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  1. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

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    ... 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO ... INTERACTION PROBLEMS THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused ...

  2. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  3. Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) and Legionella spp. Colonise Model Shower.

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    Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2015-07-24

    Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the "unhooking" showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation.

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

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    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  5. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

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    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  6. Imaging features of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in children with AIDS

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    Pursner, M. [State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Haller, J.O. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Babies Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to review the imaging features of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in 16 pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Materials and methods. We reviewed the pertinent clinical records of 16 children diagnosed with MAC between January 1990 and June 1998. These 16 cases were blood- or biopsy-proven to have MAC infection. Their plain films, abdominal, and chest CT scans were then reviewed and the findings were analyzed with reference to the few reported cases of children with MAC. Results. Abdominal findings: all but one had retroperitoneal adenopathy, mesenteric adenopathy or both. Ten patients had hepatomegaly, while nine patients were found to have splenomegaly. Four patients had nonspecific thickened gallbladder wall, while intestinal wall thickening and thickened stomach folds were identified in six of ten patients. Necrotic, fluid-filled nodes were also found. Chest findings included mediastinal adenopathy, cystic/cavitary lesions and bronchiectasis. One patient developed a fistula between the mediastinal lymph nodes, esophagus, and bronchial tree. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with HIV who develop MAC infection may present with massive lymph-node enlargement. This can occur not only in mesenteric and retroperitoneal nodes but also in hilar and posterior mediastinal nodes as well. As in MTB infection, these nodes can break down with development of fistulous tracts to both esophagus and adjacent lung. The major differential diagnostic consideration besides MTB is lymphoma. (orig.)

  7. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS

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    MAC organisms are able to grow, persist, and colonize in water distribution systems and may amplify in hospital hot water systems. This study examined the response of MAC organisms (M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MX) to a range of temperatures commonly associated with drinking...

  8. Characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer patients

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    Erin Meier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer can occur without apparent risk factors for this NTM infection. Symptomatic improvement with MAC antimicrobial therapy appears to be lower than expected but comorbidities might influence outcomes in this patient population.

  9. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines

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    Harriet Whiley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p < 0.05 increases in concentration were observed when compared to the concentration measured closest to the processing plant in the same pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use.

  10. Persimmon-derived tannin has bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory activity in a murine model of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease.

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    Matsumura, Yoko; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Ouji-Sageshima, Noriko; Yasui, Satsuki; Mochida, Naoko; Nakano, Ryuichi; Kasahara, Kei; Tomoda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kayano, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cause opportunistic chronic pulmonary infections. Notably, MAC susceptibility is regulated by various factors, including the host immune system. Persimmon (Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Thunb.) tannin is a condensed tannin composed of a polymer of catechin groups. It is well known that condensed tannins have high antioxidant activity and bacteriostatic properties. However, it is hypothesized that condensed tannins might need to be digested and/or fermented into smaller molecules in vivo prior to being absorbed into the body to perform beneficial functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of soluble persimmon-derived tannins on opportunistic MAC disease. Soluble tannins were hydrolyzed and evaluated by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC value of soluble tannin hydrolysate was approximately five times greater than that of soluble tannin powder. In addition, soluble tannin hydrolysate exhibited high bacteriostatic activity against MAC in vitro. Furthermore, in an in vivo study, MAC infected mice fed a soluble tannin-containing diet showed significantly higher anti-bacterial activity against MAC and less pulmonary granuloma formation compared with those fed a control diet. Tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels were significantly lower in lungs of the soluble tannin diet group compared with the control diet group. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines induced by MAC stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages were significantly decreased by addition of soluble tannin hydrolysate. These data suggest that soluble tannin from persimmons might attenuate the pathogenesis of pulmonary NTM infection.

  11. Human health risks for Legionella and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from potable and non-potable uses of roof-harvested rainwater.

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    Hamilton, Kerry A; Ahmed, Warish; Toze, Simon; Haas, Charles N

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila (LP) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was undertaken for various uses of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) reported in Queensland, Australia to identify appropriate usages and guide risk management practices. Risks from inhalation of aerosols due to showering, swimming in pools topped up with RHRW, use of a garden hose, car washing, and toilet flushing with RHRW were considered for LP while both ingestion (drinking, produce consumption, and accidental ingestion from various activities) and inhalation risks were considered for MAC. The drinking water route of exposure presented the greatest risks due to cervical lymphadenitis and disseminated infection health endpoints for children and immune-compromised populations, respectively. It is therefore not recommended that these populations consume untreated rainwater. LP risks were up to 6 orders of magnitude higher than MAC risks for the inhalation route of exposure for all scenarios. Both inhalation and ingestion QMRA simulations support that while drinking, showering, and garden hosing with RHRW may present the highest risks, car washing and clothes washing could constitute appropriate uses of RHRW for all populations, and toilet flushing and consumption of lettuce irrigation with RHRW would be appropriate for non- immune-compromised populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ORGANISMS

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    The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of thirty Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) organisms were measured. The EPMs of fifteen clinical isolates ranged from -1.9 to -5.0 µm cm V-1s-1, and the EPMs of fifteen environmental isolates ranged from -1...

  13. Detection of quantification of Mycobacterium avium complex organisms in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and others. MAC are listed on the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Contaminant Candidate List 2 (CCL2) due to their association with human disease and occurrence in public dr...

  14. REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ORGANISMS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and others. MAC are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) due to their association with human disease and occurrence in public drinkin...

  15. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença

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    David Jamil Hadad

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between January 1989 and February 1991, the Section of Mycobacteria of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, isolated MAC from 103 patients by culturing different sterile and no-sterile processed specimens collected from 2304 patients seen at the AIDS Reference and Training Center and/or Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute. Disseminated disease was diagnosed in 29 of those patients on the basis of MAC isolation from blood and/or bone marrow aspirate. The other 74 patients were divided into categories highly (5, moderately (26 and little suggestive of disease (43 according to the criteria of DAVIDSON (198910. The various criteria for MAC isolation from sterile and non-sterile specimens are discussed.Anterior a pandemia de AIDS, o Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC era responsável pela maioria das vezes, por pneumopatias acometendo pacientes com doença pulmonar crônica de base como enfisema e bronquite crônica36. Em 1981, com o advento da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA, o MAC passou a representar uma das doenças bacterianas mais frequentes em pacientes com esta síndrome, sendo a doença disseminada a principal forma de manifestação clínica da infecção8. Entre Janeiro de 1989 e Fevereiro de 1991, no Setor de Micobactérias do Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo, o MAC foi isolado de 103 pacientes a partir do cultivo de diferentes espécimes estéreis e não estéreis processados, coletados de 2.304 pacientes atendidos no Centro de Referência e

  16. Mycobacterium avium complex disseminated infection in a kidney transplant recipient.

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    Fadlallah, J; Rammaert, B; Laurent, S; Lanternier, F; Pol, S; Franck, N; Mamzer, M F; Dupin, N; Lortholary, O

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections are well known in immunocompromised patients, notably in human immunodeficiency virus infection, but remain scarcely described in kidney transplantation. Moreover, cutaneous involvement in this infection is very unusual. We describe here a disseminated infection caused by MAC in a kidney transplant recipient revealed by cutaneous lesions. This case highlights the need for an exhaustive, iterative microbiologic workup in the context of an atypical disease presentation in a renal transplant patient, regardless of the degree of immunosuppression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

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    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  18. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm

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    Drancourt Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  19. Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex.

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    Yano, Shuichi

    2004-09-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with bloody sputum and high grade fever. She had been treated for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). High grade fever slightly decreased and bloody sputum disappeared after two weeks, but low grade fever persisted. After 3 days of recurrence of bloody sputum, she suddenly complained of palpable pururitic lesions on the bilateral lower extremities with bilateral gonalgia. Although there are some reports of direct skin lesions due to MAC, there are no reports of hypersensitivity vasculitis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, in MAC. It is necessary to consider MAC infection as a potential cause of Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

  20. Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex causing olecranon bursitis and prosthetic joint infection in an immunocompromised host

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    Eugene M. Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 73-year-old immunocompromised male presented with recurrent left elbow swelling due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC olecranon bursitis. 3 years after completing MAC treatment, he underwent right total knee arthroplasty (TKA. 1 year later, he developed TKA pain and swelling and was diagnosed with MAC prosthetic joint infection (PJI. He underwent TKA resection, reimplantation, and 12 months of anti-MAC therapy. This patient is the seventh case report of MAC olecranon bursitis and the third case report of MAC PJI. He is the only report of both MAC olecranon bursitis and PJI occurring in the same patient. Informed consent: This patient was informed and agreed to the publication of this material.

  1. [Distribution of PRA patterns of clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex from Spain and South America].

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    Murcia, Martha Isabel; Leao, Sylvia Cardoso; Ritacco, Viviana; Palenque, Elia; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira; Reniero, Ana; Menendez, Maria Carmen; Telles, María Alice da Silva; Hadad, David Jamil; Barrera, Lucía; García, María Jesús

    2004-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are the most frequent systemic infections associated with advanced AIDS. DNA probes for accurate identification of mycobacteria are available but are very expensive in many Latin American settings. Consequently, most Latin American diagnostic laboratories employ inaccurate and outdated tests for mycobacteria identification. Therefore, PCR restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was evaluated for the identification of 163 MAC human isolates originated from Spain and South America. The predominant PRA type in each country was: M. avium type I in Argentina (23/42, 55%) and Brazil (48/72, 67%), M. avium type II in Spain (18/26, 69%) and M. avium type III in Colombia (10/23, 43%). The Colombia frequency is noteworthy, since the PRA type III was quite infrequent in the other three countries. Furthermore, its presence has not been reported outside the Americas. The advantages and disadvantages of PRA in diagnostic mycobacteriology are discussed.

  2. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: characteristics and treatment in an Irish patient cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, EP

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical\\/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis\\/treatment of this disease. Treatment was started in 13 (72%) of these cases, which is similar to internationally published treatment rates. The diagnosis of significant MAC pulmonary disease can be difficult, and treatment is not always warranted even when diagnostic criteria are met.

  3. Sero-diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease using serum immunoglobulin A antibody against glycopeptidolipid antigen in Taiwan.

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    Chin-Chung Shu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung disease (LD due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed. RESULTS: There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM, 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration.

  4. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with Mycobacterium avium complex among spa workers.

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    Moraga-McHaley, Stephanie Ann; Landen, Michael; Krapfl, Heidi; Sewell, C Mack

    2013-01-01

    The New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) investigated the cause of two cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in spa maintenance workers with laboratory confirmed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The investigation occurred in tandem with worker protection and swimming pool regulatory investigations by the New Mexico Environment Department at the spa where the workers were employed. The investigation was conducted in order to identify unreported cases, exposure source(s), and to prevent further worker exposure. NMDOH surveyed 57 spa employees about symptoms and exposures, categorized jobs according to self-reported exposure to water, and computed odds ratios for symptom reporting by exposure category. Environmental isolates from spa water and filter swabs were cultured and compared to patient isolates by the Environmental and Applied Microbiology Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Workers with the highest exposure reported more HP-like symptoms (OR = 9.6), as did intermediate exposure workers (OR = 6.5), compared to workers with no aerosolized water exposure. Two of 13 environmental isolates were closely related to one of the patient isolates. Workers were likely exposed during spray cleaning of cartridge filters in a poorly ventilated work space. Recommendations include inhibiting organism growth in spa systems, assuring the use of respiratory protection, and adequately ventilating work spaces where filters and equipment are cleaned.

