short-term memory traces and that NO concentration fluctuates with the light cycle. This gives rise to the hypothesis that NO may be involved in the connection between memory and circadian rhythms. In this study, we explore the role of diurnal time and NO in memory by altering the time of day when associative-olfactory conditioning is performed. We find a strong effect of NO on short-term memory, and two surprising effects of diurnal time. We find that (1 at certain time points, NO affects longer traces of memory in addition to short-term memory, and (2 when conditioning is performed close to the light cycle switches—both from light to dark and dark to light—NO does not significantly affect memory at all. These findings suggest an intriguing functional role for NO in olfactory conditioning that is modulated as a function of diurnal time.

  1. The Role of a Corporate Bond Market in an Economy -- and in Avoiding Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Hakansson, Nils H.

    1999-01-01

    While much attention has been focused on the optimal ratio of a firm's debt to equity, the "optimal" or best balance between bond financing and (longer-term) bank financing has scarcely been addressed. This essay examines the principal differences between an economy with a well-developed corporate bond market free from government interference and an economy in which bank financing plays a central role (as in East Asia). When a full-fledged corporate bond market is present, market forces hav...

  2. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  3. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α 7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α 7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100μM)-induced currents with an IC 50 value of 24.7μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [ 125 I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α 7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca 2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F.; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α 7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α 7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an IC 50 value of 24.7 μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca 2+ -dependent Cl − channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [ 125 I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α 7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca 2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory.

  5. The role of overt attention in emotion-modulated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; Farb, Norman; Anderson, Adam K; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2011-08-01

    The presence of emotional stimuli results in a central/peripheral tradeoff effect in memory: memory for central details is enhanced at the cost of peripheral items. It has been assumed that emotion-modulated differences in memory are the result of differences in attention, but this has not been tested directly. The present experiment used eye movement monitoring as an index of overt attention allocation and mediation analysis to determine whether differences in attention were related to subsequent memory. Participants viewed negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and were then given a recognition memory test. The results revealed evidence in support of a central/peripheral tradeoff in both attention and memory. However, contrary with previous assumptions, whereas attention partially mediated emotion-enhanced memory for central pictures, it did not explain the entire relationship. Further, although centrally presented emotional stimuli led to decreased number of eye fixations toward the periphery, these differences in viewing did not contribute to emotion-impaired memory for specific details pertaining to the periphery. These findings suggest that the differential influence of negative emotion on central versus peripheral memory may result from other cognitive influences in addition to overt visual attention or on postencoding processes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A

    1996-11-01

    Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.

  7. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, S E; Le, P T; Davis, R L

    2001-08-17

    The mushroom bodies of the Drosophila brain are important for olfactory learning and memory. To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine triphosphatase, which is required for synaptic transmission. Inactivation of mushroom body signaling through alpha/beta neurons during different phases of memory processing revealed a requirement for mushroom body signaling during memory retrieval, but not during acquisition or consolidation.

  8. The role of verbal memory in regressions during reading is modulated by the target word's recency in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Maltais, Marilyne; Lavoie, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    During reading, a number of eye movements are made backward, on words that have already been read. Recent evidence suggests that such eye movements, called regressions, are guided by memory. Several studies point to the role of spatial memory, but evidence for the role of verbal memory is more limited. In the present study, we examined the factors that modulate the role of verbal memory in regressions. Participants were required to make regressions on target words located in sentences displayed on one or two lines. Verbal interference was shown to affect regressions, but only when participants executed a regression on a word located in the first part of the sentence, irrespective of the number of lines on which the sentence was displayed. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the effect of verbal interference on words located in the first part of the sentence disappeared when participants initiated the regression from the middle of the sentence. Our results suggest that verbal memory is recruited to guide regressions, but only for words read a longer time ago.

  9. The role of working memory in inferential sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana Isabel; Paolieri, Daniela; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Existing literature on inference making is large and varied. Trabasso and Magliano (Discourse Process 21(3):255-287, 1996) proposed the existence of three types of inferences: explicative, associative and predictive. In addition, the authors suggested that these inferences were related to working memory (WM). In the present experiment, we investigated whether WM capacity plays a role in our ability to answer comprehension sentences that require text information based on these types of inferences. Participants with high and low WM span read two narratives with four paragraphs each. After each paragraph was read, they were presented with four true/false comprehension sentences. One required verbatim information and the other three implied explicative, associative and predictive inferential information. Results demonstrated that only the explicative and predictive comprehension sentences required WM: participants with high verbal WM were more accurate in giving explanations and also faster at making predictions relative to participants with low verbal WM span; in contrast, no WM differences were found in the associative comprehension sentences. These results are interpreted in terms of the causal nature underlying these types of inferences.

  10. Children's memory and suggestibility about a distressing event: the role of children's and parents' attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S; Larson, Rakel P; Augusti, Else-Marie; Alley, Deborah; VanMeenen, Kirsten M; Culver, Michelle; Coulter, Kevin P

    2014-07-01

    Our goal was to identify individual difference predictors of children's memory and suggestibility for distressing personally experienced events. Specifically, we examined children's and parents' attachment orientations and children's observable levels of distress, as well as other individual difference factors, as predictors of children's memory and suggestibility. Children (N=91) aged 3 to 6years were interviewed about inoculations received at medical clinics. For children whose parents scored as more avoidant, higher distress levels during the inoculations predicted less accuracy, whereas for children whose parents scored as less avoidant, higher distress levels predicted greater accuracy. Children with more rather than less positive representations of parents and older rather than younger children answered memory questions more accurately. Two children provided false reports of child sexual abuse. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kana Okada; Kayo Nishizawa; Tomoko Kobayashi; Shogo Sakata; Kazuto Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remai...

  12. On the Role of Working Memory in the Comprehension of Conversation⁃al Implicatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方华

    2012-01-01

      According to theory, working memory capacity should be related to comprehension ability, in this thesis, it tries to jus⁃tify the relationship between working memory capacity and comprehension of conversational implicatures. Through theoretical hypothesizing and empirical demonstration, the relationship between working memory and the comprehension of conversational implicatures, especially role that the phonological loop plays in the comprehension of conversational implicatures caused by literal violation to the maxim of manner, is justified in the thesis.

  13. The Role of the Oculomotor System in Updating Visual-Spatial Working Memory across Saccades

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Paul J.; Belopolsky, Artem V.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) helps us to maintain and manipulate visual information in the absence of sensory input. It has been proposed that VSWM is an emergent property of the oculomotor system. In the present study we investigated the role of the oculomotor system in updating of spatial working memory representations across saccades. Participants had to maintain a location in memory while making a saccade to a different location. During the saccade the target was displaced, which ...

  14. Performance and process in collective and individual memory: the role of social decision schemes and memory bias in collective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Swol, Lyn M

    2008-04-01

    To assess performance and processes in collective and individual memory, participants watched two job candidates on video. Beforehand, half the participants were told they would be tested on their memory of the interviews, and the other half were asked to make a decision to hire one of the candidates. Afterwards, participants completed a recognition memory task in either a group or individual condition. Groups had better recognition memory than individuals. Individuals made more false positives than false negatives and groups exaggerated this. Post-hoc analysis found that groups only exaggerated the tendency towards false positives on items that reflected negatively on the job candidate. There was no significant difference between instruction conditions. When reaching consensus on the recognition task, groups tended to choose the correct answer if at least two members had the correct answer. This method of consensus is discussed as a factor in groups' superior memory performance.

  15. Why and how to spare the hippocampus during brain radiotherapy: the developing role of hippocampal avoidance in cranial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazda, Tomas; Slampa, Pavel; Laack, Nadia N; Jancalek, Radim; Pospisil, Petr; Sevela, Ondrej; Prochazka, Tomas; Vrzal, Miroslav; Burkon, Petr; Slavik, Marek; Hynkova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the rationale for and feasibility of hippocampal sparing techniques during brain irradiation. Radiotherapy is the most effective non-surgical treatment of brain tumors and with the improvement in overall survival for these patients over the last few decades, there is an effort to minimize potential adverse effects leading to possible worsening in quality of life, especially worsening of neurocognitive function. The hippocampus and associated limbic system have long been known to be important in memory formation and pre-clinical models show loss of hippocampal stem cells with radiation as well as changes in architecture and function of mature neurons. Cognitive outcomes in clinical studies are beginning to provide evidence of cognitive effects associated with hippocampal dose and the cognitive benefits of hippocampal sparing. Numerous feasibility planning studies support the feasibility of using modern radiotherapy systems for hippocampal sparing during brain irradiation. Although results of the ongoing phase II and phase III studies are needed to confirm the benefit of hippocampal sparing brain radiotherapy on neurocognitive function, it is now technically and dosimetrically feasible to create hippocampal sparing treatment plans with appropriate irradiation of target volumes. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of studies that provide a rationale for hippocampal avoidance and provide summary of published feasibility studies in order to help clinicians prepare for clinical usage of these complex and challenging techniques

  16. Listening comprehension in preschoolers: the role of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Altoè, Gianmarco; Levorato, Maria Chiara

    2009-11-01

    The current study analyzed the relationship between text comprehension and memory skills in preschoolers. We were interested in verifying the hypothesis that memory is a specific contributor to listening comprehension in preschool children after controlling for verbal abilities. We were also interested in analyzing the developmental path of the relationship between memory skills and listening comprehension in the age range considered. Forty-four, 4-year-olds (mean age = 4 years and 6 months, SD = 4 months) and 40, 5-year-olds (mean age = 5 years and 4 months, SD = 5 months) participated in the study. The children were administered measures to evaluate listening comprehension ability (story comprehension), short-term and working memory skills (forward and backward word span), verbal intelligence and receptive vocabulary. Results showed that both short-term and working memory predicted unique and independent variance in listening comprehension after controlling for verbal abilities, with working memory explaining additional variance over and above short-term memory. The predictive power of memory skills was stable in the age range considered. Results also confirm a strong relation between verbal abilities and listening comprehension in 4- and 5-year-old children.

  17. The Role of Phonological Working Memory in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Vicenç; Yagüe, Esther

    2018-01-01

    This article studies three measures of phonological working memory as tools to identify SLI children: word repetition, nonce word repetition, and digit memory. We propose that a deficit in the phonological loop causes a delay in the acquisition of lexicon, morphosyntax, and discourse. In this research we try to find out whether the scores in these…

  18. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  19. The role of gestures in spatial working memory and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    Co-speech gestures traditionally have been considered communicative, but they may also serve other functions. For example, hand-arm movements seem to facilitate both spatial working memory and speech production. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate speech indirectly by sustaining spatial representations in working memory. Alternatively, gestures may affect speech production directly by activating embodied semantic representations involved in lexical search. Consistent with the first hypothesis, we found participants gestured more when describing visual objects from memory and when describing objects that were difficult to remember and encode verbally. However, they also gestured when describing a visually accessible object, and gesture restriction produced dysfluent speech even when spatial memory was untaxed, suggesting that gestures can directly affect both spatial memory and lexical retrieval.

  20. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Hirai, Daichi; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation. During slow wave sleep, inter-areal interactions between the cortex and hippocampus (HC) have been proposed to consolidate declarative memory; however, interactions for non-declarative (HC-independent) memory remain largely uninvestigated. We recently showed that the directional influence in a slow-wave range through a top-down cortical long-range circuit is involved in the consolidation of non-declarative memory. At the synaptic level, the average cortical synaptic strength is known to be potentiated during wakefulness and depressed during sleep. Moreover, learning causes plasticity in a subset of synapses, allocating memory to them. Sleep may help to differentiate synaptic strength between allocated and non-allocated synapses (i.e., improving the signal-to-noise ratio, which may facilitate memory consolidation). Herein, we offer perspectives on inter-areal interactions and synaptic plasticity for memory consolidation during sleep.

  1. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Miyamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5–4 Hz are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation. During slow wave sleep, inter-areal interactions between the cortex and hippocampus (HC have been proposed to consolidate declarative memory; however, interactions for non-declarative (HC-independent memory remain largely uninvestigated. We recently showed that the directional influence in a slow-wave range through a top-down cortical long-range circuit is involved in the consolidation of non-declarative memory. At the synaptic level, the average cortical synaptic strength is known to be potentiated during wakefulness and depressed during sleep. Moreover, learning causes plasticity in a subset of synapses, allocating memory to them. Sleep may help to differentiate synaptic strength between allocated and non-allocated synapses (i.e., improving the signal-to-noise ratio, which may facilitate memory consolidation. Herein, we offer perspectives on inter-areal interactions and synaptic plasticity for memory consolidation during sleep.

  2. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  3. Verbal Working Memory in Older Adults: The Roles of Phonological Capacities and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the potential roles of phonological sensitivity and processing speed in age-related declines of verbal working memory. Method: Twenty younger and 25 older adults with age-normal hearing participated. Two measures of verbal working memory were collected: digit span and serial recall of words. Processing speed was…

  4. The Roles of Working Memory and Cognitive Load in Geoscience Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Allison J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Reynolds, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive system that allows for the simultaneous storage and processing of active information. While working memory has been implicated as an important element for success in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, its specific role in geoscience learning is not fully understood. The major goal of…

  5. No functional role of attention-based rehearsal in maintenance of spatial working memory representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belopolsky, A.V.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study systematically examined the role of attention in maintenance of spatial representations in working memory as proposed by the attention-based rehearsal hypothesis [Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in spatial working memory. Journal of Experimental

  6. Differences in Attainment and Performance in a Foreign Language: The Role of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert, Roger; Munoz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the role of working memory capacity in L2 attainment and performance. The study uses an L1 reading span task to measure working memory of a group of 59 high-intermediate/advanced learners of English, and a film retelling task to measure their oral production. The analysis first showed a moderate to high…

  7. The Role of Attention in the Maintenance of Feature Bindings in Visual Short-term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Hollingworth, Andrew; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in maintaining feature bindings in visual short-term memory. In a change-detection paradigm, participants attempted to detect changes in the colors and orientations of multiple objects; the changes consisted of new feature values in a feature-memory condition and changes in how existing feature values were…

  8. Explicit mentalizing mechanisms and their adaptive role in memory conformity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wheeler

    Full Text Available Memory conformity occurs when an individual endorses what other individuals remember about past events. Research on memory conformity is currently dominated by a 'forensic' perspective, which views the phenomenon as inherently undesirable. This is because conformity not only distorts the accuracy of an individual's memory, but also produces false corroboration between individuals, effects that act to undermine criminal justice systems. There is growing awareness, however, that memory conformity may be interpreted more generally as an adaptive social behavior regulated by explicit mentalizing mechanisms. Here, we provide novel evidence in support of this emerging alternative theoretical perspective. We carried out a memory conformity experiment which revealed that explicit belief-simulation (i.e. using one's own beliefs to model what other people believe systematically biases conformity towards like-minded individuals, even when there is no objective evidence that they have a more accurate memory than dissimilar individuals. We suggest that this bias is functional, i.e. adaptive, to the extent that it fosters trust, and hence cooperation, between in-group versus out-group individuals. We conclude that memory conformity is, in more fundamental terms, a highly desirable product of explicit mentalizing mechanisms that promote adaptive forms of social learning and cooperation.

  9. Explicit mentalizing mechanisms and their adaptive role in memory conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Allan, Kevin; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Martin, Douglas; Gabbert, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Memory conformity occurs when an individual endorses what other individuals remember about past events. Research on memory conformity is currently dominated by a 'forensic' perspective, which views the phenomenon as inherently undesirable. This is because conformity not only distorts the accuracy of an individual's memory, but also produces false corroboration between individuals, effects that act to undermine criminal justice systems. There is growing awareness, however, that memory conformity may be interpreted more generally as an adaptive social behavior regulated by explicit mentalizing mechanisms. Here, we provide novel evidence in support of this emerging alternative theoretical perspective. We carried out a memory conformity experiment which revealed that explicit belief-simulation (i.e. using one's own beliefs to model what other people believe) systematically biases conformity towards like-minded individuals, even when there is no objective evidence that they have a more accurate memory than dissimilar individuals. We suggest that this bias is functional, i.e. adaptive, to the extent that it fosters trust, and hence cooperation, between in-group versus out-group individuals. We conclude that memory conformity is, in more fundamental terms, a highly desirable product of explicit mentalizing mechanisms that promote adaptive forms of social learning and cooperation.

  10. What pharmacological interventions indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M W; Barker, G R I; Aggleton, J P; Warburton, E C

    2012-11-01

    Findings of pharmacological studies that have investigated the involvement of specific regions of the brain in recognition memory are reviewed. The particular emphasis of the review concerns what such studies indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory. Most of the studies involve rats and most have investigated recognition memory for objects. Pharmacological studies provide a large body of evidence supporting the essential role of the perirhinal cortex in the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of object recognition memory. Such studies provide increasingly detailed evidence concerning both the neurotransmitter systems and the underlying intracellular mechanisms involved in recognition memory processes. They have provided evidence in support of synaptic weakening as a major synaptic plastic process within perirhinal cortex underlying object recognition memory. They have also supplied confirmatory evidence that that there is more than one synaptic plastic process involved. The demonstrated necessity to long-term recognition memory of intracellular signalling mechanisms related to synaptic modification within perirhinal cortex establishes a central role for the region in the information storage underlying such memory. Perirhinal cortex is thereby established as an information storage site rather than solely a processing station. Pharmacological studies have also supplied new evidence concerning the detailed roles of other regions, including the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex in different types of recognition memory tasks that include a spatial or temporal component. In so doing, they have also further defined the contribution of perirhinal cortex to such tasks. To date it appears that the contribution of perirhinal cortex to associative and temporal order memory reflects that in simple object recognition memory, namely that perirhinal cortex provides information concerning objects and their prior occurrence (novelty

  11. The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationships Between Internal Distress and Smoking Behavior During a Quit Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Reed, Kathleen M. Palm; Hayes, Steven C.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent smoking cessation studies have shown that decreasing experiential avoidance (EA) (i.e., tendency to reduce or avoid internal distress) improves success, but to date none have examined the moderating effect of EA on the role of specific internal distress in smoking cessation. This study examined whether pre-quit general EA (Acceptance & Action Questionnaire) and smoking-specific EA (Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale) moderated the relations between four measures of post-quit internal distress (depressive symptoms, negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, craving), and smoking. Participates: 40 adult smokers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Distress Tolerance treatment for smokers with a history of early lapse. Results: Multilevel models showed that pre-quit smoking-specific EA, but not general EA, significantly moderated the relationship between all measures of internal distress, except craving, and smoking over 13 weeks post-quit. When examined over 26 weeks, these relations remained unchanged for all, but the moderating effect became trend-level for depressive symptoms. Significant associations between post-quit internal distress and smoking were found only in those with high pre-quit smoking-specific EA. Moreover, pre-quit smoking-specific EA did not predict post-quit levels or changes in internal distress, suggesting that decreasing smoking-specific EA pre-quit may not reduce internal distress, but may instead reduce smoking risk in response to such distress during a quit attempt. Conclusions: Results mainly supported hypothesized relations, but only for smoking-specific EA. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on EA reduction may especially benefit those vulnerable to greater post-quit depressive and withdrawal symptoms, and those who smoke to regulate aversive internal states. PMID:25347023

  12. Everyday experiences of memory problems and control: the adaptive role of selective optimization with compensation in the context of memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elizabeth A; Lachman, Margie E

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of long-term working memory decline in the relationship between everyday experiences of memory problems and perceived control, and we also considered whether the use of accommodative strategies [selective optimization with compensation (SOC)] would be adaptive. The study included Boston-area participants (n = 103) from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS) who completed two working memory assessments over 10 years and weekly diaries following Time 2. In adjusted multi-level analyses, greater memory decline and lower general perceived control were associated with more everyday memory problems. Low perceived control reported in a weekly diary was associated with more everyday memory problems among those with greater memory decline and low SOC strategy use (Est. = -0.28, SE= 0.13, p = .036). These results suggest that the use of SOC strategies in the context of declining memory may help to buffer the negative effects of low perceived control on everyday memory.

  13. The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning. PMID:21945835

  14. The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: insight from Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Shohamy, Daphna

    2011-11-01

    It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks. The role of temporal message framing and eating self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Susan; Good, Anna; Pavey, Louisa

    2014-09-01

    Message framing outcomes of healthy behaviours as occurring 'every day' vs. 'every year' can influence the temporal proximity and perceived likelihood of these outcomes. However, it is not known how pre-existing beliefs such as confidence in one's ability to perform health-related behaviour interact with such messages. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether eating self-efficacy moderates the effect of temporal framing (day-frame vs. year-frame) on snacking behaviour. Participants (N = 95) completed the short form of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL-SF) and read either a day-framed or year-framed message about the health benefits associated with avoiding snacking. Consumption of snacks was reported 7 days later. For those with low levels of eating self-efficacy (WEL-SF score framed message was associated with lower levels of snacking than the day-framed message. The current research identifies a key role for eating self-efficacy in shaping recipients' responses to temporally framed messages about the health benefits associated with the avoidance of snacking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Sense of guilt in sexually abused children : Mediating role of avoidance coping on anxiety and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Duchesne, Amélie; Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested self-blame and sense of guilt as important elements associated with the effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult survivors (Cantón-Cortés, Cantón, Justicia & Cortés, 2011). However, few studies have explored the potential impact of the sense of guilt on outcomes in child victims. This study examines the mediating role of avoidance coping on the relationship between sense of guilt and outcomes (anxiety and self-esteem) in sexually abused children. The sample consisted of 447 sexually abused children (319 girls and 128 boys) aged 6 to 12. Path analysis indicated that children with higher feelings of guilt about the abuse showed more anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem. Indirect effects also indicated that sense of guilt predicted avoidance coping, which in turn contributed to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem. This model, which fits the data well for both girls and boys, explains 24.4 % of the variance in anxiety and 11.2 % of the variance in self-esteem. Results suggest that sense of guilt is an important target for clinical intervention with sexually abused children.

  17. The role of sleep in human declarative memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Sara E; Chambers, Alexis M; Cunningham, Tony; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-01-01

    Through a variety of methods, researchers have begun unraveling the mystery of why humans spend one-third of their lives asleep. Though sleep likely serves multiple functions, it has become clear that the sleeping brain offers an ideal environment for solidifying newly learned information in the brain. Sleep , which comprises a complex collection of brain states, supports the consolidation of many different types of information. It not only promotes learning and memory stabilization, but also memory reorganization that can lead to various forms of insightful behavior. As this chapter will describe, research provides ample support for these crucial cognitive functions of sleep . Focusing on the declarative memory system in humans, we review the literature regarding the benefits of sleep for both neutral and emotionally salient declarative memory. Finally, we discuss the literature regarding the impact of sleep on emotion regulation.

  18. The Role of Short-Term Memory in Operator Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Craik , F.I. and Lockhart , R.S., 1972, Levels of processing : A framework for memory research...examples of postcategorical selction models. Precategorical Selection Models Sperling’s Model. Unlike Craik and Lockhart’s levels -of- processing model...subdivided to contain a primary memory unit and a mechanism for the direction of conscious attention. Levels -of- Processing . Craik and Lockhart’s levels

  19. The Role of Memory Processes in Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Hochhaus, Larry; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether Repetition Blindness (RB) in processing RSVP strings depends critically on memory demands. When all items in the sequence had to be reported, strong RB was found. When only the 2 critical items (cued by color) had to be reported, no RB was found. Preliminary results show that imposing a separate memory load, while reporting only the critical items, also produces little RB. Implications for the processing locus of RB will be discussed.

  20. The Role of Intention to Consume in Creating Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Oktavian Jony Oktavian Haryanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Children are a unique and also potential market. They are unique because they usually do not spend their own money but they may have high purchasing power back-up. They are potential because from the number of kids and the amount they spend, they are big and promising. Markets for kids consist of three markets: (1 primary market that targets the children itself, (2 influence market that emphasizes the influence that the children exert on family purchases, and (3 future market that considers the future market for the children. Based on the high potential market for the children, the author identifies the impacts of intention to consume for children on influence power (an effort pursued by kids in order to frequently and successfully influence parents or people surrounding them, impulsive buying (kids’ tendencies to buy spontaneously, immediately, and without any deep consideration, and autobiographical memory (a memory of previous experience that will be stored as a long-term memory. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify the antecedents of autobiographical memory for children. The results show that the intention to consume positively influences the impulsive buying as well as the autobiographical memory. For managerial implications, marketers need to put an emphasis on stimulating the intention to consume in order to create a positive autobiographical memory.

  1. Neural mechanisms of memory retrieval: role of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, I

    2000-01-01

    In the primate brain, long-term memory is stored in the neocortical association area which is also engaged in sensory perception. The coded representation of memory is retrieved via interactions of hierarchically different cortical areas along bottom-up and top-down anatomical connections. The functional significance of the fronto-cortical top-down neuronal projections has been relevantly assessed in a new experimental paradigm using posterior-split-brain monkeys. When the splenium of the corpus callosum and the anterior commissure were selectively split, the bottom-up visual signal originating from the unilateral striate cortex could not reach the contralateral visual cortical areas. In this preparation, long-term memory acquired through visual stimulus-stimulus association learning was prevented from transferring across hemispheres. Nonetheless, following the presentation of a visual cue to one hemisphere, the prefrontal cortex could instruct the contralateral hemisphere to retrieve the correct stimulus specified by the cue. These results support the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex can regulate memory recall in the absence of bottom-up sensory input. In humans, functional neuroimaging studies have revealed activation of a distributed neural network, including the prefrontal cortex, during memory retrieval tasks. Thus, the prefrontal cortex is consistently involved in retrieval of long-term memory in primates.

  2. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F; Moran, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working memory and phonological short-term memory. Strong correlations were observed between phonological short-term memory, verbal working memory, and expressive vocabulary. Speed of spoken word recognition showed a moderate significant correlation with expressive vocabulary. In a multivariate regression model for expressive vocabulary, the most powerful predictor was a measure of phonological short-term memory (accounting for 66% unique variance), followed by verbal working memory (6%), sex (2%), and age (1%). Processing speed did not add significant unique variance. These findings confirm previous research positing a strong role for phonological short-term memory in early expressive vocabulary acquisition. They also extend previous research in two ways. First, a unique association between verbal working memory and expressive vocabulary in 2-year-olds was observed. Second, processing speed was not a unique predictor of variance in expressive vocabulary when included alongside measures of working memory.

  3. Direct and generative retrieval of autobiographical memories: The roles of visual imagery and executive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Dean, Graham M

    2017-03-01

    Two experiments used a dual task methodology to investigate the role of visual imagery and executive resources in the retrieval of specific autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, dynamic visual noise led to a reduction in the number of specific memories retrieved in response to both high and low imageability cues, but did not affect retrieval times. In Experiment 2, irrelevant pictures reduced the number of specific memories but only in response to low imageability cues. Irrelevant pictures also increased response times to both high and low imageability cues. The findings are in line with previous work suggesting that disrupting executive resources may impair generative, but not direct, retrieval of autobiographical memories. In contrast, visual distractor tasks appear to impair access to specific autobiographical memories via both the direct and generative retrieval routes, thereby highlighting the potential role of visual imagery in both pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Non-Volatile Memories in Automotive and IoT Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Standard Manufacturing Supply Long Term Short to Medium Term Density Up to 16MB Up to 2MB IO Configuration Up to x128 Up to x32 Design for Test...Role of Non-Volatile Memories in Automotive and IoT Markets Vipin Tiwari Director, Business Development and Product Marketing SST – A Wholly Own...microcontrollers (MCU) and certainly one of the most challenging elements to master. This paper addresses the role of non-volatile memories for

  5. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  6. The roles of Eph receptors in contextual fear conditioning memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Monica; Grinberg, Svetlana; Vassiliev, Maria; Ram, Alon; Tamir, Tal; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    Eph receptors regulate glutamate receptors functions, neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, cellular events believed to be involved in memory formation. In this study we aim to explore the roles of Eph receptors in learning and memory. Toward that end, we examined the roles of EphB2 and EphA4 receptors, key regulators of synaptic functions, in fear conditioning memory formation. We show that mice lacking EphB2 (EphB2(-/-)) are impaired in short- and long-term contextual fear conditioning memory. Mice that express a carboxy-terminally truncated form of EphB2 that lacks forward signaling, instead of the full EphB2, are impaired in long-term, but not short-term, contextual fear conditioning memory. Long-term contextual fear conditioning memory is attenuated in CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice where EphA4 is removed from all pyramidal neurons of the forebrain. Mutant mice with targeted kinase-dead EphA4 (EphA4(KD)) exhibit intact long-term contextual fear conditioning memory showing that EphA4 kinase-mediated forward signaling is not needed for contextual fear memory formation. The ability to form long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory is not impaired in the EphB2(-/-) and CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice. We conclude that EphB2 forward signaling is required for long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation. In contrast, EphB2 mediates short-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a forward signaling-independent manner. EphA4 mediates long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a kinase-independent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: Role of source memory and executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kortrijk, H.E.; Wester, A.J.; Nys, G.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Confabulation behavior is common in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. A distinction can be made between spontaneous and provoked confabulations, which may have different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Provoked confabulations may be related to intrusions on memory tests, whereas spontaneous

  8. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: role of source memory and executive functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kortrijk, H.E.; Wester, A.J.; Nys, G.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Confabulation behavior is common in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. A distinction can be made between spontaneous and provoked confabulations, which may have different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Provoked confabulations may be related to intrusions on memory tests, whereas spontaneous

  9. Role of beta-adrenoceptors in memory consolidation: beta3-adrenoceptors act on glucose uptake and beta2-adrenoceptors on glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marie E; Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    Noradrenaline, acting via beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptors (AR), enhances memory formation in single trial-discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving changes in metabolism of glucose and/or glycogen. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks implicated beta(3)- rather than beta(2)-ARs in enhancement of memory consolidation by glucose, but did not elucidate whether stimulation of glucose uptake or of glycolysis was responsible. This study examines the role of glucose transport in memory formation using central injection of the nonselective facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitor cytochalasin B, the endothelial/astrocytic GLUT-1 inhibitor phloretin and the Na(+)/energy-dependent endothelial glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor phlorizin. Cytochalasin B inhibited memory when injected into the mesopallium (avian cortex) either close to or between 25 and 45 min after training, whereas phloretin and phlorizin only inhibited memory at 30 min. This suggested that astrocytic/endothelial (GLUT-1) transport is critical at the time of consolidation, whereas a different transporter, probably the neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT-3), is important at the time of training. Inhibition of glucose transport by cytochalasin B, phloretin, or phlorizin also interfered with beta(3)-AR-mediated memory enhancement 20 min posttraining, whereas inhibition of glycogenolysis interfered with beta(2)-AR agonist enhancement of memory. We conclude that in astrocytes (1) activities of both GLUT-1 and SGLT are essential for memory consolidation 30 min posttraining; (2) neuronal GLUT-3 is essential at the time of training; and (3) beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs consolidate memory by different mechanisms; beta(3)-ARs stimulate central glucose transport, whereas beta(2)-ARs stimulate central glycogenolysis.