  5. Mycobacterium avium complex-associated cholecystitis in AIDS patient: a case description and review of literature.

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    El Chaer, Firas; Harris, Nadine; El Sahly, Hana; Hemmige, Vagish; Martinez Blanco, Elvia; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2016-11-01

    AIDS-related cholangiopathy was common in patients with AIDS prior to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common opportunistic bacterial infection seen in AIDS patients and one of many opportunistic pathogens implicated in AIDS cholangiopathy. We describe a case of acute cholecystitis secondary to MAC in a patient with likely AIDS cholangiopathy. The patient, a 37-year-old Hispanic woman with CD4 + cell count of 10 cells/mm 3 who was previously diagnosed with disseminated MAC, presented with a eight days of diffuse abdominal pain and anorexia. Radiologic imaging suggested acute cholecystitis, so the patient underwent open cholecystectomy. Pathology staining of the gall bladder wall revealed acid-fast bacilli consistent with MAC. The patient had been receiving appropriate therapy as an outpatient for MAC with presumed reliable adherence, but we suggest her burden of disease was high due to her severe immunosuppressive state. A thorough review of the literature showed that there are many infectious and non-infectious aetiologies for AIDS-associated cholangiopathy. Acute cholecystitis can develop in the setting of AIDS cholangiopathy, potentially secondary to the opportunistic infection that initially caused the cholangiopathy. MAC-related gallbladder disease needs to be considered in patients with advanced AIDS who present with evidence of acute cholecystitis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Hemolysin as a Virulence Factor for Systemic Infection with Isolates of Mycobacterium avium Complex

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    Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease. PMID:9889239

  7. Broncho-pleural fistula with hydropneumothorax at CT: Diagnostic implications in mycobacterium avium complex lung disease with pleural involvement

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    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Park, Hye Yun; Koh, Won Jung [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Soo [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings. We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. The 5 patients were all male with a median age of 77 and all had underlying comorbid conditions. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a wide range of white blood cell counts (410-100690/µL). The causative microorganisms were determined as Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiologically, the peripheral portion of the involved lung demonstrated fibro-bullous changes or cavitary lesions causing lung destruction, reflecting the chronic, insidious nature of MAC lung disease. All patients had broncho-pleural fistulas (BPFs) and pneumothorax was accompanied with pleural effusion. In patients with underlying MAC lung disease who present with pleural effusion, the presence of BPFs and pleural air on CT imaging are indicative that spread of MAC infection is the cause of the effusion.

  8. Broncho-pleural fistula with hydropneumothorax at CT: Diagnostic implications in mycobacterium avium complex lung disease with pleural involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Park, Hye Yun; Koh, Won Jung; Kim, Jung Soo

    2016-01-01

    To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings. We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. The 5 patients were all male with a median age of 77 and all had underlying comorbid conditions. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a wide range of white blood cell counts (410-100690/µL). The causative microorganisms were determined as Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiologically, the peripheral portion of the involved lung demonstrated fibro-bullous changes or cavitary lesions causing lung destruction, reflecting the chronic, insidious nature of MAC lung disease. All patients had broncho-pleural fistulas (BPFs) and pneumothorax was accompanied with pleural effusion. In patients with underlying MAC lung disease who present with pleural effusion, the presence of BPFs and pleural air on CT imaging are indicative that spread of MAC infection is the cause of the effusion

  9. Effectiveness of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of bronchial-type mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex pulmonary disease

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    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kourakata, Hiroyo

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) pulmonary disease with associated nodules and bronchiectasis is an increasingly prevalent condition. This condition is often difficult to diagnose in the early stages of the disease, because of the limited effectiveness of sputum culture cytology. The effectiveness of bronchoscopy in the isolation and diagnosis of MAC in respiratory secretions is still unclear. Over a three-year period, we examined the effectiveness of bronchoscopy in 45 non-HIV-infected patients who had clusters of small peripheral lung nodules. These nodules were associated with changes of the draining bronchi detected by high-resolution CT (HRCT). A total of 22 of 45 patients (48.9%) had cultures positive for MAC. In the MAC-positive group, 10 patients tested positive for disease in sputum and 22 tested positive for disease in bronchial washings. A total of 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) fulfilled the American Thoracic Society criteria for pulmonary MAC disease, and 9 (20.0%) others with cultures positive for MAC did not fulfill the criteria. Radiographic measures and sputum cultures of 13 of 16 patients (81.3%) with negative cultures revealed no further disease progression. We found that HRCT was a useful technique in the diagnosis of MAC-pulmonary disease. We also found that bronchoscopy was a more sensitive diagnostic technique than sputum culture, analysis in the differential diagnosis of MAC pulmonary diseases. (author)

  10. Limited value of transbronchial lung biopsy for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.

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    Sekine, Akimasa; Saito, Takefumi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Morishita, Yukio; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Toru; Yatagai, Yohei; Lin, Shih-Yuen; Miyazaki, Kunihiko; Miura, Yukiko; Hayashihara, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    It remains unclear whether transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is useful for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with MAC lung disease, who were evaluated with TBLB tissue culture between June 2006 and May 2010, were included. Bronchial washing (BW) and histopathological evaluation were performed in all patients. The positivity rates of BW and TBLB tissue culture, and typical histopathological findings for MAC disease were investigated. Furthermore, all patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of intrabronchial purulent or mucopurulent secretion and the clinical, bacteriological and pathological characteristics were compared between the two groups. The positive culture rates of BW and TBLB specimens for MAC were 100% (38 patients) and 28.9% (11 patients). BW materials were much more sensitive for culture positivity than TBLB specimens (P present in the TBLB specimens of only 11 patients (28.9%). Intrabronchial secretion was identified in 15 patients (39.5%, secretion-positive group) and absent in 23 patients (60.5%, secretion-negative group). Typical histopathological findings for MAC disease were more common in the secretion-positive group than in the secretion-negative group (53.3% vs 13.0%, P = 0.01), although the radiological classification and smear positivity of BW were not different between the two groups. TBLB for pathological and bacterial investigations would provide only a limited value for MAC diagnosis. Moreover, the presence of intrabronchial secretion may be an important manifestation of ongoing airway damage, which would require early treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

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    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  12. KatG protein: A novel marker for differential diagnosis of Myobacterium avium complex infection

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    Gupta K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biochemical or nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques for MAC infection are unsatisfactory. This study aims to identify and evaluate M. avium secretory protein(s of diagnostic potential, so as to develop a rapid and simple method for diagnosis of MAC infection. Material and Methods: Initially, a specific protein band of ~80-85 kDa was recognised by differential immunoblotting; which was subjected to anion exchange column chromatography for purification of proteins. After fractionisation using SDS-PAGE and electroelution, blast search was carried out. Further immunoreactivity studies were done with M. avium and Mtb infected mice sera. Clinical utilisation of separated protein was evaluated by conducting indirect ELISA with serum samples from mycobacterial infected patients. Results: A specific 81.6 kDa protein, shown to be catalase-peroxidase protein (KatG by blast search was separated. Immunoreactivity studies of purified KatG proteins with mice sera confirmed it to be specific for M. avium infection. Indirect ELISA with patient samples further confirmed it to be M. avium infection specific. Conclusion: KatG protein is specifically recognised by MAC patients and can be used as a marker for simple and rapid ELISA based tests for differential diagnosis of M. avium infection.

  13. Cellular immune responses to ESAT-6 discriminate between patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex and those with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P

    1999-01-01

    ESAT-6 (for 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target) is a secreted antigen found almost exclusively in organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We compared in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells to this antigen in patients with pulmonary...... disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...

  14. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...... with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  15. Tedizolid is highly bactericidal in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devyani; Srivastava, Shashikant; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Lee, Pooi S; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2017-09-01

    To determine if tedizolid is effective for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, and to use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics to design optimal doses. We performed an exposure-response experiment in the hollow-fibre system model of intracellular MAC (HFS-MAC). We mimicked the tedizolid concentration-time profiles achieved in the lungs of patients treated once daily for 28 days. The HFS-MAC was sampled at intervals to determine the tedizolid pharmacokinetics and MAC intracellular burden. We identified the 0-24 h area under the concentration-time curves to MIC (AUC0-24/MIC) ratios associated with the following targets: 80% of maximal kill (EC80), bacteriostasis, and 1.0 and 2.0 log10 cfu/mL kill. We then performed 10 000 patient Monte Carlo simulations to identify the optimal dose for each of the exposure targets. Tedizolid achieved the feat of 2.0 log10 cfu/mL kill below initial bacterial burden, an effect not seen before in this model with other antibiotics. The tedizolid exposure associated with 1.0 log10 cfu/mL kill was a non-protein bound AUC0-24/MIC ratio of 23.46, while that associated with 2.0 log10 cfu/mL kill was 37.50, and the EC80 was 21.71. The clinical dose of 200 mg achieved each of these targets in ∼100% of the 10 000 patients, except the 2.0 log10 cfu/mL kill which required 300 mg/day. A tedizolid susceptibility MIC breakpoint of 1 mg/L is proposed. Tedizolid, at standard clinical doses, is expected to be bactericidal, and even achieved an unprecedented 2.0 log10 cfu/mL kill of MAC as monotherapy. We propose it as the backbone of short-course anti-MAC chemotherapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Chylous Ascites in a Patient with HIV/AIDS: A Late Complication of Mycobacterium avium Complex-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam H. Shaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chylous ascites is very rare in HIV/AIDS and its association with Mycobacterium avium complex-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (MAC-IRIS has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a young African-American male who developed chylous ascites as a late sequela to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome while on treatment for MAC. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients who start HAART in close proximity to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection and have a rapid decline in HIV RNA level should be monitored for development of IRIS. Although the long term prognosis is poor, early diagnosis and treatment help to improve quality of life.

  17. Dose response models and a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework for the Mycobacterium avium complex that account for recent developments in molecular biology, taxonomy, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kerry A; Weir, Mark H; Haas, Charles N

    2017-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of environmentally-transmitted pathogens of great public health importance. This group is known to be harbored, amplified, and selected for more human-virulent characteristics by amoeba species in aquatic biofilms. However, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has not been performed due to the lack of dose response models resulting from significant heterogeneity within even a single species or subspecies of MAC, as well as the range of human susceptibilities to mycobacterial disease. The primary human-relevant species and subspecies responsible for the majority of the human disease burden and present in drinking water, biofilms, and soil are M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, and M. chimaera. A critical review of the published literature identified important health endpoints, exposure routes, and susceptible populations for MAC risk assessment. In addition, data sets for quantitative dose-response functions were extracted from published in vivo animal dosing experiments. As a result, seven new exponential dose response models for human-relevant species of MAC with endpoints of lung lesions, death, disseminated infection, liver infection, and lymph node lesions are proposed. Although current physical and biochemical tests used in clinical settings do not differentiate between M. avium and M. intracellulare, differentiating between environmental species and subspecies of the MAC can aid in the assessment of health risks and control of MAC sources. A framework is proposed for incorporating the proposed dose response models into susceptible population- and exposure route-specific QMRA models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Identification of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex by PCR of AIDS and disseminated mycobacteriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Degollado-Estrada, Edgar; Villagómez-Ruiz, Alfredo; Cortés-Torres, Nancy; Arreguín-Reséndiz, Lilián; Del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to differentially identify MAC by PCR in patients with AIDS and disseminated mycobacteriosis. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mexico to identify MAC by Molecular Biology. Two sets of primers were synthesized: MAV and MIN, for M. avium and M. intracellulare, respectively. Whole-cell DNAs obtained from 29 clinical isolates and clinical serum specimens from other 24 patients with AIDS and disseminated mycobacterial infection were extracted and amplified by PCR with the MAV and MIN primers. The MAV and MIN primers each amplified one highly specific 1.3-kb segment of the homologous DNA, respectively. Twenty-nine DNAs from MAC clinical isolates identified by Gen-Probe AccuProbes were amplified with the MAV primers. Of the 24 clinical samples, 3 were positive for M. avium and 6 for M. tuberculosis. Our results demonstrated that PCR technique could be applied for the differentiation of M. avium and M. intracellulare by specific 16S rRNA primers. In patients with advanced stage AIDS and in whom disseminated mycobacteriosis is suspected, the presence of anemia (even with negative cultures), elevated alkaline phosphatase and a median CD4 count of 15.9/mL, the diagnosis of infection by MAC should be strongly considered; we suggest that in accordance with our findings, a more precise stratification of patients in terms of their CD4 T cell counts is warranted.

  19. Characterization of clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium spp. isolates and their interaction with human macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies tha...

  20. Effector molecules in expression of the antimicrobial activity of macrophages against Mycobacterium avium complex: roles of reactive nitrogen intermediates, reactive oxygen intermediates, and free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, T; Sato, K; Shimizu, T; Sano, C; Kajitani, H; Dekio, S; Tomioka, H

    1997-12-01

    We studied microbicidal activities of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), free fatty acids (FFA), and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and the mode of macrophage (mphi) production of these effectors. (1) Intracellular growth of MAC in murine peritoneal mphis was accelerated by scavengers for ROI or RNI and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase or phospholipase A2, indicating roles of ROI, RNI, and FFA in mphi anti-MAC functions. (2) Acidified NaNO2-derived RNI, FFA (linolenic and arachidonic acids), and the H2O2-mediated halogenation system exhibited a significant anti-MAC bactericidal activity. The combination of RNI with FFA showed a synergistic effect. However, the H2O2-halogenation system in combination with either RNI or FFA showed an antagonism. When Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) was used as a target organism, the combinations of RNI + FFA and RNI + H2O2-halogenation gave a synergistic effect, whereas FFA + H2O2-halogenation showed an antagonism in exerting bactericidal activity. In addition, when ROI generated by the xanthine oxidase-acetaldehyde system was combined with RNI, anti-Lm but not anti-MAC activity was potentiated. (3) ROI production by murine peritoneal mphis was observed immediately after contact with MAC organisms (MAC stimulation) and ceased within 2 h. FFA release was seen 1-24 h after MAC stimulation. RNI production was initiated from 3 h and increased during the first 36 h and continued at least for 4 days. These findings suggest that RNI and FFA rather than ROI are important effectors of anti-MAC functions of mphis, and the collaborating action of RNI with FFA temporarily participates in mphi-mediated killing of MAC in the relatively early phase after MAC stimulation.

  1. Low incidence of colonization and no cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (DMAC in Brazilian AIDS patients in the HAART era

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    Ângela Gadelha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.

  2. Low incidence of colonization and no cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (DMAC in Brazilian AIDS patients in the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadelha Ângela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.

  3. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC) respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates) tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not the MTBC- or

  4. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Shah

    Full Text Available Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not

  5. Infection with the Mycobacterium avium complex in patients without predisposing conditons: a case report and literature review

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    Andrea Barral Martins

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM, especially Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC, has been considered responsible for human disease, especially in HIV patients. Nevertheless, it has been diagnosed in immunocompetent elderly men, frequently with previous pulmonary disease: chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, complications of tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiectasis. We relate the case of a female patient, 51 years old, with continuously acid fast bacilli (AFB smears and with three previous treatments, which were conducted at the multiresistant tuberculosis (MRTB service. MAC was identified in the sputum culture, and she received treatment for one year. The posterior sputum exams were negative. The cavity lesions observed in the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT were reduced, and some of the nodule lesions became bronchiectasis, even after the end of treatment. We agree with the literature reports that indicate that MAC is the cause of bronchiectasis. It is necessary to identify the type of mycobacteria in immunocompetent individuals with positive AFB smears that do not become negative with tuberculosis treatment.

  6. Evaluation of a bovine antibody test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. Methods: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria......, corresponding to a sensitivity of 100% (54–100), specificity of 66% (60–72), a positive predictive value of 6% (2–13), and negative predictive value of 100% (98–100). Conclusion: While not suited for direct diagnosis of M. avium complex due to a high number of false positive subjects, the assay proved useful...

  7. Estimating the frequency of tap-water exposures to Mycobacterium avium complex in the U.S. population with advanced AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Glenn; Wright, J Michael; Boutin, Brenda; Swartout, Jeff; Rodgers, Pam; Niemuth, Nancy; Broder, Michael

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogens included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. The risk of contracting a disseminated MAC infection is primarily limited to the immunocompromised, including those with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These infections likely result from exposures to MAC-contaminated tap water, food, or soil, although the epidemiologic evidence is insufficient to implicate a specific medium. The objective of this study was to assess tap water exposure to MAC in the U.S. population with advanced AIDS, defined here as having fewer than 100 CD4(+) cells/mm(3) of blood. Using limited data on the detection of MAC and self-reported post-tap treatment practices, two exposure models were developed to simulate the likelihood of exposure to MAC via tap water consumption in this sensitive population. The first model integrated data from studies that described sources of water for consumption and post-tap treatment rates in cohorts infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV(+)). The second model used data from a study that categorized the fraction of water intake consisting of tap water that was not further treated. Approximately 1500 individuals with advanced AIDS were estimated to ingest tap water with detectable concentrations of MAC organisms daily. Additional studies on tap-water use in U.S. HIV(+) populations are needed to confirm these findings. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on the occurrence of MAC in tap water, particularly in regions with large HIV(+)/AIDS populations, would help address some of the uncertainty in these exposure estimates.

  8. Clinical study of pulmonary infection caused by mycobacterium avium complex. Evaluation of radiographic features on the primary pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yasuko; Harada, Susumu; Kitahara, Yoshinari; Kajiki, Akira; Maruyama, Masao; Takamoto, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Tsuneo

    1996-01-01

    During the 13 year period of 1982 to 1994 we had 103 patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. All met the criteria of atypical mycobacteriosis (Japanese Mycobacteriosis Research Group of the National Chest Hospitals). Of 103 patients 70 had no underlying pulmonary diseases and classified as primary type. Radiographic features of chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) of primary infection were evaluated. Results obtained were as follows: Primary infection of MAC was classified into two types. One was localized type. This type was further classified into three patterns; tuberculosis-like pattern, pneumonia pattern in the lingual and/or middle lobe and pneumonia pattern in other lobes. Another one was diffuse type. Tuberculosis-like pattern was most common in males. On the other hand, the pneumonia pattern and the diffuse type were most common in females. Four characteristic features were seen as follows (Type 1-4) in the chest CT examination of diffuse pattern. Type 1: Nodules near the pleura. Type 2: Nodules with subpleural thickening. Type 3: Bronchial wall thickening and ectatic change of the draining bronchi. Type 4: Cystic bronchiectatic change associated with atelectasis of the segment or the lobe. Bronchiectatic changes became severe and widespreaded in all lung fields as the disease progressed slowly. These findings were more prevalent in the lingual and/or middle lobe than the other lobes. (author)

  9. Improved detection of Mycobacterium avium complex with the Bactec radiometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffner, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    A reconsideration of the laboratory methods used for primary isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed due to the increasingly recognized importance of such mycobacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. One example of this is the severe opportunistic infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex among AIDS patients. In this study, the Bactec radiometric system was compared to conventional culture on solid medium for the detection of M. avium complex in 3,612 selected clinical specimens, mainly of extrapulmonary origin. Of a total number of 63 M. avium complex isolates, the Bactec system detected 58 (92%), compared to 37 (59%) for conventional culture. A much more rapid detection was attained with radiometric technique than with conventional culture. The mean detection time for the cultures positive with both methods was 7.1 and 28.3 days, respectively. The Bactec radiometric system achieves a rapid and significantly more sensitive detection and seems to be an excellent complement to conventional culture in the laboratory diagnosis of infections with the M. avium complex

  10. [Usefulness of the variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis for complex infections of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Noriko; Goto, Mieko; Saiki, Yumiko; Baba, Michiko; Udagawa, Tadashi; Kazumi, Yuko

    2008-09-01

    The bacilli which were isolated from a patient suspected of the mixed infections with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, were analyzed. The genotypes of M. avium in the sedimented fractions of treated sputum and in some colonies isolated from Ogawa medium were compared by the Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats (VNTR). A woman, aged 57. Mycobacterial species isolated from some colonies by culture in 2004 and 2006 and from the treated sputum in 2006, were determined by DNA sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Also, by using VNTR, the genotype of mycobacteria was analyzed. [Results] (1) The colony isolated from Ogawa medium in 2004 was monoclonal M. avium. (2) By VNTR analyses of specimens in 2006, multiple acid-fast bacteria were found in the sputum sediment and in isolated bacteria from Ogawa medium. (3) By analyses of 16S rRNA DNA sequence, M. avium and M. intracellulare were found in the colonies isolated from the sputum sediment and the Ogawa medium in 2006. (4) The same VNTR patterns were obtained in M. avium in 2004 and 2006 when single colony was analyzed. (5) From the showerhead and culvert of the bathroom in the patient's house, M. avium was not detected. By VNTR analyses, it was considered that the mixed infections of M. avium and M. intracellulare had been generated during treatment in this case. Therefore, in the case of suspected complex infection, VNTR analysis would be a useful genotyping method in M. avium complex infection.

  11. Comparison of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Method for Typing Mycobacterium avium with Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-VNTR and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Nishimori, Kei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Nakagawa, Taku; Shibayama, Takami; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are increasing annually in various countries, including Japan, but the route of transmission and pathophysiology of the infection remain unclear. Currently, a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing method using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci (MATR-VNTR) is employed in Japan for epidemiological studies using clinical isolates of M. avium. In this study, the usefulness of this MATR-VNTR typing method was compared with that of ...

  12. Utilization of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to Identify environmental Strains of Mycobacterium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species within the Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) group are found to be both prevalent and persistent in drinking water distribution systems. The MAC is composed of two predominant species: M. avium and M. intracellulare. These species have the ability to survive drinking ...

  13. Typing of clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured during a 2-year period in Denmark by using IS1245

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potentia...... as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans....

  14. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Type II and III isolates by a combination of MIRU-VNTR loci

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units and variable number tandem repeats typing (MIRU-VNTR) is a useful technique that has been recently applied to characterize members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The aim of this study was to examine the genetic variability among a collection of Spanish Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) isolates with a combination of MIRU-VNTR loci. For this purpose we tested six MIRU-VNTR loci (MI...

  15. Palatal Actinomycosis and Kaposi Sarcoma in an HIV-Infected Subject with Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are facultative intracellular organisms, members of the bacterial order actinomycetales. Although Actinomyces can behave as copathogen when anatomic barriers are compromised, its coinfection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has not previously been reported. We present the first reported case of palatal actinomycosis co-infection with disseminated MAC, in an HIV-infected subject with Kaposi sarcoma and diabetes. We discuss the pathogenesis of the complex condition of this subject.

  16. Identification of Two Novel Mycobacterium avium Allelic Variants in Pig and Human Isolates from Brazil by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Balian, Simone Carvalho; Mores, Nelson; Ferreira-Neto, José Soares

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is composed of environmental mycobacteria found widely in soil, water, and aerosols that can cause disease in animals and humans, especially disseminated infections in AIDS patients. MAC consists of two closely related species, M. avium and M. intracellulare, and may also include other, less-defined groups. The precise differentiation of MAC species is a fundamental step in epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of possible reservoirs for MAC infection in humans and animals. In this study, which included 111 pig and 26 clinical MAC isolates, two novel allelic M. avium PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) variants were identified, differing from the M. avium PRA prototype in the HaeIII digestion pattern. Mutations in HaeIII sites were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Identification of these isolates as M. avium was confirmed by PCR with DT1-DT6 and IS1245 primers, nucleic acid hybridization with the AccuProbe system, 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, and biochemical tests. The characterization of M. avium PRA variants can be useful in the elucidation of factors involved in mycobacterial virulence and routes of infection and also has diagnostic significance, since they can be misidentified as M. simiae II and M. kansasii I if the PRA method is used in the clinical laboratory for identification of mycobacteria. PMID:10405407

  17. Impact of cavity and infiltration on pulmonary function and health-related quality of life in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Takanori; Yamada, Yoshitake; Namkoong, Ho; Suzuki, Shoji; Niijima, Yuki; Kamata, Hirofumi; Funatsu, Yohei; Yagi, Kazuma; Okamori, Satoshi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ishii, Makoto; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis using CT was performed in 67 pMAC patients. The relationship between new quantitative parameters for evaluating lung involvement using 3-dimensional CT and PFTs or St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was evaluated. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume showed significant correlation with the PFT results, especially the percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC; ρ = -0.52), residual volume (ρ = -0.51), and total lung capacity (ρ = -0.59). The cavity volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.78) in the cavity group, while the ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.53) in the non-cavity group. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was significantly correlated with all SGRQ parameters (ρ = 0.41-0.52) in the non-cavity group. Infiltration was an important parameter for the PFTs and SGRQ in pMAC patients according to the 3-dimensional CT analysis. Moreover, cavity volume was an important parameter of the PFTs in the cavity group. Therefore, infiltration and cavity volume are key features for the management of pMAC disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complexes by Real-Time PCR in Bovine Milk from Brazilian Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne diseases are a public health problem worldwide. The consumption of contaminated raw milk has been recognized as a major cause of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans. Other mycobacteria that may be present in raw milk and may cause diseases are those belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this study, molecular biology tools were applied to investigate raw milk contamination with Mycobacterium spp. in family dairy farms from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Furthermore, different variables related to the source of the milk, herd characteristics, and management were evaluated for their effect on milk contamination. Five hundred and two samples were analyzed, of which 354 were from the Northwest region (102 farms with samples from 93 bulk tanks and 261 animals) and 148 from the South region of the state (22 farms with samples from 23 bulk tanks and 125 animals). Among them, 10 (1.99%) and 7 (1.39%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (9 confirmed as Mycobacterium bovis) and M. avium complexes, respectively. There was no difference in the frequencies of positive samples between the regions or the sample sources. Of the positive samples, 4 were collected from a bulk tank (1 positive for M. avium and 3 for M. tuberculosis). Moreover, 1 sample was positive concomitantly for M. tuberculosis and M. avium complexes. On risk analysis, no variable was associated with raw milk contamination by M. tuberculosis complex species. However, washing the udders of all animals and drying them with paper towels were weakly classified as risk factors for M. avium contamination. Positive samples were obtained from both animals and bulk tanks, which emphasizes the importance of tuberculosis control programs and provides evidence that milk monitoring can be used as a control practice. Moreover, the findings of this study reinforce the need for awareness of the problems of raw milk consumption among the general population.