  10. Role of hippocampal and prefrontal cortical signaling pathways in dextromethorphan effect on morphine-induced memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that dextromethorphan (DM), an NMDA receptor antagonist, induces memory impairment. Considering that DM is widely used in cough-treating medications, and the co-abuse of DM with morphine has recently been reported, the aims of the present study was (1) to investigate whether there is a functional interaction between morphine and DM in passive avoidance learning and (2) to assess the possible role of the hippocampal and prefrontal cortical (PFC) signaling pathways in the effects of the drugs on memory formation. Our findings indicated that post-training or pre-test administration of morphine (2 and 6 mg/kg) or DM (10-30 mg/kg) impaired memory consolidation and retrieval which was associated with the attenuation of the levels of phosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p-CAMKII) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the targeted sites. Moreover, the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of morphine was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of morphine or DM (30 mg/kg), indicating state-dependent learning (SDL) and a cross-SDL between the drugs. It is important to note that the levels of p-CAMKII/CAMKII and p-CREB/CREB in the hippocampus and the PFC increased in drugs-induced SDL. In addition, DM administration potentiated morphine-induced SDL which was related to the enhanced levels of hippocampal and PFC CAMKII-CREB signaling pathways. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between the hippocampus and the PFC in the effect of DM and/or morphine on memory retrieval. Moreover, a cross SDL can be induced between the co-administration of DM and morphine. Interestingly, CAMKII-CREB signaling pathways also mediate the drugs-induced SDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New insights in the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Imbo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview concerning the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations in mental arithmetic. The role of the executive working-memory component is discussed, alongside the contribution of the phonological and visuo-spatial working-memory components. Moreover, a broad view on various carry characteristics (such as the number of carry/borrow operations and the value of the carry and various operations (addition, subtraction, and multiplication is provided. Finally, some ideas for further research are offered.

  12. The role of attention and relatedness in emotionally enhanced memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Schimmack, Ulrich; Paterson, Theone; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-02-01

    Examining the positive and negative pictures separately revealed that emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for positive pictures was mediated by attention, with no significant influence of emotional arousal, whereas the reverse was true of negative pictures. Consistent with this finding, in Experiment 2 EEM for negative pictures was found even when task emphasis was manipulated so that equivalent attention was allocated to negative and neutral pictures. The results show that attention and semantic relatedness contribute to EEM, with the extent varying with emotional valence. Negative emotion can influence memory independently of these 2 factors. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Memory in Document Re-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, X; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fulton, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    . For participants the act of organizing documents is itself a memory aid. Participants’ recommendations for PIM tools include support for information organization and simplistic visualizations that can be customized, e.g., using colour to highlight folders or documents. Research limitations......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore graduate students’ behaviour and perspectives regarding personal digital document management, as well as insights into the connections between memory and document re-finding. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews were conducted...

  14. Exploring the role of experiential avoidance from the perspective of attachment theory and the dual process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance can be adaptive and facilitate the healing process of acute grief or it can be maladaptive and hinder this same process. Maladaptive cognitive or behavioral avoidance comprises the central feature of the condition of complicated grief. This article explores the concept of experiential avoidance as it applies to bereavement, including when it is adaptive when it is problematic. Adaptive avoidance is framed using an attachment theory perspective and incorporates insights from the dual process model (DPM). An approach to clinical management of experiential avoidance in the syndrome of complicated grief is included.

  15. The pivotal role of semantic memory in remembering the past and imagining the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muireann eIrish

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past. In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualised as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context. The neural substrates of the episodic and semantic memory systems have been dissociated in healthy individuals during functional imaging studies, and in clinical cohorts, leading to the prevailing view that episodic and semantic memory represent functionally distinct systems subtended by discrete neurobiological substrates. Importantly, however, converging evidence focusing on widespread neural networks now points to significant overlap between those regions essential for retrieval of autobiographical memories, episodic learning, and semantic processing. Here we review recent advances in episodic memory research focusing on neurodegenerative populations which has proved revelatory for our understanding of the complex interplay between episodic and semantic memory. Whereas episodic memory research has traditionally focused on retrieval of autobiographical events from the past, we also include evidence from the recent paradigm shift in which episodic memory is viewed as an adaptive and constructive process which facilitates the imagining of possible events in the future. We examine the available evidence which converges to highlight the pivotal role of semantic memory in providing schemas and meaning whether one is engaged in autobiographical retrieval for the past, or indeed, is endeavouring to construct a plausible scenario of an event in the future. It therefore seems plausible to contend that semantic processing may underlie most, if not all, forms of episodic memory, irrespective of temporal condition.

  16. Evaluating the role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in memory-guided response with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Massihullah; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays an important role in working memory, including the control of memory-guided response. In this study, with 24 subjects, we used high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to evaluate the role of the dlPFC in memory-guided response to two different types of spatial working memory tasks: one requiring a recognition decision about a probe stimulus (operationalized with a yes/no button press), another requiring direct recall ...

  17. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Tadi, Monika; Allaman, Igor; Lengacher, Sylvain; Grenningloh, Gabriele; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte)-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  18. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tadi

    Full Text Available We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4, alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  19. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Tadi, Monika

    2015-10-29

    We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte)-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  20. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  1. The Role of Episodic Memory in Learning from University Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapadat, Judith C.; Martin, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Results from a study involving 34 undergraduates supported the prediction from Paivo's dual coding theory (1986) that imaginal elaborations during lectures assist students' recall of both episodic and declarative information. The prediction that episodic memories would mediate retention of declarative information from the lecture was not…

  2. The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2011-01-01

    System-level memory consolidation theory posits that the hippocampus initially links the neocortical representations, followed by a shift to a hippocampus-independent neocortical network. With consolidation, an increase in activity in the human subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has

  3. The Role of Semantic Clustering in Optimal Memory Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Priscilla; Thompson, Graham; Kello, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of semantic memory have investigated two theories of optimal search adopted from the animal foraging literature: Lévy flights and marginal value theorem. Each theory makes different simplifying assumptions and addresses different findings in search behaviors. In this study, an experiment is conducted to test whether clustering in…

  4. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen; Becker, Eni S.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130) at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L), and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a) general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b) avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed. PMID:28671977

  5. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rudaz

    Full Text Available Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91 and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130 at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L, and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed.

  6. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen; Becker, Eni S; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130) at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L), and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a) general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b) avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed.

  7. Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: The central role of semantic self-images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, Clare J; Holmes, Emily A; Murphy, Susannah E; Ellis, Judi A

    2015-05-01

    Higher levels of well-being are associated with longer life expectancies and better physical health. Previous studies suggest that processes involving the self and autobiographical memory are related to well-being, yet these relationships are poorly understood. The present study tested 32 older and 32 younger adults using scales measuring well-being and the affective valence of two types of autobiographical memory: episodic autobiographical memories and semantic self-images. Results showed that valence of semantic self-images, but not episodic autobiographical memories, was highly correlated with well-being, particularly in older adults. In contrast, well-being in older adults was unrelated to performance across a range of standardised memory tasks. These results highlight the role of semantic self-images in well-being, and have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for well-being in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Memory Activation in Creating False Memories of Encoding Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Using 3 experiments, I examined false memory for encoding context by presenting Deese-Roediger-McDermott themes (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) in usual-looking fonts and by testing related, but unstudied, lure items in a font that was shown during encoding. In 2 of the experiments, testing lure items in the font used to study their…

  9. Role of the hippocampus on learning and memory functioning and pain modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haimei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, an important part of the limbic system, is considered to be an important region of the brain for learning and memory functioning. Recent studies have demonstrated that synaptic plasticity is thought to be the basis of learning and memory functioning. A series of studies report that similar synaptic plasticity also exists in the spinal cord in the conduction pathway of pain sensation, which may contribute to hyperalgesia, abnormal pain, and analgesia. The synaptic plasticity of learning and memory functioning and that of the pain conduction pathway have similar mechanisms, which are related to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. The hippocampus also has a role in pain modulation. As pain signals can reach the hippocampus, the precise correlation between synaptic plasticity of the pain pathway and that of learning and memory functioning deserves further investigation. The role of the hippocampus in processing pain information requires to be identified.

  10. The role of the dorsal striatum in extinction: A memory systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2018-04-01

    The present review describes a role for the dorsal striatum in extinction. Evidence from brain lesion and pharmacological studies indicate that the dorsolateral region of the striatum (DLS) mediates extinction in various maze learning and instrumental learning tasks. Within the context of a multiple memory systems view, the role of the DLS in extinction appears to be selective. Specifically, the DLS mediates extinction of habit memory and is not required for extinction of cognitive memory. Thus, extinction mechanisms mediated by the DLS may involve response-produced inhibition (e.g. inhibition of existing stimulus-response associations or formation of new inhibitory stimulus-response associations), as opposed to cognitive mechanisms (e.g. changes in expectation). Evidence also suggests that NMDA-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity may be part of the mechanism through which the DLS mediates extinction of habit memory. In addition, in some learning situations, DLS inactivation enhances extinction, suggesting a competitive interaction between multiple memory systems during extinction training. Consistent with a multiple memory systems perspective, it is suggested that the DLS represents one of several distinct neural systems that specialize in extinction of different kinds of memory. The relevance of these findings to the development of behavioral and pharmacological therapies that target the maladaptive habit-like symptoms in human psychopathology is also briefly considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Tracking the Time-Dependent Role of the Hippocampus in Memory Recall Using DREADDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Carmen; Weiss, Sarah; Meyer, Retsina; Halassa, Michael; Biedenkapp, Joseph; Wilson, Matthew A; Goosens, Ki Ann; Bendor, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is critical for the storage of new autobiographical experiences as memories. Following an initial encoding stage in the hippocampus, memories undergo a process of systems-level consolidation, which leads to greater stability through time and an increased reliance on neocortical areas for retrieval. The extent to which the retrieval of these consolidated memories still requires the hippocampus is unclear, as both spared and severely degraded remote memory recall have been reported following post-training hippocampal lesions. One difficulty in definitively addressing the role of the hippocampus in remote memory retrieval is the precision with which the entire volume of the hippocampal region can be inactivated. To address this issue, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), a chemical-genetic tool capable of highly specific neuronal manipulation over large volumes of brain tissue. We find that remote (>7 weeks after acquisition), but not recent (1-2 days after acquisition) contextual fear memories can be recalled after injection of the DREADD agonist (CNO) in animals expressing the inhibitory DREADD in the entire hippocampus. Our data demonstrate a time-dependent role of the hippocampus in memory retrieval, supporting the standard model of systems consolidation.

  12. No functional role of attention-based rehearsal in maintenance of spatial working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolsky, Artem V; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The present study systematically examined the role of attention in maintenance of spatial representations in working memory as proposed by the attention-based rehearsal hypothesis [Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in spatial working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology--Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 780-790]. Three main issues were examined. First, Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that inhibition and not facilitation of visual processing is often observed at the memorized location during the retention interval. This inhibition was caused by keeping a location in memory and not by the exogenous nature of the memory cue. Second, Experiment 4 showed that inhibition of the memorized location does not lead to any significant impairment in memory accuracy. Finally, Experiment 5 connected current results to the previous findings and demonstrated facilitation of processing at the memorized location. Importantly, facilitation of processing did not lead to more accurate memory performance. The present results challenge the functional role of attention in maintenance of spatial working memory representations.

  13. Memory Contextualization: The Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Functional Integration across Item and Context Representational Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; van Ast, Vanessa A; Klumpers, Floris; Roelofs, Karin; Hermans, Erno J

    2018-04-01

    Memory recall is facilitated when retrieval occurs in the original encoding context. This context dependency effect likely results from the automatic binding of central elements of an experience with contextual features (i.e., memory "contextualization") during encoding. However, despite a vast body of research investigating the neural correlates of explicit associative memory, the neural interactions during encoding that predict implicit context-dependent memory remain unknown. Twenty-six participants underwent fMRI during encoding of salient stimuli (faces), which were overlaid onto unique background images (contexts). To index subsequent context-dependent memory, face recognition was tested either in intact or rearranged contexts, after scanning. Enhanced face recognition in intact relative to rearranged contexts evidenced successful memory contextualization. Overall subsequent memory effects (brain activity predicting whether items were later remembered vs. forgotten) were found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right amygdala. Effective connectivity analyses showed that stronger context-dependent memory was associated with stronger coupling of the left IFG with face- and place-responsive areas, both within and between participants. Our findings indicate an important role for the IFG in integrating information across widespread regions involved in the representation of salient items and contextual features.

  14. The role of the frontal cortex in memory: an investigation of the Von Restorff effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalal, Anat; Davelaar, Eddy J.; Usher, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology and neuroimaging indicate that the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in human memory. Although frontal patients are able to form new memories, these memories appear qualitatively different from those of controls by lacking distinctiveness. Neuroimaging studies of memory indicate activation in the PFC under deep encoding conditions, and under conditions of semantic elaboration. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the PFC enhances memory by extracting differences and commonalities in the studied material. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an experimental investigation to test the relationship between the PFC-dependent factors and semantic factors associated with common and specific features of words. These experiments were performed using Free-Recall of word lists with healthy adults, exploiting the correlation between PFC function and fluid intelligence. As predicted, a correlation was found between fluid intelligence and the Von-Restorff effect (better memory for semantic isolates, e.g., isolate “cat” within category members of “fruit”). Moreover, memory for the semantic isolate was found to depend on the isolate's serial position. The isolate item tends to be recalled first, in comparison to non-isolates, suggesting that the process interacts with short term memory. These results are captured within a computational model of free recall, which includes a PFC mechanism that is sensitive to both commonality and distinctiveness, sustaining a trade-off between the two. PMID:25018721

  15. A role for α-adducin (ADD-1) in nematode and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukojevic, Vanja; Gschwind, Leo; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2012-03-21

    Identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory is one of the major challenges in neuroscience. Taken the advantages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we investigated α-adducin (add-1) in aversive olfactory associative learning and memory. Loss of add-1 function selectively impaired short- and long-term memory without causing acquisition, sensory, or motor deficits. We showed that α-adducin is required for consolidation of synaptic plasticity, for sustained synaptic increase of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GLR-1) content and altered GLR-1 turnover dynamics. ADD-1, in a splice-form- and tissue-specific manner, controlled the storage of memories presumably through actin-capping activity. In support of the C. elegans results, genetic variability of the human ADD1 gene was significantly associated with episodic memory performance in healthy young subjects. Finally, human ADD1 expression in nematodes restored loss of C. elegans add-1 gene function. Taken together, our findings support a role for α-adducin in memory from nematodes to humans. Studying the molecular and genetic underpinnings of memory across distinct species may be helpful in the development of novel strategies to treat memory-related diseases.

  16. Roles for Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons in Olfactory Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lin; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.; Ito, Kei; Davis, Ronald L.; Akalal, David-Benjamin G.; Wilson, Curtis F.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli. However, the precise roles of the different neurons comprising the MBs are still under debate. The confusion surrounding the roles of the different neurons…

  17. Episodic memory and the role of the brain’s default-mode network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, W.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis provides a number of new insights into episodic memory and the role of the default-mode network. First, it provides the first direct evidence for the contrasting role of DMN during encoding and retrieval. Secondly, the experimental findings eliminate several possible explanations for the

  18. Distinctive Roles for Amygdalar CREB in Reconsolidation and Extinction of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronson, Natalie C.; Wiseman, Shari L.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a critical role in fear memory formation. Here we determined the role of CREB selectively within the amygdala in reconsolidation and extinction of auditory fear. Viral overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) or the dominant-negative mCREB, specifically within the lateral…

  19. Automatic and controlled processing in sentence recall: The role of long-term and working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley, 2000) proposes that the executive component of working memory plays a crucial role in the formation of links between different representational formats...

  20. Role of the medial temporal lobes in relational memory: Neuropsychological evidence from a cued recognition paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Irene P.; Giovanello, Kelly S.; Schnyer, David M.; Makris, Nikos; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of the hippocampus in relational memory by comparing item recognition performance in amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage and their matched controls. Specifically, we investigated the contribution of associative memory to item recognition using a cued recognition paradigm. Control subjects studied cue-target pairs once, whereas amnesic patients studied cue-target pairs six times. Following study, subjects made recognition judgments about ...

  1. The Role of Spatial Memory and Frames of Reference in the Precision of Angular Path Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Joeanna C.; Philbeck, John W.; Kleene, Nicholas J.; Chichka, David

    2012-01-01

    Angular path integration refers to the ability to maintain an estimate of self-location after a rotational displacement by integrating internally-generated (idiothetic) self-motion signals over time. Previous work has found that non-sensory inputs, namely spatial memory, can play a powerful role in angular path integration (Arthur et al., 2007, 2009). Here we investigated the conditions under which spatial memory facilitates angular path integration. We hypothesized that the benefit of spatia...

  2. The Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Memory and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Euston, David R.; Gruber, Aaron J.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Some have claimed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates decision making. Others suggest mPFC is selectively involved in the retrieval of remote long-term memory. Yet others suggests mPFC supports memory and consolidation on time-scales ranging from seconds to days. How can all these roles be reconciled? We propose that the function of the mPFC is to learn associations between context, locations, events, and corresponding adaptive responses, particularly emotional responses. Thus, ...

  3. The role of attention and relatedness in emotionally enhanced memory

    OpenAIRE

    Talmi, Deborah; Schimmack, Ulrich; Paterson, Theone; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Examining the positive and negative pictures separately revealed that emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for positive pictures was mediated by attention, with no significant influence of emotional arousal, whereas the reverse was true of negative pictures. Consistent with this finding, in Experiment 2 EEM for negative pictures was found even when task emphasis was manipulated so that equivalent attention was allocated to negative and neutral pictures. The results show that attention and semant...

  4. The role of adaptive martensite in magnetic shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niemann, R.; Rößler, U.K.; Gruner, M.E.; Heczko, Oleg; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2012), s. 562-581 ISSN 1438-1656 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100913 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni-Mn-Ga * magnetic shape memory alloy * ferromagnetic martensite * modulated structure * adaptive phase * mobility of twin boundary Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2012

  5. The role of experiential avoidance, psychopathology, and borderline personality features in experiencing positive emotions: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta A; Ower, Nicole; Buchholz, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is an important factor in maintaining different forms of psychopathology including borderline personality pathology (BPD). So far little is known about the functions of EA, BPD features and general psychopathology for positive emotions. In this study we investigated three different anticipated pathways of their influence on positive emotions. A total of 334 subjects varying in general psychopathology &/or BPD features completed an online survey including self-ratings of BPD features, psychopathology, negative and positive emotions, and EA. Measures of positive emotions included both a general self-rating (PANAS) and emotional changes induced by two positive movie clips. Data were analyzed by means of path analysis. In comparing the three path models, one model was found clearly superior: In this model, EA acts as a mediator of the influence of psychopathology, BPD features, and negative emotions in the prediction of both measures of positive emotions. EA plays a central role in maintaining lack of positive emotions. Therapeutic implications and study limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A presynaptic role for PKA in synaptic tagging and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Alan Jung; Havekes, Robbert; Choi, Jennifer Hk; Luczak, Vince; Nie, Ting; Huang, Ted; Abel, Ted

    2014-10-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling molecules are spatially restricted within neurons by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Although studies on compartmentalized PKA signaling have focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, presynaptically anchored PKA may contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory because PKA also regulates presynaptic transmitter release. Here, we examine this issue using genetic and pharmacological application of Ht31, a PKA anchoring disrupting peptide. At the hippocampal Schaffer collateral CA3-CA1 synapse, Ht31 treatment elicits a rapid decay of synaptic responses to repetitive stimuli, indicating a fast depletion of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. The interaction between PKA and proteins involved in producing this pool of synaptic vesicles is supported by biochemical assays showing that synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2), Rim1, and SNAP25 are components of a complex that interacts with cAMP. Moreover, acute treatment with Ht31 reduces the levels of SV2. Finally, experiments with transgenic mouse lines, which express Ht31 in excitatory neurons at the Schaffer collateral CA3-CA1 synapse, highlight a requirement for presynaptically anchored PKA in pathway-specific synaptic tagging and long-term contextual fear memory. These results suggest that a presynaptically compartmentalized PKA is critical for synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective role for DNMT3a in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Adachi, Megumi; Na, Elisa S; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Methylation of cytosine nucleotides is governed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that establish de novo DNA methylation patterns in early embryonic development (e.g., DNMT3a and DNMT3b) or maintain those patterns on hemimethylated DNA in dividing cells (e.g., DNMT1). DNMTs continue to be expressed at high levels in mature neurons, however their impact on neuronal function and behavior are unclear. To address this issue we examined DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression following associative learning. We also generated forebrain specific conditional Dnmt1 or Dnmt3a knockout mice and characterized them in learning and memory paradigms as well as for alterations in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that experience in an associative learning task impacts expression of Dnmt3a, but not Dnmt1, in brain areas that mediate learning of this task. We also found that Dnmt3a knockout mice, and not Dnmt1 knockouts have synaptic alterations as well as learning deficits on several associative and episodic memory tasks. These findings indicate that the de novo DNA methylating enzyme DNMT3a in postmitotic neurons is necessary for normal memory formation and its function cannot be substituted by the maintenance DNA methylating enzyme DNMT1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bower, Gordon H

    2004-11-01

    The current research investigated one possible mechanism underlying false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, participants who study lists of related words (e.g., "table, sitting, bench ...") frequently report detailed memories for the centrally related but non-presented critical lure (e.g., "chair"). One possibility is that participants covertly call to mind the critical non-presented lure during the study phase, and later misattribute memory for this internally generated event to its external presentation. To investigate this, the DRM paradigm was modified to allow collection of on-line thoughts during the study phase. False recognition increased following generation during study. False recognition also increased following study of longer lists; this effect was partially explained by the fact that longer lists were more likely to elicit generations of the critical lure during study. Generation of the lure during study contributes to later false recognition, although it does not explain the entire effect.

  9. A combinatorial role for MutY and Fpg DNA glycosylases in mutation avoidance in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassim, Farzanah; Papadopoulos, Andrea O.; Kana, Bavesh D.; Gordhan, Bhavna G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the combined role of MutY and Fpg DNA glycosylases in M. smegmatis. • Loss of MutY showed increased sensitivity to oxidative damage. • Loss of MutY together with the Fpg glycosylases showed increased mutation rates. • Our data indicate interplay between these enzymes to control mutagenesis. - Abstract: Hydroxyl radical (·OH) among reactive oxygen species cause damage to nucleobases with thymine being the most susceptible, whilst in contrast, the singlet oxygen ( 1 0 2 ) targets only guanine bases. The high GC content of mycobacterial genomes predisposes these organisms to oxidative damage of guanine. The exposure of cellular DNA to ·OH and one-electron oxidants results in the formation of two main degradation products, the pro-mutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) and the cytotoxic 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua). These lesions are repaired through the base excision repair (BER) pathway and we previously, demonstrated a combinatorial role for the mycobacterial Endonuclease III (Nth) and the Nei family of DNA glycosylases in mutagenesis. In addition, the formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM) and MutY DNA glycosylases have also been implicated in mutation avoidance and BER in mycobacteria. In this study, we further investigate the combined role of MutY and the Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases in Mycobacterium smegmatis and demonstrate that deletion of mutY resulted in enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, an effect which was not exacerbated in Δfpg1 Δfpg2 or Δnei1 Δnei2 double mutant backgrounds. However, combinatorial loss of the mutY, fpg1 and fpg2 genes resulted in a significant increase in mutation rates suggesting interplay between these enzymes. Consistent with this, there was a significant increase in C → A mutations with a corresponding change in cell morphology of rifampicin resistant mutants in the Δfpg1 Δfpg2 ΔmutY deletion mutant. In contrast, deletion of mutY together with the nei homologues

  10. A combinatorial role for MutY and Fpg DNA glycosylases in mutation avoidance in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassim, Farzanah; Papadopoulos, Andrea O.; Kana, Bavesh D.; Gordhan, Bhavna G., E-mail: bhavna.gordhan@nhls.ac.za

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the combined role of MutY and Fpg DNA glycosylases in M. smegmatis. • Loss of MutY showed increased sensitivity to oxidative damage. • Loss of MutY together with the Fpg glycosylases showed increased mutation rates. • Our data indicate interplay between these enzymes to control mutagenesis. - Abstract: Hydroxyl radical (·OH) among reactive oxygen species cause damage to nucleobases with thymine being the most susceptible, whilst in contrast, the singlet oxygen ({sup 1}0{sub 2}) targets only guanine bases. The high GC content of mycobacterial genomes predisposes these organisms to oxidative damage of guanine. The exposure of cellular DNA to ·OH and one-electron oxidants results in the formation of two main degradation products, the pro-mutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) and the cytotoxic 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua). These lesions are repaired through the base excision repair (BER) pathway and we previously, demonstrated a combinatorial role for the mycobacterial Endonuclease III (Nth) and the Nei family of DNA glycosylases in mutagenesis. In addition, the formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM) and MutY DNA glycosylases have also been implicated in mutation avoidance and BER in mycobacteria. In this study, we further investigate the combined role of MutY and the Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases in Mycobacterium smegmatis and demonstrate that deletion of mutY resulted in enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, an effect which was not exacerbated in Δfpg1 Δfpg2 or Δnei1 Δnei2 double mutant backgrounds. However, combinatorial loss of the mutY, fpg1 and fpg2 genes resulted in a significant increase in mutation rates suggesting interplay between these enzymes. Consistent with this, there was a significant increase in C → A mutations with a corresponding change in cell morphology of rifampicin resistant mutants in the Δfpg1 Δfpg2 ΔmutY deletion mutant. In contrast, deletion of mutY together with the nei

  11. Evidence for a developmental role for TLR4 in learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Okun

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs play essential roles in innate immunity and increasing evidence indicates that these receptors are expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the brain where they mediate responses to infection, stress and injury. Very little is known about the roles of TLRs in cognition. To test the hypothesis that TLR4 has a role in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, we used mice deficient for TLR4 and mice receiving chronic TLR4 antagonist infusion to the lateral ventricles in the brain. We found that developmental TLR4 deficiency enhances spatial reference memory acquisition and memory retention, impairs contextual fear-learning and enhances motor functions, traits that were correlated with CREB up-regulation in the hippocampus. TLR4 antagonist infusion into the cerebral ventricles of adult mice did not affect cognitive behavior, but instead affected anxiety responses. Our findings indicate a developmental role for TLR4 in shaping spatial reference memory, and fear learning and memory. Moreover, we show that central TLR4 inhibition using a TLR4 antagonist has no discernible physiological role in regulating spatial and contextual hippocampus-dependent cognitive behavior.

  12. NF-κB Transcription Factor Role in Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Persistent Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica ede la Fuente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is an important molecular process required for long-term neural plasticity and long-term memory formation. Thus, one main interest in molecular neuroscience in the last decades has been the identification of transcription factors that are involved in memory processes. Among them, the NF-κB family of transcription factors has gained interest due to a significant body of evidence that supports a key role of these proteins in synaptic plasticity and memory. In recent years, the interest was particularly reinforced because NF-κB was characterized as an important regulator of synaptogenesis. This function may be explained by its participation in synapse to nucleus communication, as well as a possible local role at the synapse. This review provides an overview of experimental work obtained in the last years, showing the essential role of this transcription factor in memory processes in different learning tasks in mammals. We focus the review on the consolidation and reconsolidation memory phases as well as on the regulation of immediate-early and late genes by epigenetic mechanisms that determine enduring forms of memories.

  13. The neuropsychology of emerging psychosis and the role of working memory in episodic memory encoding

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    Pflueger MO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marlon O Pflueger,1 Pasquale Calabrese,2 Erich Studerus,3 Ronan Zimmermann,4 Ute Gschwandtner,4 Stefan Borgwardt,5 Jacqueline Aston,3 Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz,6 Anita Riecher-Rössler3 1Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Basel Psychiatric Clinics, Basel, Switzerland; 2Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Center for Gender Research and Early Detection, University of Basel Psychiatric Hospital, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 5Department of Psychiatry (UPK, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Episodic memory encoding and working memory (WM deficits are among the first cognitive signs and symptoms in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, it is not clear whether the deficit pattern is generalized or specific in nature. We hypothesized that encoding deficits at an early stage of the disease might be due to the more fundamental WM deficits. Methods: We examined episodic memory encoding and WM by administering the California Verbal Learning Test, a 2-back task, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 90 first-episode psychosis (FE patients and 116 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS compared to 57 healthy subjects. Results: Learning progress, but not span of apprehension, was diminished to a similar extent in both the ARMS and the FE. We showed that this was due to WM impairment by applying a structural equation approach. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that verbal memory encoding deficits are secondary to primary WM impairment in emerging psychosis. Keywords: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, cognition, serial position effect, recency, semantic cluster ratio, 2-back task, rate of learning

  14. Indecision and avoidant procrastination: the role of morningness-eveningness and time perspective in chronic delay lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Ferrari, Joseph R; Cohen, Joseph R

    2008-07-01

    The authors examined how time orientation and morningness-eveningness relate to 2 forms of procrastination: indecision and avoidant forms. Participants were 509 adults (M age = 49.78 years, SD = 6.14) who completed measures of time orientation, morningness-eveningness, decisional procrastination (i.e., indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Results showed that morningness was negatively related to avoidant procrastination but not decisional procrastination. Overall, the results indicated different temporal profiles for indecision and avoidant procrastinations. Avoidant procrastination related to low future time orientation and low morningness, whereas indecision related to both (a) high negative and high positive past orientations and (b) low present-hedonistic and low future time orientations. The authors inferred that distinct forms of procrastination seem different on the basis of dimensions of time.

  15. The Role of Hippocampal 5HT3 Receptors in Harmaline-Induced Memory Deficit

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    Mohammad Nasehi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The plethora of studies indicated that there is a cross talk relationship between harmaline and serotonergic (5-HT system on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor on memory acquisition deficit induced by harmaline.  Methods: Harmaline was injected peritoneally, while 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333 and antagonist (RS23597-190 were injected intra-hippocampal. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance, open field and tail flick tasks were used for measurement of memory, locomotor activity and pain responses, respectively.  Results: The data revealed that pre-training injection of higher dose of harmaline (1 mg/kg, RS67333 (0.5 ng/mouse and RS23597-190 (0.5 ng/mouse decreased memory acquisition process in the adult mice. Moreover, concurrent pre-training administration of subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 ng/mouse or RS23597-190 (0.005 ng/mouse with subthreshold dose of harmaline (0.5 mg/kg, i.p. intensify impairment of memory acquisition. All above interventions did not change locomotion and tail flick behaviors.  Discussion: The results demonstrated that the synergistic effect between both hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor agonist and antagonist with impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline, indicating a modulatory effect for hippocampal 5HT4 receptor on Harmaline induced amnesia.