  20. Isolamento de cepas de Mycobacterium avium em búfalos abatidos para consumo Mycobacterium avium complex in water buffaloes slaughtered for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Arimatéa Freitas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Duas cepas micobacterianas, isoladas no parênquima pulmonar e linfonodo apical de búfalos abatidos para consumo, procedentes de criatórios localizados na Ilha de Marajó (PA e submetidas à identificação segundo ensaios recomendados para o gênero Mycobacterium, foram identificadas como pertencentes ao complexo Mycobacterium avium. Apresentaram-se considerações relativas à associação desses organismos com a Aids -- e o papel dos alimentos nessa associação --, discutindo-se o impacto que a condição de germes oportunistas das espécies desse complexo têm na pandemia do HIV, assim como o risco potencial representado pelas infecções produzidas nos animais.Two mycobacterium strains isolated from lung tissue and apical lymph nodes of slaughtered water buffaloes were biochemically analyzed and identified as Mycobacterium avium complex strains. Association between these microorganisms and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the potential risk posed by eating infected animals and their products, was discussed.

  1. Increase in CD3+ CD4- T lymphocytes in patients with AIDS and disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection: a prospective study. GECSA. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, F; Dequae-Merchadou, L; Taupin, J L; Sire, S; Dupon, M; Ragnaud, J M; Lacoste, D; Texier-Maugein, J; Romagné, F; Dabis, F; Pellegrin, J L; Moreau, J F

    1999-08-01

    In a retrospective study, an increase in double-negative (CD3+ CD4- CD8-) (DN) T lymphocytes has been shown to be an independent predictor of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (D.MAC) infection in patients with less than 100 CD4+ T cells per mm3. To better characterize this cell expansion, a prospective study was designed. From July 1995 to April 1997, 206 HIV-infected patients with less than 100 CD4+ T cells per mm3 were prospectively followed up and immunophenotyped. The median followup was 1.1 year (+/-0.5 year), and 14 new D.MAC infections were diagnosed among 84 first AIDS-defining events. In univariate and multivariate analyses, D.MAC infections were the only opportunistic infection with a significant increase in DN T-cell percentage (median = 6.6; range = 1.7 to 24.5, P = 0.004) compared with patients without any opportunistic infection. This alteration in T-lymphocyte count could constitute a predictor for D.MAC infection in clinical practice.

  2. The clinical efficacy of a clarithromycin-based regimen for Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A nationwide post-marketing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

    2017-05-01

    The revised 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America statement recommend clarithromycin-based combination therapy for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and stipulates approximately 1 year of continuous treatment after bacilli negative conversion. However, supporting data are insufficient. Our objective was to obtain data on the clinical outcome of clarithromycin-based daily regimens by conducting a nationwide retrospective post-marketing study of M. avium complex lung disease. In accordance with the Japanese guidelines, patients were enrolled in this survey according to their chest radiographic findings and microbiologic test results. They were treated with a multidrug regimen including clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol (clarithromycin-based regimen) until bacilli negative conversion, and the treatment was continued for approximately 1 year after the initial conversion. Data were collected before administration, at the time of bacilli negative conversion, at the end of treatment, and at 6 months after the end of treatment. Of the 466 subjects enrolled in the study, 271 patients who received clarithromycin at 800 mg/day underwent evaluation for M. avium complex disease. The final bacilli negative conversion rate in those patients was 94.7%. The bacteriological relapse rate was 5.0% (5/100 patients). Bacteriological relapse was noted in patients treated for less than 15 months after conversion. No life-threatening or serious adverse drug reactions were observed. This study demonstrated that a clarithromycin-based daily regimen can yield a high bacteriological conversion rate in M. avium complex disease. After conversion, treatment for less than 15 months might be insufficient to prevent bacteriological relapse. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium Subspecies, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex by a Novel Tetraplex Real-Time PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Elena; Elguezabal, Natalia; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and many other nontuberculous mycobacteria are worldwide distributed microorganisms of major medical and veterinary importance. Considering the growing epidemiologic significance of wildlife-livestock-human interrelation, developing rapid detection tools of high specificity and sensitivity is vital to assess their presence and accelerate the process of diagnosing mycobacteriosis. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel tetraplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium genus, M. avium subspecies, and M. tuberculosis complex in an internally monitored single assay. The method was evaluated using DNA from mycobacterial (n = 38) and nonmycobacterial (n = 28) strains, tissues spiked with different CFU amounts of three mycobacterial species (n = 57), archival clinical samples (n = 233), and strains isolated from various hosts (n = 147). The minimum detectable DNA amount per reaction was 50 fg for M. bovis BCG and M. kansasii and 5 fg for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. When spiked samples were analyzed, the method consistently detected as few as 100 to 1,000 mycobacterial CFU per gram. The sensitivity and specificity values for the panel of clinical samples were 97.5 and 100% using a verified culture-based method as the reference method. The assays performed on clinical isolates confirmed these results. This PCR was able to identify M. avium and M. tuberculosis complex in the same sample in one reaction. In conclusion, the tetraplex real-time PCR we designed represents a highly specific and sensitive tool for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in routine laboratory diagnosis with potential additional uses. PMID:25588660

  4. Consequence of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease judging from the change of the chest CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kiyohiro

    2008-01-01

    The long term consequence of the disease in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MACPD) is scarcely reported. This paper describes consequences of CT images and clinical symptoms in MACPD patients with rather poorer prognosis than usual during chemotherapy for one or more years in authors' hospital until May 2007. Subjects are 17 patients (average age 65.3 y, M 6/F 11) diagnosed as MACPD by the criteria by Jap. Soc. Tuberculosis (2003), whose follow up period is 14-105 (av. 58.1) months, and are classified in tuberculoid type (tt, 2 cases), bronchiectasis post surgery (2) and bronchia type (bt, 13, mostly primary MACPD). Chemotherapy is done with clarithromycin (CAM)+ethambutol (EB)+rifampicin (RHP) (+streptomycin (SM) for progression). Consequences of typical chest CT images are presented for each classification in this paper. Cavitation is seen even in bt as well as in tt and, if observed, the disease tends to deteriorate. In the secondary MACPD post surgery, the exacerbation of clinical symptom is often more severe despite slow changes in CT finding than in bt. Thus, careful follow up is necessary for the two cases above. (R.T.)

  5. Characterization of clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium spp. isolates and their interaction with human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Guirado

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies that can identify specific virulence properties of M. avium isolates found in water that predict a level of risk to exposed individuals. In this work we have characterized 15 clinical and environmental M. avium spp. isolates provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to improve our understanding of the key processes involved in the binding, uptake and survival of these isolates in primary human macrophages. M. avium serovar 8 was predominant among the isolates studied. Different amounts and exposure of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM and glycopeptidolipids (GPLs, both major mycobacterial virulence factors, were found among the isolates studied. Reference clinical isolate 104 serovar 1 and clinical isolates 11 and 14 serovar 8 showed an increased association with macrophages. Serum opsonization increased the cell association and survival at 2 h post infection for all isolates. However, only the clinical isolates 104 and 3 among those tested showed an increased growth in primary human macrophages. The other isolates varied in their survival in these cells. Thus we conclude that the amounts of cell envelope ManLAM and GPL, as well as GPL serovar specificity are not the only important bacterial factors for dictating the early interactions of M. avium with human macrophages.

  6. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium among HIV-infected patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. EuroSIDA Study Group JD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gatell, J M; Mocroft, A

    2000-01-01

    the introduction of HAART, using data from the EuroSIDA study, a European, multicenter observational cohort of more than 7,000 patients. Overall incidences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were 0.8 and 1.4 cases/100 person-years of follow-up (PYF), decreasing from 1.8 (TB...

  7. Molecular characterization and drug susceptibility profile of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium isolate from a dog with disseminated infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Federica; Furlanello, Tommaso; Camperio, Cristina; Trotta, Michele; Novari, Gianluca; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2016-01-12

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections have been described in many mammalian species including humans and pets. We isolated and molecularly typed the causative agent of a rare case of disseminated mycobacteriosis in a dog. We identified the pathogen as a M. avium subspecies avium by sequencing the partial genes gyrB and rpsA. Considering the zoonotic potential of this infection, and in an attempt to ensure the most effective treatment for the animal, we also determined the drug susceptibility profile of the isolate to the most common drugs used to treat MAC disease in humans. The pathogen was tested in vitro against the macrolide clarithromycin, as well as against amikacin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, ethambutol and linezolid by the resazurin microdilution assay. It was found to be sensitive to all tested drugs save ethambutol. Despite the fact that the pathogen was sensitive to the therapies administered, the dog's overall clinical status worsened, and the animal died shortly after antimicrobial susceptibility results became available. Nucleotide sequencing of the embB gene, the target gene most commonly associated with ethambutol resistance, showed new missense mutations when compared to sequences available in public databases. In conclusion, we molecularly identified the MAC pathogen and determined its drug susceptibility profile in a relatively short period of time (seven days). We also characterized new genetic mutations likely to have been involved in the observed ethambutol resistance. Our results confirm the usefulness of both the gyrB and the rpsA genes as biomarkers for an accurate identification and differentiation of MAC pathogens.

  8. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome due to Mycobacterium avium complex successfully followed up using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Ho; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Ishii, Makoto; Yagi, Kazuma; Haraguchi, Mizuha; Matsusaka, Masako; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Asami, Takahiro; Saito, Fumitake; Fukunaga, Koichi; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (MAC-IRIS) that was successfully followed up using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. A 44-year-old homosexual Japanese man was referred to our hospital with fever and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and found to be HIV positive. After the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the patient’s mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and bilateral infiltrates appeared in the upper lung fields. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed five months after the initiation of cART and showed intense accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) corresponding to the lesions of infiltration as well as the mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. A bronchial wash culture and pathology findings led to a diagnosis of MAC-IRIS. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy with rifampicin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin was started. One year after the chemotherapy was initiated, there was a significant reduction in FDG uptake in the area of the lesions except in the mediastinal lymph node. This implied incomplete resolution of the MAC-IRIS-related inflammation. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was continued because of the residual lesion. To date, the patient has not experienced a recurrence of MAC-IRIS, a period of nine months. We present a case of MAC-IRIS in an HIV-infected patient whose disease activity was successfully followed up using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Our data suggest that 18 F-FDG PET/CT is useful for evaluating the disease activity of NTM-IRIS and

  9. Clinical significance and epidemiologic analyses of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease from post-marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tatsuno, Kinji; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. avium or M. intracellulare. However, clinical features of the disease caused by these two pathogens have not been studied sufficiently yet. A post-marketing survey of clarithromycin was performed at 130 facilities across Japan. The data on patients with M. avium infection and patients with M. intracellulare infection were selected from this survey for comparison of background variables and clinical features of the two pathogens. Among the patients analyzed (n = 368), 67.4% had M. avium infection and 32.6% had M. intracellulare infection. Stratified analysis revealed no significant differences between the ratio of the two pathogens based on gender, disease type, complication, past medical history, or smoking history. However, the percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection was significantly higher among those with underlying lung disease than among those without lung disease (p = 0.0217). The percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection rose significantly with age (p = 0.0296). This age-related change was more significant in women (p = 0.0018). When district-wise analysis was performed for Japan, the percentage of M. intracellulare infection was higher in the Chugoku/Shikoku and Kyushu districts whereas the percentage of M. avium infection was higher in the other districts. This survey revealed some differences in the clinical and epidemiologic features of M. avium and M. intracellulare infection. The significant predominance of M. avium infection among relatively young women is suggestive of an increase in the M. avium/M. intracellulare infection ratio among women in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advances in the Treatment of Desseminated Mycobacterium avium Complex in Adults with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Kemper

    1994-01-01

    the semisynthetic macrolides, clarithromycin and azithromycin, has altered this perspective. Several recent clinical studies have been key to our understanding of the successful management of these patients and are the basis of this review. Yet, some patients with disseminated MAC remain poorly responsive to therapy, intolerance often limits therapy, and recrudescent bacteremia often occurs. Though our understanding of this infection has been rapidly advanced in the past three years. much remains to be learned about its optimal therapeutic management.