  16. A combinatorial role for MutY and Fpg DNA glycosylases in mutation avoidance in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Farzanah; Papadopoulos, Andrea O; Kana, Bavesh D; Gordhan, Bhavna G

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) among reactive oxygen species cause damage to nucleobases with thymine being the most susceptible, whilst in contrast, the singlet oxygen ((1)02) targets only guanine bases. The high GC content of mycobacterial genomes predisposes these organisms to oxidative damage of guanine. The exposure of cellular DNA to OH and one-electron oxidants results in the formation of two main degradation products, the pro-mutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) and the cytotoxic 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua). These lesions are repaired through the base excision repair (BER) pathway and we previously, demonstrated a combinatorial role for the mycobacterial Endonuclease III (Nth) and the Nei family of DNA glycosylases in mutagenesis. In addition, the formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM) and MutY DNA glycosylases have also been implicated in mutation avoidance and BER in mycobacteria. In this study, we further investigate the combined role of MutY and the Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases in Mycobacterium smegmatis and demonstrate that deletion of mutY resulted in enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, an effect which was not exacerbated in Δfpg1 Δfpg2 or Δnei1 Δnei2 double mutant backgrounds. However, combinatorial loss of the mutY, fpg1 and fpg2 genes resulted in a significant increase in mutation rates suggesting interplay between these enzymes. Consistent with this, there was a significant increase in C → A mutations with a corresponding change in cell morphology of rifampicin resistant mutants in the Δfpg1 Δfpg2 ΔmutY deletion mutant. In contrast, deletion of mutY together with the nei homologues did not result in any growth/survival defects or changes in mutation rates. Taken together these data indicate that the mycobacterial mutY, in combination with the Fpg DNA N-glycosylases, plays an important role in controlling mutagenesis under oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward a better understanding on the role of prediction error on memory processes: From bench to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, María C; Fernández, Rodrigo S; Pedreira, María E; Boccia, Mariano M

    2017-07-01

    Experimental psychology defines Prediction Error (PE) as a mismatch between expected and current events. It represents a unifier concept within the memory field, as it is the driving force of memory acquisition and updating. Prediction error induces updating of consolidated memories in strength or content by memory reconsolidation. This process has two different neurobiological phases, which involves the destabilization (labilization) of a consolidated memory followed by its restabilization. The aim of this work is to emphasize the functional role of PE on the neurobiology of learning and memory, integrating and discussing different research areas: behavioral, neurobiological, computational and clinical psychiatry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond perceptual load and dilution: a review of the role of working memory in selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual load and dilution models differ fundamentally in terms of the proposed mechanism underlying variation in distractibility during different perceptual conditions. However, both models predict that distracting information can be processed beyond perceptual processing under certain conditions, a prediction that is well-supported by the literature. Load theory proposes that in such cases, where perceptual task aspects do not allow for sufficient attentional selectivity, the maintenance of task-relevant processing depends on cognitive control mechanisms, including working memory. The key prediction is that working memory plays a role in keeping clear processing priorities in the face of potential distraction, and the evidence reviewed and evaluated in a meta-analysis here supports this claim, by showing that the processing of distracting information tends to be enhanced when load on a concurrent task of working memory is high. Low working memory capacity is similarly associated with greater distractor processing in selective attention, again suggesting that the unavailability of working memory during selective attention leads to an increase in distractibility. Together, these findings suggest that selective attention against distractors that are processed beyond perception depends on the availability of working memory. Possible mechanisms for the effects of working memory on selective attention are discussed. PMID:23734139

  19. Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Danielle J P; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Heijmans, Naomi; Hermans, Dirk; Debeer, Elise; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-03-01

    Placebo effects are presumed to be based on one's expectations and previous experience with regard to a specific treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the specificity and valence of memories and expectations with regard to itch in experimentally induced placebo and nocebo itch responses. It was expected that cognitive schemas with more general and more negative memories and expectations with regard to itch contribute to less placebo itch responding. Validated memory tasks (ie, the Autobiographical Memory Test and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) and expectation tasks (ie, Future Event Task and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) were modified for physical symptoms, including itch. Specificity and valence of memories and expectations were assessed prior to a placebo experiment in which expectations regarding electrical itch stimuli were induced in healthy participants. Participants who were more specific in their memories regarding itch and who had lesser negative itch-related expectations for the future were more likely to be placebo itch responders. There were no significant differences in effects between the nocebo responders and nonresponders. The adapted tasks for assessing cognitive (memory and expectations) schemas on itch seem promising in explaining interindividual differences in placebo itch responding. Future research should investigate whether similar mechanisms apply to patients with chronic itch. This knowledge can be used for identifying patients who will benefit most from the placebo component of a treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Beyond perceptual load and dilution: a review of the role of working memory in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual load and dilution models differ fundamentally in terms of the proposed mechanism underlying variation in distractibility during different perceptual conditions. However, both models predict that distracting information can be processed beyond perceptual processing under certain conditions, a prediction that is well-supported by the literature. Load theory proposes that in such cases, where perceptual task aspects do not allow for sufficient attentional selectivity, the maintenance of task-relevant processing depends on cognitive control mechanisms, including working memory. The key prediction is that working memory plays a role in keeping clear processing priorities in the face of potential distraction, and the evidence reviewed and evaluated in a meta-analysis here supports this claim, by showing that the processing of distracting information tends to be enhanced when load on a concurrent task of working memory is high. Low working memory capacity is similarly associated with greater distractor processing in selective attention, again suggesting that the unavailability of working memory during selective attention leads to an increase in distractibility. Together, these findings suggest that selective attention against distractors that are processed beyond perception depends on the availability of working memory. Possible mechanisms for the effects of working memory on selective attention are discussed.

  1. Beyond perceptual load and dilution: a review of the role of working memory in selective attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. De Fockert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual load and dilution models differ fundamentally in terms of the proposed mechanism underlying variation in distractibility during different perceptual conditions. However, both models predict that distracting information can be processed beyond perceptual processing under certain conditions, a prediction that is well-supported by the literature. Load theory proposes that in such cases, where perceptual task aspects do not allow for sufficient attentional selectivity, the maintenance of task-relevant processing depends on cognitive control mechanisms, including working memory. The key prediction is that working memory plays a role in keeping clear processing priorities in the face of potential distraction, and the evidence reviewed and evaluated in a meta-analysis here supports this claim, by showing that the processing of distracting information tends to be enhanced when load on a concurrent task of working memory is high. Low working memory capacity is similarly associated with greater distractor processing in selective attention, again suggesting that the unavailability of working memory during selective attention leads to an increase in distractibility. Together, these findings suggest that selective attention against distractors that are processed beyond perception depends on the availability of working memory. Possible mechanisms for the effects of working memory on selective attention are discussed.

  2. Ageing and feature binding in visual working memory: The role of presentation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Stephen; Parra, Mario A; Logie, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has clearly demonstrated that healthy ageing is accompanied by an associative memory deficit. Older adults exhibit disproportionately poor performance on memory tasks requiring the retention of associations between items (e.g., pairs of unrelated words). In contrast to this robust deficit, older adults' ability to form and temporarily hold bound representations of an object's surface features, such as colour and shape, appears to be relatively well preserved. However, the findings of one set of experiments suggest that older adults may struggle to form temporary bound representations in visual working memory when given more time to study objects. However, these findings were based on between-participant comparisons across experimental paradigms. The present study directly assesses the role of presentation time in the ability of younger and older adults to bind shape and colour in visual working memory using a within-participant design. We report new evidence that giving older adults longer to study memory objects does not differentially affect their immediate memory for feature combinations relative to individual features. This is in line with a growing body of research suggesting that there is no age-related impairment in immediate memory for colour-shape binding.

  3. Memory, not just perception, plays an important role in terrestrial mammalian migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-05-31

    One of the key questions regarding the underlying mechanisms of mammalian land migrations is how animals select where to go. Most studies assume perception of resources as the navigational mechanism. The possible role of memory that would allow forecasting conditions at distant locations and times based on information about environmental conditions from previous years has been little studied. We study migrating zebra in Botswana using an individual-based simulation model, where perceptually guided individuals use currently sensed resources at different perceptual ranges, while memory-guided individuals use long-term averages of past resources to forecast future conditions. We compare simulated individuals guided by perception or memory on resource landscapes of remotely sensed vegetation data to trajectories of GPS-tagged zebras. Our results show that memory provides a clear signal that best directs migrants to their destination compared to perception at even the largest perceptual ranges. Zebras modelled with memory arrived two to four times, or up to 100 km, closer to the migration destination than those using perception. We suggest that memory in addition to perception is important for directing ungulate migration. Furthermore, our findings are important for the conservation of migratory mammals, as memory informing direction suggests migration routes could be relatively inflexible. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. The role of the hippocampus in memory and mental construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Much has been learned about the processes that support the remembrance of past autobiographical episodes and their importance for a number of cognitive tasks. This work has focused on hippocampal contributions to constructing coherent mental representations of scenarios for these tasks, which has opened up new questions about the underlying hippocampal mechanisms. We propose a new framework to answer these questions, which incorporates task demands that prompt hippocampal contributions to mental construction, the online formation of such mental representations, and how these demands relate to the functional organization of the hippocampus. Synthesizing findings from autobiographical memory research, our framework suggests that the interaction of two task characteristics influences the recruitment of the hippocampus: (1) the degree of task open-endedness (quantified by the presence/absence of a retrieval framework) and (2) the degree to which the integration of perceptual details is required. These characteristics inform the relative weighting of anterior and posterior hippocampal involvement, following an organizational model in which the anterior and posterior hippocampus support constructions on the basis of conceptual and perceptual representations, respectively. The anticipated outcome of our framework is a refined understanding of hippocampal contributions to memory and to the host of related cognitive functions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Three regularities of recognition memory: the role of bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilford, Andrew; Maloney, Laurence T; Glanzer, Murray; Kim, Kisok

    2015-12-01

    A basic assumption of Signal Detection Theory is that decisions are made on the basis of likelihood ratios. In a preceding paper, Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 431-455, 2009) showed that the likelihood ratio assumption implies that three regularities will occur in recognition memory: (1) the Mirror Effect, (2) the Variance Effect, (3) the normalized Receiver Operating Characteristic (z-ROC) Length Effect. The paper offered formal proofs and computational demonstrations that decisions based on likelihood ratios produce the three regularities. A survey of data based on group ROCs from 36 studies validated the likelihood ratio assumption by showing that its three implied regularities are ubiquitous. The study noted, however, that bias, another basic factor in Signal Detection Theory, can obscure the Mirror Effect. In this paper we examine how bias affects the regularities at the theoretical level. The theoretical analysis shows: (1) how bias obscures the Mirror Effect, not the other two regularities, and (2) four ways to counter that obscuring. We then report the results of five experiments that support the theoretical analysis. The analyses and the experimental results also demonstrate: (1) that the three regularities govern individual, as well as group, performance, (2) alternative explanations of the regularities are ruled out, and (3) that Signal Detection Theory, correctly applied, gives a simple and unified explanation of recognition memory data.

  6. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eStiedl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes.

  7. The role of reinstating generation operations in recognition memory and reality monitoring

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    Nieznański Marek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of encoding/retrieval conditions compatibility was investigated in a reality-monitoring task. An experiment was conducted which showed a positive effect of reinstating distinctive encoding operations at test. That is, generation of a low-frequency (LF word from the same word fragment at study and test significantly enhanced item recognition memory. However, reinstating of relatively more automatic operations of reading or generating a highfrequency (HF word did not influence recognition performance. Moreover, LF words were better recognized than HF words, but memory for source did not depend on the encoding/retrieval match or on the word-frequency. In comparison with reading, generating an item at study significantly enhanced source memory but generating it at test had no effect. The data were analysed using a multinomial modelling approach which allowed ruling out the influence of a response bias on the measurement of memory ability.

  8. The hormonal Zeitgeber melatonin: Role as a circadian modulator in memory processing

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    Oliver eRawashdeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine substance melatonin is a hormone synthesized rhythmically by the pineal gland under the influence of the circadian system and alternating light/dark cycles. Melatonin has been shown to have broad applications, and consequently becoming a molecule of great controversy. Undoubtedly, however, melatonin plays an important role as a time cue for the endogenous circadian system. This review focuses on melatonin as a regulator in the circadian modulation of memory processing. Memory processes (acquisition, consolidation and retrieval are modulated by the circadian system. However, the mechanism by which the biological clock is rhythmically influencing cognitive processes remains unknown. We also discuss, how the circadian system by generating cycling melatonin levels can implant information about daytime into memory processing, depicted as day and nighttime differences in acquisition, memory consolidation and/or retrieval.

  9. The SAMP8 mouse for investigating memory and the role of insulin in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Elizabeth M; Banks, William A

    2017-08-01

    SAMP8 mice exhibit changes that commonly occur with normal aging late in life, but do so at a much earlier age. These changes include impairments in learning and memory as early as 8months of age and so the SAMP8 is a useful model to investigate those age-related brain changes that may affect cognition. As brain insulin signaling and memory decline with aging, the SAMP8 model is useful for investigating these changes and interventions that might prevent the decline. This review will summarize the SAMP8 mouse model, highlight changes in brain insulin signaling and its role in memory, and discuss intranasal insulin delivery in investigating effects on insulin metabolism and memory in the SAMP8 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Role of medial prefrontal cortex serotonin 2A receptors in the control of retrieval of recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekinschtein, Pedro; Renner, Maria Constanza; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Weisstaub, Noelia

    2013-10-02

    Often, retrieval cues are not uniquely related to one specific memory, which could lead to memory interference. Controlling interference is particularly important during episodic memory retrieval or when remembering specific events in a spatiotemporal context. Despite a clear involvement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in episodic memory in human studies, information regarding the mechanisms and neurotransmitter systems in PFC involved in memory is scarce. Although the serotoninergic system has been linked to PFC functionality and modulation, its role in memory processing is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the serotoninergic system in PFC, in particular the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) could have a role in the control of memory retrieval. In this work we used different versions of the object recognition task in rats to study the role of the serotoninergic modulation in the medial PFC (mPFC) in memory retrieval. We found that blockade of 5-HT2AR in mPFC affects retrieval of an object in context memory in a spontaneous novelty preference task, while sparing single-item recognition memory. We also determined that 5-HT2ARs in mPFC are required for hippocampal-mPFC interaction during retrieval of this type of memory, suggesting that the mPFC controls the expression of memory traces stored in the hippocampus biasing retrieval to the most relevant one.

  11. Effects of different levels of food restriction on passive-avoidance memory and the expression of synapsin I in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L; Wu, Z-N; Han, P-Z

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of food restriction (FR) on memory and the expression of synapsin I in the brain of young mice. The results showed that 20% FR did not retard the body weight gain of mice, while the 60% and 80% FR reduced the mice's body weight. The memory after 24 hr of learning was not changed by FR, whereas long-term memory was improved significantly in 20% FR mice. In addition, 60% and 80% FR did not impair the mice's memory. The transcriptional expression of synapsin I in mice brain was up-regulated by 20% FR, and down-regulated by 60% and 80% FR.

  12. The Memory System You Can't Avoid it, You Can't Ignore it, You Can't Fake it

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Today, computer-system optimization, at both the hardware and software levels, must consider the details of the memory system in its analysis; failing to do so yields systems that are increasingly inefficient as those systems become more complex. This lecture seeks to introduce the reader to the most important details of the memory system; it targets both computer scientists and computer engineers in industry and in academia. Roughly speaking, computer scientists are the users of the memory system and computer engineers are the designers of the memory system. Both can benefit tremendously from

  13. At the intersection of attention and memory: the mechanistic role of the posterior parietal lobe in working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E.; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2011-01-01

    Portions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) play a role in working memory (WM) yet the precise mechanistic function of this region remains poorly understood. The pure storage hypothesis proposes that this region functions as a short-lived modality-specific memory store. Alternatively, the internal attention hypothesis proposes that the PPC functions as an attention-based storage and refreshing mechanism deployable as an alternative to material-specific rehearsal. These models were tested in patients with bilateral PPC lesions. Our findings discount the pure storage hypothesis because variables indexing storage capacity and longevity were not disproportionately affected by PPC damage. Instead, our data support the internal attention account by showing that (a) normal participants tend to use a rehearsal-based WM maintenance strategy for recall tasks but not for recognition tasks; (b) patients with PPC lesions performed normally on WM tasks that relied on material-specific rehearsal strategies but poorly on WM tasks that relied on attention-based maintenance strategies and patient strategy usage could be shifted by task or instructions; (c) patients’ memory deficits extended into the long-term domain. These findings suggest that the PPC maintains or shifts internal attention among the representations of items in WM. PMID:21345344

  14. At the intersection of attention and memory: the mechanistic role of the posterior parietal lobe in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2011-04-01

    Portions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) play a role in working memory (WM) yet the precise mechanistic function of this region remains poorly understood. The pure storage hypothesis proposes that this region functions as a short-lived modality-specific memory store. Alternatively, the internal attention hypothesis proposes that the PPC functions as an attention-based storage and refreshing mechanism deployable as an alternative to material-specific rehearsal. These models were tested in patients with bilateral PPC lesions. Our findings discount the pure storage hypothesis because variables indexing storage capacity and longevity were not disproportionately affected by PPC damage. Instead, our data support the internal attention account by showing that (a) normal participants tend to use a rehearsal-based WM maintenance strategy for recall tasks but not for recognition tasks; (b) patients with PPC lesions performed normally on WM tasks that relied on material-specific rehearsal strategies but poorly on WM tasks that relied on attention-based maintenance strategies and patient strategy usage could be shifted by task or instructions; (c) patients' memory deficits extended into the long-term domain. These findings suggest that the PPC maintains or shifts internal attention among the representations of items in WM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunami, Makoto; Unoki, Sae; Mori, Yasuhiro; Hirashima, Daisuke; Hatano, Ai; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2009-08-04

    In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. However, the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in memory recall have remained unclear. We studied the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in olfactory and visual conditioning in crickets. We found that pharmacological blockade of octopamine and dopamine receptors impaired aversive memory recall and appetitive memory recall, respectively, thereby suggesting that activation of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and the resulting release of octopamine and dopamine are needed for appetitive and aversive memory recall, respectively. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are formed by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. The former is called 'stimulus-response connection' and the latter is called 'stimulus-stimulus connection' by theorists studying classical conditioning in higher vertebrates. Our model predicts that pharmacological blockade of octopamine or dopamine receptors during the first stage of second-order conditioning does not impair second-order conditioning, because it impairs the formation of the stimulus-response connection but not the stimulus-stimulus connection. The results of our study with a cross-modal second-order conditioning were in full accordance with this prediction. We suggest that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of two kinds of memory

  16. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery and viewpoint transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiret eDhindsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g. O’Keefe (1976; Ekstrom et al. (2003; King et al. (2002. According to our BBB model (Byrne et al. (2007, these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal ’window’. Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, where it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al. (2012; Zhang et al. (2012 supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object 1 from visuospatial working memory (we assume working memory due to the order of tasks and the consistency viewpoint, but long-term memory is also possible, 2 after a rotation of viewpoint, or 3 after a rotation and translation (judgement of relative direction. We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation in the core medial temporal to medial parietal. These results are consistent with the BBB model and shed further light on the mechanisms underlying spatial memory, mental imagery and viewpoint

  17. The Role and Dynamic of Strengthening in the Reconsolidation Process in a Human Declarative Memory: What Decides the Fate of Recent and Older Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, María E.

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarative memories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarative memory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of

  18. The role and dynamic of strengthening in the reconsolidation process in a human declarative memory: what decides the fate of recent and older memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcato, Cecilia; Fernandez, Rodrigo S; Pedreira, María E

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have shown that after specific reminders are presented, consolidated memories pass from a stable state to one in which the memory is reactivated. This reactivation implies that memories are labile and susceptible to amnesic agents. This susceptibility decreases over time and leads to a re-stabilization phase usually known as reconsolidation. With respect to the biological role of reconsolidation, two functions have been proposed. First, the reconsolidation process allows new information to be integrated into the background of the original memory; second, it strengthens the original memory. We have previously demonstrated that both of these functions occur in the reconsolidation of human declarative memories. Our paradigm consisted of learning verbal material (lists of five pairs of nonsense syllables) acquired by a training process (L1-training) on Day 1 of our experiment. After this declarative memory is consolidated, it can be made labile by presenting a specific reminder. After this, the memory passes through a subsequent stabilization process. Strengthening creates a new scenario for the reconsolidation process; this function represents a new factor that may transform the dynamic of memories. First, we analyzed whether the repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes maintained the memory for longer periods of time. We showed that at least one labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens a memory via evaluation 5 days after its re-stabilization. We also demonstrated that this effect is not triggered by retrieval only. We then analyzed the way strengthening modified the effect of an amnesic agent that was presented immediately after repeated labilizations. The repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes made the memory more resistant to interference during re-stabilization. Finally, we evaluated whether the effect of strengthening may depend on the age of the memory. We found that the effect of strengthening did depend on the age of

  19. Distinct roles of the RasGAP family proteins in C. elegans associative learning and memory.

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    Gyurkó, M Dávid; Csermely, Péter; Sőti, Csaba; Steták, Attila

    2015-10-15

    The Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) are regulators of the conserved Ras/MAPK pathway. Various roles of some of the RasGAPs in learning and memory have been reported in different model systems, yet, there is no comprehensive study to characterize all gap genes in any organism. Here, using reverse genetics and neurobehavioural tests, we studied the role of all known genes of the rasgap family in C. elegans in associative learning and memory. We demonstrated that their proteins are implicated in different parts of the learning and memory processes. We show that gap-1 contribute redundantly with gap-3 to the chemosensation of volatile compounds, gap-1 plays a major role in associative learning, while gap-2 and gap-3 are predominantly required for short- and long-term associative memory. Our results also suggest that the C. elegans Ras orthologue let-60 is involved in multiple processes during learning and memory. Thus, we show that the different classes of RasGAP proteins are all involved in cognitive function and their complex interplay ensures the proper formation and storage of novel information in C. elegans.

  20. The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad eNoudoost

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While much progress has been made in identifying the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the cognitive processes disrupted in mental illnesses, To date, the level of detail at which neurobiologists can describe the chain of events giving rise to cognitive functions is very rudimentary. Much of the intense interest in understanding cognitive functions is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to understand these complex functions at the level of neurons and neural circuits. Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory.

  1. The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L.; Noudoost, Behrad

    2014-01-01

    While much progress has been made in identifying the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the cognitive processes disrupted in mental illnesses, to date, the level of detail at which neurobiologists can describe the chain of events giving rise to cognitive functions is very rudimentary. Much of the intense interest in understanding cognitive functions is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to understand these complex functions at the level of neurons and neural circuits. Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory. PMID:24782714

  2. Role of color memory in successive color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2008-06-01

    We investigate color constancy for real 2D paper samples using a successive matching paradigm in which the observer memorizes a reference surface color under neutral illumination and after a temporal interval selects a matching test surface under the same or different illumination. We find significant effects of the illumination, reference surface, and their interaction on the matching error. We characterize the matching error in the absence of illumination change as the "pure color memory shift" and introduce a new index for successive color constancy that compares this shift against the matching error under changing illumination. The index also incorporates the vector direction of the matching errors in chromaticity space, unlike the traditional constancy index. With this index, we find that color constancy is nearly perfect.

  3. The role of word choice and criterion on intentional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between the criterion for choosing and the self-choice effects (greater recall in a self-choice compared to a forced-choice condition) on intentional memory was examined. Thirty-three female nursing school volunteers were administered 24 word pairs in a 2 × 2 design to assess the influence of motivation upon free recall. When word pairs were presented to participants, they were asked to choose a word to-be-remembered, either in a self-choice condition or a forced-choice condition. Words chosen by the participants were recalled more often than those chosen by the experimenter (forced choice). Thus, the self-choice effect was greater for words chosen with a self-reference criterion compared to a metamemory criterion, supporting the integration hypothesis as the origin of the self-choice effect.

  4. Learned Avoidance in the Male Syrian Hamster: Investigating the Outcome of a Glucocorticoid Antagonist on Reconsolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Haugsnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we used our Conflict Alleyway Apparatus and a glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone, to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in the reconsolidation of learned avoidance in defeated male Syrian hamsters. Subjects were tested for memory deficits 48 hours and 96 hours after the drug/vehicle was administered. It were hypothesized that mifepristone administration would produce memory deficits when the defeat memory had been reactivated, and that this deficit would be present 48 hours and 96 hours after the administration. Prolonged deficits that are dependent upon memory reactivation would suggest that glucocorticoids play a role in reconsolidation of learned avoidance. Our results indicated a strong evidence for learned avoidance after defeat; however, we did not find any significant drug effect.

  5. Novel Roles for the Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter-4 in Hippocampally Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C

    2016-11-23

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes. Here, we show that, in male rats, hippocampal GluT4 translocates to the plasma membrane after memory training and that acute, selective intrahippocampal inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose transport impaired memory acquisition, but not memory retrieval. Other studies have shown that prolonged systemic GluT4 blockade causes insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, we found that prolonged hippocampal blockade of glucose transport through GluT4-upregulated markers of hippocampal insulin signaling prevented task-associated depletion of hippocampal glucose and enhanced both working and short-term memory while also impairing long-term memory. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of hippocampal AMPA GluR1 subunits and the neuronal GluT3, but decreased expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, consistent with impaired ability to form long-term memories. Our findings are the first to show the cognitive impact of brain GluT4 modulation. They identify GluT4 as a key regulator of hippocampal memory processing and also suggest differential regulation of GluT4 in the hippocampus from that in peripheral tissues. The role of insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) in the brain is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that GluT4 is a critical component of hippocampal memory processes. Memory training increased hippocampal GluT4 translocation and memory acquisition was impaired by GluT4 blockade. Unexpectedly, whereas long

  6. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  7. The role of rostral prefrontal cortex in prospective memory: a voxel-based lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Costello, Angela de Lacy; Gilbert, Sam J; Burgess, Paul W

    2011-07-01

    Patients with lesions in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) often experience problems in everyday-life situations requiring multitasking. A key cognitive component that is critical in multitasking situations is prospective memory, defined as the ability to carry out an intended action after a delay period filled with unrelated activity. The few functional imaging studies investigating prospective memory have shown consistent activation in both medial and lateral rostral PFC but also in more posterior prefrontal regions and non-frontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine regions that are necessary for prospective memory performance, using the human lesion approach. We designed an experimental paradigm allowing us to assess time-based (remembering to do something at a particular time) and event-based (remembering to do something in a particular situation) prospective memory, using two types of material, words and pictures. Time estimation tasks and tasks controlling for basic attention, inhibition and multiple instructions processing were also administered. We examined brain-behaviour relationships with a voxelwise lesion method in 45 patients with focal brain lesions and 107 control subjects using this paradigm. The results showed that lesions in the right polar prefrontal region (in Brodmann area 10) were specifically associated with a deficit in time-based prospective memory tasks for both words and pictures. This deficit could not be explained by impairments in basic attention, detection, inhibition or multiple instruction processing, and there was also no deficit in event-based prospective memory conditions. In addition to their prospective memory difficulties, these polar prefrontal patients were significantly impaired in time estimation ability compared to other patients. The same region was found to be involved using both words and pictures, suggesting that right rostral PFC plays a material nonspecific role in prospective memory. This is the first

  8. Cannabis and related impairment: the unique roles of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety and social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to using cannabis to cope in social situations and to avoiding social situations if marijuana is unavailable. Yet, the relative impact of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety relative to use to cope with negative affect more broadly has yet to be examined. The present study used the Marijuana to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) to examine the incremental validity of using cannabis use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if cannabis is unavailable (MCSAS-Avoid) in a community-recruited sample of 123 (34.1% female) current cannabis users. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, other cannabis use motives, and cannabis expectancies, MCSAS-Cope remained significantly positively related to cannabis use frequency and cannabis-related problems. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, and experiential avoidance, MCSAS-Avoid remained significantly related to cannabis problems but not frequency. The present findings suggest that cannabis use to manage social forms of anxiety may be important to understanding cannabis use behaviors. The current findings identify cognitive/motivational factors implicated in more frequent cannabis use and in cannabis-related impairment, which may be essential to inform efforts to further refine prevention and treatment efforts. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  10. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  11. Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

  12. Role of Proteasome-Dependent Protein Degradation in Long-Term Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Gardner, Jacob S.; Gandour, Catherine E.; Krishnan, Harini C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the in vivo role of protein degradation during intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) in "Aplysia" using an operant learning paradigm. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 inhibited the induction and molecular consolidation of LTM with no effect on ITM. Remarkably, maintenance of steady-state protein levels through…

  13. Disentangling the roles of arousal and amygdala activation in emotional declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-09-01

    A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli. Functional MRI, skin conductance (index of sympathetic activity), and pupil dilation (indirect index of central noradrenergic activity) were acquired throughout procedures. Recognition memory for individual items was tested 24 h later. We found that pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were higher on CS+ (associated with a shock) compared with CS- trials, irrespective of later memory for those items. By contrast, amygdala activity was only higher for CS+ items that were later confidently remembered compared with CS+ items that were later forgotten. Thus, amygdala activity and not noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, predicted enhanced declarative item memory. This dissociation is in line with animal models stating that the amygdala integrates arousal-related neuromodulatory changes to alter mnemonic processes elsewhere in the brain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The role of medial prefrontal cortex in memory and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euston, David R; Gruber, Aaron J; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2012-12-20

    Some have claimed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates decision making. Others suggest mPFC is selectively involved in the retrieval of remote long-term memory. Yet others suggests mPFC supports memory and consolidation on time scales ranging from seconds to days. How can all these roles be reconciled? We propose that the function of the mPFC is to learn associations between context, locations, events, and corresponding adaptive responses, particularly emotional responses. Thus, the ubiquitous involvement of mPFC in both memory and decision making may be due to the fact that almost all such tasks entail the ability to recall the best action or emotional response to specific events in a particular place and time. An interaction between multiple memory systems may explain the changing importance of mPFC to different types of memories over time. In particular, mPFC likely relies on the hippocampus to support rapid learning and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning, memory, and the role of neural network architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Hermundstad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of information processing systems, from artificial neural networks to natural neuronal ensembles, depends heavily on the underlying system architecture. In this study, we compare the performance of parallel and layered network architectures during sequential tasks that require both acquisition and retention of information, thereby identifying tradeoffs between learning and memory processes. During the task of supervised, sequential function approximation, networks produce and adapt representations of external information. Performance is evaluated by statistically analyzing the error in these representations while varying the initial network state, the structure of the external information, and the time given to learn the information. We link performance to complexity in network architecture by characterizing local error landscape curvature. We find that variations in error landscape structure give rise to tradeoffs in performance; these include the ability of the network to maximize accuracy versus minimize inaccuracy and produce specific versus generalizable representations of information. Parallel networks generate smooth error landscapes with deep, narrow minima, enabling them to find highly specific representations given sufficient time. While accurate, however, these representations are difficult to generalize. In contrast, layered networks generate rough error landscapes with a variety of local minima, allowing them to quickly find coarse representations. Although less accurate, these representations are easily adaptable. The presence of measurable performance tradeoffs in both layered and parallel networks has implications for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of natural and artificial learning systems.

  16. Examining Neuronal Connectivity and Its Role in Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Rohan

    Learning and long-term memory formation are accompanied with changes in the patterns and weights of synaptic connections in the underlying neuronal network. However, the fundamental rules that drive connectivity changes, and the precise structure-function relationships within neuronal networks remain elusive. Technological improvements over the last few decades have enabled the observation of large but specific subsets of neurons and their connections in unprecedented detail. Devising robust and automated computational methods is critical to distill information from ever-increasing volumes of raw experimental data. Moreover, statistical models and theoretical frameworks are required to interpret the data and assemble evidence into understanding of brain function. In this thesis, I first describe computational methods to reconstruct connectivity based on light microscopy imaging experiments. Next, I use these methods to quantify structural changes in connectivity based on in vivo time-lapse imaging experiments. Finally, I present a theoretical model of associative learning that can explain many stereotypical features of experimentally observed connectivity.

  17. The role of colour in implicit and explicit memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, David; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2003-07-01

    We present two experiments that examine the effects of colour transformation between study and test (from black and white to colour and vice versa, of from incorrectly coloured to correctly coloured and vice versa) on implicit and explicit measures of memory for diagnostically coloured natural objects (e.g., yellow banana). For naming and coloured-object decision (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured), there were shorter response times to correctly coloured-objects than to black-and-white and incorrectly coloured-objects. Repetition priming was equivalent for the different stimulus types. Colour transformation did not influence priming of picture naming, but for coloured-object decision priming was evident only for objects remaining the same from study to test. This was the case for both naming and coloured-object decision as study tasks. When participants were asked to consciously recognize objects that they had named or made coloured-object decisions to previously, whilst ignoring their colour, colour transformation reduced recognition efficiency. We discuss these results in terms of the flexibility of object representations that mediate priming and recognition.

  18. The role of central attention in retrieval from visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit

    2017-04-01

    The role of central attention in visual short-term memory (VSTM) encoding and maintenance is well established, yet its role in retrieval has been largely unexplored. This study examined the involvement of central attention in retrieval from VSTM using a dual-task paradigm. Participants performed a color change-detection task. Set size varied between 1 and 3 items, and the memory sample was maintained for either a short or a long delay period. A secondary tone discrimination task was introduced at the end of the delay period, shortly before the appearance of a central probe, and occupied central attention while participants were searching within VSTM representations. Similarly to numerous previous studies, reaction time increased as a function of set size reflecting the occurrence of a capacity-limited memory search. When the color targets were maintained over a short delay, memory was searched for the most part without the involvement of central attention. However, with a longer delay period, the search relied entirely on the operation of central attention. Taken together, this study demonstrates that central attention is involved in retrieval from VSTM, but the extent of its involvement depends on the duration of the delay period. Future studies will determine whether the type of memory search (parallel or serial) carried out during retrieval depends on the nature of the attentional mechanism involved the task.

  19. Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Charlotte K; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    The neurotrophin family of proteins are believed to mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Here we have assessed the roles of these proteins in object recognition memory in the rat, using icv infusions of function-blocking antibodies or the tyrosine kinase antagonist, tyrphostin AG879, to block Trk receptors. We report that tyrphostin AG879 impairs both short-term and long-term recognition memory, indicating a requirement for Trk receptor activation in both processes. The effect of inhibition of each of the neurotrophins with activity-blocking neutralising antibodies was also tested. Treatment with anti-BDNF, anti-NGF or anti-NT4 had no effect on short-term memory, but blocked long-term recognition memory. Treatment with anti-NT3 had no effect on either process. We also assessed changes in expression of neurotrophins and their respective receptors in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex over a 24 h period following training in the object recognition task. We observed time-dependent changes in expression of the Trk receptors and their ligands in the dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex. The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrasting roles for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases in single-item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hannah; Smith, Anna E; Barker, Gareth R; Uney, James B; Warburton, E Clea

    2017-03-01

    Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the roles of two epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, in recognition memory. Infusion of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors into PRh impaired performance in novel object recognition and object-in-place tasks while infusions into HPC or mPFC impaired object-in-place performance only. In contrast, inhibition of histone deacetylases in PRh, but not mPFC, enhanced recognition memory. These results support the emerging role of epigenetic processes in learning and memory.

  1. Contrasting roles for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases in single-item and associative recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Scott

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the roles of two epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, in recognition memory. Infusion of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors into PRh impaired performance in novel object recognition and object-in-place tasks while infusions into HPC or mPFC impaired object-in-place performance only. In contrast, inhibition of histone deacetylases in PRh, but not mPFC, enhanced recognition memory. These results support the emerging role of epigenetic processes in learning and memory.

  2. Drawing a dog: The role of working memory and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesi, Sabrina; Morra, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    Previous research suggests that young children draw animals by adapting their scheme for the human figure. This can be considered an early form of drawing flexibility. This study investigated preschoolers' ability to draw a dog that is different from the human figure. The role of working memory capacity and executive function was examined. The participants were 123 children (36-73 months old) who were required to draw both a person and a dog. The dog figure was scored on a list of features that could render it different from the human figure. Regression analyses showed that both working memory capacity and executive function predicted development in the dog drawing; the dog drawing score correlated with working memory capacity and executive function, even partialling out age, motor coordination, and drawing ability (measured with Goodenough's Draw-a-Man test). These results suggest that both working memory capacity and executive function play an important role in the early development of drawing flexibility. The implications regarding executive functions and working memory are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A role for nitric oxide-driven retrograde signaling in the consolidation of a fear memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie A Overeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In both invertebrate and vertebrate models of synaptic plasticity, signaling via the putative “retrograde messenger” nitric oxide (NO has been hypothesized to serve as a critical link between functional and structural alterations at pre- and postsynaptic sites. However, while in vitro models of synaptic plasticity have consistently implicated NO signaling in linking postsynaptic induction mechanisms with accompanying presynaptic changes, a convincing role of such “retrograde signaling” in mammalian memory formation has remained elusive. Using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, we show that synaptic plasticity and NO signaling in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA regulate the expression of the ERK-driven immediate early gene early growth response gene I (EGR-1 in regions of the auditory thalamus that are presynaptic to the LA. Further, antisense knockdown of EGR-1 in the auditory thalamus impairs both fear memory consolidation and the training-induced elevation of two presynaptically localized proteins in the LA. These findings indicate that synaptic plasticity and NO signaling in the LA during auditory fear conditioning promote alterations in ERK-driven gene expression in auditory thalamic neurons that are required for both fear memory consolidation as well as presynaptic correlates of fear memory formation in the LA, and provide general support for a role of NO as a “retrograde signal” in mammalian memory formation.

  4. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam M P; Vedder, Lindsey C; Law, L Matthew; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Spatial navigation requires memory representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus (HPC) and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the HPC. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the HPC and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  5. The roles of endogenous CaMKII inhibitors in learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Antonio Borges Vigil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium/ Calmodulin-dependent kinase 2 (CaMK2 is a serine/threonine kinase with a wide range of substrates. In the dendrites this kinase is the major post-synaptic density protein. A number of studies have established that CaMK2 is a fundamentally important for various learning and memory processes. Given this importance the activity of CaMK2 must be tightly regulated. Recently two endogenous inhibitor proteins of CaMK2, CaMK2N1 and CaMK2N2, have been identified. During contextual fear memory formation CaMK2N1 and CaMK2N2 increase in brain regions that are related to the task. However, the functions of CaMK2Ns are still unknown. Our aim was to study the physiological roles of these inhibitors in memory and learning process. For that purpose we used adeno-associated virus vector to either knockdown or overexpress one of the inhibitors. Animals were trained in contextual fear conditioning and their memory of the context was tested in two different time points. Treatment knocking down one of the inhibitors had no effect on memory formation but it inhibits memory maintenance. Overexpression of the other inhibitor prior to training blocked memory formation. On the other hand, overexpression of the same inhibitor after training had no effect on learning or memory of the task. We are currently studying the molecular effects of both treatments. We expect to be able to present data obtain with these experiments at the DENDRITES 2014.

  6. Maternal Dysphoric Mood, Stress, and Parenting Practices in Mothers of Head Start Preschoolers: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Sarah E.; Coyne, Lisa W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dysphoria predicts behavioral difficulties in preschool-aged children, and may contribute to negative child outcomes by exacerbating parenting stress. Parenting stress increases the likelihood of maladaptive parenting practices, especially when mothers face multiple contextual stressors. We explored maternal experiential avoidance (EA) as…

  7. The Role of the Fear-avoidance Model in Female Workers With Neck-shoulder Pain related to Computer Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: This study explores the fear-avoidance model in a sample of women with neck-shoulder pain related to computer work who were still functioning at the workplace. Exploring this model in this population could produce starting points for new treatment approaches in occupational health.

  8. Moral fixations: The role of moral integrity and social anxiety in the selective avoidance of social threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, L.F. van; Enter, D.; Peters, L.P.M.; Dijk, W.W. van; Rotteveel, M.

    2017-01-01

    People derive their sense of belonging from perceptions of being a moral person. Research moreover suggests that social cues of rejection rapidly influence visual scanning, and result in avoidant gaze behavior, especially in socially anxious individuals. With the current eye-tracking experiment, we

  9. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    34 VPH : A New Laser Radar Based Obstacle Avoidance Method for Intelligent Mobile Robots", Proceedings of World Congress on Intelligent Control and...Automation, Hangzhou, China, 5, pp. 4681- 4685. [9] Gong, J., Duan, Y., Man, Y., and Xiong, G., 2007, " VPH +: An Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram Method

  10. The Role of Moral Beliefs, Memories, and Preferences in Representations of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Strohminger, Nina; Young, Liane L

    2017-04-01

    People perceive that if their memories and moral beliefs changed, they would change. We investigated why individuals respond this way. In Study 1, participants judged that identity would change more after changes to memories and widely shared moral beliefs (e.g., about murder) versus preferences and controversial moral beliefs (e.g., about abortion). The extent to which participants judged that changes would affect their relationships predicted identity change (Study 2) and mediated the relationship between type of moral belief and perceived identity change (Study 3). We discuss the role that social relationships play in judgments of identity and highlight implications for psychology and philosophy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Highly sensitive avoidance plays a key role in sensory adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

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    Tetsuya Ogino

    Full Text Available The environments around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are very harsh conditions for organisms due to the possibility of exposure to highly toxic compounds and extremely hot venting there. Despite such extreme environments, some indigenous species have thrived there. Alvinellid worms (Annelida are among the organisms best adapted to high-temperature and oxidatively stressful venting regions. Although intensive studies of the adaptation of these worms to the environments of hydrothermal vents have been made, little is known about the worms' sensory adaptation to the severe chemical conditions there. To examine the sensitivity of the vent-endemic worm Paralvinella hessleri to low pH and oxidative stress, we determined the concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide that induced avoidance behavior of this worm, and compared these concentrations to those obtained for related species inhabiting intertidal zones, Thelepus sp. The concentrations of the chemicals that induced avoidance behavior of P. hessleri were 10-100 times lower than those for Thelepus sp. To identify the receptors for these chemicals, chemical avoidance tests were performed with the addition of ruthenium red, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP channels. This treatment suppressed the chemical avoidance behavior of P. hessleri, which suggests that TRP channels are involved in the chemical avoidance behavior of this species. Our results revealed for the first time hypersensitive detection systems for acid and for oxidative stress in the vent-endemic worm P. hessleri, possibly mediated by TRP channels, suggesting that such sensory systems may have facilitated the adaptation of this organism to harsh vent environments.

  12. Role of the adhesion molecule F3/Contactin in synaptic plasticity and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulisano, Walter; Bizzoca, Antonella; Gennarini, Gianfranco; Palmeri, Agostino; Puzzo, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks. Here, we discuss our recent data suggesting that F3/Contactin exerts a role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in adult and aged mice. In particular, we have studied long-term potentiation (LTP), spatial and object recognition memory, and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-Responsive-Element Binding protein (CREB) in a transgenic mouse model of F3/Contactin overexpression. We also investigated whether F3/Contactin might influence neuronal apoptosis and the production of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), known to be one of the main pathogenetic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In conclusion, a further understanding of F3/Contactin role in synaptic plasticity and memory might have interesting clinical outcomes in cognitive disorders, such as aging and AD, offering innovative therapeutic opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  14. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation in consolidating fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, M M; Rihm, J S; Salari, N; Born, J; Kalisch, R; Pape, H C; Marshall, L; Büchel, C

    2013-07-15

    Sleep, in particular REM sleep, has been shown to improve the consolidation of emotional memories. Here, we investigated the role of sleep and sleep deprivation on the consolidation of fear memories and underlying neuronal mechanisms. We employed a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm either followed by a night of polysomnographically monitored sleep, or wakefulness in forty healthy participants. Recall of learned fear was better after sleep, as indicated by stronger explicitly perceived anxiety and autonomous nervous responses. These effects were positively correlated with the preceding time spent in REM sleep and paralleled by activation of the basolateral amygdala. These findings suggest REM sleep-associated consolidation of fear memory in the human amygdala. In view of the critical participation of fear learning mechanisms in the etiology of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, deprivation of REM sleep after exposure to distressing events is an interesting target for further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words.

  16. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Bein

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words.

  17. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide plays a role in olfactory memory formation in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Rita; Hollósy, Tibor; Tamás, Andrea; Tóth, Gábor; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2005-11-01

    PACAP plays an important role during development of the nervous system and is also involved in memory processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of PACAP in chicken embryonic olfactory memory formation by blocking PACAP at a sensitive period in ovo. Chicken were exposed daily to strawberry scent in ovo from embryonic day 15. Control eggs were treated only with saline, while other eggs received a single injection of the PACAP antagonist PACAP6-38 at day 15. The consumption of scented and unscented water was measured daily after hatching. Animals exposed to strawberry scent in ovo showed no preference. However, chickens exposed to PACAP6-38, showed a clear preference for plain water, similarly to unexposed chicken. Our present study points to PACAP's possible importance in embryonic olfactory memory formation.

  18. The role of cognitive reserve and memory self-efficacy in compensatory strategy use: A structural equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-08-01

    The use of compensatory strategies plays an important role in the ability of older adults to adapt to late-life memory changes. Even with the benefits associated with compensatory strategy use, little research has explored specific mechanisms associated with memory performance and compensatory strategies. Rather than an individual's objective memory performance directly predicting their use of compensatory strategies, it is possible that some other variables are indirectly influencing that relationship. The purpose of this study was to: (a) examine the moderating effects of cognitive reserve (CR) and (b) evaluate the potential mediating effects of memory self-efficacy on the relationship between objective memory performance and compensatory strategy use. Two structural equation models (SEM) were used to evaluate CR (latent moderator model) and memory self-efficacy (mediator model) in a sample of 155 community-dwelling older adults over the age of 55. The latent variable moderator model indicated that CR was not substantiated as a moderator variable in this sample (p = .861). However, memory self-efficacy significantly mediated the association between objective memory performance and compensatory strategy use (β = .22, 95% confidence interval, CI [.002, .437]). More specifically, better objective memory was associated with lower compensatory strategy use because of its relation to higher memory self-efficacy. These findings provide initial support for an explanatory framework of the relation between objective memory and compensatory strategy use in a healthy older adult population by identifying the importance of an individual's memory perceptions.

  19. Considering the role of semantic memory in episodic future thinking: evidence from semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Addis, Donna Rose; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    analyses that confirmed the relation between semantic memory deficits and episodic future thinking in semantic dementia, in contrast with the role of episodic memory deficits and episodic future thinking in Alzheimer's disease. Our findings demonstrate that semantic knowledge is critical for the construction of novel future events, providing the necessary scaffolding into which episodic details can be integrated. Further research is necessary to elucidate the precise contribution of semantic memory to future thinking, and to explore how deficits in self-projection manifest on behavioural and social levels in different dementia subtypes.

  20. Role of glycogenolysis in memory and learning: regulation by noradrenaline, serotonin and ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Elizabeth Gibbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role played by glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis and glycogen re-synthesis in memory processing in two different chick brain regions, (1 the hippocampus and (2 the avian equivalent of the mammalian cortex, the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM. Memory processing is regulated by the neuromodulators noradrenaline and serotonin soon after training and glycogen breakdown and re-synthesis are involved. In day-old domestic chicks, memory formation is dependent on the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis at three specific times during the first 60 min after learning (around 2.5, 30 and 55 min. The chicks learn to discriminate in a single trial between beads of two colours and tastes. Inhibition of glycogen breakdown by the inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB given at specific times prior to the formation of long-term memory prevents memory forming. Noradrenergic stimulation of cultured chicken astrocytes by a selective β2-adrenergic (AR agonist reduces glycogen levels and we believe that in vivo this triggers memory consolidation at the second stage of glycogenolysis. Serotonin acting at 5-HT2B receptors acts on the first stage, but not on the second. We have shown that noradrenaline, acting via post-synaptic α2-ARs, is also responsible for the synthesis of glycogen and our experiments suggest that there is a readily accessible labile pool of glycogen in astrocytes which is depleted within 10 min if glycogen synthesis is inhibited. Endogenous ATP promotion of memory consolidation at 2.5 and 30 min is also dependent on glycogen breakdown. ATP acts at P2Y1 receptors and the action of thrombin suggests that it causes the release of internal calcium ([Ca2+]i] in astrocytes. Glutamate and GABA, the primary neurotransmitters in the brain, cannot be synthesized in neurons de novo. Neurons rely on astrocytic glutamate synthesis, requiring glycogenolysis.

  1. The differential role of cortical protein synthesis in taste memory formation and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Heise, Christopher; Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Inberg, Sharon; Sala, Carlo; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-05-01

    The current dogma suggests that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) is dependent on protein synthesis but persistence of the memory trace is not. However, many of the studies examining the effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTM persistence were performed in the hippocampus, which is known to have a time-dependent role in memory storage, rather than the cortex, which is considered to be the main structure to store long-term memories. Here we studied the effect of PSIs on LTM formation and persistence in male Wistar Hola (n⩾5) rats by infusing the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (100 μg, 1 μl), into the gustatory cortex (GC) during LTM formation and persistence in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We found that local anisomycin infusion to the GC before memory acquisition impaired LTM formation (P=8.9E-5), but had no effect on LTM persistence when infused 3 days post acquisition (P=0.94). However, when we extended the time interval between treatment with anisomycin and testing from 3 days to 14 days, LTM persistence was enhanced (P=0.01). The enhancement was on the background of stable and non-declining memory, and was not recapitulated by another amnesic agent, APV (10 μg, 1 μl), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (P=0.54). In conclusion, CTA LTM remains sensitive to the action of PSIs in the GC even 3 days following memory acquisition. This sensitivity is differentially expressed between the formation and persistence of LTM, suggesting that increased cortical protein synthesis promotes LTM formation, whereas decreased protein synthesis promotes LTM persistence.

  2. Causal Evidence from Humans for the Role of Mediodorsal Nucleus of the Thalamus in Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräkylä, Jari; Sun, Lihua; Lehtimäki, Kai; Peltola, Jukka; Öhman, Juha; Möttönen, Timo; Ogawa, Keith H; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2017-12-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC, has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation. This structure is located superior and anterior to MD, and when the DBS lead is implanted in ANT, tip contacts of the lead typically penetrate through ANT into the adjoining MD. To study the role of MD in human executive functions and working memory, we periodically disrupted and recovered MD's function with high-frequency electric stimulation using DBS contacts reaching MD while participants performed a cognitive task engaging several aspects of executive functions. We hypothesized that the efficacy of executive functions, specifically working memory, is impaired when the functioning of MD is perturbed by high-frequency stimulation. Eight participants treated with ANT-DBS for refractory epilepsy performed a computer-based test of executive functions while DBS was repeatedly switched ON and OFF at MD and at the control location (ANT). In comparison to stimulation of the control location, when MD was stimulated, participants committed 2.26 times more errors in general (total errors; OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.69, 3.01]) and 2.86 times more working memory-related errors specifically (incorrect button presses; OR = 2.88, CI [1.95, 4.24]). Similarly, participants committed 1.81 more errors in general ( OR = 1.81, CI [1.45, 2.24]) and 2.08 times more working memory-related errors ( OR = 2.08, CI [1.57, 2.75]) in

  3. Recognition memory for hue: Prototypical bias and the role of labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura Jane; Heit, Evan

    2017-06-01

    How does the concurrent use of language affect perception and memory for exemplars? Labels cue more general category information than a specific exemplar. Applying labels can affect the resulting memory for an exemplar. Here 3 alternative hypotheses are proposed for the role of labeling an exemplar at encoding: (a) labels distort memory toward the label prototype, (b) labels guide the level of specificity needed in the current context, and (c) labels direct attention to the label's referent among all possible features within a visual scene. University students were shown hues on object silhouettes that they either labeled with basic color categories, made preference judgments about, or indicated the animacy of its category. Experiments 1 and 2 established that there are response shifts toward the category prototype regardless of labeling, showing a pervasive influence of category knowledge on response bias. They also established an effect of labeling whereby labeling decreases the magnitude of shifts. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the uniqueness and necessity of language in causing the decreased shift-neither of which proved to be the case. Overall, category-relative bias was pervasive and labeling appears to direct attention to the feature resulting in less biased memory. The results highlight that the context at encoding affects how memory is formed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Distinct Hippocampal Pathways Mediate Dissociable Roles of Context in Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Krabbe, Sabine; Gründemann, Jan; Botta, Paolo; Fadok, Jonathan P; Osakada, Fumitaka; Saur, Dieter; Grewe, Benjamin F; Schnitzer, Mark J; Callaway, Edward M; Lüthi, Andreas

    2016-11-03

    Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways. A projection from the vHC to the basal amygdala mediates fear behavior elicited by a conditioned context, whereas a parallel projection from a distinct subset of vHC neurons onto midbrain-projecting neurons in the central amygdala is necessary for context-dependent retrieval of cued fear memories. Our findings demonstrate that two fundamentally distinct roles of context in fear memory retrieval are processed by distinct vHC output pathways, thereby allowing for the formation of robust contextual fear memories while preserving context-dependent behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Traxler, Matthew J; Lesh, Tyler A; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners' sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension.

  6. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  7. The role of working memory in dichotic-listening studies of auditory laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Iris-Katharina; Schläfli, Katrin; Opwis, Klaus; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    We present data related to the role of working memory in dichotic-listening studies of speech lateralization using consonant-vowel syllable stimuli. A working-memory procedure was actually used in the pioneering dichotic-listening studies by Doreen Kimura in 1960, a fact that was forgotten in later dichotic-listening studies, exclusively focusing on the perceptual aspects of speech sound lateralization. Capitalizing on the original Kimura (1961a, 1961b) studies, we hypothesized that an increase in working-memory load leads to an amplified right-ear advantage (REA) in the dichotic-listening task. A total of 30 participants completed a dichotic-listening task including three working-memory load conditions, each consisting of trials of 3, 4, and 5 dichotically presented letter pairs. Results confirmed an enhanced REA as working-memory load increased. This right-ear effect increased significantly from 3 to 4 stimulus pairs and leveled off with the 5th pair. In addition, the assumption was tested that, within a single load condition, the REA appears mainly in late serial input positions. A detailed analysis of the results revealed that only late positions contributed to the overall REA. However, the highest load condition (5 letter pairs) also produced significant ear differences in the early part of the input position curve. The mechanisms likely to be responsible for these results are discussed in terms of top-down and bottom-up processes in hemispheric asymmetry.

  8. Different Roles of Direct and Indirect Frontoparietal Pathways for Individual Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Matthias; Fiebach, Christian J; Melzer, Corina; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Derrfuss, Jan

    2016-03-09

    The ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in working memory is a hallmark of human intelligence and differs considerably across individuals, but the structural brain correlates underlying these differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are only poorly understood. In two separate studies, diffusion MRI data and WMC scores were collected for 70 and 109 healthy individuals. Using a combination of probabilistic tractography and network analysis of the white matter tracts, we examined whether structural brain network properties were predictive of individual WMC. Converging evidence from both studies showed that lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of high-capacity individuals are more densely connected compared with low-capacity individuals. Importantly, our network approach was further able to dissociate putative functional roles associated with two different pathways connecting frontal and parietal regions: a corticocortical pathway and a subcortical pathway. In Study 1, where participants were required to maintain and update working memory items, the connectivity of the direct and indirect pathway was predictive of WMC. In contrast, in Study 2, where participants were required to maintain working memory items without updating, only the connectivity of the direct pathway was predictive of individual WMC. Our results suggest an important dissociation in the circuitry connecting frontal and parietal regions, where direct frontoparietal connections might support storage and maintenance, whereas subcortically mediated connections support the flexible updating of working memory content. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362894-10$15.00/0.

  9. Different Roles of COMT and HTR2A Genotypes in Working Memory Subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito M Kondo

    Full Text Available Working memory is linked to the functions of the frontal areas, in which neural activity is mediated by dopaminergic and serotonergic tones. However, there is no consensus regarding how the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems influence working memory subprocesses. The present study used an imaging genetics approach to examine the interaction between neurochemical functions and working memory performance. We focused on functional polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val(158Met and serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A -1438G/A genes, and devised a delayed recognition task to isolate the encoding, retention, and retrieval processes for visual information. The COMT genotypes affected recognition accuracy, whereas the HTR2A genotypes were associated with recognition response times. Activations specifically related to working memory were found in the right frontal and parietal areas, such as the middle frontal gyrus (MFG, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and inferior parietal lobule (IPL. MFG and ACC/IPL activations were sensitive to differences between the COMT genotypes and between the HTR2A genotypes, respectively. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that stronger connectivity in the ACC-MFG and ACC-IFG networks is related to better task performance. The behavioral and fMRI results suggest that the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems play different roles in the working memory subprocesses and modulate closer cooperation between lateral and medial frontal activations.

  10. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Crash avoidance in response to challenging driving events: The roles of age, serialization, and driving simulator platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Alexandre; Gagnon, Sylvain; Stinchcombe, Arne

    2015-09-01

    We examined the crash avoidance behaviors of older and middle-aged drivers in reaction to six simulated challenging road events using two different driving simulator platforms. Thirty-five healthy adults aged 21-36 years old (M=28.9±3.96) and 35 healthy adults aged 65-83 years old (M=72.1±4.34) were tested using a mid-level simulator, and 27 adults aged 21-38 years old (M=28.6±6.63) and 27 healthy adults aged 65-83 years old (M=72.7±5.39) were tested on a low-cost desktop simulator. Participants completed a set of six challenging events varying in terms of the maneuvers required, avoiding space given, directional avoidance cues, and time pressure. Results indicated that older drivers showed higher crash risk when events required multiple synchronized reactions. In situations that required simultaneous use of steering and braking, older adults tended to crash significantly more frequently. As for middle-aged drivers, their crashes were attributable to faster driving speed. The same age-related driving patterns were observed across simulator platforms. Our findings support the hypothesis that older adults tend to react serially while engaging in cognitively challenging road maneuvers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shades of Grey: The Role of the Sublime in the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wilson Baptist

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a ‘post-disaster’ landscape, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe does, arguably, occupy ground where the mass extermination of the Jewish people of Europe was masterminded, but it is not physically a site of death. Commonly, memorial landscapes are erected upon the location where violence, tragedy and disaster have occurred. Divorced from the diasporic dead it seeks to honour, the memorial employs spatial form, the surrounding atmosphere and human memory to potentialise a sublime experience for visitors. The sublime plays an essential role in memorial landscapes because sublime experiences are heightened, unforgettable and enduring. This reduces the possibility that visitors will depart the memorial unscathed, leaving the monument to bear the burden of memory. While a sublime experience can be optimised, it cannot be given, thus, the onus of remembering the Holocaust remains our responsibility.

  13. Modeling quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases: the role of pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, physical disability, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Go, Dong Jin; Lee, Kwang-Min; Noh, Hae Lim; Park, Seung-Hee; Song, Yeong Wook

    2018-06-01

    To examine factors in the fear-avoidance model, such as pain, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, physical disability, and depression and their relationships with physical and psychological quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. The data were obtained from 360 patients with rheumatic diseases who completed self-report measures assessing study variables. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized relationships among factors specified in the fear-avoidance model predicting physical and psychological quality of life. Final models fit the data well, explaining 96% and 82% of the variance in physical and psychological quality of life, respectively. Higher pain catastrophizing was related to stronger fear-avoidance beliefs that had a direct negative association with physical disability and depression, which, in turn, negatively affected physical quality of life. Pain severity was also directly related to physical disability. Physical disability also affected physical quality of life indirectly through depression. The hypothesized relationships specified in the model were also confirmed for psychological quality of life. However, physical disability had an indirect association with psychological quality of life via depression. The current results underscore the significant role of cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors in perceived physical disability and their mediated detrimental effect on physical and psychological quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. Implications for rehabilitation The fear-avoidance model is applicable to the prediction of quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. As pain-catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs are important factors linked to physical disability and depression, intervening these cognitive factors is necessary to improve physical function and depression in patients with rheumatic diseases. Considering the strong association between depression and

  14. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition

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    Adam M P Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation requires representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the hippocampus. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the hippocampus and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  15. ROLE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SHORT- AND LONG-TERM MEMORY

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    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Flood, J.F.

    1978-10-01

    Anisomycin is an effective inhibitor of cerebral protein synthesis in mice and is also an effective amnestic agent for both passive and active behavioral tasks. From use of anisomycin in combination with a variety of stimulant and depressant drugs, we conclude that the level of arousal following acquisition plays an important role in determining the duration and the rate of the biosynthetic phase of memory formation. While we have interpreted the experiments with anisomycin as evidence for an essential role of protein in memory storage, others have suggested that side effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis on catecholamine metabolism are the main cause of amnesia. Several experiments were therefore done to compare the effects of anisemycin and catecholamine inhibitors on memory. We conclude that anisomycin's principal amnestic mechanism does not involve inhibition of the catecholamine system. The results strengthen our conclusion that protein synthesis is an essential component for longterm memory trace formation. Also, it is suggested that proteins synthesized in the neuronal cell body are used, in conjunction with other molecules, to produce permanent and semi-permanent anatomical changes.

  16. Role of slow oscillatory activity and slow wave sleep in consolidation of episodic-like memory in rats.

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    Oyanedel, Carlos N; Binder, Sonja; Kelemen, Eduard; Petersen, Kimberley; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2014-12-15

    Our previous experiments showed that sleep in rats enhances consolidation of hippocampus dependent episodic-like memory, i.e. the ability to remember an event bound into specific spatio-temporal context. Here we tested the hypothesis that this enhancing effect of sleep is linked to the occurrence of slow oscillatory and spindle activity during slow wave sleep (SWS). Rats were tested on an episodic-like memory task and on three additional tasks covering separately the where (object place recognition), when (temporal memory), and what (novel object recognition) components of episodic memory. In each task, the sample phase (encoding) was followed by an 80-min retention interval that covered either a period of regular morning sleep or sleep deprivation. Memory during retrieval was tested using preferential exploration of novelty vs. familiarity. Consistent with previous findings, the rats which had slept during the retention interval showed significantly stronger episodic-like memory and spatial memory, and a trend of improved temporal memory (although not significant). Object recognition memory was similarly retained across sleep and sleep deprivation retention intervals. Recall of episodic-like memory was associated with increased slow oscillatory activity (0.85-2.0Hz) during SWS in the retention interval. Spatial memory was associated with increased proportions of SWS. Against our hypothesis, a relationship between spindle activity and episodic-like memory performance was not detected, but spindle activity was associated with object recognition memory. The results provide support for the role of SWS and slow oscillatory activity in consolidating hippocampus-dependent memory, the role of spindles in this process needs to be further examined. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy metabolism and memory processing: role of glucose transport and glycogen in responses to adrenoceptor activation in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J; Gibbs, Marie E

    2008-06-15

    From experiments using a discriminated bead task in young chicks, we have defined when and where adrenoceptors (ARs) are involved in memory modulation. All three ARs subtypes (alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and beta-ARs) are found in the chick brain and in regions associated with memory. Glucose and glycogen are important in the role of memory consolidation in the chick since increasing glucose levels improves memory consolidation while inhibiting glucose transporters (GLUTs) or glycogen breakdown inhibits memory consolidation. The selective beta(3)-AR agonist CL316243 enhances memory consolidation by a glucose-dependent mechanism and the administration of the non-metabolized glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose reduces the ability of CL316243 to enhance memory. Agents that reduce glucose uptake by GLUTs and its incorporation into the glycolytic pathway also reduce the effectiveness of CL316243, but do not alter the dose-response relationship to the beta(2)-AR agonist zinterol. However, beta(2)-ARs do have a role in memory related to glycogen breakdown and inhibition of glycogenolysis reduces the ability of zinterol to enhance memory. Both beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs are found on astrocytes from chick forebrain, and the actions of beta(3)-ARs on glucose uptake, and beta(2)-ARs on the breakdown of glycogen is consistent with an effect on astrocytic metabolism at the time of memory consolidation 30 min after training. We have shown that both beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs can increase glucose uptake in chick astrocytes but do so by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the role of ARs on memory consolidation and specifically the role of energy metabolism on AR modulation of memory.

  18. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery, and viewpoint transformations.