  11. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolated from humans, cattle and pigs in the Uganda cattle corridor using VNTR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Adrian; Oloya, James; Kankya, Clovice; Nielsen, Sigrun; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein; Djønne, Berit; Johansen, Tone B

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) cause disease in both human and animals. Their ubiquitous nature makes them both successful microbes and difficult to source track. The precise characterization of MAC species is a fundamental step in epidemiological studies and evaluating of possible reservoirs. This study aimed at identifying and characterizing Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolated from human, slaughter cattle and pigs in various parts of the Uganda cattle corridor (UCC) at two temporal points using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis. A total of 46 M. avium isolates; 31 from 997 pigs, 12 from 43 humans biopsies and three from 61 cattle lesions were identified to subspecies level using IS1245 and IS901 PCR, thereafter characterized using VNTR. Twelve loci from two previously described VNTR methods were used and molecular results were analyzed and interpreted using Bionumerics 6.1. 37 of the isolates were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis and four as M. avium subsp. avium, while five could not be differentiated, possibly due to mixed infection. There was distinct clustering that coincides with the temporal and spatial differences of the isolates. The isolates from humans and cattle in the North Eastern parts of the UCC shared identical VNTR genotypes. The panel of loci gave an overall discriminatory power of 0.88. Some loci were absent in several isolates, probably reflecting differences in isolates from Uganda/Africa compared to isolates previously analyzed by these methods in Europe and Asia. The findings indicate a molecular difference between M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from pigs in Mubende and cattle and human in the rest of the UCC. Although human and cattle shared VNTR genotypes in the North Eastern parts of the UCC, it is most likely a reflection of a shared environmental source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Causation of Crohn’s Disease by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hermon-Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a member of the M avium complex (MAC. It differs genetically from other MAC in having 14 to 18 copies of IS900 and a single cassette of DNA involved in the biosynthesis of surface carbohydrate. Unlike other MAC, MAP is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animal species, including primates. The disease ranges from pluribacillary to paucimicrobial, with chronic granulomatous inflammation like leprosy in humans. MAP infection can persist for years without causing clinical disease. The herd prevalence of MAP infection in Western Europe and North America is reported in the range 21% to 54%. These subclinically infected animals shed MAP in their milk and onto pastures. MAP is more robust than tuberculosis, and the risk that is conveyed to human populations in retail milk and in domestic water supplies is high. MAP is harboured in the ileocolonic mucosa of a proportion of normal people and can be detected in a high proportion of full thickness samples of inflamed Crohn’s disease gut by improved culture systems and IS900 polymerase chain reaction if the correct methods are used. MAP in Crohn’s disease is present in a protease-resistant nonbacillary form, can evade immune recognition and probably causes an immune dysregulation. As with other MAC, MAP is resistant to most standard antituberculous drugs. Treatment of Crohn’s disease with combinations of drugs more active against MAC such as rifabutin and clarithromycin can bring about a profound improvement and, in a few cases, apparent disease eradication. New drugs as well as effective MAP vaccines for animals and humans are needed. The problems caused by MAP constitute a public health issue of tragic proportions for which a range of remedial measures are urgently needed.

  13. Planning for MacArthur: Harnessing the Complexity of Postwar Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    communities leaving most citizens homeless . Nevertheless, the small military delegation confidently and stiffly arrived on a hot August day in...contributes to the subsistence, clothing and shelter of the population.” 31 Major General William Marquat, former deputy to MacArthur, became the lead...14 efficiently developed a plan of action after noticing the lack of Japanese progress in

  14. Mac Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide answers all your questions on using a Macintosh computer, whether you?re unpacking your very first Mac after switching from a PC or upgrading from an older Mac. You?ll walk through all pre-installed Mac applications, including using Mac OS X, browsing the Web using Safari, downloading music from the iTunes store, troubleshooting Mac-specific problems, organizing photos in iPhoto, organizing calendars in iCal, editing digital video in iMovie, and more.

  15. A novel ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM) regimen for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devyani; Srivastava, Shashikant; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Lee, Pooi S; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2017-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of ceftazidime/avibactam plus tedizolid-based combination regimens with the standard therapy of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifabutin for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. We mimicked the human pulmonary concentration-time profiles of ceftazidime/avibactam and tedizolid in combination, ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM), and the standard regimen and examined microbial kill in triplicate hollow-fibre system model of intracellular pulmonary MAC (HFS-MAC) units. The tedizolid and moxifloxacin doses used were non-optimized; the tedizolid dose was that associated with bacteriostasis. Drugs were administered daily for 28 days. Each HFS-MAC was sampled in the central and peripheral compartment to ascertain that the intended drug exposures had been achieved. The peripheral compartments were sampled at regular intervals over the 28 days to quantify the burden of MAC. MAC-infected macrophages in the HFS-MAC achieved multi-fold higher intracellular versus extracellular concentrations of rifabutin, moxifloxacin, ceftazidime/avibactam. The non-optimized ceftazidime/avibactam plus tedizolid dual therapy held the bacterial burden at the same level as day 0 (stasis) throughout the 28 days. The standard therapy reduced the bacterial load 2 log10 cfu/mL below stasis on day 14 but started failing after that. The CARTM regimen achieved 3.2 log10 cfu/mL kill below stasis on day 21, but had started to fail by day 28. The CARTM regimen promises to have kill rates better than standard therapy. Experiments to identify exposures of each of the four drugs associated with optimal effect in the CARTM combination are needed in order to design a short-course chemotherapy regimen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. New polymorphisms within the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) 7 locus of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Ahmad; Zschöck, Michael; Ewers, Christa; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) is a frequently employed typing method of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates. Based on whole genome sequencing in a previous study, allelic diversity at some VNTR loci seems to over- or under-estimate the actual phylogenetic variance among isolates. Interestingly, two closely related isolates on one farm showed polymorphism at the VNTR 7 locus, raising concerns about the misleading role that it might play in genotyping. We aimed to investigate the underlying basis of VNTR 7-polymorphism by analyzing sequence data for published genomes and field isolates of MAP and other M. avium complex (MAC) members. In contrast to MAP strains from cattle, strains from sheep displayed an "imperfect" repeat within VNTR 7, which was identical to respective allele types in other MAC genomes. Subspecies- and strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two novel (16 and 56 bp) repeats were detected. Given the combination of the three existing repeats, there are at least five different patterns for VNTR 7. The present findings highlight a higher polymorphism and probable instability of VNTR 7 locus that needs to be considered and challenged in future studies. Until then, sequencing of this locus in future studies is important to correctly assign the underlying allele types.(1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluores...

  18. Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from naturally infected lofts of domestic pigeons by IS901 RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parvandar Asadollahi

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion: It is suggested that more DNA fingerprinting tests for non-tuberculous Mycobacteria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, be conducted to find the source of their infections.

  19. In Vitro Efficacy of Free and Nanoparticle Formulations of Gallium(III) meso-Tetraphenylporphyrine against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus and Gallium Biodistribution in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seoung-Ryoung; Britigan, Bradley E; Switzer, Barbara; Hoke, Traci; Moran, David; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2018-03-05

    The nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, M. avium complex (MAC) and M. abscessus, can result in severe pulmonary infections. Current antibiotics confront significant challenges for treatment of these NTM infections due to emerging multidrug-resistance. Thus, development of new antibiotics targeted against these agents is needed. We examined the inhibitory activities of Ga(NO 3 ) 3 , GaCl 3 , gallium meso-tetraphenylporphyrine (GaTP), and gallium nanoparticles (GaNP) against intra- and extracellular M. avium and M. abscessus. GaTP, an analogue of natural heme, inhibited growth of both M. avium and M. abscessus with MICs in Fe-free 7H9 media of 0.5 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. GaTP was more active than Ga(NO 3 ) 3 and GaCl 3 . Ga(NO 3 ) 3 and GaCl 3 were not as active in Fe-rich media compared to Fe-free media. However, GaTP was much less impacted by exogenous Fe, with MICs against M. avium and M. abscessus of 2 and 4 μg/mL, respectively, in 7H9 OADC media (Fe rich). Confocal microscopy showed that GaNP penetrates the M. avium cell wall. As assessed by determining colony forming units, GaNP inhibited the growth of NTM growing in THP-1 macrophages up to 15 days after drug-loading of the cells, confirming a prolonged growth inhibitory activity of the GaNP. Biodistribution studies of GaNP conducted in mice showed that intraperitoneal injection is more effective than intramuscular injection in delivering Ga(III) into lung tissue. GaTP exhibits potential as a lead compound for development of anti-NTM agents that target heme-bound iron uptake mechanisms by mycobacteria and inhibit growth by disrupting mycobacterial iron acquisition/utilization.

  20. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium subspecies silvaticum from a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiers, Koen; Deschaght, Pieter; De Baere, Thierry; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Kotlowski, Roman; De Clercq, Dominique; Ducatelle, Richard; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2012-07-01

    Routine cultivation methods are able to distinguish between isolates of the Mycobacterium avium and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. However, molecular tools are needed to further identify the several subspecies in the M. avium complex, especially for the subspecies avium and silvaticum. A rapid technique using HhaI restriction digestion of a 349 bp amplification product of the 85B antigen (α-antigen) gene was used for the identification of M. avium subsp. silvaticum in a three-year-old gelding presenting with caseous, necrotizing, granulomatous lesions. The result was confirmed by sequencing of the 85B antigen gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  2. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection during HIV disease. Persisting problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Manfredi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Still in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy, late recognition of HIV disease or lack of sufficient immune recovery pose HIV-infected patients at risk to develop opportunistic infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, which are environmental organisms commonly retrieved in soil and superficial waters.Among these microorganisms, the most frequent is represented by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Health care professionals who face HIV-infected patients should suspect disseminated mycobacterial disease when a deep immunodeficiency is present, (a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL often associated with constitutional signs and symptoms, and non-specific laboratory abnormalities. Mycobacterial culture of peripheral blood is a reliable technique for diagnosing disseminated disease. Among drugs active against NTM, as well as some anti-tubercular compounds, the rifampin derivative rifabutin, and some novel fluoroquinolones, the availability of macrolides, has greatly contributed to improve both prophylaxis and treatment outcome of disseminated MAC infections. Although multiple questions remain about which regimens may be regarded as optimal, general recommendations can be expressed on the ground of existing evidences.Treatment should begin with associated clarithromycin (or azithromycin, plus ethambutol and rifabutin (with the rifabutin dose depending on other concomitant medications that might result in drug-drug interactions.A combined three-drug regimen is preferred for patients who cannot be prescribed an effective antiretroviral regimen immediately. Patients with a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL, who do not have clinical evidence of active mycobacterial disease, should receive a primary prophylaxis with either clarithromycin or azithromycin, with or without rifabutin.

  3. Soft tissue abscess and lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium Complex as an expression of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after a second scheme of highly active antiretroviral therapy Linfadenitis y absceso subcutáneo por Complejo Mycobacterium avium como manifestación de síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune luego de un segundo esquema de terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is an atypical and unexpected reaction related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. IRIS includes an atypical response to an opportunistic pathogen (generally Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus and herpes varicella-zoster, in patients responding to HAART with a reduction of plasma viral load and evidence of immune restoration based on increase of CD4+ T-cell count. We reported a case of a patient with AIDS which, after a first failure of HAART, developed a subcutaneous abscess and supraclavicular lymphadenitis as an expression of IRIS due to Mycobacterium avium complex after starting a second scheme of HAART.El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune (SIRI es una reacción atípica e inesperada relacionada con el tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. El SIRI representa una respuesta inflamatoria frente a un patógeno oportunista (generalmente Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Complejo Mycobacterium avium, citomegalovirus y herpes varicela-zóster en pacientes que responden a la TARGA con una marcada reducción de la carga viral en plasma y evidencia de una recuperación inmunológica expresada por el incremento de los niveles de linfocitos T CD4+. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida que desarrolló un absceso subcutáneo en muslo derecho y una adenitis supraclavicular izquierda como manifestación de SIRI por Complejo Mycobacterium avium luego del inicio de un segundo esquema de TARGA.