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    Dhindsa, Kiret; Drobinin, Vladislav; King, John; Hall, Geoffrey B; Burgess, Neil; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g., O'Keefe, 1976; King et al., 2002; Ekstrom et al., 2003). According to our BBB model (Byrne et al., 2007), these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal "window." Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, in which it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012) supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object (1) from visuospatial working memory (we assume transient working memory due to the order of tasks and the absence of change in viewpoint, but long-term memory retrieval is also possible), (2) after a rotation of viewpoint, or (3) after a rotation and translation of viewpoint (judgment of relative direction). We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation (ROT and JRD, i.e., conditions 2 and 3) in the core medial temporal to medial parietal circuit identified by the BBB model. These results are consistent with the

  19. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

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    Makoto Mizunami

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM. Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+ influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+ signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of Ca

  20. Systems reconsolidation reveals a selective role for the anterior cingulate cortex in generalized contextual fear memory expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Einar Ö; Pors, Jennifer; Nader, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After acquisition, hippocampus-dependent memories undergo a systems consolidation process, during which they become independent of the hippocampus and dependent on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for memory expression. However, consolidated remote memories can become transiently hippocampus-dependent again following memory reactivation. How this systems reconsolidation affects the role of the ACC in remote memory expression is not known. Using contextual fear conditioning, we show that the expression of 30-day-old remote memory can transiently be supported by either the ACC or the dorsal hippocampus following memory reactivation, and that the ACC specifically mediates expression of remote generalized contextual fear memory. We found that suppression of neural activity in the ACC with the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) impaired the expression of remote, but not recent, contextual fear memory. Fear expression was not affected by this treatment if preceded by memory reactivation 6 h earlier, nor was it affected by suppression of neural activity in the dorsal hippocampus with the GABA-receptor agonist muscimol. However, simultaneous targeting of both the ACC and the dorsal hippocampus 6 h after memory reactivation disrupted contextual fear memory expression. Second, we observed that expression of a 30-day-old generalized contextual fear memory in a novel context was not affected by memory reactivation 6 h earlier. However, intra-ACC CNQX infusion before testing impaired contextual fear expression in the novel context, but not the original training context. Together, these data suggest that although the dorsal hippocampus may be recruited during systems reconsolidation, the ACC remains necessary for the expression of generalized contextual fear memory.

  1. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  2. Cognitive Processes Supporting Episodic Memory Formation in Childhood: The Role of Source Memory, Binding, and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memories contain various forms of contextual detail (e.g., perceptual, emotional, cognitive details) that need to become integrated. Each of these contextual features can be used to attribute a memory episode to its source, or origin of information. Memory for source information is one critical component in the formation of episodic…

  3. Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…

  4. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  5. Hippocampal nicotinic receptors have a modulatory role for ethanol and MDMA interaction in memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Sharifi, Khadijeh Alsadat

    2017-08-15

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol reversed pre-training ethanol-induced amnesia, suggesting ethanol state-dependent learning. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of different doses of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) with an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.25g/kg, i.p.) also induced amnesia. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) potentiated ethanol state-dependent learning. On the other hand, the activation of the dorsal hippocampal nAChRs by pre-test microinjection of nicotine (0.1-1µg/mouse, intra-CA1) improved amnesia induced by the co-administration of MDMD and ethanol. It is important to note that intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of MDMA or nicotine could not affect memory formation by itself. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.9µg/mouse) could not reverse amnesia induced by pre-training administration of ethanol while this treatment enhanced MDMA response on ethanol state-dependent learning. Thus, it can be concluded that there may be functional interactions among ethanol, MDMA and nicotine via the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mechanism in memory retrieval and drug state-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions and Generalized Anxiety‏ ‏Severity: The ‎Mediating Role of Experiential Avoidance and Repetitive‏ ‏Negative Thinking

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    Parvaneh‏ ‏ Mohammadkhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general ‎population. Several studies suggest that anxiety sensitivity is a vulnerability factor in generalized ‎anxiety severity. However, some other studies suggest that negative repetitive thinking and ‎experiential avoidance as response factors can explain this relationship. Therefore, this study ‎aimed to investigate the mediating role of experiential avoidance and negative repetitive thinking ‎in the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and generalized anxiety severity.‎Method: This was a cross-sectional and correlational study. A sample of 475 university students was ‎selected through stratified sampling method. The participants completed Anxiety Sensitivity ‎Inventory-3, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, and ‎Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, multiple ‎regression analysis and path analysis.‎Results: The results revealed a positive relationship between anxiety sensitivity, particularly cognitive ‎anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, repetitive thinking and generalized anxiety severity. In ‎addition, findings showed that repetitive thinking, but not experiential avoidance, fully mediated ‎the relationship between cognitive anxiety sensitivity and generalized anxiety severity. α Level ‎was p<0.005.‎Conclusion: Consistent with the trans-diagnostic hypothesis, anxiety sensitivity predicts generalized anxiety‏ ‏severity, but its effect is due to the generating repetitive negative thought.‎

  7. Evidence for a role of GABA- and glutamate-gated chloride channels in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumghar, Katia; Couret-Fauvel, Thomas; Garcia, Mikael; Armengaud, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    In the honeybee, we investigated the role of transmissions mediated by GABA-gated chloride channels and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) of the mushroom bodies (MBs) on olfactory learning using a single-trial olfactory conditioning paradigm. The GABAergic antagonist picrotoxin (PTX) or the GluCl antagonist L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (L-trans-PDC) was injected alone or in combination into the α-lobes of MBs. PTX impaired early long-term olfactory memory when injected before conditioning or before testing. L-trans-PDC alone induced no significant effect on learning and memory but induced a less specific response to the conditioned odor. When injected before PTX, L-trans-PDC was able to modulate PTX effects. These results emphasize the role of MB GABA-gated chloride channels in consolidation processes and strongly support that GluCls are involved in the perception of the conditioned stimulus.

  8. Automatic semantic role labelling using a memory-based learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Morante

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a semantic role labelling system. The main component of the system is a memory-based classifier. The system has been trained with the Cast3LB-CoNLL-SemRol. The features encode information from dependency syntax. The results (F1 0.86 are comparable with state-of-the-art results (F1 around 0.86 from systems that use information from constituent syntax.

  9. The Role of the Oculomotor System in Updating Visual-Spatial Working Memory across Saccades.

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    Boon, Paul J; Belopolsky, Artem V; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) helps us to maintain and manipulate visual information in the absence of sensory input. It has been proposed that VSWM is an emergent property of the oculomotor system. In the present study we investigated the role of the oculomotor system in updating of spatial working memory representations across saccades. Participants had to maintain a location in memory while making a saccade to a different location. During the saccade the target was displaced, which went unnoticed by the participants. After executing the saccade, participants had to indicate the memorized location. If memory updating fully relies on cancellation driven by extraretinal oculomotor signals, the displacement should have no effect on the perceived location of the memorized stimulus. However, if postsaccadic retinal information about the location of the saccade target is used, the perceived location will be shifted according to the target displacement. As it has been suggested that maintenance of accurate spatial representations across saccades is especially important for action control, we used different ways of reporting the location held in memory; a match-to-sample task, a mouse click or by making another saccade. The results showed a small systematic target displacement bias in all response modalities. Parametric manipulation of the distance between the to-be-memorized stimulus and saccade target revealed that target displacement bias increased over time and changed its spatial profile from being initially centered on locations around the saccade target to becoming spatially global. Taken together results suggest that we neither rely exclusively on extraretinal nor on retinal information in updating working memory representations across saccades. The relative contribution of retinal signals is not fixed but depends on both the time available to integrate these signals as well as the distance between the saccade target and the remembered location.

  10. Remembering under stress: different roles of autonomic arousal and glucocorticoids in memory retrieval.

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    Schönfeld, Pia; Ackermann, Karina; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that stress impairs memory retrieval. Glucocorticoids, released with a delay of several minutes in response to stressful experiences, are thought to play a key role in the stress-induced retrieval impairment. Accordingly, most studies on the impact of stress on retrieval tested memory a considerable time after stressor exposure, when glucocorticoid levels were elevated. Here, we asked how stress affects memory when retrieval takes place under stress, that is, when stress is part of the retrieval situation and glucocorticoids are not yet increased at the time of testing. To contrast stress effects on ongoing and delayed memory retrieval, 72 participants learned first neutral and emotional material. Twenty-four hours later, half of the learned material was tested either in a stressful, oral examination-like testing situation or in a standard, non-stressful free recall test. Memory for the other half of the learned material was assessed 25 min after the first, stressful or non-stressful retention test. Significant increases in blood pressure and salivary cortisol confirmed the stress induction by the first, examination-like testing situation. Retrieval performance under stress was positively correlated with the blood pressure response to the stressor but unaffected by cortisol. Conversely, retrieval performance 25 min post stress was negatively correlated with the cortisol response to the stressor, particularly for emotional items. These results suggest that the same stressor may have opposite effects on ongoing and delayed memory retrieval, depending on the presence of autonomic arousal and glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Advantage of Reading over Listening Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: What Is the Role of Verbal Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…

  12. Role of Working Memory in Explaining the Performance of Individuals with Specific Reading Comprehension Difficulties: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that working memory is related to reading comprehension ability. However, its role in explaining specific reading comprehension difficulties is still under debate: the issue mainly concerns whether the contribution of working memory is dependent on task modality (verbal tasks being more predictive than visuo-spatial tasks)…

  13. The effect of an mGluR5 inhibitor on procedural memory and avoidance discrimination impairments in Fmr1 KO mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Vinueza Veloz (Maria); R.A.M. Buijsen (Ronald); R. Willemsen (Rob); A. Cupido (Alexander); L.W.J. Bosman (Laurens); S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas); J.W. Potters (Jan Willem); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability. Patients with FXS do not only suffer from cognitive problems, but also from abnormalities/deficits in procedural memory formation. It has been proposed that a lack of fragile X mental retardation

  14. The role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the memory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Demasi, Marilene; Bonatto, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Quite intuitive is the notion that memory formation and consolidation is orchestrated by protein synthesis because of the synaptic plasticity necessary for those processes. Nevertheless, recent advances have begun accumulating evidences of a high requirement for protein degradation on the molecular mechanisms of the memory process in the mammalian brain. Because degradation determines protein half-life, degradation has been increasingly recognized as an important intracellular regulatory mechanism. The proteasome is the main player in the degradation of intracellular proteins. Proteasomal substrates are mainly degraded after a post-translational modification by a poly-ubiquitin chain. Latter process, namely poly-ubiquitination, is highly regulated at the step of the ubiquitin molecule transferring to the protein substrate mediated by a set of proteins whose genes represent almost 2% of the human genome. Understanding the role of polyubiquitin-mediated protein degradation has challenging researchers in many fields of investigation as a new source of targets for therapeutic intervention, e.g. E3 ligases that transfer ubiquitin moieties to the substrate. The goal of present work was to uncover mechanisms underlying memory processes regarding the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). For that purpose, preceded of a short review on UPS and memory processes a top-down systems biology approach was applied to establish central proteins involved in memory formation and consolidation highlighting their cross-talking with the UPS. According to that approach, the pattern of expression of several elements of the UPS were found overexpressed in regions of the brain involved in processing cortical inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Cannabinoid Transmission in Emotional Memory Formation: Implications for Addiction and Schizophrenia

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    Huibing eTan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both basic and clinical research demonstrates an important role for endocannabinoid (ECB signaling in the processing of emotionally salient information, learning and memory. Cannabinoid transmission within neural circuits involved in emotional processing has been shown to modulate the acquisition, recall and extinction of emotionally salient memories and importantly, can strongly modulate the emotional salience of incoming sensory information. Two neural regions in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA, play important roles in emotional regulation and contain high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, both regions show profound abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that cannabinoid transmission functionally interacts with dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter system that is of exceptional importance for both addictive behaviours and the neuropsychopathology of disorders like schizophrenia. Research in our laboratory has focused on how cannabinoid transmission both within and extrinsic to the mesolimbic DA system, including the BLAmPFC circuitry, can modulate both rewarding and aversive emotional information. In this review, we will summarize clinical and basic neuroscience research demonstrating the importance of cannabinoid signaling within this neural circuitry. In particular, evidence will be reviewed emphasizing the importance of cannabinoid signaling within the BLAmPFC circuitry in the context of emotional salience processing, memory formation and memory-related plasticity. We propose that aberrant states of hyper or hypoactive ECB signaling within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit may lead to dysregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA transmission controlling the processing of emotionally salient information. These disturbances may in turn lead to emotional processing

  16. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  17. Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking Behavior Among Trauma-Exposed Daily Smokers: The Explanatory Role of Smoking-Related Avoidance and Inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Zvolensky, Michael J; Salazar, Adriana; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe that anxiety-related sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with smoking processes and poorer clinical outcomes among trauma-exposed smokers. Yet the specific mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility is a construct implicated in multiple manifestations of mood regulation that may underlie smoking behavior. The current study examined the explanatory role of smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility in terms of the relation between AS and indices of smoking behavior among trauma-exposed smokers. The sample consisted of 217 treatment-seeking adult smokers (44% female; M age = 37.8; SD = 13.2; age range: 18-65 years), who were exposed to at least one lifetime Criterion A trauma event (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR] Criterion A for trauma exposure). Bootstrap analysis (5,000 re-samples) revealed that AS was indirectly related to the (a) number of cigarettes smoked per day, (b) number of years being a daily smoker, (c) number of failed quit attempts, and (d) heaviness of smoking index among trauma-exposed smokers through its relation with smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility may be an important construct in better understanding AS-smoking relations among trauma-exposed smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility account for relations between AS and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome) in the context of trauma and smoking comorbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Sven Ove; Eriksson, Therese M; Elvander-Tottie, Elin; D'Addario, Claudio; Ekström, Joanna C; Svenningsson, Per; Meister, Björn; Kehr, Jan; Stiedl, Oliver

    2008-12-16

    The ascending serotonin (5-HT) neurons innervate the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, septum and amygdala, all representing brain regions associated with various domains of cognition. The 5-HT innervation is diffuse and extensively arborized with few synaptic contacts, which indicates that 5-HT can affect a large number of neurons in a paracrine mode. Serotonin signaling is mediated by 14 receptor subtypes with different functional and transductional properties. The 5-HT(1A) subtype is of particular interest, since it is one of the main mediators of the action of 5-HT. Moreover, the 5-HT(1A) receptor regulates the activity of 5-HT neurons via autoreceptors, and it regulates the function of several neurotransmitter systems via postsynaptic receptors (heteroreceptors). This review assesses the pharmacological and genetic evidence that implicates the 5-HT(1A) receptor in learning and memory. The 5-HT(1A) receptors are in the position to influence the activity of glutamatergic, cholinergic and possibly GABAergic neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and in the septohippocampal projection, thereby affecting declarative and non-declarative memory functions. Moreover, the 5-HT(1A) receptor regulates several transduction mechanisms such as kinases and immediate early genes implicated in memory formation. Based on studies in rodents the stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors generally produces learning impairments by interfering with memory-encoding mechanisms. In contrast, antagonists of 5-HT(1A) receptors facilitate certain types of memory by enhancing hippocampal/cortical cholinergic and/or glutamatergic neurotransmission. Some data also support a potential role for the 5-HT(1A) receptor in memory consolidation. Available results also implicate the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the retrieval of aversive or emotional memories, supporting an involvement in reconsolidation. The contribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in cognitive impairments in various psychiatric disorders is still

  19. Roles of NO signaling in long-term memory formation in visual learning in an insect.

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    Yukihisa Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Many insects exhibit excellent capability of visual learning, but the molecular and neural mechanisms are poorly understood. This is in contrast to accumulation of information on molecular and neural mechanisms of olfactory learning in insects. In olfactory learning in insects, it has been shown that cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling critically participates in the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM and, in some insects, nitric oxide (NO-cyclic GMP (cGMP signaling also plays roles in LTM formation. In this study, we examined the possible contribution of NO-cGMP signaling and cAMP signaling to LTM formation in visual pattern learning in crickets. Crickets that had been subjected to 8-trial conditioning to associate a visual pattern with water reward exhibited memory retention 1 day after conditioning, whereas those subjected to 4-trial conditioning exhibited 30-min memory retention but not 1-day retention. Injection of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, into the hemolymph prior to 8-trial conditioning blocked formation of 1-day memory, whereas it had no effect on 30-min memory formation, indicating that 1-day memory can be characterized as protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM. Injection of an inhibitor of the enzyme producing an NO or cAMP prior to 8-trial visual conditioning blocked LTM formation, whereas it had no effect on 30-min memory formation. Moreover, injection of an NO donor, cGMP analogue or cAMP analogue prior to 4-trial conditioning induced LTM. Induction of LTM by an NO donor was blocked by DDA, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme producing cAMP, but LTM induction by a cAMP analogue was not impaired by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase. The results indicate that cAMP signaling is downstream of NO signaling for visual LTM formation. We conclude that visual learning and olfactory learning share common biochemical cascades for LTM formation.

  20. The Role of Histone Deacetylase 6 in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

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    Sarah Perry

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs have been extensively studied as drug targets in neurodegenerative diseases, but less is known about their role in healthy neurons. We tested zinc-dependent HDACs using RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster and found memory deficits with RPD3 and HDAC6. We demonstrate that HDAC6 is required in both the larval and adult stages for normal olfactory memory retention. Neuronal expression of HDAC6 rescued memory deficits, and we demonstrate that the N-terminal deacetylase (DAC domain is required for this ability. This suggests that deacetylation of synaptic targets associated with the first DAC domain, such as the active-zone scaffold Bruchpilot, is required for memory retention. Finally, electrophysiological experiments at the neuromuscular junction reveal that HDAC6 mutants exhibit a partial block of homeostatic plasticity, suggesting that HDAC6 may be required for the stabilization of synaptic strength. The learning deficit we observe in HDAC6 mutants could be a behavioral consequence of these synaptic defects.

  1. When the mask falls: the role of facial motor resonance in memory for emotional language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Jenny-Charlotte; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Foroni, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    The recognition and interpretation of emotional information (e.g., about happiness) has been shown to elicit, amongst other bodily reactions, spontaneous facial expressions occurring in accordance to the relevant emotion (e.g. a smile). Theories of embodied cognition act on the assumption that such embodied simulations are not only an accessorial, but a crucial factor in the processing of emotional information. While several studies have confirmed the importance of facial motor resonance during the initial recognition of emotional information, its role at later stages of processing, such as during memory for emotional content, remains unexplored. The present study bridges this gap by exploring the impact of facial motor resonance on the retrieval of emotional stimuli. In a novel approach, the specific effects of embodied simulations were investigated at different stages of emotional memory processing (during encoding and/or retrieval). Eighty participants underwent a memory task involving emotional and neutral words consisting of an encoding and retrieval phase. Depending on the experimental condition, facial muscles were blocked by a hardening facial mask either during encoding, during retrieval, during both encoding and retrieval, or were left free to resonate (control). The results demonstrate that not only initial recognition but also memory of emotional items benefits from embodied simulations occurring during their encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of inferior parietal and inferior frontal cortex in working memory.

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    Baldo, Juliana V; Dronkers, Nina F

    2006-09-01

    Verbal working memory involves two major components: a phonological store that holds auditory-verbal information very briefly and an articulatory rehearsal process that allows that information to be refreshed and thus held longer in short-term memory (A. Baddeley, 1996, 2000; A. Baddeley & G. Hitch, 1974). In the current study, the authors tested two groups of patients who were chosen on the basis of their relatively focal lesions in the inferior parietal (IP) cortex or inferior frontal (IF) cortex. Patients were tested on a series of tasks that have been previously shown to tap phonological storage (span, auditory rhyming, and repetition) and articulatory rehearsal (visual rhyming and a 2-back task). As predicted, IP patients were disproportionately impaired on the span, rhyming, and repetition tasks and thus demonstrated a phonological storage deficit. IF patients, however, did not show impairment on these storage tasks but did exhibit impairment on the visual rhyming task, which requires articulatory rehearsal. These findings lend further support to the working memory model and provide evidence of the roles of IP and IF cortex in separable working memory processes. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Neuroepigenetics of memory formation and impairment: the role of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Bechara J; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that primarily regulate protein synthesis through reversible translational repression or mRNA degradation. MiRNAs can act by translational control of transcription factors or via direct action on the chromatin, and thereby contribute to the non-genetic control of gene-environment interactions. MiRNAs that regulate components of pathways required for learning and memory further modulate the influence of epigenetics on cognition in the normal and diseased brain. This review summarizes recent data exemplifying the known roles of miRNAs in memory formation in different model organisms, and describes how neuronal plasticity regulates miRNA biogenesis, activity and degradation. It also examines the relevance of miRNAs for memory impairment in human, using recent clinical observations related to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, and discusses the potential mechanisms by which these miRNAs may contribute to memory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the role of memory in preschoolers' performance on episodic foresight tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atance, Cristina M; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    A total of 48 preschoolers (ages 3, 4, and 5) received four tasks modelled after prior work designed to assess the development of "episodic foresight". For each task, children encountered a problem in one room and, after a brief delay, were given the opportunity in a second room to select an item to solve the problem. Importantly, after selecting an item, children were queried about their memory for the problem. Age-related changes were found both in children's ability to select the correct item and their ability to remember the problem. However, when we controlled for children's memory for the problem, there were no longer significant age-related changes on the item choice measure. These findings suggest that age-related changes in children's performance on these tasks are driven by improvements in children's memory versus improvements in children's future-oriented thinking or "foresight" per se. Our results have important implications for how best to structure tasks to measure children's episodic foresight, and also for the relative role of memory in this task and in episodic foresight more broadly.

  5. The Role of Extrinsic Rewards and Cue-Intention Association in Prospective Memory in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Daniel Patrick; Kretschmer, Anett; Knispel, Elisa; Vollert, Bianka; Altgassen, Mareike

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association) for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children's everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed.

  6. The role of spatial memory and frames of reference in the precision of angular path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Joeanna C; Philbeck, John W; Kleene, Nicholas J; Chichka, David

    2012-09-01

    Angular path integration refers to the ability to maintain an estimate of self-location after a rotational displacement by integrating internally-generated (idiothetic) self-motion signals over time. Previous work has found that non-sensory inputs, namely spatial memory, can play a powerful role in angular path integration (Arthur et al., 2007, 2009). Here we investigated the conditions under which spatial memory facilitates angular path integration. We hypothesized that the benefit of spatial memory is particularly likely in spatial updating tasks in which one's self-location estimate is referenced to external space. To test this idea, we administered passive, non-visual body rotations (ranging 40°-140°) about the yaw axis and asked participants to use verbal reports or open-loop manual pointing to indicate the magnitude of the rotation. Prior to some trials, previews of the surrounding environment were given. We found that when participants adopted an egocentric frame of reference, the previously-observed benefit of previews on within-subject response precision was not manifested, regardless of whether remembered spatial frameworks were derived from vision or spatial language. We conclude that the powerful effect of spatial memory is dependent on one's frame of reference during self-motion updating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  8. The role of autobiographical memory networks in the experience of negative emotions: how our remembered past elicits our current feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Genevieve; Bois, Katy

    2011-12-01

    The present research examined the role of autobiographical memory networks on negative emotional experiences. Results from 2 studies found support for an active but also discriminant role of autobiographical memories and their related networked memories on negative emotions. In addition, in line with self-determination theory, thwarting of the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness was found to be the critical component of autobiographical memory affecting negative emotional experiences. Study 1 revealed that need thwarting in a specific autobiographical memory network related to the theme of loss was positively associated with depressive negative emotions, but not with other negative emotions. Study 2 showed within a prospective design a differential predictive validity between 2 autobiographical memory networks (an anger-related vs. a guilt-related memory) on situational anger reactivity with respect to unfair treatment. All of these results held after controlling for neuroticism (Studies 1 and 2), self-control (Study 2), and for the valence (Study 1) and emotions (Study 2) found in the measured autobiographical memory network. These findings highlight the ongoing emotional significance of representations of need thwarting in autobiographical memory networks. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Effects of entorhinal cortex lesions on memory in different tasks

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    G.P. Gutierrez-Figueroa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the entorhinal cortex produce retrograde memory impairment in both animals and humans. Here we report the effects of bilateral entorhinal cortex lesions caused by the stereotaxic infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in rats at two different moments, before or after the training session, on memory of different tasks: two-way shuttle avoidance, inhibitory avoidance and habituation to an open field. Pre- or post-training entorhinal cortex lesions caused an impairment of performance in the shuttle avoidance task, which agrees with the previously described role of this area in the processing of memories acquired in successive sessions. In the inhibitory avoidance task, only the post-training lesions had an effect (amnesia. No effect was observed on the open field task. The findings suggest that the role of the entorhinal cortex in memory processing is task-dependent, perhaps related to the complexity of each task

  10. The Future Orientation of Past Memory: The Role of BA 10 in Prospective and Retrospective Retrieval Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Adam G; Guynn, Melissa J; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Klein made the provocative suggestion that the purpose of human episodic memory is to enable individuals to plan and prepare for the future. In other words, although episodic (retrospective) memory is about the past, it is not actually for the past; it is for the future. Within this focus, a natural subject for investigation is prospective memory, or memory to do things in the future. An important theoretical construct in the fields of both retrospective memory and prospective memory is that of a retrieval mode, or a neurocognitive set or readiness to treat environmental stimuli as potential retrieval cues. This construct was originally introduced in a theory of episodic (retrospective) memory and has more recently been invoked in a theory of how some prospective memory tasks are accomplished. To our knowledge, this construct has not been explicitly compared between the two literatures, and thus this is the purpose of the present article. Although we address the behavioral evidence for each construct, our primary goal is to assess the extent to which each retrieval mode appears to rely on a common neural region. Our review highlights the fact that a particular area of prefrontal cortex (BA 10) appears to play an important role in both retrospective and prospective retrieval modes. We suggest, based on this evidence and these ideas, that prospective memory research could profit from more active exploration of the relevance of theoretical constructs from the retrospective memory literature.

  11. The Future Orientation of Past Memory: The Role of BA 10 in Prospective and Retrospective Retrieval Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Klein made the provocative suggestion that the purpose of human episodic memory is to enable individuals to plan and prepare for the future. In other words, although episodic (retrospective memory is about the past, it is not actually for the past; it is for the future. Within this focus, a natural subject for investigation is prospective memory, or memory to do things in the future. An important theoretical construct in the fields of both retrospective memory and prospective memory is that of a retrieval mode, or a neurocognitive set or readiness to treat environmental stimuli as potential retrieval cues. This construct was originally introduced in a theory of episodic (retrospective memory and has more recently been invoked in a theory of how some prospective memory tasks are accomplished. To our knowledge, this construct has not been explicitly compared between the two literatures, and thus this is the purpose of the present article. Although we address the behavioral evidence for each construct, our primary goal is to assess the extent to which each retrieval mode appears to rely on a common neural region. Our review highlights the fact that a particular area of prefrontal cortex (BA 10 appears to play an important role in both retrospective and prospective retrieval modes. We suggest, based on this evidence and these ideas, that prospective memory research could profit from more active exploration of the relevance of theoretical constructs from the retrospective memory literature.

  12. The Future Orientation of Past Memory: The Role of BA 10 in Prospective and Retrospective Retrieval Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Adam G.; Guynn, Melissa J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Klein made the provocative suggestion that the purpose of human episodic memory is to enable individuals to plan and prepare for the future. In other words, although episodic (retrospective) memory is about the past, it is not actually for the past; it is for the future. Within this focus, a natural subject for investigation is prospective memory, or memory to do things in the future. An important theoretical construct in the fields of both retrospective memory and prospective memory is that of a retrieval mode, or a neurocognitive set or readiness to treat environmental stimuli as potential retrieval cues. This construct was originally introduced in a theory of episodic (retrospective) memory and has more recently been invoked in a theory of how some prospective memory tasks are accomplished. To our knowledge, this construct has not been explicitly compared between the two literatures, and thus this is the purpose of the present article. Although we address the behavioral evidence for each construct, our primary goal is to assess the extent to which each retrieval mode appears to rely on a common neural region. Our review highlights the fact that a particular area of prefrontal cortex (BA 10) appears to play an important role in both retrospective and prospective retrieval modes. We suggest, based on this evidence and these ideas, that prospective memory research could profit from more active exploration of the relevance of theoretical constructs from the retrospective memory literature. PMID:26733844

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of amygdalohippocampal interconnections and their role in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alexander J; Mott, David D

    2017-03-01

    The amygdalar nuclear complex and hippocampal/parahippocampal region are key components of the limbic system that play a critical role in emotional learning and memory. This Review discusses what is currently known about the neuroanatomy and neurotransmitters involved in amygdalo-hippocampal interconnections, their functional roles in learning and memory, and their involvement in mnemonic dysfunctions associated with neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases. Tract tracing studies have shown that the interconnections between discrete amygdalar nuclei and distinct layers of individual hippocampal/parahippocampal regions are robust and complex. Although it is well established that glutamatergic pyramidal cells in the amygdala and hippocampal region are the major players mediating interconnections between these regions, recent studies suggest that long-range GABAergic projection neurons are also involved. Whereas neuroanatomical studies indicate that the amygdala only has direct interconnections with the ventral hippocampal region, electrophysiological studies and behavioral studies investigating fear conditioning and extinction, as well as amygdalar modulation of hippocampal-dependent mnemonic functions, suggest that the amygdala interacts with dorsal hippocampal regions via relays in the parahippocampal cortices. Possible pathways for these indirect interconnections, based on evidence from previous tract tracing studies, are discussed in this Review. Finally, memory disorders associated with dysfunction or damage to the amygdala, hippocampal region, and/or their interconnections are discussed in relation to Alzheimer's disease, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and temporal lobe epilepsy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effect of chronic stimulation of serotonin receptor type 7 on recognition, passive avoidance memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation, and neuronal apoptosis in the amyloid β protein treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Siamak; Asl, Sara Soleimani; Komaki, Alireza; Hashemi-Firouzi, Nasrin

    2018-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory impairment, neuronal death, and synaptic loss in the hippocampus. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a type of synaptic plasticity, occurs during learning and memory. Serotonin receptor type 7 (5-HTR7) activation is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for AD. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic treatment with the 5-HTR7 agonist, AS19, on cognitive function, memory, hippocampal plasticity, amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque accumulation, and apoptosis in an adult rat model of AD. AD was induced in rats using Aβ (single 1 μg/μL intracerebroventricular (icv) injection during surgery). The following experimental groups were included: control, sham-operated, Aβ + saline (1 μL icv for 30 days), and Aβ + AS19 (1 μg/μL icv for 30 days) groups. The animals were tested for cognition and memory performance using the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Next, anesthetized rats were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus for electrode implantation, and field potentials were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Lastly, brains were removed and Aβ plaques and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated using Congo red staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. Administration of AS19 in the Aβ rats increased the discrimination index of the novel object recognition test. Furthermore, AS19 treatment decreased time spent in the dark compartment during the passive avoidance test. AS19 also enhanced both the population spike (PS) amplitude and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) slope evoked potentials of the LTP components. Aβ plaques and neuronal apoptosis were decreased in the AS19-treated Aβ rats. These results indicate that chronic treatment with a 5-HTR7 agonist can prevent Aβ-related impairments in cognition and memory performance by alleviating Aβ plaque accumulation and neuronal apoptosis, hence improving neuronal

  15. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  16. A critical role of glutamate transporter type 3 in the learning and memory of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Park, Sang-Hon; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-10-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory are associated with trafficking of excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) to the plasma membrane. To assess whether this trafficking is an intrinsic component of the biochemical responses underlying learning and memory, 7- to 9-week old male EAAT3 knockout mice and CD-1 wild-type mice were subjected to fear conditioning. Their hippocampal CA1 regions, amygdalae and entorhinal cortices were harvested before, or 30 min or 3 h after the fear conditioning stimulation. We found that EAAT3 knockout mice had worse contextual and tone-related learning and memory than did the wild-type mice. The expression of EAAT3, glutamate receptor (GluR)1 and GluR2 in the plasma membrane and of phospho-GluR1 (at Ser 831) and phospho-CaMKII in the hippocampus of the wild-type mice was increased at 30 min after the fear conditioning stimulation. Similar biochemical changes occurred in the amygdala. Fear conditioning also increased the expression of c-Fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the CA1 regions and of Arc in the entorhinal cortices of the wild-type mice. These biochemical responses were attenuated in the EAAT3 knockout mice. These results suggest that EAAT3 plays a critical role in learning and memory. Our results also provide initial evidence that EAAT3 may have receptor-like functions to participate in the biochemical reactions underlying learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of early visual cortex in trans-saccadic memory of object features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pankhuri; Dessing, Joost C; Crawford, J Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Early visual cortex (EVC) participates in visual feature memory and the updating of remembered locations across saccades, but its role in the trans-saccadic integration of object features is unknown. We hypothesized that if EVC is involved in updating object features relative to gaze, feature memory should be disrupted when saccades remap an object representation into a simultaneously perturbed EVC site. To test this, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over functional magnetic resonance imaging-localized EVC clusters corresponding to the bottom left/right visual quadrants (VQs). During experiments, these VQs were probed psychophysically by briefly presenting a central object (Gabor patch) while subjects fixated gaze to the right or left (and above). After a short memory interval, participants were required to detect the relative change in orientation of a re-presented test object at the same spatial location. Participants either sustained fixation during the memory interval (fixation task) or made a horizontal saccade that either maintained or reversed the VQ of the object (saccade task). Three TMS pulses (coinciding with the pre-, peri-, and postsaccade intervals) were applied to the left or right EVC. This had no effect when (a) fixation was maintained, (b) saccades kept the object in the same VQ, or (c) the EVC quadrant corresponding to the first object was stimulated. However, as predicted, TMS reduced performance when saccades (especially larger saccades) crossed the remembered object location and brought it into the VQ corresponding to the TMS site. This suppression effect was statistically significant for leftward saccades and followed a weaker trend for rightward saccades. These causal results are consistent with the idea that EVC is involved in the gaze-centered updating of object features for trans-saccadic memory and perception.

  18. The role of rewarding and novel events in facilitating memory persistence in a separate spatial memory task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Beatrice; Morris, Richard G.M.; Wang, Szu-Han

    2014-01-01

    Many insignificant events in our daily life are forgotten quickly but can be remembered for longer when other memory-modulating events occur before or after them. This phenomenon has been investigated in animal models in a protocol in which weak memories persist longer if exploration in a novel context is introduced around the time of memory encoding. This study aims to understand whether other types of rewarding or novel tasks, such as rewarded learning in a T-maze and novel object recognition, can also be effective memory-modulating events. Rats were trained in a delayed matching-to-place task to encode and retrieve food locations in an event arena. Weak encoding with only one food pellet at the sample location induced memory encoding but forgetting over 24 h. When this same weak encoding was followed by a rewarded task in a T-maze, the memory persisted for 24 h. Moreover, the same persistence of memory over 24 h could be achieved by exploration in a novel box or by a rewarded T-maze task after a “non-rewarded” weak encoding. When the one-pellet weak encoding was followed by novel object exploration, the memory did not persist at 24 h. Together, the results confirm that place encoding is possible without explicit reward, and that rewarded learning in a separate task lacking novelty can be an effective memory-modulating event. The behavioral and neurobiological implications are discussed. PMID:24429424

  19. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  20. Exploring the link between maternal attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and mindful parenting: The mediating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Nunes, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with

  1. A Critical Role for the Nucleus Reuniens in Long-Term, But Not Short-Term Associative Recognition Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gareth R I; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea

    2018-03-28

    Recognition memory for single items requires the perirhinal cortex (PRH), whereas recognition of an item and its associated location requires a functional interaction among the PRH, hippocampus (HPC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although the precise mechanisms through which these interactions are effected are unknown, the nucleus reuniens (NRe) has bidirectional connections with each regions and thus may play a role in recognition memory. Here we investigated, in male rats, whether specific manipulations of NRe function affected performance of recognition memory for single items, object location, or object-in-place associations. Permanent lesions in the NRe significantly impaired long-term, but not short-term, object-in-place associative recognition memory, whereas single item recognition memory and object location memory were unaffected. Temporary inactivation of the NRe during distinct phases of the object-in-place task revealed its importance in both the encoding and retrieval stages of long-term associative recognition memory. Infusions of specific receptor antagonists showed that encoding was dependent on muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission, whereas NMDA receptor neurotransmission was not required. Finally, we found that long-term object-in-place memory required protein synthesis within the NRe. These data reveal a specific role for the NRe in long-term associative recognition memory through its interactions with the HPC and mPFC, but not the PRH. The delay-dependent involvement of the NRe suggests that it is not a simple relay station between brain regions, but, rather, during high mnemonic demand, facilitates interactions between the mPFC and HPC, a process that requires both cholinergic neurotransmission and protein synthesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recognizing an object and its associated location, which is fundamental to our everyday memory, requires specific hippocampal-cortical interactions, potentially facilitated by the

  2. Water-avoidance stress enhances gastric contractions in freely moving conscious rats: role of peripheral CRF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2014-05-01

    Stress alters gastrointestinal motility through central and peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that peripheral CRF is deeply involved in the regulation of gastric motility, and enhances gastric contractions through CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) and delays gastric emptying (GE) through CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2). Since little is known whether water-avoidance stress (WAS) alters gastric motility, the present study tried to clarify this question and the involvement of peripheral CRF receptor subtypes in the mechanisms. We recorded intraluminal gastric pressure waves using a perfused manometric method. The rats were anesthetized and the manometric catheter was inserted into the stomach 4-6 days before the experiments. We assessed the area under the manometric trace as the motor index (MI), and compared this result with those obtained 1 h before and after initiation of WAS in nonfasted conscious rats. Solid GE for 1 h was also measured. WAS significantly increased gastric contractions. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of astressin (100 μg/kg, 5 min prior to stress), a nonselective CRF antagonist, blocked the response to WAS. On the other hand, pretreatment (5 min prior to stress) with neither astressin2-B (200 μg/kg, ip), a selective CRF2 antagonist, nor urocortin 2 (30 μg/kg, ip), a selective CRF2 agonist, modified the response to WAS. These drugs did not alter the basal MI. WAS did not change GE. WAS may activate peripheral CRF1 but not CRF2 signaling and stimulates gastric contractions without altering GE.

  3. Avoiding overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Tubiana, L.

    2004-01-01

    After a round table between (French) political leaders committed in environment policies and leaders of public institutions specialized in environment matters discussing the Kyoto Protocol negotiation process, this publication proposes contributions and interviews about Kyoto negotiations, about the influence of the carbon lobby, about the implementation of the Kyoto protocol in various countries (European Union, France, Germany, United States, China, developing countries), about the role of renewable energies, and about adaptation challenges

  4. The Role of Rewarding and Novel Events in Facilitating Memory Persistence in a Separate Spatial Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Beatrice; Morris, Richard G. M.; Wang, Szu-Han

    2014-01-01

    Many insignificant events in our daily life are forgotten quickly but can be remembered for longer when other memory-modulating events occur before or after them. This phenomenon has been investigated in animal models in a protocol in which weak memories persist longer if exploration in a novel context is introduced around the time of memory…

  5. Episodic Long-Term Memory of Spoken Discourse Masked by Speech: What Is the Role for Working Memory Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorqvist, Patrik; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech. Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Ronnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sorqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual…

  6. The Role of Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus: A Subcortical Gate in Memory Processing: An Intracerebral Recording Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štillová

    Full Text Available To study the involvement of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT as compared to the involvement of the hippocampus in the processes of encoding and recognition during visual and verbal memory tasks.We studied intracerebral recordings in patients with pharmacoresistent epilepsy who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ANT with depth electrodes implanted bilaterally in the ANT and compared the results with epilepsy surgery candidates with depth electrodes implanted bilaterally in the hippocampus. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by the visual and verbal memory encoding and recognition tasks.P300-like potentials were recorded in the hippocampus by visual and verbal memory encoding and recognition tasks and in the ANT by the visual encoding and visual and verbal recognition tasks. No significant ERPs were recorded during the verbal encoding task in the ANT. In the visual and verbal recognition tasks, the P300-like potentials in the ANT preceded the P300-like potentials in the hippocampus.The ANT is a structure in the memory pathway that processes memory information before the hippocampus. We suggest that the ANT has a specific role in memory processes, especially memory recognition, and that memory disturbance should be considered in patients with ANT-DBS and in patients with ANT lesions. ANT is well positioned to serve as a subcortical gate for memory processing in cortical structures.

  7. The Role of Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus: A Subcortical Gate in Memory Processing: An Intracerebral Recording Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štillová, Klára; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Chrastina, Jan; Halámek, Josef; Bočková, Martina; Goldemundová, Sabina; Říha, Ivo; Rektor, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    To study the involvement of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) as compared to the involvement of the hippocampus in the processes of encoding and recognition during visual and verbal memory tasks. We studied intracerebral recordings in patients with pharmacoresistent epilepsy who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ANT with depth electrodes implanted bilaterally in the ANT and compared the results with epilepsy surgery candidates with depth electrodes implanted bilaterally in the hippocampus. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the visual and verbal memory encoding and recognition tasks. P300-like potentials were recorded in the hippocampus by visual and verbal memory encoding and recognition tasks and in the ANT by the visual encoding and visual and verbal recognition tasks. No significant ERPs were recorded during the verbal encoding task in the ANT. In the visual and verbal recognition tasks, the P300-like potentials in the ANT preceded the P300-like potentials in the hippocampus. The ANT is a structure in the memory pathway that processes memory information before the hippocampus. We suggest that the ANT has a specific role in memory processes, especially memory recognition, and that memory disturbance should be considered in patients with ANT-DBS and in patients with ANT lesions. ANT is well positioned to serve as a subcortical gate for memory processing in cortical structures.

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex pyramidal cells have a temporal dynamic role in recall and extinction of cocaine-associated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Oever, Michel C; Rotaru, Diana C; Heinsbroek, Jasper A; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Deisseroth, Karl; Stuber, Garret D; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Smit, August B

    2013-11-13

    In addicts, associative memories related to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse can evoke powerful craving and drug seeking urges, but effective treatment to suppress these memories is not available. Detailed insight into the neural circuitry that mediates expression of drug-associated memory is therefore of crucial importance. Substantial evidence from rodent models of addictive behavior points to the involvement of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in conditioned drug seeking, but specific knowledge of the temporal role of vmPFC pyramidal cells is lacking. To this end, we used an optogenetics approach to probe the involvement of vmPFC pyramidal cells in expression of a recent and remote conditioned cocaine memory. In mice, we expressed Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or Halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) in pyramidal cells of the vmPFC and studied the effect of activation or inhibition of these cells during expression of a cocaine-contextual memory on days 1-2 (recent) and ∼3 weeks (remote) after conditioning. Whereas optical activation of pyramidal cells facilitated extinction of remote memory, without affecting recent memory, inhibition of pyramidal cells acutely impaired recall of recent cocaine memory, without affecting recall of remote memory. In addition, we found that silencing pyramidal cells blocked extinction learning at the remote memory time-point. We provide causal evidence of a critical time-dependent switch in the contribution of vmPFC pyramidal cells to recall and extinction of cocaine-associated memory, indicating that the circuitry that controls expression of cocaine memories reorganizes over time.

  9. The role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis in mediating predator-avoidance trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Breanna N; Carr, James A

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining energy balance and reproducing are important for fitness, yet animals have evolved mechanisms by which the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/HPI) axis can shut these activities off. While HPA/HPI axis inhibition of feeding and reproduction may have evolved as a predator defense, to date there has been no review across taxa of the causal evidence for such a relationship. Here we review the literature on this topic by addressing evidence for three predictions: that exposure to predators decreases reproduction and feeding, that exposure to predators activates the HPA/HPI axis, and that predator-induced activation of the HPA/HPI axis inhibits foraging and reproduction. Weight of evidence indicates that exposure to predator cues inhibits several aspects of foraging and reproduction. While the evidence from fish and mammals supports the hypothesis that predator cues activate the HPA/HPI axis, the existing data in other vertebrate taxa are equivocal. A causal role for the HPA axis in predator-induced suppression of feeding and reproduction has not been demonstrated to date, although many studies report correlative relationships between HPA activity and reproduction and/or feeding. Manipulation of HPA/HPI axis signaling will be required in future studies to demonstrate direct mediation of predator-induced inhibition of feeding and reproduction. Understanding the circuitry linking sensory pathways to their control of the HPA/HPI axis also is needed. Finally, the role that fear and anxiety pathways play in the response of the HPA axis to predator cues is needed to better understand the role that predators have played in shaping anxiety related behaviors in all species, including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  11. A New Role for Attentional Corticopetal Acetylcholine in Cortical Memory Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Kanamaru, Takashi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    Although the role of corticopetal acetylcholine (ACh) in higher cognitive functions is increasingly recognized, the questions as (1) how ACh works in attention(s), memory dynamics and cortical state transitions, and also (2) why and how loss of ACh is involved in dysfunctions such as visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies and deficit of attention(s), are not well understood. From the perspective of a dynamical systems viewpoint, we hypothesize that transient ACh released under top-down attention serves to temporarily invoke attractor-like memories, while a background level of ACh reverses this process returning the dynamical nature of the memory structure back to attractor ruins (quasi-attractors). In fact, transient ACh loosens inhibitions of py ramidal neurons (PYRs) by P V+ fas t spiking (FS) i nterneurons, while a baseline ACh recovers inhibitory actions of P V+ FS. Attentional A Ch thus dynamically modifies brain's connectivity. Th e core of this process is in the depression of GABAergic inhibitory currents in PYRs due to muscarinic (probably M2 subtype) presyn aptic effects on GABAergic synapses of PV+ FS neurons

  12. The Role of Epigenetic Regulation in Transcriptional Memory in the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, A M; Holloway, A F

    The immune system is exquisitely poised to identify, respond to, and eradicate pathogens from the body, as well as to produce a more rapid and augmented response to a subsequent encounter with the pathogen. These cellular responses rely on the highly coordinated and rapid activation of gene expression programs as well as the ability of the cell to retain a memory of the initial gene response. It is clear that chromatin structure and epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in determining these gene responses, and in fact the immune system has proved an instructive model for investigating the multifaceted mechanisms through which the chromatin landscape contributes to gene expression programs. These mechanisms include modifications to the DNA and histone proteins, the positioning, composition, and remodeling of nucleosomes, as well as the formation of higher-order chromatin structures. Moreover, it is now apparent that epigenetic mechanisms also provide an instrument by which cells can retain memory of the initial transcriptional response, "priming" the genome so that it can respond more quickly to subsequent exposure to the signal. Here, we use the immune system as a model to demonstrate the complex interplay between transcription factors and the chromatin landscape required to orchestrate precise gene responses to external stimuli and further to demonstrate how these interactions can establish memory of past transcriptional events. We focus on what we have learnt from the immune system and how this can inform our understanding of other cellular systems. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TMS evidence for a selective role of the precuneus in source memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnì, Sonia; Veniero, Domenica; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Ponzo, Viviana; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco; Koch, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    The posteromedial cortex including the precuneus (PC) is thought to be involved in episodic memory retrieval. Here we used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to disentangle the role of the precuneus in the recognition memory process in a sample of healthy subjects. During the encoding phase, subjects were presented with a series of colored pictures. Afterwards, during the retrieval phase, all previously presented items and a sample of new pictures were presented in black, and subjects were asked to indicate whether each item was new or old, and in the latter case to indicate the associated color. cTBS was delivered over PC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and vertex before the retrieval phase. The data were analyzed in terms of hits, false alarms, source errors and omissions. cTBS over the precuneus, but not over the PPC or the vertex, induced a selective decrease in source memory errors, indicating an improvement in context retrieval. All the other accuracy measurements were unchanged. These findings suggest a direct implication of the precuneus in successful context-dependent retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential roles of resistance to proactive interference and suppression of prepotent responses in overgeneral memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Johnson, Anne F; Gibson, Bradley S; Taylor, Courtney

    2018-06-12

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories, is a robust phenomenon related to the onset and course of depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. Inhibitory mechanisms are theorized to underlie OGM; however, empirical support for this link is equivocal. The current study examines the differential roles of two aspects of inhibitory control in association with OGM: suppression of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference (PI). Only resistance to PI was expected to be negatively related to OGM, whereby individuals with greater ability to resist PI would have reduced OGM. Participants (n = 49) completed a self-report measure of depressive symptoms and engaged in two tasks aimed at assessing resistance to PI and suppression of prepotent responses. Participants also completed a task assessing overgeneral autobiographical memory. As hypothesized, resistance to PI, but not suppression of prepotent responses negatively predicted OGM above and beyond the influence of depressive symptoms. Because a double dissociation was not examined, we cannot address the potential independence of the submechanisms of inhibitory control that we assessed. Results exemplify the differential associations of two components of inhibition and OGM, suggesting that resistance to PI, in particular, may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of OGM and associated depressive disorders. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Evidences of the role of the rodent hippocampus in the non-spatial recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jee Hyun; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Byeong C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-01-15

    The hippocampus is a key region responsible for processing spatial information. However, the role of the hippocampus in non-spatial recognition memory is still controversial. In the present study, we performed hippocampal lesioning to address this controversy. The hippocampi of mice were disrupted with bilateral cytotoxic lesions, and standard object recognition (non-spatial) and object location recognition (spatial) were tested. In the habituation period, mice with hippocampal lesions needed a significantly longer time to fully habituate to the test box. Interestingly, after 4 days of habituation (insufficient habituation), the recognition index was similar in the sham and hippocampal lesion groups. However, exploration time was significantly shorter in mice with hippocampal lesions compared with that in control mice. Interestingly, if mice were subjected to a 10-days-long period of habituation (full habituation), the recognition index was significantly lower in mice with hippocampal lesions compared with that in control mice; however, total exploration time was similar in both groups. Furthermore, the object recognition test after full habituation occluded hippocampal long-term potentiation, a cellular model of memory. These results indicate that sufficient habituation is required to observe the effects of hippocampal lesions on object recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of decision-making ability in HIV/AIDS: impact on prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Kelly; Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Monzones, Jennifer; Fuentes, Armando; Fraser, Felicia; Rosario, Ana; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (ProM), a form of episodic memory related to execution of future intentions, is important for everyday functioning. Among persons living with HIV (PLWH), executive dysfunction is implicated in ProM impairments. However, specific subcomponents of executive functioning involved in ProM deficits remain poorly understood. Unlike more "traditional" neurocognitive (NC) measures of executive functioning associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (i.e., conceptual reasoning, abstraction), those associated with medial orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal (mOF/vmP) cortex (i.e., decision making, inhibitory control, goal-oriented behavior) have yet to be examined in ProM. This study characterized ProM ability in a sample of 89 HIV-seropositive adults and examined the unique role of decision-making ability in ProM. Participants completed a standard NC battery, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; a decision-making measure), and the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST; a ProM measure). Correlational analyses revealed that both traditional executive functioning measures and the IGT were associated with ProM. Regression analyses revealed that the IGT significantly predicted ProM, even after accounting for NC measures. Among all NC measures, only executive functioning significantly contributed to ProM. Further examination of mOF/vmP-sensitive executive dysfunction within this population is needed as PLWH may require more tailored treatment recommendations due to specific decision-making difficulties that can impact medication management.

  17. The role of visual similarity and memory in body model distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulton, Aurelie; Longo, Matthew R; Wong, Hong Yu; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have shown that the perception of one's own hand size is distorted in proprioceptive localization tasks. It has been suggested that those distortions mirror somatosensory anisotropies. Recent research suggests that non-corporeal items also show some spatial distortions. In order to investigate the psychological processes underlying the localization task, we investigated the influences of visual similarity and memory on distortions observed on corporeal and non-corporeal items. In experiment 1, participants indicated the location of landmarks on: their own hand, a rubber hand (rated as most similar to the real hand), and a rake (rated as least similar to the real hand). Results show no significant differences between rake and rubber hand distortions but both items were significantly less distorted than the hand. Experiments 2 and 3 explored the role of memory in spatial distance judgments of the hand, the rake and the rubber hand. Spatial representations of items measured in experiments 2 and 3 were also distorted but showed the tendency to be smaller than in localization tasks. While memory and visual similarity seem to contribute to explain qualitative similarities in distortions between the hand and non-corporeal items, those factors cannot explain the larger magnitude observed in hand distortions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Deconstructing the symbol digit modalities test in multiple sclerosis: The role of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Viral P; Walker, Lisa A S; Feinstein, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a sensitive measure of impaired cognition in people with MS. While the SDMT is primarily considered a test of information processing speed, other components such as visual scanning and oral-motor ability have also been linked to performance. The objective of this study was to determine the role of memory in the performance of the SDMT. Two version of a modified computerized SDMT (c-SDMT) were employed, a fixed and a variable. For each group 50 MS and 33 healthy control (HC) participants were recruited. In the fixed c-SDMT, the symbol-digit code is kept constant for the entire test whereas in the variable version, it changes eight times. Unlike the traditional SDMT which records the correct number of responses, the c-SDMT presented here measures the mean response time (in seconds) for the eight trials. MS participants were slower than HC on the fixed (p < 0.001) and variable (p = 0.005) c-SDMT. Trend analysis showed performance improvement on the fixed, but not on the variable c-SDMT in both MS and HC groups. Furthermore, immediate visual memory recall was associated with the fixed (β = -0.299, p = 0.017), but not variable (B = -0.057, p = 0.260) c-SDMT. Immediate verbal memory was not associated with either versions of the c-SDMT. Given that the fixed and variable c-SDMTs are identical in every way apart from the fixity of the code, the ability of participants to speed up responses over the course of the fixed version only points to the contribution of incidental visual memory in test performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne eCazalis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.

  20. Paradox of pattern separation and adult neurogenesis: A dual role for new neurons balancing memory resolution and robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen T; Shtrahman, Matthew; Parylak, Sarah; Gonçalves, J Tiago; Gage, Fred H

    2016-03-01

    Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is thought to subserve pattern separation, the process by which similar patterns of neuronal inputs are transformed into distinct neuronal representations, permitting the discrimination of highly similar stimuli in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the mechanism by which immature adult-born dentate granule neurons cells (abDGCs) perform this function remains unknown. Two theories of abDGC function, one by which abDGCs modulate and sparsify activity in the dentate gyrus and one by which abDGCs act as autonomous coding units, are generally suggested to be mutually exclusive. This review suggests that these two mechanisms work in tandem to dynamically regulate memory resolution while avoiding memory interference and maintaining memory robustness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interference conditions of the reconsolidation process in humans: the role of valence and different memory systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo S Fernández; Luz Bavassi; Luz Bavassi; Laura Kaczer; Cecilia Forcato; María Eugenia Pedreira

    2016-01-01

    Following the presentation of a reminder, consolidated memories become reactivated followed by a process of re-stabilization, which is referred to as reconsolidation. The most common behavioral tool used to reveal this process is interference produced by new learning shortly after memory reactivation. Memory interference is defined as a decrease in memory retrieval, the effect is generated when new information impairs an acquired memory. In general, the target memory and the interference task...

  2. Surface diffusion of long chainlike molecules: The role of memory effects and stiffness on effective diffusion barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelt, T.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio

    2000-01-01

    stiffness. Our primary aim is to consider the role played by chain stiffness and the resulting memory effects in tracer diffusion, and in particular their role in the effective tracer diffusion barrier E-A(T) extracted from the well-known Arrhenius form. We show that the memory effects in tracer diffusion......, for a single diffusing chain, about 20% of E-A(T) arises from temperature variations in the memory effects, while only the remaining part comes from thermally activated chain segment movements. At a finite coverage, the memory contribution in E-A(T) is even larger and is typically about 20%-40%. Further...... of recent experimental work as regards surface diffusion of long DNA molecules on a biological interface. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  3. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2018-01-01

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  4. The role of visual representations within working memory for paired-associate and serial order of spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru

    2013-09-01

    Caplan and colleagues have recently explained paired-associate learning and serial-order learning with a single-mechanism computational model by assuming differential degrees of isolation. Specifically, two items in a pair can be grouped together and associated to positional codes that are somewhat isolated from the rest of the items. In contrast, the degree of isolation among the studied items is lower in serial-order learning. One of the key predictions drawn from this theory is that any variables that help chunking of two adjacent items into a group should be beneficial to paired-associate learning, more than serial-order learning. To test this idea, the role of visual representations in memory for spoken verbal materials (i.e., imagery) was compared between two types of learning directly. Experiment 1 showed stronger effects of word concreteness and of concurrent presentation of irrelevant visual stimuli (dynamic visual noise: DVN) in paired-associate memory than in serial-order memory, consistent with the prediction. Experiment 2 revealed that the irrelevant visual stimuli effect was boosted when the participants had to actively maintain the information within working memory, rather than feed it to long-term memory for subsequent recall, due to cue overloading. This indicates that the sensory input from irrelevant visual stimuli can reach and affect visual representations of verbal items within working memory, and that this disruption can be attenuated when the information within working memory can be efficiently supported by long-term memory for subsequent recall.

  5. The role of the temporal pole in modulating primitive auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiliang; Wang, Qian; You, Yu; Yin, Peng; Ding, Hu; Bao, Xiaohan; Yang, Pengcheng; Lu, Hao; Gao, Yayue; Li, Liang

    2016-04-21

    Primitive auditory memory (PAM), which is recognized as the early point in the chain of the transient auditory memory system, faithfully maintains raw acoustic fine-structure signals for up to 20-30 milliseconds. The neural mechanisms underlying PAM have not been reported in the literature. Previous anatomical, brain-imaging, and neurophysiological studies have suggested that the temporal pole (TP), part of the parahippocampal region in the transitional area between perirhinal cortex and superior/inferior temporal gyri, is involved in auditory memories. This study investigated whether the TP plays a role in mediating/modulating PAM. The longest interaural interval (the interaural-delay threshold) for detecting a break in interaural correlation (BIC) embedded in interaurally correlated wideband noises was used to indicate the temporal preservation of PAM and examined in both healthy listeners and patients receiving unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL, centered on the TP) for treating their temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The results showed that patients with ATL were still able to detect the BIC even when an interaural interval was introduced, regardless of which ear was the leading one. However, in patient participants, the group-mean interaural-delay threshold for detecting the BIC under the contralateral-ear-leading (relative to the side of ATL) condition was significantly shorter than that under the ipsilateral-ear-leading condition. The results suggest that although the TP is not essential for integrating binaural signals and mediating the PAM, it plays a role in top-down modulating the PAM of raw acoustic fine-structure signals from the contralateral ear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interference Conditions of the Reconsolidation Process in Humans: The Role of Valence and Different Memory Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Kaczer, Laura; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2016-01-01

    Following the presentation of a reminder, consolidated memories become reactivated followed by a process of re-stabilization, which is referred to as reconsolidation. The most common behavioral tool used to reveal this process is interference produced by new learning shortly after memory reactivation. Memory interference is defined as a decrease in memory retrieval, the effect is generated when new information impairs an acquired memory. In general, the target memory and the interference task used are the same. Here we investigated how different memory systems and/or their valence could produce memory reconsolidation interference. We showed that a reactivated neutral declarative memory could be interfered by new learning of a different neutral declarative memory. Then, we revealed that an aversive implicit memory could be interfered by the presentation of a reminder followed by a threatening social event. Finally, we showed that the reconsolidation of a neutral declarative memory is unaffected by the acquisition of an aversive implicit memory and conversely, this memory remains intact when the neutral declarative memory is used as interference. These results suggest that the interference of memory reconsolidation is effective when two task rely on the same memory system or both evoke negative valence.

  7. Working Memory Ability Predicts Trajectories of Early Alcohol Use in Adolescents: The Mediational Role of Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Dan; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Aims 1) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity. 2) To assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. Design, Setting and Participants A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males, Meanage(baseline) = 11.4± 0.87 years] from a longitudinal cohort design, assessed annually over four consecutive years with less than 6% attrition. Measurements Repeated assessments were conducted for the following key variables: WM (based on performance on four separate tasks), frequency of alcohol use (AU), and three forms of impulsivity, namely sensation seeking (SS), acting-without-thinking (AWT) and delay discounting (DD). Latent growth curve modeling procedures were used to identify individual trajectories of change for all key variables. Findings Weakness in WM (at baseline) significantly predicted both concurrent alcohol use and increased frequency of use over the four waves (p memory (WM) rather than a cause of it. Efforts to reduce early alcohol use should consider the distinct roles of different impulsivity dimensions, in addition to WM, as potential targets of intervention. PMID:23033972

  8. Understanding adult neurogenesis beyond its role in learning and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.

  9. Binding in visual working memory: the role of the episodic buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D; Allen, Richard J; Hitch, Graham J

    2011-05-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory is assumed to play a central role in the binding of features into objects, a process that was initially assumed to depend upon executive resources. Here, we review a program of work in which we specifically tested this assumption by studying the effects of a range of attentionally demanding concurrent tasks on the capacity to encode and retain both individual features and bound objects. We found no differential effect of concurrent load, even when the process of binding was made more demanding by separating the shape and color features spatially, temporally or across visual and auditory modalities. Bound features were however more readily disrupted by subsequent stimuli, a process we studied using a suffix paradigm. This suggested a need to assume a feature-based attentional filter followed by an object based storage process. Our results are interpreted within a modified version of the multicomponent working memory model. We also discuss work examining the role of the hippocampus in visual feature binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the episodic buffer in working memory for language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2008-03-01

    A body of work has accumulated to show that the cognitive process of binding information from different mnemonic and sensory sources as well as in different linguistic modalities can be fractionated from general executive functions in working memory both functionally and neurally. This process has been defined in terms of the episodic buffer (Baddeley in Trends Cogn Sci 4(11):417-423, 2000). This paper considers behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data that elucidate the role of the episodic buffer in language processing. We argue that the episodic buffer seems to be truly multimodal in function and that while formation of unitary multidimensional representations in the episodic buffer seems to engage posterior neural networks, maintenance of such representations is supported by frontal networks. Although, the episodic buffer is not necessarily supported by executive processes and seems to be supported by different neural networks, it may operate in tandem with the central executive during effortful language processing. There is also evidence to suggest engagement of the phonological loop during buffer processing. The hippocampus seems to play a role in formation but not maintenance of representations in the episodic buffer of working memory.

  11. Language and short-term memory: the role of perceptual-motor affordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John C; Jones, Dylan M

    2014-09-01

    The advantage for real words over nonwords in serial recall--the lexicality effect--is typically attributed to support for item-level phonology, either via redintegration, whereby partially degraded short-term traces are "cleaned up" via support from long-term representations of the phonological material or via the more robust temporary activation of long-term lexical phonological knowledge that derives from its combination with established lexical and semantic levels of representation. The much smaller effect of lexicality in serial recognition, where the items are re-presented in the recognition cue, is attributed either to the minimal role for redintegration from long-term memory or to the minimal role for item memory itself in such retrieval conditions. We show that the reduced lexicality effect in serial recognition is not a function of the retrieval conditions, but rather because previous demonstrations have used auditory presentation, and we demonstrate a robust lexicality effect for visual serial recognition in a setting where auditory presentation produces no such effect. Furthermore, this effect is abolished under conditions of articulatory suppression. We argue that linguistic knowledge affects the readiness with which verbal material is segmentally recoded via speech motor processes that support rehearsal and therefore affects tasks that involve recoding. On the other hand, auditory perceptual organization affords sequence matching in the absence of such a requirement for segmental recoding and therefore does not show such effects of linguistic knowledge.

  12. Role of σ1 Receptors in Learning and Memory and Alzheimer's Disease-Type Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Tangui; Goguadze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter will review the role of σ 1 receptor in learning and memory and neuroprotection , against Alzheimer's type dementia. σ 1 Receptor agonists have been tested in a variety of pharmacological and pathological models of learning impairments in rodents these last past 20 years. Their anti-amnesic effects have been explained by the wide-range modulatory role of σ 1 receptors on Ca 2+ mobilizations, neurotransmitter responses, and particularly glutamate and acetylcholine systems, and neurotrophic factors. Recent observations from genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that σ 1 receptor can also be targeted in neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly Alzheimer's disease . Several compounds, acting partly through the σ 1 receptor, have showed effective neuroprotection in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease . We will review the data and discuss the possible mechanisms of action, particularly focusing on oxidative stress and mitochondrial integrity, trophic factors and a novel hypothesis suggesting a functional interaction between the σ 1 receptor and α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacological peculiarities of non-selective σ 1 receptor ligands, now developed as neuroprotectants in Alzheimer's disease , and positive modulators, recently described and that showed efficacy against learning and memory deficits.