  4. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  6. Macs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Get the most out of your Mac with this comprehensive guide Macs For Dummies, 13th Edition is the ultimate guide to your Mac, fully updated to include information about the latest updates. The book walks you through troubleshooting, syncing mobile devices, integrating Windows, and more, so you can take advantage of everything Macs have to offer. Whether you're a new user, a recent convert, or you just want to get the most out of your Mac, this book puts all the information you need in one place. Discover what makes Macs superior computing machines. Learn the basics, from mastering the Dock and

  7. Lymphadenitis in children is caused by Mycobacterium avium hominissuis and not related to 'bird tuberculosis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L.E.S.; de Haas, P.E.W.; Lindeboom, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.; van Soolingen, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is the most commonly encountered mycobacterium species among non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (nontuberculous mycobacteria) isolates worldwide and frequently causes lymphadenitis in children. During a multi-centre study in The Netherlands that was performed to determine the

  8. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  9. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  10. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Modali, Sita D.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tri-partite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation o...

  11. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles; Hunter, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Charles Edge, Zack Smith, and Beau Hunter provide detailed explanations of the technology required for large-scale Mac OS X deployments and show you how to integrate it with other operating systems and applications. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide addresses the growing size and spread of Mac OS X deployments in corporations and institutions worldwide. In some cases, this is due to the growth of traditional Mac environments, but for the most part it has to do with "switcher" campaigns, where Windows and/or Linux environments are migrating to Mac OS X. However, there is a steep cu

  12. Mac Security Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Your essential, no-holds-barred guide to Mac security threats and solutions. Myth number one: Macs are safer than PCs. Not really, says author Joe Kissell, named one of MacTech's "25 Most Influential People" in the Mac community for 2008. In this timely guide, he not only takes you beyond the myths, he also delves into the nitty-gritty of each potential threat, helping you weigh the pros and cons of the solutions you might choose. Learn to measure risk versus inconvenience, make informed decisions, and protect your Mac computers, your privacy, and your data with this essential guide.

  13. Characterization of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Operon Associated with Virulence and Drug Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Noelia Viale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lprG-p55 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis is involved in the transport of toxic compounds. P55 is an efflux pump that provides resistance to several drugs, while LprG is a lipoprotein that modulates the host's immune response against mycobacteria. The knockout mutation of this operon severely reduces the replication of both mycobacterial species during infection in mice and increases susceptibility to toxic compounds. In order to gain insight into the function of LprG in the Mycobacterium avium complex, in this study, we assayed the effect of the deletion of lprG gene in the D4ER strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The replacement of lprG gene with a hygromycin cassette caused a polar effect on the expression of p55. Also, a twofold decrease in ethidium bromide susceptibility was observed and the resistance to the antibiotics rifampicin, amikacin, linezolid, and rifabutin was impaired in the mutant strain. In addition, the mutation decreased the virulence of the bacteria in macrophages in vitro and in a mice model in vivo. These findings clearly indicate that functional LprG and P55 are necessary for the correct transport of toxic compounds and for the survival of MAA in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of 7-Epiclusianone and Its Novel Copper Metal Complex on Streptococcus spp. Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Their Cytotoxicity in MAC-T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Mariana; Perciano, Pedro Griffo; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Costa, Éderson D'Martin; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

    2017-05-17

    Mastitis is an inflammation of mammary gland parenchyma that adversely affects bovine health and dairy production worldwide despite significant efforts to eradicate it. The aim of this work was to characterize the antimicrobial activity of 7-epiclusianone (7-epi), a compound extracted from the Rheedia brasiliensis fruit, its complex with copper against Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis, and to assess their cytotoxicity to bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T). The complex 7-epiclusianone-Cu (7-epi-Cu) was an amorphous green solid with optical activity. Its vibrational spectrum in the infrared region showed absorption bands in the high-frequency region, as well as bands that can be attributed to the unconjugated and conjugated stretching of the free ligand. The complex was anhydrous. One of the tested bacterial strains was not sensitive to the compounds, while the other three had MIC values of 7.8 µg mL -1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values between 15.6 and 31.3 µg mL -1 . These two compounds are bacteriostatic, did not cause damage to the cell wall and, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, did not induce bacterial adhesion. The compounds were not cytotoxic. Based on these results, 7-epi and 7-epi-Cu exhibited desirable antimicrobial properties and could potentially be used in bovine mastitis treatment.

  15. Molecular analysis and MIRU-VNTR typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, 'hominissuis' and silvaticum strains of veterinary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Dán, Ádám; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    Besides Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), M. avium subsp. avium (MAA), M. avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS), and 'M. avium subsp. hominissuis' (MAH) are equally important members of M. avium complex, with worldwide distribution and zoonotic potential. Genotypic discrimination is a prerequisite to epidemiological studies which can facilitate disease prevention through revealing infection sources and transmission routes. The primary aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity within 135 MAA, 62 MAS, and 84 MAH strains isolated from wild and domestic mammals, reptiles and birds. Strains were tested for the presence of large sequence polymorphism LSP(A)17 and were submitted to Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis at 8 loci, including MIRU1, 2, 3, and 4, VNTR25, 32, and 259, and MATR9. In 12 strains hsp65 sequence code type was also determined. LSP(A)17 was present only in 19.9% of the strains. All LSP(A)17 positive strains belonged to subspecies MAH. The discriminatory power of the MIRU-VNTR loci set used reached 0.9228. Altogether 54 different genotypes were detected. Within MAH, MAA, and MAS strains 33, 16, and 5 different genotypes were observed. The described genotypes were not restricted to geographic regions or host species, but proved to be subspecies specific. Our knowledge about MAS is limited due to isolation and identification difficulties. This is the first study including a large number of MAS field strains. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of MAH and MAA strains and the relative uniformity of MAS strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mac at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, David

    2011-01-01

    Bridge the gap between using a Mac at home and at the office. Now that you love your Mac at home, you want to use one at the office without missing a beat of productivity or professionalism. This unique guide shows you how.  You'll find best Mac business practices for handling word processing, spreadsheet and presentation creation, task and project management, and graphics. The book also explores topics such as hardware maintenance, how to synchronize with multiple computers, data backup, and communication with Windows networks.: Covers the nuts and bolts of using a Mac at work, including sync

  17. Enterprise Mac Security Mac OS X Snow Leopard Security

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Stephen Charles; Hunter, Beau; Sullivan, Gene; LeBlanc, Dee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception in the Mac community is that Mac's operating system is more secure than others. While this might be true in certain cases, security on the Mac is still a crucial issue. When sharing is enabled or remote control applications are installed, Mac OS X faces a variety of security threats. Enterprise Mac Security: Mac OS X Snow Leopard is a definitive, expert-driven update of the popular, slash-dotted first edition and was written in part as a companion to the SANS Institute course for Mac OS X. It contains detailed Mac OS X security information, and walkthroughs on securing s

  18. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in assembly of MacAB-TolC macrolide transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary MacB is a founding member of the Macrolide Exporter family of transporters belonging to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily. These proteins are broadly represented in genomes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are implicated in virulence and protection against antibiotics and peptide toxins. MacB transporter functions together with MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, which stimulates MacB ATPase. In gram-negative bacteria, MacA is believed to couple ATP hydrolysis to transport of substrates across the outer membrane through a TolC-like channel. In this study, we report a real-time analysis of concurrent ATP hydrolysis and assembly of MacAB-TolC complex. MacB binds nucleotides with a low millimolar affinity and fast on- and off-rates. In contrast, MacA-MacB complex is formed with a nanomolar affinity, which further increases in the presence of ATP. Our results strongly suggest that association between MacA and MacB is stimulated by ATP binding to MacB but remains unchanged during ATP hydrolysis cycle. We also found that the large periplasmic loop of MacB plays the major role in coupling reactions separated in two different membranes. This loop is required for MacA-dependent stimulation of MacB ATPase and at the same time, contributes to recruitment of TolC into a trans-envelope complex. PMID:23057817

  19. The MAC framework : Redefining MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, T.; Halkes, G.; Bezemer, M.; Langendoen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Most current WSN MAC protocol implementations have multiple tasks to perform—deciding on correct timing, sending of packets, sending of acknowledgements, etc. However, as much of this is common to all MAC protocols, there is duplication of functionality, which leads to larger MAC protocol code size

  20. EVIDENCE FOR THE MACROPHAGE INDUCING GENE IN MYCOBACTERIUM INTRACELLULARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and possibly others. Organisms belonging to the MAC are phylogenetically closely related, opportunistic pathogens. The macrophage inducing gene (mig) is the only well-des...

  1. MAC calorimeters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAC Collaboration.

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry

  2. Florence Jessie Mac Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CPMGIKAlBGE-340/2003-05. Resonance - January 2005. Licenced to post WPP No.6 RT Nagar Postoffice. Florence Jessie Mac Williams. (1917 - 1990). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044. Price per copy: Rs 40.

  3. Saunders Mac Lane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society in 1995. At one point he says that he saw Hitler and Goring in close proximity to him during the intermission of a musical opera and that, had he carried a weapon, he "might have personally changed history"! The collaboration of Mac Lane with Samuel Eilenberg gave rise ...

  4. Distribución de patrones PRA en aislamientos clínicos del complejo Mycobacterium avium procedentes de España y Suramérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Murcia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección por el complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es la infección sistémica más frecuente en la fase terminal del SIDA. Las sondas de ADN disponibles en el mercado para la identificación de micobacterias son muy precisas pero extremadamente costosas. Por eso, la mayoría de los laboratorios clínicos de Latinoamérica aún tipifican micobacterias mediante pruebas fenotípicas que son lentas, laboriosas y poco precisas. En este trabajo se aplicó el análisis del polimorfismo de los fragmentos de restricción del gen hsp65 (PRA a la identificación de MAC en 163 aislamientos clínicos procedentes de España y Suramérica. El genotipo PRA predominante en cada país fue: M. avium tipo I en Argentina (23/42, 55% y Brasil (48/72, 67%, M. avium tipo II en España (18/26, 69% y M. avium tipo III en Colombia (10/23, 43%. Este último genotipo, que aún no fue descrito fuera del continente americano, resultó muy infrecuente en los otros tres países del estudio. Se discuten ventajas e inconvenientes de la aplicación del PRA al diagnóstico micobacteriológico.

  5. iMac pocket genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    If you want to get the very most out of your iMac, put this savvy Portable Genius guide to work. Want to make the most of the new Magic Mouse and the latest iLife apps? Set up a wireless network using your iMac's AirPort card? Watch television on your iMac, or show iMac videos and movies on your television? You'll find cool and useful Genius tips, full-color screenshots, and pages of easy-to-access shortcuts and tools that will save you time and let you enjoy your iMac to the max.