  13. Role of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles, and neuroticism in online game addiction among college students: a moderated mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huanhuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Online game addiction (OGA is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs, and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS, Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC, Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire (CCSQ, and Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8% were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  14. The Role of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Technique in the Age of Single-Incision Laparoscopy: An Effective Alternative to Avoid Open Conversion in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung Uk; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Cho, Yong Beom; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Continuous efforts to reduce the numbers and size of incisions led to the emergence of a new technique, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). It has been rapidly accepted as the preferred surgical approach in the colorectal area. In the age of SILS, what is the role of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS)? We introduce the way to take advantage of it, as an effective alternative to avoid open conversion. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of SILS colectomies performed by a single surgeon in Samsung Medical Center between August 2009 and December 2012. Out of 631 cases of SILS colectomy, 47 cases needed some changes from the initial approach. Among these, five cases were converted to HALS. Four of them were completed successfully without the need for open conversion. One patient with rectosigmoid colon cancer invading bladder was finally opened to avoid vesical trigone injury. The mean operation time of the 4 patients was 265.0 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 587.5 mL. The postoperative complication rate associated with the operation was 25%. Conversion from SILS to HALS in colorectal surgery was feasible and effective. It seemed to add minimal morbidity while preserving advantages of minimally invasive surgery. It could be considered an alternative to open conversion in cases of SILS, especially when the conversion to conventional laparoscopy does not seem to be helpful.

  15. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young's eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  16. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27920734

  17. Differences in Attainment and Performance in a Foreign Language: The Role of Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Gilabert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the role of working memory capacity in L2 attainment and performance. The study uses an L1 reading span task to measure working memory of a group of 59 high- intermediate/advanced learners of English, and a film retelling task to measure their oral production. The analysis first showed a moderate to high correlation between proficiency measured by a general proficiency test and learners’ fluency, lexical complexity, and accuracy but not structural complexity on the retelling task. Secondly, no correlation was found between overall proficiency and working memory. Thirdly, a weak correlation was found between fluency and lexical complexity, and working memory. When the group was split into top and bottom levels of proficiency, moderate correlations were found between lexical complexity and working memory only for the high-proficiency group. The results are discussed in the light of previous research.El objetivo de este estudio es investigar el rol de la capacidad de memoria operativa en la proficiencia y la producción en una L2. El estudio utiliza una tarea de reading span en la L1 para medir la memoria operativa de un grupo de 59 estudiantes de inglés de nivel intermedio alto/avanzado, y una tarea narrativa para medir su producción oral. Los análisis muestran correlaciones significativas entre la proficiencia medida por un test de proficiencia general y la fluidez, complejidad léxica, y corrección, aunque no con la complejidad estructural. Las correlaciones también son positivas y significativas entre la memoria operativa y la fluidez y complejidad léxica, pero no se observa una correlación significativa entre la proficiencia general y la memoria operativa. Cuando se divide el grupo entre los niveles más altos y más bajos se encuentran correlaciones moderadas entre la complejidad léxica y la memoria operativa sólo para el grupo de proficiencia alta. Los resultados se analizan en base a los

  18. An ancient conserved role for prion protein in learning and memory

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    Patricia L. A. Leighton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The misfolding of cellular prion protein (PrPC to form PrP Scrapie (PrPSc is an exemplar of toxic gain-of-function mechanisms inducing propagated protein misfolding and progressive devastating neurodegeneration. Despite this, PrPC function in the brain is also reduced and subverted during prion disease progression; thus understanding the normal function of PrPC in healthy brains is key. Disrupting PrPC in mice has led to a myriad of controversial functions that sometimes map onto disease symptoms, including a proposed role in memory or learning. Intriguingly, PrPC interaction with amyloid beta (Aβ oligomers at synapses has also linked its function to Alzheimer's disease and dementia in recent years. We set out to test the involvement of PrPC in memory using a disparate animal model, the zebrafish. Here we document an age-dependent memory decline in prp2−/− zebrafish, pointing to a conserved and ancient role of PrPC in memory. Specifically, we found that aged (3-year-old prp2−/− fish performed poorly in an object recognition task relative to age-matched prp2+/+ fish or 1-year-old prp2−/− fish. Further, using a novel object approach (NOA test, we found that aged (3-year-old prp2−/− fish approached the novel object more than either age-matched prp2+/+ fish or 1-year-old prp2−/− fish, but did not have decreased anxiety when we tested them in a novel tank diving test. Taken together, the results of the NOA and novel tank diving tests suggest an altered cognitive appraisal of the novel object in the 3-year-old prp2−/− fish. The learning paradigm established here enables a path forward to study PrPC interactions of relevance to Alzheimer's disease and prion diseases, and to screen for candidate therapeutics for these diseases. The findings underpin a need to consider the relative contributions of loss- versus gain-of-function of PrPC during Alzheimer's and prion diseases, and have implications upon the prospects of several

  19. Exploring the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and deliberate self-harm: the moderating roles of borderline and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2012-08-30

    Despite increasing evidence for an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined the factors that moderate this association or the impact of co-occurring personality disorders among individuals with PTSD on DSH frequency. Given the high rates of co-occurrence between PTSD and two personality disorders of particular relevance to DSH, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), this study examined the moderating role of these personality disorders in the association between PTSD and DSH frequency among a sample of substance use disorder patients (N=61). Patients completed structured clinical interviews assessing PTSD, BPD, and AVPD and a questionnaire assessing DSH. Results revealed more frequent DSH among patients with (vs. without) PTSD and provided evidence for the moderating role of AVPD in this association. Specifically, results revealed heightened levels of DSH only among PTSD patients with co-occurring AVPD. Findings are consistent with past research demonstrating that the presence of co-occurring AVPD among patients with other Axis I and II disorders is associated with worse outcomes, and highlight the importance of continuing to examine the moderating role of AVPD in the association between PTSD and a variety of health-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using memories to understand others: the role of episodic memory in theory of mind impairment in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Noémie; Viallet, François; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2013-09-01

    Theory of mind (TOM) refers to the ability to infer one's own and other's mental states. Growing evidence highlighted the presence of impairment on the most complex TOM tasks in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, how TOM deficit is related to other cognitive dysfunctions and more specifically to episodic memory impairment - the prominent feature of this disease - is still under debate. Recent neuroanatomical findings have shown that remembering past events and inferring others' states of mind share the same cerebral network suggesting the two abilities share a common process .This paper proposes to review emergent evidence of TOM impairment in AD patients and to discuss the evidence of a relationship between TOM and episodic memory. We will discuss about AD patients' deficit in TOM being possibly related to their difficulties in recollecting memories of past social interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of inferior temporal neurons in visual memory. II. Multiplying temporal waveforms related to vision and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandar, E N; Optican, L M; Richmond, B J

    1992-10-01

    1. In the companion paper we reported on the activity of neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex during a sequential pattern matching task. In this task a sample stimulus was followed by a test stimulus that was either a match or a nonmatch. Many of the neurons encoded information about the patterns of both current and previous stimuli in the temporal modulation of their responses. 2. A simple information processing model of visual memory can be formed with just four steps: 1) encode the current stimulus; 2) recall the code of a remembered stimulus; 3) compare the two codes; 4) and decide whether they are similar or different. The analysis presented in the first paper suggested that some IT neurons were performing the comparison step of visual memory. 3. We propose that IT neurons participate in the comparison of temporal waveforms related to vision and memory by multiplying them together. This product could form the basis of a crosscorrelation-based comparison. 4. We tested our hypothesis by fitting a simple multiplicative model to data from IT neurons. The model generated waveforms in separate memory and visual channels. The waveforms arising from the two channels were then multiplied on a point by point basis to yield the output waveform. The model was fitted to the actual neuronal data by a gradient descent method to find the best fit waveforms that also had the lowest total energy. 5. The multiplicative model fit the neuronal responses quite well. The multiplicative model made consistently better predictions of the actual response waveforms than did an additive model. Furthermore, the fit was better when the actual relationship between the responses and the sample and test stimuli were preserved than when that relationship was randomized. 6. We infer from the superior fit of the multiplicative model that IT neurons are multiplying temporally modulated waveforms arising from separate visual and memory systems in the comparison step of visual memory.

  2. Semantic congruence enhances memory of episodic associations: role of theta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, Mercedes; Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that theta oscillations play a crucial role in episodic encoding. The present study evaluates whether changes in electroencephalographic theta source dynamics mediate the positive influence of semantic congruence on incidental associative learning. Here we show that memory for episodic associations (face-location) is more accurate when studied under semantically congruent contexts. However, only participants showing RT priming effect in a conceptual priming test (priming group) also gave faster responses when recollecting source information of semantically congruent faces as compared with semantically incongruent faces. This improved episodic retrieval was positively correlated with increases in theta power during the study phase mainly in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left lateral posterior parietal lobe. Reconstructed signals from the estimated sources showed higher theta power for congruent than incongruent faces and also for the priming than the nonpriming group. These results are in agreement with the attention to memory model. Besides directing top-down attention to goal-relevant semantic information during encoding, the dorsal parietal lobe may also be involved in redirecting attention to bottom-up-driven memories thanks to connections between the medial-temporal and the left ventral parietal lobe. The latter function can either facilitate or interfere with encoding of face-location associations depending on whether they are preceded by semantically congruent or incongruent contexts, respectively, because only in the former condition retrieved representations related to the cue and the face are both coherent with the person identity and are both associated with the same location.

  3. Role of prefrontal cortex and the midbrain dopamine system in working memory updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ardenne, Kimberlee; Eshel, Neir; Luka, Joseph; Lenartowicz, Agatha; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are adept at switching between goal-directed behaviors quickly and effectively. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role by encoding, updating, and maintaining internal representations of task context in working memory. It has also been hypothesized that the encoding of context representations in PFC is regulated by phasic dopamine gating signals. Here we use multimodal methods to test these hypotheses. First we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify regions of PFC associated with the representation of context in a working memory task. Next we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), guided spatially by our fMRI findings and temporally by previous event-related EEG recordings, to disrupt context encoding while participants performed the same working memory task. We found that TMS pulses to the right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) immediately after context presentation, and well in advance of the response, adversely impacted context-dependent relative to context-independent responses. This finding causally implicates right DLPFC function in context encoding. Finally, using the same paradigm, we conducted high-resolution fMRI measurements in brainstem dopaminergic nuclei (ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra) and found phasic responses after presentation of context stimuli relative to other stimuli, consistent with the timing of a gating signal that regulates the encoding of representations in PFC. Furthermore, these responses were positively correlated with behavior, as well as with responses in the same region of right DLPFC targeted in the TMS experiment, lending support to the hypothesis that dopamine phasic signals regulate encoding, and thereby the updating, of context representations in PFC. PMID:23086162

  4. Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of social cues in working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert S.; LoPresti, Matthew L.; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E.

    2013-01-01

    Human social interactions are complex behaviors requiring the concerted effort of multiple neural systems to track and monitor the individuals around us. Cognitively, adjusting our behavior based on changing social cues such as facial expressions relies on working memory and the ability to disambiguate, or separate, representations of overlapping stimuli resulting from viewing the same individual with different facial expressions. We conducted an fMRI experiment examining brain regions contributing to the encoding, maintenance and retrieval of overlapping identity information during working memory using a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. In the overlapping condition, two faces from the same individual with different facial expressions were presented at sample. In the non-overlapping condition, the two sample faces were from two different individuals with different expressions. fMRI activity was assessed by contrasting the overlapping and non-overlapping condition at sample, delay, and test. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex showed increased fMRI signal in the overlapping condition in all three phases of the DMS task and increased functional connectivity with the hippocampus when encoding overlapping stimuli. The hippocampus showed increased fMRI signal at test. These data suggest lateral orbitofrontal cortex helps encode and maintain representations of overlapping stimuli in working memory while the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus contribute to the successful retrieval of overlapping stimuli. We suggest the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus play a role in encoding, maintaining, and retrieving social cues, especially when multiple interactions with an individual need to be disambiguated in a rapidly changing social context in order to make appropriate social responses. PMID:23640112

  5. The advantage of reading over listening text comprehension in Down syndrome: what is the role of verbal memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 11 and 26 years who were matched for reading comprehension with a group of 20 typically developing children aged between 6;3 and 7;3 years. The two groups were presented with a listening comprehension test and four verbal memory tasks in which the degree of processing load and the coding modality were manipulated. The results of the study confirmed the advantage of reading over listening comprehension for individuals with Down syndrome. Furthermore, it emerged that different aspects of verbal memory were related respectively to reading and to listening comprehension: visual memory with low processing load was related to the former and oral memory with high processing load to the latter. Finally, it was demonstrated that verbal memory contributed to explain the advantage of reading over listening comprehension in Down syndrome. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical relevance and practical implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  7. Differential roles of the infralimbic and prelimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex in reconsolidation of a traumatic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Natali; Kritman, Milly; Maroun, Mouna; Akirav, Irit

    2017-09-01

    Studies about reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories have shown that pharmacological manipulation at memory reactivation can attenuate or enhance the subsequent expression of the conditioned fear response. Here we examined the effects of a single injection of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (Rap) into the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) areas [which compose the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC)] on reconsolidation and extinction of a traumatic fear memory. We found opposite effects of Rap infused into the PL and IL on reconsolidation and extinction: intra-PL Rap and systemic Rap impaired reconsolidation and facilitated extinction whereas intra-IL Rap enhanced reconsolidation and impaired extinction. These effects persisted at least 10 days after reactivation. Shock exposure induced anxiety-like behavior and impaired working memory and intra-IL and -PL Rap normalized these effects. Finally, when measured after fear retrieval, shocked rats exhibited reduced and increased phosphorylated p70s6K levels in the IL and basolateral amygdala, respectively. No effect on phosphorylated p70s6K levels was observed in the PL. The study points to the differential roles of the IL and PL in memory reconsolidation and extinction. Moreover, inhibiting mTOR via rapamycin following reactivation of a fear memory may be a novel approach in attenuating enhanced fear memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in individual differences in long-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Markett, Sebastian; Fischer, Luise; Winkel, Katja; Cooper, Andrew; Reuter, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in diverse memory processes and is strongly expressed in the hippocampus. The hippocampus itself is a key structure involved in the processing of information from short-term to long-term memory. Due to the putative role of BDNF in memory consolidation, a prominent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met) was investigated in the context of long-term memory performance. N=138 students were presented with 40 words from 10 categories, each consisting of eight words such as 'fruits' or 'vehicles' in a memory recognition task (specifically the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm). Recognition performance was analyzed 25 min after the initial presentation of the word list and subsequently 1 week after the initial presentation. Overall, individual long-term memory performance immediately after learning the word list (T1) and performance 1 week later (T2) did not differ on the basis of the BDNF SNP, but an interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met by time-of-recall was found: Carriers of the Met66+ variant showed the strongest decline in hit rate performance over time.

  9. Maternal child-centered attributions and harsh discipline: the moderating role of maternal working memory across socioeconomic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Skibo, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive models of parenting give emphasis to the central role that parental cognitions may play in parental socialization goals. In particular, dual process models suggest that parental attribution styles affect the way parents interpret caregiving situations and enact behaviors, particularly within the realm of discipline. Although research has documented the negative behavioral repercussions of dysfunctional child-centered responsibility biases, there is heterogeneity in the level of these associations. Research has also demonstrated that parental working memory capacity may serve as an individual difference factor in influencing caregiving behaviors. Thus, our first aim was to document how maternal working memory capacity may moderate the association between mother's dysfunctional child-oriented attributions and use of harsh discipline. In addition, from an ecological perspective, a second aim was to examine how socioeconomic risk may further potentiate the impact of maternal working memory. To accomplish these aims, a socioeconomically diverse sample of 185 mothers and their 3-year old children were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based research assessment. Findings revealed that lower maternal working memory capacity may operate as a risk factor for attributional biases and harsh discipline, and higher working memory may serve as a protective factor in this relationship. Socioeconomic risk further moderated these findings. Results suggest that the moderating role of working memory may be particularly pronounced under conditions of socioeconomic risk. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Differential role of calpain-dependent protein cleavage in intermediate and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C; Gardner, Jacob S; Lentsch, Cassidy T; Gandour, Catherine E; Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    In addition to protein synthesis, protein degradation or protein cleavage may be necessary for intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) to remove molecular constraints, facilitate persistent kinase activity and modulate synaptic plasticity. Calpains, a family of conserved calcium dependent cysteine proteases, modulate synaptic function through protein cleavage. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate the in vivo role of calpains during intermediate and long-term operant memory formation using the learning that food is inedible (LFI) paradigm. A single LFI training session, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with the failure to swallow, generates short (30min), intermediate (4-6h) and long-term (24h) memory. Using the calpain inhibitors calpeptin and MDL-28170, we found that ITM requires calpain activity for induction and consolidation similar to the previously reported requirements for persistent protein kinase C activity in intermediate-term LFI memory. The induction of LTM also required calpain activity. In contrast to ITM, calpain activity was not necessary for the molecular consolidation of LTM. Surprisingly, six hours after LFI training we found that calpain activity was necessary for LTM, although this is a time at which neither persistent PKC activity nor protein synthesis is required for the maintenance of long-term LFI memory. These results demonstrate that calpains function in multiple roles in vivo during associative memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of aging and hippocampus in Time-Place Learning: link to episodic-like memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Kees Mulder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: with time-place learning (TPL, animals link an event with the spatial location and the time of day. The what-where-when TPL components make the task putatively episodic-like in nature. Animals use an internal sense of time to master TPL, which is circadian system based. Finding indications for a role of the hippocampus and (early aging-sensitivity in TPL would strengthen the episodic-like memory nature of the paradigm. Methods: previously, we used C57Bl/6 mice for our TPL research. Here, we used CD1 mice which are less hippocampal-driven and age faster compared to C57Bl/6 mice. To demonstrate the low degree of hippocampal-driven performance in CD1 mice, a cross maze was used. The spontaneous alternation test was used to score spatial working memory in CD1 mice at four different age categories (young (3-6 months, middle-aged (7-11 months, aged (12-18 months and old (>19 months. TPL performance of middle-aged and aged CD1 mice was tested in a setup with either two or three time points per day (2-arm or 3-arm TPL task. Immunostainings was applied on brains of young and middle-aged C57Bl/6 mice that had successfully mastered the 3-arm TPL task. Results: in contrast to C57Bl/6 mice, middle-aged and aged CD1 mice were less hippocampus-driven and failed to master the 3-arm TPL task. They could, however, master the 2-arm TPL task primarily via an ordinal (non-circadian timing system. c-Fos, CRY2, vasopressin (AVP, and pCREB were investigated. We found no differences at the level of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; circadian master clock, whereas CRY2 expression was increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The most pronounced difference between TPL trained and control mice was found in c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, a circadian system relay station. Conclusions: These results further indicate a key role of CRY proteins in TPL and confirm the limited role of the SCN in TPL. Based on the poor TPL performance of

  12. Visual cognition influences early vision: the role of visual short-term memory in amodal completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P

    2005-10-01

    A partly occluded visual object is perceptually filled in behind the occluding surface, a process known as amodal completion or visual interpolation. Previous research focused on the image-based properties that lead to amodal completion. In the present experiments, we examined the role of a higher-level visual process-visual short-term memory (VSTM)-in amodal completion. We measured the degree of amodal completion by asking participants to perform an object-based attention task on occluded objects while maintaining either zero or four items in visual working memory. When no items were stored in VSTM, participants completed the occluded objects; when four items were stored in VSTM, amodal completion was halted (Experiment 1). These results were not caused by the influence of VSTM on object-based attention per se (Experiment 2) or by the specific location of to-be-remembered items (Experiment 3). Items held in VSTM interfere with amodal completion, which suggests that amodal completion may not be an informationally encapsulated process, but rather can be affected by high-level visual processes.

  13. Distinct roles of visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices in memory-guided sensorimotor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Michael J; Pho, Gerald N; Woodson, Jonathan; Sur, Mriganka

    2016-08-04

    Mapping specific sensory features to future motor actions is a crucial capability of mammalian nervous systems. We investigated the role of visual (V1), posterior parietal (PPC), and frontal motor (fMC) cortices for sensorimotor mapping in mice during performance of a memory-guided visual discrimination task. Large-scale calcium imaging revealed that V1, PPC, and fMC neurons exhibited heterogeneous responses spanning all task epochs (stimulus, delay, response). Population analyses demonstrated unique encoding of stimulus identity and behavioral choice information across regions, with V1 encoding stimulus, fMC encoding choice even early in the trial, and PPC multiplexing the two variables. Optogenetic inhibition during behavior revealed that all regions were necessary during the stimulus epoch, but only fMC was required during the delay and response epochs. Stimulus identity can thus be rapidly transformed into behavioral choice, requiring V1, PPC, and fMC during the transformation period, but only fMC for maintaining the choice in memory prior to execution.

  14. The role of attention in item-item binding in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2017-09-01

    An important yet unresolved question regarding visual working memory (VWM) relates to whether or not binding processes within VWM require additional attentional resources compared with processing solely the individual components comprising these bindings. Previous findings indicate that binding of surface features (e.g., colored shapes) within VWM is not demanding of resources beyond what is required for single features. However, it is possible that other types of binding, such as the binding of complex, distinct items (e.g., faces and scenes), in VWM may require additional resources. In 3 experiments, we examined VWM item-item binding performance under no load, articulatory suppression, and backward counting using a modified change detection task. Binding performance declined to a greater extent than single-item performance under higher compared with lower levels of concurrent load. The findings from each of these experiments indicate that processing item-item bindings within VWM requires a greater amount of attentional resources compared with single items. These findings also highlight an important distinction between the role of attention in item-item binding within VWM and previous studies of long-term memory (LTM) where declines in single-item and binding test performance are similar under divided attention. The current findings provide novel evidence that the specific type of binding is an important determining factor regarding whether or not VWM binding processes require attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulatory role for the memory B cell as suppressor-inducer of feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.W.; Thomas, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    A regulatory role is proposed for the antigen-responsive B cell, as suppressor-inducer of feedback control during the secondary response in vivo. In a double adoptive transfer of memory cells primed to a thymus-dependent antigen from one irradiated host to another, antigen-specific suppressors are generated after a critical time in the primary recipient, able to entirely ablate a secondary anti-hapten response. Positive cell selection in the fluorescence-activated cell sorter confirmed that suppression was mediated by an Lyt-2+ T cell; however, positively selected B cells were also inhibitory and able to induce suppressors in a carrier-specific manner: B hapten induced suppressors in a carrier-primed population, and B carrier induced suppressors in a hapten-carrier population. At the peak of the antibody response in the primary host, memory B cells and their progeny were unable to differentiate further to plasma cells due to their intrinsic suppressor-inducer activity, but this autoregulatory circuit could be severed by adoptive transfer to carrier-primed, X-irradiated recipients

  17. The role of collective memory in emotional recovery of political violence in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article enquires about the role of collective memory events of political violence victims of some organizations in three regions of Colombia, eastern Antioquia, southern Cordoba, and Medellin city on the processes of subjective and emotional transformations. It is made from a psychosocial perspective using a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. Life stories were developed with in-depth interviews to 32 people (26 women and 6 men of Eastern Antioquia, 13 people in southern Córdoba (10 women and 3 men and 13 mothers of Candelaria; 4 women life stories of the three regions studied; and 19 focus groups with participants of victims processes of the three regions. All these stories were transcribed and analyzed by the categorical analysis method by matrix. Emotional affectations of the victims and following emotional transformations arising by group, collective and public memory events in individuals and collectives involved in the execution of these actions are presented outlining a Psychosocial view that allows to approach from research and intervention to psychological, social and political phenomenon.

  18. Dissociable Roles of Different Types of Working Memory Load in Visual Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Lavie, Nilli

    2013-01-01

    We contrasted the effects of different types of working memory (WM) load on detection. Considering the sensory-recruitment hypothesis of visual short-term memory (VSTM) within load theory (e.g., Lavie, 2010) led us to predict that VSTM load would reduce visual-representation capacity, thus leading to reduced detection sensitivity during maintenance, whereas load on WM cognitive control processes would reduce priority-based control, thus leading to enhanced detection sensitivity for a low-priority stimulus. During the retention interval of a WM task, participants performed a visual-search task while also asked to detect a masked stimulus in the periphery. Loading WM cognitive control processes (with the demand to maintain a random digit order [vs. fixed in conditions of low load]) led to enhanced detection sensitivity. In contrast, loading VSTM (with the demand to maintain the color and positions of six squares [vs. one in conditions of low load]) reduced detection sensitivity, an effect comparable with that found for manipulating perceptual load in the search task. The results confirmed our predictions and established a new functional dissociation between the roles of different types of WM load in the fundamental visual perception process of detection. PMID:23713796

  19. Research progress on the roles of microRNAs in governing synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Wei; Luo, Ting; Zou, Shan-Shan; Wu, An-Shi

    2017-11-01

    The importance of non-coding RNA involved in biological processes has become apparent in recent years and the mechanism of transcriptional regulation has also been identified. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs of 22bp in length that mediate gene silencing by identifying specific sequences in the target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Many miRNAs are highly expressed in the central nervous system in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in normal physiology, as well as in certain pathological conditions. There is growing evidence that a considerable number of specific miRNAs play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory function. In addition, the dysfunction of these molecules may also contribute to the etiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we provide an overview of the current literatures, which support non-coding RNA-mediated gene function regulation represents an important but underappreciated, layer of epigenetic control that facilitates learning and memory functions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of cognitive remediation on negative symptoms dimensions: exploring the role of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, M; Stahl, D; Morris, S; Keefe, R S E; Bell, M D; Wykes, T

    2017-09-04

    Recent theories suggest that poor working memory (WM) may be the cognitive underpinning of negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. In this study, we first explore the effect of cognitive remediation (CR) on two clusters of negative symptoms (i.e. expressive and social amotivation), and then assess the relevance of WM gains as a possible mediator of symptom improvement. Data were accessed for 309 people with schizophrenia from the NIMH Database of Cognitive Training and Remediation Studies and a separate study. Approximately half the participants received CR and the rest were allocated to a control condition. All participants were assessed before and after therapy and at follow-up. Expressive negative symptoms and social amotivation symptoms scores were calculated from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. WM was assessed with digit span and letter-number span tests. Participants who received CR had a significant improvement in WM scores (d = 0.27) compared with those in the control condition. Improvements in social amotivation levels approached statistical significance (d = -0.19), but change in expressive negative symptoms did not differ between groups. WM change did not mediate the effect of CR on social amotivation. The results suggest that a course of CR may benefit behavioural negative symptoms. Despite hypotheses linking memory problems with negative symptoms, the current findings do not support the role of this cognitive domain as a significant mediator. The results indicate that WM improves independently from negative symptoms reduction.

  1. The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on multiple cases of the politicization of history by the Baltic political elites. Three states of development of politics of memory in the Baltic States are identified. Problems of political exploitation of the past are scrutinized in the context of political life and international relations. It is concluded that the narratives of the past where nazi and Soviet legacies are equated are actively promoted on the pan-European level. Elites of the Baltic States play a salient role in this process and enhance ties with the elites of the Eastern Europe, expert and political communities of the Western Europe and USA. The dominant trends in the development of the historical politics in the Baltic countries are the administrative and legislative instruments for approval of the preferred narratives of the past, as well as an active political work at the international level aimed at the inclusion of the Baltic narratives of the past into the European politics of memory. Historical politics of the Baltic States shows the Baltic countries as the victims of "two totalitarianisms" ("Nazi and Soviet occupation", and this point of view is widely used as a foreign policy tool. The politicization of the "anti-totalitarianism" issue is now a popular foreign policy tool that not only serves the interests of the Baltic and Eastern European politicians, but also finds ideological supporters in Western Europe and the United States.

  2. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Learning and Memory Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd; Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul

    2005-01-01

    )-pyridine (MPEP) has facilitated the understanding of the roles of mGluR5s in the central nervous system. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the activation of mGluR5s is necessary for some forms of long-term potentiation and long-term depression in different brain regions. Investigations...... signaling mechanisms have also been revealed. MGluR5s are mainly localized postsynaptically on the periphery of synap-ses. MGluR5s have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. The development of the highly potent and selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl...... and radial arm maze performance as well as in contextual fear conditioning, but not in cue conditioning. This review summarizes recent advances reported on mGluR5 function in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The current development of positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5...

  3. The Role of Working Memory in Multimedia Instruction: Is Working Memory Working during Learning from Text and Pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina; van Genuchten, Erlijn

    2011-01-01

    A lot of research has focused on the beneficial effects of using multimedia, that is, text and pictures, for learning. Theories of multimedia learning are based on Baddeley's working memory model (Baddeley 1999). Despite this theoretical foundation, there is only little research that aims at empirically testing whether and more importantly how…

  4. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  5. Role of working memory in transformation of visual and motor representations for use in mental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Lee, Jihye; Caçola, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of visual working memory when transforming visual representations to motor representations in the context of motor imagery. Participants viewed randomized number sequences of three, four, and five digits, and then reproduced the sequence by finger tapping using motor imagery or actually executing the movements; movement duration was recorded. One group viewed the stimulus for three seconds and responded immediately, while the second group had a three-second view followed by a three-second blank screen delay before responding. As expected, delay group times were longer with each condition and digit load. Whereas correlations between imagined and executed actions (temporal congruency) were significant in a positive direction for both groups, interestingly, the delay group's values were significantly stronger. That outcome prompts speculation that delay influenced the congruency between motor representation and actual execution.

  6. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Alberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  7. Memory, Plasticity and Sleep - A role for calcium permeable AMPA receptors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Shepherd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Experience shapes and molds the brain throughout life. These changes in neuronal circuits are produced by a myriad of molecular and cellular processes. Simplistically, circuits are modified through changes in neurotransmitter release or through neurotransmitter detection at synapses. The predominant neurotransmitter receptor in excitatory transmission, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor, is exquisitely sensitive to changes in experience and synaptic activity. These ion channels are usually impermeable to calcium, a property conferred by the GluA2 subunit. However, GluA2-lacking AMPARs are permeable to calcium and have recently been shown to play a unique role in synaptic function. In this review, I will describe new findings on the role of calcium permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs in experience-dependent and synaptic plasticity. These studies suggest that CP-AMPARs play a prominent role in maintaining circuits in a labile state where further plasticity can occur, thus promoting metaplasticity. Moreover, the abnormal expression of CP-AMPARs has been implicated in drug addiction and memory disorders and thus may be a novel therapeutic target.

  8. The role of the thalamus and hippocampus in episodic memory performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Katherine A; Rao, Stephen M; Lowe, Mark J; Lin, Jian; Sakaie, Ken E; Stone, Lael; Bermel, Robert A; Trapp, Bruce D; Phillips, Micheal D

    2018-03-01

    Episodic memory loss is one of the most common cognitive symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the pathophysiology of this symptom remains unclear. Both the hippocampus and thalamus have been implicated in episodic memory and show regional atrophy in patients with MS. In this work, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a verbal episodic memory task, lesion load, and volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus to assess the relative contributions to verbal and visual-spatial episodic memory. Functional activation, lesion load, and volumetric measures from 32 patients with MS and 16 healthy controls were used in a predictive analysis of episodic memory function. After adjusting for disease duration, immediate recall performance on a visual-spatial episodic memory task was significantly predicted by hippocampal volume ( p memory measures, functional activation of the thalamus during encoding was more predictive than that of volume measures ( p episodic memory loss in patients with MS.

  9. The role of working memory capacity in autobiographical retrieval: individual differences in strategic search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2012-01-01

    Remembering previous experiences from one's personal past is a principal component of psychological well-being, personality, sense of self, decision making, and planning for the future. In the current study the ability to search for autobiographical information in memory was examined by having college students recall their Facebook friends. Individual differences in working memory capacity manifested itself in the search of autobiographical memory by way of the total number of friends remembered, the number of clusters of friends, size of clusters, and the speed with which participants could output their friends' names. Although working memory capacity was related to the ability to search autobiographical memory, participants did not differ in the manner in which they approached the search and used contextual cues to help query their memories. These results corroborate recent theorising, which suggests that working memory is a necessary component of self-generating contextual cues to strategically search memory for autobiographical information.

  10. The role of executive functioning in memory performance in pediatric focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Casaletto, Kaitlin Blackstone; Terwilliger, Virginia; Facella-Ervolini, Joy; Sady, Maegan; Mayo, Jessica; Gaillard, William D.; Berl, Madison M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Learning and memory are essential for academic success and everyday functioning, but the pattern of memory skills and its relationship to executive functioning in children with focal epilepsy is not fully delineated. We address a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between memory and executive functioning in a pediatric focal epilepsy population. Methods Seventy children with focal epilepsy and 70 typically developing children matched on age, intellectual functioning, and gender underwent neuropsychological assessment, including measures of intelligence (WASI/DAS), as well as visual (CMS Dot Locations) and verbal episodic memory (WRAML Story Memory and CVLT-C). Executive functioning was measured directly (WISC-IV Digit Span Backward; CELF-IV Recalling Sentences) and by parent report (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)). Results Children with focal epilepsy had lower delayed free recall scores than controls across visual and verbal memory tasks (p = 0.02; partial η2 = .12). In contrast, recognition memory performance was similar for patients and controls (p = 0.36; partial η2 = .03). Children with focal epilepsy demonstrated difficulties in working memory (p = 0.02; partial η2 = .08) and planning/organization (p = 0.02) compared to controls. Working memory predicted 9–19% of the variance in delayed free recall for verbal and visual memory; organization predicted 9–10% of the variance in verbal memory. Patients with both left and right focal epilepsy demonstrated more difficulty on verbal versus visual tasks (p = 0.002). Memory performance did not differ by location of seizure foci (temporal vs. extra-temporal, frontal vs. extra-frontal). Significance Children with focal epilepsy demonstrated memory ability within age-level expectations, but delayed free recall was inefficient compared to typically developing controls. Memory difficulties were not related to general cognitive impairment or seizure localization

  11. Attention on our mind: the role of spatial attention in visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Irwin, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study shows that spatial visual attention is used to retrieve information from visual working memory. Participants had to keep four colored circles in visual working memory. While keeping this information in memory we asked whether one of the colors was present in the array. While

  12. The role of sleep in declarative memory consolidation--direct evidence by intracranial EEG.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axmacher, N.; Haupt, S.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two step theories of memory formation assume that an initial learning phase is followed by a consolidation stage. Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep. Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory consolidation occur also during waking

  13. Episodic and Semantic Memory: Implications for the Role of Emotion in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Esther

    In an examination of the way people store and retrieve information from advertising, this paper draws a distinction between "semantic" memory, which stores general knowledge about the world, and "episodic" memory, which stores information about specific events. It then argues that episodic memory plays a more significant role…

  14. Individual differences in experiencing intrusive memories : The role of the ability to resist proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Johan; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    This study explored whether a relatively poor ability to resist or inhibit interference from irrelevant information in working memory is associated with experiencing undesirable intrusive memories. Non-selected participants (N = 91) completed a self-report measure of intrusive memories, and carried

  15. Do you remember where sounds, pictures and words came from? The role of the stimulus format in object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Lilla, Christopher C

    2017-11-01

    Contrasting results in visual and auditory spatial memory stimulate the debate over the role of sensory modality and attention in identity-to-location binding. We investigated the role of sensory modality in the incidental/deliberate encoding of the location of a sequence of items. In 4 separated blocks, 88 participants memorised sequences of environmental sounds, spoken words, pictures and written words, respectively. After memorisation, participants were asked to recognise old from new items in a new sequence of stimuli. They were also asked to indicate from which side of the screen (visual stimuli) or headphone channel (sounds) the old stimuli were presented in encoding. In the first block, participants were not aware of the spatial requirement while, in blocks 2, 3 and 4 they knew that their memory for item location was going to be tested. Results show significantly lower accuracy of object location memory for the auditory stimuli (environmental sounds and spoken words) than for images (pictures and written words). Awareness of spatial requirement did not influence localisation accuracy. We conclude that: (a) object location memory is more effective for visual objects; (b) object location is implicitly associated with item identity during encoding and (c) visual supremacy in spatial memory does not depend on the automaticity of object location binding.

  16. System level mechanisms of adaptation, learning, memory formation and evolvability: the role of chaperone and other networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurko, David M; Soti, Csaba; Stetak, Attila; Csermely, Peter

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, network approaches became a powerful tool to describe protein structure and dynamics. Here, we describe first the protein structure networks of molecular chaperones, then characterize chaperone containing sub-networks of interactomes called as chaperone-networks or chaperomes. We review the role of molecular chaperones in short-term adaptation of cellular networks in response to stress, and in long-term adaptation discussing their putative functions in the regulation of evolvability. We provide a general overview of possible network mechanisms of adaptation, learning and memory formation. We propose that changes of network rigidity play a key role in learning and memory formation processes. Flexible network topology provides ' learning-competent' state. Here, networks may have much less modular boundaries than locally rigid, highly modular networks, where the learnt information has already been consolidated in a memory formation process. Since modular boundaries are efficient filters of information, in the 'learning-competent' state information filtering may be much smaller, than after memory formation. This mechanism restricts high information transfer to the 'learning competent' state. After memory formation, modular boundary-induced segregation and information filtering protect the stored information. The flexible networks of young organisms are generally in a 'learning competent' state. On the contrary, locally rigid networks of old organisms have lost their 'learning competent' state, but store and protect their learnt information efficiently. We anticipate that the above mechanism may operate at the level of both protein-protein interaction and neuronal networks.

  17. Autobiographical memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: role of hippocampal and temporal lateral structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfurth, Kirsten; Kasper, Burkhard; Schwarz, Michael; Stefan, Hermann; Pauli, Elisabeth

    2010-11-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the impact of hippocampal and temporal cortical lesions on remote autobiographical memories in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Episodic specificity, episodic richness, and personal semantic memory from different life periods were assessed using a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) (M.D. Kopelman, A.E. Wilson, A. Baddeley, The autobiographical memory interview. Bury St. Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Co.; 1990) in 47 patients with unilateral mesial or lateral TLE and 38 healthy controls. Patients with TLE performed significantly more poorly than controls. Patients with left and right mTLE were equally moderately impaired, but patients with left lateral TLE had the most severe episodic memory deficits, particularly for childhood memories. With respect to personal semantic memory, patients with left TLE were significantly more impaired than those with right TLE, most pronounced for childhood memories. Both autobiographical memory aspects, episodic and personal semantic memory, were significantly intercorrelated, but both did not correlate with anterograde memory, indicating a structural dissociation between both functions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Amygdala's involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  19. Amygdala’s involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily S Chau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala’s role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US that elicits an unconditioned response (UR. After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR. Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala’s involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  20. The role of working memory in spatial S-R correspondence effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Biebl, Rupert

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the impact of working memory (WM) load on response conflicts arising from spatial (non) correspondence between irrelevant stimulus location and response location (Simon effect). The dominant view attributes the Simon effect to automatic processes of location-based response priming. The automaticity view predicts insensitivity of the Simon effect to manipulations of processing load. Four experiments investigated the role of spatial and verbal WM in horizontal and vertical Simon tasks by using a dual-task approach. Participants maintained different amounts of spatial or verbal information in WM while performing a horizontal or vertical Simon task. Results showed that high load generally decreased, and sometimes eliminated, the Simon effect. It is interesting to note that spatial load had a larger impact than verbal load on the horizontal Simon effect, whereas verbal load had a larger impact than spatial load on the vertical Simon effect. The results highlight the role of WM as the perception-action interface in choice-response tasks. Moreover, the results suggest spatial coding of horizontal stimulus-response (S-R) tasks, and verbal coding of vertical S-R tasks.

  1. Understanding the role of mind wandering in stress-related working memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel

    2017-08-01

    Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.

  2. A Role for the Lateral Dorsal Tegmentum in Memory and Decision Neural Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redila, Van; Kinzel, Chantelle; Jo, Yong Sang; Puryear, Corey B.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    A role for the hippocampus in memory is clear, although the mechanism for its contribution remains a matter of debate. Converging evidence suggests that hippocampus evaluates the extent to which context-defining features of events occur as expected. The consequence of mismatches, or prediction error, signals from hippocampus is discussed in terms of its impact on neural circuitry that evaluates the significance of prediction errors: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells burst fire to rewards or cues that predict rewards (Schultz et al., 1997). Although the lateral dorsal tegmentum (LDTg) importantly controls dopamine cell burst firing (Lodge & Grace, 2006) the behavioral significance of the LDTg control is not known. Therefore, we evaluated LDTg functional activity as rats performed a spatial memory task that generates task-dependent reward codes in VTA (Jo et al., 2013; Puryear et al., 2010) and another VTA afferent, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg, Norton et al., 2011). Reversible inactivation of the LDTg significantly impaired choice accuracy. LDTg neurons coded primarily egocentric information in the form of movement velocity, turning behaviors, and behaviors leading up to expected reward locations. A subset of the velocity-tuned LDTg cells also showed high frequency bursts shortly before or after reward encounters, after which they showed tonic elevated firing during consumption of small, but not large, rewards. Cells that fired before reward encounters showed stronger correlations with velocity as rats moved toward, rather than away from, rewarded sites. LDTg neural activity was more strongly regulated by egocentric behaviors than that observed for PPTg or VTA cells that were recorded by Puryear et al. and Norton et al. While PPTg activity was uniquely sensitive to ongoing sensory input, all three regions encoded reward magnitude (although in different ways), reward expectation, and reward encounters. Only VTA encoded reward prediction errors. LDTg

  3. Roles for the subiculum in spatial information processing, memory, motivation and the temporal control of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Shane M; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; O'Hare, Eugene

    2009-08-01

    The subiculum is in a pivotal position governing the output of the hippocampal formation. Despite this, it is a rather under-explored and sometimes ignored structure. Here, we discuss recent data indicating that the subiculum participates in a wide range of neurocognitive functions and processes. Some of the functions of subiculum are relatively well-known-these include providing a relatively coarse representation of space and participating in, and supporting certain aspects of, memory (particularly in the dynamic bridging of temporal intervals). The subiculum also participates in a wide variety of other neurocognitive functions too, however. Much less well-known are roles for the subiculum, and particularly the ventral subiculum, in the response to fear, stress and anxiety, and in the generation of motivated behaviour (particularly the behaviour that underlies drug addiction and the response to reward). There is an emerging suggestion that the subiculum participates in the temporal control of behaviour. It is notable that these latter findings have emerged from a consideration of instrumental behaviour using operant techniques; it may well be the case that the use of the watermaze or similar spatial tasks to assess subicular function (on the presumption that its functions are very similar to the hippocampus proper) has obscured rather than revealed neurocognitive functions of subiculum. The anatomy of subiculum suggests it participates in a rather subtle fashion in a very broad range of functions, rather than in a relatively more isolated fashion in a narrower range of functions, as might be the case for "earlier" components of hippocampal circuitry, such as the CA1 and CA3 subfields. Overall, there appears to a strong dorso-ventral segregation of function within subiculum, with the dorsal subiculum relatively more concerned with space and memory, and the ventral hippocampus concerned with stress, anxiety and reward. Finally, it may be the case that the whole

  4. Role of the hippocampus in contextual memory after classical aversive conditioning in pigeons (C. livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of hippocampal lesions with ibotenic acid (IBO on the memory of the sound-context-shock association during reexposure to the conditioning context. Twenty-nine adult pigeons were assigned to a non-lesioned control group (CG, N = 7, a sham-lesioned group (SG, N = 7, a hippocampus-lesioned experimental group (EG, N = 7, and to an unpaired nonlesioned group (tone-alone exposure (NG, N = 8. All pigeons were submitted to a 20-min session in the conditioning chamber with three associations of sound (1000 Hz, 85 dB, 1 s and shock (10 mA, 1 s. Experimental and sham lesions were performed 24 h later (EG and SG when EG birds received three bilateral injections (anteroposterior (A, 4.5, 5.25 and 7.0 of IBO (1 µl and 1 µg/µl and SG received one bilateral injection (A, 5.25 of PBS. The animals were reexposed to the training context 5 days after the lesion. Behavior was videotaped for 20 min and analyzed at 30-s intervals. A significantly higher percent rating of immobility was observed for CG (median, 95.1; range, 79.2 to 100.0 and SG (median, 90.0; range, 69.6 to 95.0 compared to EG (median, 11.62; range, 3.83 to 50.1 and NG (median, 7.33; range, 6.2 to 28.1 (P<0.001 in the training context. These results suggest impairment of contextual fear in birds who received lesions one day after conditioning and a role for the hippocampus in the modulation of emotional aversive memories in pigeons.

  5. A role for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) in taste memory consolidation and in thermal control establishment during the critical period for sensory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Sharon; Elkobi, Alina; Rosenblum, Kobi; Meiri, Noam

    2007-05-01

    All species exhibit critical periods for sensory development, yet very little is known about the molecules involved in the changes in the network wiring that underlies this process. Here the role of transcription regulation of the translation machinery was determined by evaluating the expression of eIF2Bepsilon, an essential component of translation initiation, in both taste-preference development and thermal control establishment in chicks. Analysis of the expression pattern of this gene after passive-avoidance training revealed clear induction of eIF2Bepsilon in both the mesopallium intermediomediale (IMM) and in the striatum mediale (StM). In addition, a correlation was found between the concentration of methylanthranilate (MeA), which was the malaise substrate in the passive-avoidance training procedure, the duration of memory, and the expression level of eIF2Bepsilon. Training chicks on a low concentration of MeA induced short-term memory and low expression level of eIF2Bepsilon, whereas a high concentration of MeA induced long-term memory and a high expression level of eIF2Bepsilon in both the IMM and StM. Furthermore, eIF2Bepsilon-antisense "knock-down" not only reduced the amount of eIF2Bepsilon but also attenuated taste memory formation. In order to determine whether induction of eIF2Bepsilon is a general feature of neuronal plasticity, we checked whether it was induced in other forms of neuronal plasticity, with particular attention to its role in temperature control establishment, which represents hypothalamic-related plasticity. It was established that eIF2Bepsilon-mRNA was induced in the preopotic anterior hypothalamus during heat conditioning. Taken together, these results correlate eIF2Bepsilon with sensory development.

  6. Sharing specific "We" autobiographical memories in close relationships: the role of contact frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Denise R; Cole, Holly E; Merrick, Carmen R

    2017-11-01

    Sharing memories in conversations with close others is posited to be part of the social function of autobiographical memory. The present research focused on the sharing of a particular type of memory: Specific memories about one-time co-experienced events, which we termed Specific We memories. Two studies with 595 total participants examined the factors that lead to and/or are influenced by the sharing of Specific We memories. In Study 1, participants reported on their most recent conversation. Specific We memories were reportedly discussed most often in conversations with others who were close and with whom the participant had frequent communication. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned either to increase or to simply record the frequency of communication with a close other (parent). Increases in the frequency of reported sharing of Specific We memories as well as closeness to the parent resulted. Mediation analyses of both studies revealed causal relationships among reported sharing of Specific We memories and closeness. We discuss the relevance of these results for understanding the social function of autobiographical memory.

  7. Differential role of Rac in the basolateral amygdala and cornu ammonis 1 in the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Shen, Hao-Wei; Sun, Shi-Chao; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Liu, Jian-Feng; Lu, Lin; Zhu, Wei-Li; Shi, Jie

    2014-08-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated with a fearful unconditioned stimulus (US) in the traditional fear conditioning model. After fear conditioning, the CS-US association memory undergoes the consolidation process to become stable. Consolidated memory enters an unstable state after retrieval and requires the reconsolidation process to stabilize again. Evidence indicates the important role of Rac (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate) in the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. In the present study, we hypothesized that Rac in the amygdala is crucial for the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory. Auditory and contextual fear conditioning and microinjections of the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 were used to explore the role of Rac in the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory in rats. A microinjection of NSC23766 into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) but not central amygdala (CeA) or cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) immediately after memory retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of auditory Pavlovian fear memory. A microinjection of NSC23766 into the CA1 but not BLA or CeA after memory retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of contextual Pavlovian fear memory. Our experiments demonstrate that Rac in the BLA is crucial for the reconsolidation of auditory Pavlovian fear memory, whereas Rac in the CA1 is critical for the reconsolidation of contextual Pavlovian fear memory.

  8. The role of working memory sub-components in food choice and dieting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Victoria; Nouwen, Arie; van den Akker, Olga; Higgs, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    Evidence suggests a role for self-reported working memory (WM) in self-reported food intake, but it is not known which WM sub-components are involved. It is also important to consider how individual differences in dietary restraint and disinhibition influence WM and the impact of this on food choice. The current study assessed the relationship between WM sub-components and food choice, using computerised measures of WM sub-components and a direct assessment of food intake. The role of dieting success (measured by restraint and disinhibition) as a distal predictor of food choice that influences food choices via WM, and the role of WM more generally in dieting success were investigated. Female undergraduate students (N = 117, mean age: 18.9 years, mean BMI: 21.6 kg/m 2 ) completed computer tasks assessing three components of WM (updating, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a snack food taste-test. Greater visuospatial WM span was associated with a higher (lower) percentage of food intake that was low (high) energy dense. It was also found that unsuccessful dieters (high restraint, high disinhibition) had poorer visuospatial WM span and consumed a lower (higher) percentage of low (high) energy dense food. Visuospatial WM span significantly mediated the relationship between dieting success and percentage of low energy dense food intake. Further, dietary restraint was associated with poorer updating ability, irrespective of disinhibition. These findings suggest that better visuospatial WM is associated with a greater (reduced) preference for low (high) energy dense foods, and that deficits in visuospatial WM may undermine dieting attempts. Future work should assess whether the ability to deal with food cravings mediates the relationship between visuospatial WM and dieting success and investigate how WM may influence the mechanisms underlying behavioural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic roles of key molecules connected with NMDAR signaling pathway on regulating learning and memory and synaptic plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wang; Rui-Yun Peng

    2016-01-01

    With key roles in essential brain functions ranging from the long-term potentiation (LTP) to synaptic plasticity,the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) can be considered as one of the fundamental glutamate receptors in the central nervous system.The role of NMDA R was first identified in synaptic plasticity and has been extensively studied.Some molecules,such as Ca2+,postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95),calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ),protein kinase A (PKA),mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB),are of special importance in learning and memory.This review mainly focused on the new research of key molecules connected with learning and memory,which played important roles in the NMDAR signaling pathway.

  10. Ginkobiloba extract improves working memory performance in middle-aged women: role of asymmetry of prefrontal cortex activity during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Kaoru; Tanida, Masahiro; Hirao, Naoyasu; Takemura, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism through which extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) improves cognitive function, we examined the effects of EGb on cerebral blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on performance during a working memory task, using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). First, we evaluated differences in behavioral performance of the Sternberg working memory test (ST) and in the activation pattern of the PFC during ST between 15 young and 19 middle-aged healthy women. Then, we examined the effect of EGb (120 mg/day for 6 weeks) on ST performance and PFC activation pattern in the middle-aged group. The middle-aged group exhibited a longer reaction time (RT) in ST than the young group and showed a different PFC activation pattern during ST, i.e., the middle-aged group showed bilateral activation while the young group showed right-dominant activation. In the middle-aged group, administration of EGb for 6 weeks shortened the RT of ST and changed the PFC activation pattern to right-dominant, like that in the young group. The results indicate the PFC plays a role in the physiological cognitive function-enhancing effect of EGb. EGb might improve working memory function in middle-aged individuals by counteracting the occurrence of aging-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction.

  11. Learning and memory effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure in rats: Role of reactive oxygen species and age at assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Sarah A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2017-11-01

    In utero methamphetamine (MA) exposure leads to a range of adverse effects, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children. In the current experiment, preweaning Sprague-Dawley rats-as a model of third trimester human exposure-were administered the spin trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN), daily prior to MA. Rats were given 0 (SAL) or 40 mg/kg PBN prior to each MA dose (10 mg/kg, 4× per day) from postnatal day (P) 6-15. Littermates underwent Cincinnati water maze, Morris water maze, and radial water maze assessment beginning on P30 (males) or P60 (females). Males were also tested for conditioned contextual and cued freezing, while females were trained in passive avoidance. Findings show that, regardless of age/sex, neonatal MA induced deficits in all tests, except passive avoidance. PBN did not ameliorate these effects, but had a few minor effects. Taken together, MA induced learning deficits emerge early and persist, but the mechanism remains unknown. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The role of childhood and adulthood trauma and appraisal of self-discrepancy in overgeneral memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Miyuki; Devilly, Grant J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contributory role of childhood and adulthood trauma events and the appraisal of self-discrepancy (the magnitude and distress) in overgeneral memory retrieval (OGM) using a non-clinical sample. Participants with a history of childhood trauma (n=29); adulthood trauma only (n=17) or no-trauma (n=26) participated in this study. The childhood trauma group showed a significantly higher level of general negative memory retrieval than the no-trauma group. Conversely, the adulthood trauma group showed a significantly higher level of general threat memory retrieval than the no-trauma group. The perceived similarity and distress relating to the perceived similarity between participants' "actual self" and "feared self" significantly predicted the level of OGM, even after controlling for the impact of a history of adult or child trauma.

  13. A boost of confidence: The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory, decision-making, and schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebscher, Melissa; Gilboa, Asaf

    2016-09-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a wide array of functions across multiple domains. In this review, we focus on the vmPFC's involvement in mediating strategic aspects of memory retrieval, memory-related schema functions, and decision-making. We suggest that vmPFC generates a confidence signal that informs decisions and memory-guided behaviour. Confidence is central to these seemingly diverse functions: (1) Strategic retrieval: lesions to the vmPFC impair an early, automatic, and intuitive monitoring process ("feeling of rightness"; FOR) often associated with confabulation (spontaneous reporting of erroneous memories). Critically, confabulators typically demonstrate high levels of confidence in their false memories, suggesting that faulty monitoring following vmPFC damage may lead to indiscriminate confidence signals. (2) Memory schemas: the vmPFC is critically involved in instantiating and maintaining contextually relevant schemas, broadly defined as higher level knowledge structures that encapsulate lower level representational elements. The correspondence between memory retrieval cues and these activated schemas leads to FOR monitoring. Stronger, more elaborate schemas produce stronger FOR and influence confidence in the veracity of memory candidates. (3) Finally, we review evidence on the vmPFC's role in decision-making, extending this role to decision-making during memory retrieval. During non-mnemonic and mnemonic decision-making the vmPFC automatically encodes confidence. Confidence signal in the vmPFC is revealed as a non-linear relationship between a first-order monitoring assessment and second-order action or choice. Attempting to integrate the multiple functions of the vmPFC, we propose a posterior-anterior organizational principle for this region. More posterior vmPFC regions are involved in earlier, automatic, subjective, and contextually sensitive functions, while more anterior regions are involved in controlled actions

  14. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Rupa, E-mail: rupadasgupta@ampri.res.in; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-25

    are significantly high than conventionally reported except with the addition of Mg in which case no distinct peaks have been recorded. The range of martensite retention is the maximum in ternary Cu–Al–Mn alloys; addition of quaternary elements decreases this range significantly. Presence of Ni delays austenite formation and completion [As and Af] significantly as compared to the ternary alloys; whereas with other additions the As and Af temperatures are brought forward. This means that whereas the alloys without quaternary additions would be better suited for its shape memory properties, ternary alloys would be better suited for higher transition temperatures. The role of different alloying additions has been highlighted in the findings. Variations in properties have been attained due to different additions and improvements attained in terms of higher transformation temperatures and martensite formation due to the alloying additions.

  15. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Rupa; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    are significantly high than conventionally reported except with the addition of Mg in which case no distinct peaks have been recorded. The range of martensite retention is the maximum in ternary Cu–Al–Mn alloys; addition of quaternary elements decreases this range significantly. Presence of Ni delays austenite formation and completion [As and Af] significantly as compared to the ternary alloys; whereas with other additions the As and Af temperatures are brought forward. This means that whereas the alloys without quaternary additions would be better suited for its shape memory properties, ternary alloys would be better suited for higher transition temperatures. The role of different alloying additions has been highlighted in the findings. Variations in properties have been attained due to different additions and improvements attained in terms of higher transformation temperatures and martensite formation due to the alloying additions

  16. The role of negative and positive memories in fear of dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Jøssing, Marit; Krohn, Christina

    2017-01-01

    is influenced by memories of positive and negative childhood experiences with dental care. More specifically, we predicted that the emotional impact, sense of reliving, rehearsal, and belief in the accuracy of a negative treatment memory would be associated with increased dental fear, while positive treatment...... memories would show the opposite relation. Methods One hundred thirty-six young adults leaving childhood dental care responded to a online measures of dental fear, the most negative and most positive memory of dental treatment, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Negative memories...... of events that involved pain and dentist behaviors such as impatience or scolding were frequently described and significantly associated with dental fear and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Positive memories were more frequent, but did not show a consistent relationship with dental fear. Conclusions...

  17. Role of samarium additions on the shape memory behavior of iron based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, R.A.; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Kang, Kisuk

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of samarium contents on shape memory behavior has been studied. → Addition of samarium increases the strength, c/a ratio and ε (hcp martensite). → Addition of samarium retards the nucleation of α (bcc martensite). → Improvement in shape memory effect with the increase in samarium contents. - Abstract: The effect of samarium contents on shape memory behavior of iron based shape memory alloys has been studied. It is found that the strength of the alloys increases with the increase in samarium contents. This effect can be attributed to the solid solution strengthening of austenite by samarium addition. It is also noticed that the shape memory effect increases with the increase in samarium contents. This improvement in shape memory effect presumably can be regarded as the effect of improvement in strength, increase in c/a ratio and obstruction of nucleation of α in the microstructure.

  18. Role of the thalamic nucleus reuniens in mediating interactions between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memory-guided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goal-directed behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working memory tasks. Therefore, it is likely that hippocampal-mPFC oscillatory synchrony is modulated by RE activity. This article will review the anatomical connections between the hippocampus, mPFC and RE along with the behavioral studies that have investigated the effects of RE disruption on working memory task performance. The article will conclude with suggestions for future directions aimed at identifying the specific role of the RE in regulating functional interactions between the hippocampus and the PFC and investigating the degree to which these interactions contribute to spatial working memory.

  19. Suppression of neurotoxic lesion-induced seizure activity: evidence for a permanent role for the hippocampus in contextual memory.

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    Fraser T Sparks

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus (HPC using the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA can cause retrograde amnesia for contextual fear memory. This amnesia is typically attributed to loss of cells in the HPC. However, NMDA is also known to cause intense neuronal discharge (seizure activity during the hours that follow its injection. These seizures may have detrimental effects on retrieval of memories. Here we evaluate the possibility that retrograde amnesia is due to NMDA-induced seizure activity or cell damage per se. To assess the effects of NMDA induced activity on contextual memory, we developed a lesion technique that utilizes the neurotoxic effects of NMDA while at the same time suppressing possible associated seizure activity. NMDA and tetrodotoxin (TTX, a sodium channel blocker, are simultaneously infused into the rat HPC, resulting in extensive bilateral damage to the HPC. TTX, co-infused with NMDA, suppresses propagation of seizure activity. Rats received pairings of a novel context with foot shock, after which they received NMDA-induced, TTX+NMDA-induced, or no damage to the HPC at a recent (24 hours or remote (5 weeks time point. After recovery, the rats were placed into the shock context and freezing was scored as an index of fear memory. Rats with an intact HPC exhibited robust memory for the aversive context at both time points, whereas rats that received NMDA or NMDA+TTX lesions showed a significant reduction in learned fear of equal magnitude at both the recent and remote time points. Therefore, it is unlikely that observed retrograde amnesia in contextual fear conditioning are due to disruption of non-HPC networks by propagated seizure activity. Moreover, the memory deficit observed at both time points offers additional evidence supporting the proposition that the HPC has a continuing role in maintaining contextual memories.

  20. AMisfit Theory of Spontaneous Conscious Odor Perception (MITSCOP: reflections on the role and function of odor memory in everyday life.

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    Egon P Köster

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our senses have developed as an answer to the world we live in (Gibson, 1966 and so have the forms of memory that accompany them. All senses serve different purposes and do so in different ways. In vision, where orientation and object recognition are important, memory is strongly linked to identification. In olfaction, the guardian of vital functions such as breathing and food ingestion, perhaps the most important (and least noticed and researched role of odor memory is to help us not to notice the well-known odors or flavors in our everyday surroundings, but to react immediately to the unexpected ones. At the same time it provides us with a feeling of safety when our expectancies are met. All this happens without any smelling intention or conscious knowledge of our expectations. Identification by odor naming is not involved in this and people are notoriously bad at it. Odors are usually best identified via the episodic memory of the situation in which they once occurred. Spontaneous conscious odor perception normally only occurs in situations where attention is demanded, either because the inhaled air or the food smell is particularly good or particularly bad and people search for its source or because people want to actively enjoy the healthiness and pleasantness of their surroundings or food. Odor memory is concerned with novelty detection rather than with recollection of odors. In this paper, these points are illustrated with experimental results and their consequences for doing ecologically valid odor memory research are drawn. Furthermore, suggestions for ecologically valid research on everyday odor memory and some illustrative examples are given.

  1. Long-term memory consolidation: The role of RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains.

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    Sudhakaran, Indulekha P; Ramaswami, Mani

    2017-05-04

    Long-term and short-term memories differ primarily in the duration of their retention. At a molecular level, long-term memory (LTM) is distinguished from short-term memory (STM) by its requirement for new gene expression. In addition to transcription (nuclear gene expression) the translation of stored mRNAs is necessary for LTM formation. The mechanisms and functions for temporal and spatial regulation of mRNAs required for LTM is a major contemporary problem, of interest from molecular, cell biological, neurobiological and clinical perspectives. This review discusses primary evidence in support for translational regulatory events involved in LTM and a model in which different phases of translation underlie distinct phases of consolidation of memories. However, it focuses largely on mechanisms of memory persistence and the role of prion-like domains in this defining aspect of long-term memory. We consider primary evidence for the concept that Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding (CPEB) protein enables the persistence of formed memories by transforming in prion-like manner from a soluble monomeric state to a self-perpetuating and persistent polymeric translationally active state required for maintaining persistent synaptic plasticity. We further discuss prion-like domains prevalent on several other RNA-binding proteins involved in neuronal translational control underlying LTM. Growing evidence indicates that such RNA regulatory proteins are components of mRNP (RiboNucleoProtein) granules. In these proteins, prion-like domains, being intrinsically disordered, could mediate weak transient interactions that allow the assembly of RNP granules, a source of silenced mRNAs whose translation is necessary for LTM. We consider the structural bases for RNA granules formation as well as functions of disordered domains and discuss how these complicate the interpretation of existing experimental data relevant to general mechanisms by which prion-domain containing RBPs

  2. Paradoxical role of an Egr transcription factor family member, Egr2/Krox20, in learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Poirier

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is we