  6. MacBook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers , Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Make friends with your MacBook the fun and easy way! Ultra-light, ultra-fast, and ultra-powerful, the MacBook is the coolest laptop in town, and longtime Mac guru Mark L. Chambers is just the guy to help you get to know your MacBook in no time. Take a closer look at the latest features, get the lowdown on OS X, unleash your creative forces with iLife, take care of business with the iWork applications, and sync it all with iCloud with the expert advice in this bestselling MacBook guide. Whether this is your first MacBook or your first laptop, period, you''ll learn to navigate the Mac desktop, c

  7. iMac portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The most up-to-date coverage on the latest iMac advice, tools, and shortcuts Cool and useful tips, full-color screenshots, and savvy advice show you how to get the most out of your iMac. Fully updated to cover the iMac's latest features and capabilities, this guide is packed with indispensible information on iLife '09 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, and shows you how to customize your iMac in a way that it will work best for you.Explores all the bells and whistles of the iMac, including the new Magic Mouse, iLife apps such as iPhoto and iMovie, and Mac OS X Snow LeopardShows yo

  8. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II alleles which confer susceptibility or protection in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-class I) and II (HLA-class II) alleles associated with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort by a nested case–control association study. Methods Morphea patients were included from MAC cohort and matched controls from the NIH/NIAMS Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA- Class II genotyping and SSCP typing was performed of HLA-A, -B, -C alleles. Associations between HLA-Class I and II alleles and morphea as well as its subphenotypes were determined. Results There were 211 cases available for HLA-class I typing with 726 matched controls and 158 cases available for HLA Class-II typing with 1108 matched controls. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–4.0 P=0.002) and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among Class I alleles (3.3, 95% CI 1.6–6.9, P= 0.0016). Comparison with risk alleles in systemic sclerosis determined using the same methods and control population revealed one common allele (DRB*04:04). Conclusion Results of the present study demonstrate specific HLA Class I and II alleles are associated with morphea and likely generalized and linear subtypes. The associated morphea alleles are different than in scleroderma, implicating morphea is also immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population based studies indicate patients with RA have increased risk of morphea, implicating a common susceptibility allele. PMID:25223600

  9. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

  10. iMac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Do it all with your iMac and this bestselling For Dummies guide! You're still a little giddy from finally scoring your new iMac, and you can't wait to get started. Even if you're already in love with your iMac, it helps to have a little guidance to really get the most out of this ultimate all-in-one computer. This updated edition of iMac For Dummies is the ideal way to learn the iMac fundamentals from setting up and personalizing your machine to importing files, making FaceTime video calls, surfing the web, using your favorite programs and apps, and everything in between. Trusted Mac guru Mark

  11. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft Excel 2011 for Mac OS X is a powerful application, but many of its most impressive features can be difficult to find. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac by Guy Hart-Davis is a practical, hands-on approach to learning all of the details of Excel 2011 in order to get work done efficiently on Mac OS X. From using formulas and functions to creating databases, from analyzing data to automating tasks, you'll learn everything you need to know to put this powerful application to use for a variety of tasks. What you'll learn * The secrets of the Excel for Mac interface! * How to create effective workbo

  12. The MAC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaby, J.V.; Ash, W.W.; Band, H.R.; Baksay, L.A.; Blume, H.T.; Bosman, M.; Camporesi, T.; Chadwick, G.B.; Clearwater, S.H.; Coombes, R.W.; Delfino, M.C.; De Sangro, R.; Faissler, W.L.; Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Gettner, M.W.; Goderre, G.P.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y.; Gottschalk, B.; Groom, D.E.; Heltsley, B.K.; Hurst, R.B.; Johnson, J.R.; Kaye, H.S.; Lau, K.H.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, H.Y.; Leedy, R.E.; Leung, S.P.; Lippi, I.; Loh, E.C.; Lynch, H.L.; Marini, A.; Marsh, J.S.; Maruyama, T.; Messner, R.L.; Meyer, O.A.; Michaloswki, S.J.; Morcos, S.; Moromisato, J.H.; Morse, R.M.; Moss, L.J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H.N.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Prepost, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Qi, N.; Read, A.L. Jr.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D.M.; Ronga, F.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Shambroom, W.D.; Sleeman, J.C.; Smith, J.G.; Venuti, J.P.; Verdini, P.G.; Goeler, E. von; Wald, H.B.; Weinstein, R.; Wiser, D.E.; Zdarko, R.W. (Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab.

    1989-09-01

    The MAC detector at PEP recorded data for an integrated luminosity of 335 pb{sup -1} between 1980 and 1986. The design of this low-cost MAgnetic Calorimeter was optimized for electron and muon identification, as well as for the measurement of hadronic energy flow. Muon identification is available over 96% of the solid angle, and MAC was the first detector to make large-scale use of gas-sampling calorimetry. Electromagnetic calorimetry in the central selection employs alternating layers of lead and proportional wire chambers (PWCs), and hadron and the remaining electromagnetic calorimetry is accomplished with iron plate and PWC layers. A relatively small central drift chamber in an axial magnetic field provides pattern recognition and modest momentum determination. An outer blanket of drift tubes completes the muon identification system. During the latter two years of operation an innovative 'soda straw' vertex chamber made more precise lifetime measurements possible. With an evolving trigger system and highly automated data acquisition system, this modest detector has exceeded most of its designers' expectations and has produced a gratifying spectrum of physics results. (orig.).

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium avium in pet birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Silvia Neri; Sakamoto, Sidnei Miyoshi; de Paula, Cátia Dejuste; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a report on the presence of Mycobacterium avium in four birds of the psittaciform order kept as pets. Anatomopathological diagnosis showed lesions suggestive of the agent and presence of alcohol-acid resistant bacilli (AARB) shown by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The identification of Mycobacterium avium was performed by means of PRA (PCR Restriction Analysis). DNA was directly extracted from tissue of the lesions and blocked in paraffin. The role of this agent in pet bird infection is discussed, as well as its zoonotic potential. PMID:24031356

  14. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  15. iMac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The bestselling guide to the ultimate all-in-one computer—now updated and revised throughout! If you're looking for speed, performance, and power, the iMac is the ultimate all-in-one computer. From its superior performance, powerful operating system, and amazing applications, the iMac is one awesome machine, and the fun, friendly, and approachable style of iMac For Dummies is an ideal way to get started with the basics. You'll learn the fundamentals of the iMac including setting up and customizing your iMac and the software that comes with it, importing files from your old computer, send

  16. Macs for seniors for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Over 50 and thinking about getting your first computer? A user-friendly Mac is a great choice, and Macs For Seniors For Dummies walks you through choosing one and learning to use it. You won't even need your grandchildren to help! Macs For Seniors For Dummies introduces you to all the basic things you may not have encountered before-how to use the keyboard and mouse, work with files and folders, navigate around the Mac OS X desktop, set up an Internet connection, and much more. You'll learn to:Choose the Mac that's right for you, set it up, run programs and manage files, and hook up a printerU

  17. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium SSP paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy cattle in the Jimma zone of Ethiopia in 2011. A random sample of 29 herds was selected, and all mature cattle within these herds had a blood sample taken. Serum was tested in duplicate, ...

  18. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, alternative diagnostic tests such as PCR, are needed for quick detection of infected animals. In this study, the conventional enrichment and isolation procedure and two IS900-based PCR methods for detection of Mycobactrium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples from zoo animals and cattle were ...

  19. Gotcha! Macs lose their innocence

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still believe your Mac is secure because Microsoft PCs fall prey to viruses and worms but Macs don’t? Time to wake up! This year has seen the first major compromise of Macs worldwide*. How is yours doing?   The “Flashback” Trojan is affecting Apple’s own variant of Java and compromises Macs via so-called drive-by infections, i.e. when you visit an appropriately prepared (infected!) website - and this might not necessarily be a site with questionable contents, but could well be a popular, reputable one. Security Companies worldwide have been monitoring this particular Trojan for a while and have estimated that more than half a million Macs were compromised. Connected to a few central command and control servers, the compromised Macs were then supporting the malicious activity of the bad guys! Fortunately, the security companies have now been able to take over those command and control servers and stop their destructive drive. So, Mac users, face the f...

  20. Java and Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T Gene

    2010-01-01

    Learn the guidelines of integrating Java with native Mac OS X applications with this Devloper Reference book. Java is used to create nearly every type of application that exists and is one of the most required skills of employers seeking computer programmers. Java code and its libraries can be integrated with Mac OS X features, and this book shows you how to do just that. You'll learn to write Java programs on OS X and you'll even discover how to integrate them with the Cocoa APIs.: Shows how Java programs can be integrated with any Mac OS X feature, such as NSView widgets or screen savers; Re

  1. MacIntyreov pojam nesumjerljivosti

    OpenAIRE

    Kurelić, Zoran

    1995-01-01

    Autor piše o MacIntyreovoj uporabi pojma nesumjerljivosti u sferi filozofije politike. Prvi je pojam tako rabio Feyerabend, koji je nesumjerljivost stavio u temelj svoga relativističkog napada na liberalizam. MacIntyre se također koncentrira na kritiku liberalizma, no ne s anarhodadaističke, već s neoaristotelijansko-tomističke pozicije. Esej se sastoji od četiri kratka dijela: A) ukratko prikazuje MacIntyreovo razumijevanje pojma nesumjerljivosti u knjigama "After Virtue" i "Whose Justice? W...

  2. Mac Programming for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Want to learn how to program on your Mac? Not sure where to begin? Best-selling author Wallace Wang will explain how to get started with Cocoa, Objective-C, and Xcode. Whether you are an experienced Windows coder moving to the Mac, or you are completely new to programming, you'll see how the basic design of a Mac OS X program works, how Objective-C differs from other languages you may have used, and how to use the Xcode development environment. Most importantly, you'll learn how to use elements of the Cocoa framework to create windows, store data, and respond to users in your own Mac programs.

  3. Radiometric assessment of the sensitivity to antituberculotics of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and Mycobacterium xenopi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, M.; Lindholm-Levy, P.; Heifets, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    The macrodilution radiometric method using Middlebrook's 7H12 liquid medium enriched with 14 C-palmitic acid, where the growth activity is monitored by measuring liberated 14 CO 2 , was applied to 25 strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex and to 20 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the following chemotherapeutical agents: ciprofloxacine, clofazimine, rifampin, cycloserine, kanamycin, etionamide, ethambutol, and amikacin. In the case of the M. avium complex, slightly or completely resistant strains were found for the majority of drugs. The sensitive strain proportion was highest with clofazimine and amikacin. The M. xenopis strains exhibited generally lower minimal inhibitory concentrations than the avian mycobacteria for all drugs except for cycloserine and ethambutol. The radiometric method using the BACTEC system was found suitable for the determination of the sensitivity of mycobacteria to chemotherapeutic agents: the results are obtained rapidly, within 8 days following inoculation, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations can be evaluated quantitatively. 1 tab., 8 refs

  4. Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ledwoń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV- positive (naturally infected but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus and peafowl (Pavo cristatus. During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  5. Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  6. Fiverr MacGyver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  7. Immunization with a DNA Vaccine Cocktail Induces a Th1 Response and Protects Mice Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several novel antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been studied as vaccine components and their immunogenicity has been evaluated. Previously, we reported that 85 antigen complex (85A, 85B, and 85C), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 35kDa protein could induce significant lymph...

  8. MacBook Teach Yourself VISUALLY

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Like the MacBook itself, Teach Yourself VISUALLY MacBook, Second Edition is designed to be visually appealing, while providing excellent functionality at the same time. By using this book, MacBook users will be empowered to do everyday tasks quickly and easily. From such basic steps as powering on or shutting down the MacBook, working on the Mac desktop with the Dashboard and its widgets to running Windows applications, Teach Yourself VISUALLY MacBook, Second Edition covers all the vital information and provides the help and support a reader needs—in many ways it's like having a Mac Genius at

  9. Multicollision attack on CBC-MAC, EMAC, and XCBC-MAC of AES-128 algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin Sihite, Alfonso; Hayat Susanti, Bety

    2017-10-01

    A Message Authentication Codes (MAC) can be constructed based on a block cipher algorithm. CBC-MAC, EMAC, and XCBC-MAC constructions are some of MAC schemes that used in the hash function. In this paper, we do multicollision attack on CBC-MAC, EMAC, and XCBC-MAC construction which uses AES-128 block cipher algorithm as basic construction. The method of multicollision attack utilizes the concept of existential forgery on CBC-MAC. The results show that the multicollision can be obtained easily in CBC-MAC, EMAC, and XCBC-MAC construction.

  10. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  11. Mycobacterium avium Infection after Acupoint Embedding Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Nontuberculous mycobacterium is a ubiquitous environmental organism that is unusual to cause a true infection, but it can cause severe cutaneous infections. In this case report, we present a successful treatment for a Chinese patient with Mycobacterium avium cutaneous infection after acupoint embedding therapy. We managed to conduct pathogenic detection, drug sensitive test, and multidisciplinary consultation. Finally, a systematic treatment strategy of nontuberculous mycobacterium was performed. Twenty-two-month follow-up revealed excellent outcome without any recurrence.

  12. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

  13. Mac OS X ja tietoturva

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Joni

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda kattava kokonaiskuva Mac OS X -käyttöjärjestelmän sisäänrakennetuista tietoturvaratkaisuista ja selvittää miten tietoturvaratkaisut toteuttavat tietoturvan kolmea perustavoitetta eli luottamuksellisuutta, eheyttä ja saatavuutta. Työn kohderyhmäksi on valittu edistyneemmät tietokoneenkäyttäjät, joilla ei ole aikaisempaa Mac-kokemusta. Teoriaosuudessa syvennytään aluksi Apple-yhtiöön sekä Mac OS X -järjestelmän teknisiin ominaisuuksiin. Osuuden pääta...

  14. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannantine John P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.

  15. Functional Implications of an Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between TolC and MacA in the Action of Macrolide-specific Efflux Pump MacAB-TolC*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel. PMID:21325274

  16. Functional implications of an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction between TolC and MacA in the action of macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-04-15

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel.

  17. Infección por el complejo Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare en pacientes con VIH/SIDA en un hospital peruano: una serie de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ticona-Huaroto

    Full Text Available Existe poca información sobre la presencia del complejo Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAC en el Perú. Se describen cinco casos de infección por MAC en pacientes con VIH/SIDA del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima-Perú. Los pacientes presentaron, principalmente, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica, síndrome consuntivo, pancitopenia y citofagocitosis. En todos ellos se identificó bacilos acido-alcohol resistentes en heces, por lo que recibieron tratamiento antituberculoso. El cultivo de heces fue negativo para Mycobacterium tuberculosis y, posteriormente, en todos se identificó a MAC mediante una prueba molecular (Genotype en el cultivo de heces. Tres pacientes recibieron tratamiento para MAC luego de la identificación; sin embargo, todos fallecieron. Ante presentaciones similares a lo reportado, se sugiere el uso de métodos de mayor rendimiento (hemocultivo, mielocultivo, pruebas moleculares, así como asociar tempranamente drogas con actividad para MAC al esquema antituberculoso con la intención de mejorar el pronóstico de este grupo de pacientes.

  18. Switching to a Mac For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Thinking of making the switch from your PC to a Mac? Congratulations! You're in for a great, virus-free ride. And Switching to Mac For Dummies makes it smoother than you ever imagined. From buying the Mac that's right for you to transferring your files to breaking your old Windows habits and learning to do things the (much easier) Mac way, it makes the whole process practically effortless. Whether you've been using Windows XP, Vista, or even Linux, you'll find simple, straightforward ways to make your transition go smoothly. That will leave you plenty of time to get familiar with Mac'

  19. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  20. Switching to the Mac The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Is Windows giving you pause? Ready to make the leap to the Mac instead? There has never been a better time to switch from Windows to Mac, and this incomparable guide will help you make a smooth transition. New York Times columnist and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue gets you past three challenges: transferring your stuff, assembling Mac programs so you can do what you did with Windows, and learning your way around Mac OS X. Learning to use a Mac is not a piece of cake, but once you do, the rewards are oh-so-much better. No viruses, worms, or spyware. No questionable firewalls, inefficien

  1. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  2. Infección pulmonar por Mycobacterium avium en paciente VIH/SIDA: Primer reporte en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carrasco

    Full Text Available El complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es un patógeno que se encuentra en el medioambiente y causa infecciones tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente VIH positivo varón de 38 años infectado por P. jirovecii y aparentemente infectado por Mycobacterium tuberculosis desde el año 2009, el cual fue tratado con antibioticoterapia para pneumocistosis y terapia antituberculosis (TB logrando mejoría parcial. En el año 2012 se le realizó nuevamente examen de cultivo y un nuevo tratamiento anti TB, frente a la sospecha de estar en presencia de una cepa de TB multidrogorresistente se recomienda realizar la identificación micobacteriana. El examen de cultivo fue positivo y el resultado genotípico resultó positivo para MAC. Se reporta el primer caso de un paciente VIH/SIDA con infección pulmonar por MAC en el Perú, así como una breve revisión de los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de tratamiento

  3. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  4. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,

  5. Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Hanaan

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d

  6. Technical Report : ContikiMAC vs X-MAC performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Mathieu; Quoitin, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This paper try to better understand the performance of ContikiMAC compared to X-MAC. ContikiMAC achieves a transmission by repeatedly transmitting a data packet until the reception of an ACK from the destination. While X-MAC uses a stream of small size strobes to advertise the destination of the incoming transmission. A priori, X-MAC is then less bandwidth consumptive. To better understand the efficiency of ContikiMAC, despite an intuitively more consumptive transmitting procedure, we have co...

  7. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  8. Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    If you're one of the many Unix developers drawn to Mac OS X for its Unix core, you'll find yourself in surprisingly unfamiliar territory. Unix and Mac OS X are kissing cousins, but there are enough pitfalls and minefields in going from one to another that even a Unix guru can stumble, and most guides to Mac OS X are written for Mac aficionados. For a Unix developer, approaching Tiger from the Mac side is a bit like learning Russian by reading the Russian side of a Russian-English dictionary. Fortunately, O'Reilly has been the Unix authority for over 25 years, and in Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Gee

  9. Teach yourself visually Mac Mini

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The perfect how-to guide for visual learners Apple?s Mac Mini packs a powerful punch is in a small package, including both HDMI and Thunderbolt ports plus the acclaimed OS X. But if you want to get the very most from all this power and versatility, be sure to get this practical visual guide. With full-color, step-by-step instructions as well as screenshots and illustrations on every page, it clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks rather than burying you in pages of text. Discover helpful visuals and how-tos on the OS, hardware specs, Launchpad, the App Store, multimedia capabilities (such

  10. Complete genome sequence of the hippuricase-positive Campylobacter avium type strain LMG 24591

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter avium is a hippurate-positive, thermotolerant campylobacter that has been isolated from poultry. Here we present the genome sequences of two C. avium strains isolated from broiler chickens: strains LMG 24591T (complete genome) and LMG 24592 (draft genome). The C. avium type strain geno...

  11. Analysis of 3gpp-MAC and two-key 3gpp-MAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mitchell, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Forgery and key-recovery attacks are described on the 3gpp-MAC scheme, proposed for inclusion in the 3gpp specification. Three main classes of attack are given, all of which operate whether or not truncation is applied to the MAC value. Attacks in the first class use a large number of 'chosen MACs......', those in the second class use a large number of 'known MACs', and those in the third class require a large number of MAC verifications, but very few known MACS and no chosen MACS. The first class yields both forgery and key-recovery attacks, whereas the second and third classes are key-recovery attacks...... only. Both single-key and two-key variants of 3gpp-MAC are considered; the forgery attacks are relevant to both variants, whereas the key-recovery attacks are only relevant to the two-key variant....

  12. Macs all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsko, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Your all-in-one guide to unleashing your Mac's full potential It's a Mac world out there. But if you haven't read the instruction manual, you may be neglecting some of your computer's coolest features. Turn to Macs All-in-One For Dummies' jam-packed guide to access the incredible tools within your computer. With this fully updated reference, you will learn how to use Launchpad and Mission Control; protect your Mac; back up and restore data with Time Machine; sync across devices in iCloud; import, organize, and share photos; direct in iMovie; compose in GarageBand; and so much more. The possi

  13. Take control the Mac OS X lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This ebook explains a little bit of everything; in fact, it's The Mac OS X (and then some) Lexicon because it's never just you and your Mac. It's you and your Mac and the Web, and your email, and that article you just read that threw 17 new acronyms at you or assumed that you knew all sorts of networking terms. Or it's you and your Mac and Finder features you've never touched, such as burn folders, smart folders, or proxy icons, and that mysterious Services submenu. This book is a great guide for Macintosh users everywhere who have trouble keeping up with the latest jargon, fo

  14. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  15. Quicksilver Power Mac G4

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A new generation with a reworked motherboard is launched on 2001 with however the same Graphite box. It also included a processor speed-bump, and brought the DVD-R "SuperDrive" to the mid-level model. The Quicksilver PowerMac was available in three configurations: The 733 MHz model, with 128 MB of RAM, a 40 GB hard drive, and a CD-RW drive, was 1,699 dollars, the 867 MHz configuration, with 128 MB of RAM, a 60 GB hard drive and a DVD-R drive, was 2,499 dollars, and the high-end dual-800 MHz model, with 256 MB of RAM, an 80 GB hard drive and a DVD-R drive, was 3,499 dollars. The 733 MHz model is the first personal computer to have a DVD burner, named SuperDrive at Apple. The design was updated on 2002 with 800 MHz, 933 MHz and dual 1 GHz configurations, becoming the first Mac to reach 1 GHz.

  16. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.

  17. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  18. High active potential antimycobacterial agents against Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, Waisser; Jiří, Kuneš; Jiřina, Stolaříková

    2012-06-01

    Derivatives of 3-phenyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-2,4(3H)-dione are active against Mycobacterium avium when substituted in position 7 with a methyl. One or two carbonyl groups have to be replaced with a thioxo group. High active derivatives are the compounds without substitution on the phenyl, or those substituted on the phenyl in position 3 or 4 with chlorine, bromine or a methyl. The substitution in position 3 and 4 with two atoms of chlorine lowers the activity. The compounds are active against INH resistant strains. We synthesized other 44 derivatives with a similar structure of the compounds as in the paper but substituted in position 7 with other substituents (chlorine, bromine methoxy). The activity against M. avium was poor. It can be concluded that a new group of compounds with an excellent activity against M. avium has been found.

  19. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides, is provided for prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis....

  20. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a New Highly Pathogenic Field Isolate of Mycobacterium avium spp. avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangquan Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian tuberculosis is a chronic, contagious zoonotic disease affecting birds, mammals, and humans. The disease is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium spp. avium (MAA. Strain resources are important for research on avian tuberculosis and vaccine development. However, there has been little reported about the newly identified MAA strain in recent years in China. In this study, a new strain was isolated from a fowl with symptoms of avian tuberculosis by bacterial culture. The isolated strain was identified to be MAA by culture, staining, and biochemical and genetic analysis, except for different colony morphology. The isolated strain was Ziehl-Zeelsen staining positive, resistant to p-nitrobenzoic acid, and negative for niacin production, Tween-80 hydrolysis, heat stable catalase and nitrate production. The strain had the DnaJ gene, IS1245, and IS901, as well. Serum agglutination indicated that the MAA strain was of serotype 1. The MAA strain showed strong virulence via mortality in rabbits and chickens. The prepared tuberculin of the MAA strain had similar potency compared to the MAA reference strain and standard tuberculin via a tuberculin skin test. Our studies suggested that this MAA strain tends to be a novel subtype, which might enrich the strain resource of avian tuberculosis.

  1. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  2. Mac OS X for Unix Geeks (Leopard)

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Ernest E; Rosen, Rich

    2009-01-01

    If you've been lured to Mac OS X because of its Unix roots, this invaluable book serves as a bridge between Apple's Darwin OS and the more traditional Unix systems. The new edition offers a complete tour of Mac OS X's Unix shell for Leopard and Tiger, and helps you find the facilities that replace or correspond to standard Unix utilities. Learn how to compile code, link to libraries, and port Unix software to Mac OS X and much more with this concise guide.

  3. Office 2008 for Mac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Office 2008 for Mac is here, with great new enhancements to all your favorite office productivity tools. Who better than "Dr. Mac, "Bob LeVitus, to show you how to load and use them all? From choosing the best version for your needs to managing your life with your online calendar, Office 2008 For Mac For Dummies covers what you need to know. It compares the Student/Teacher Edition, Standard Edition, and Professional Edition, then walks you through installing your preferred version and keeping it up to date. You'll find out all the things you can do with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Entourage,

  4. Learn Office 2011 for Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Office for Mac remains the leading productivity suite for Mac, with Apple's iWork and the free OpenOffice.org trailing far behind. And now it's being updated with a cleaner interface and more compatibility with Exchange and SharePoint. Learn Office 2011 for Mac OS X offers a practical, hands-on approach to using Office 2011 applications to create and edit documents and get work done efficiently. You'll learn how to customize Office, design, create, and share documents, manipulate data in a spreadsheet, and create lively presentations. You'll also discover how to organize your email, contacts,

  5. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites

  6. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  7. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  8. Involvement of Stat1 in the Phagocytosis of M. avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Dominici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen preferentially infecting human macrophages where they activate the JAK/STAT1 pathway. This activation enhances the survival of infected cells, but, at the same time, makes macrophages optimal targets for drugs development against p-tyr701stat1. In this study, we demonstrate that the fast and transient activity of the JAK/STAT1 pathway occurs immediately after macrophages internalization of heat-killed M. avium or inert particles. Furthermore, we show that a persistent Stat1 pathway activation occurs only when an intracellular M. avium infection is established in macrophages. These results strongly indicate different mechanisms of p-tyr701Stat1 activation. In particular, here we report findings aiming at explaining the short-time enhancement of p-tyr701Stat1 and shows its predominant relationship with FcγRs engagement during the internalization process. Furthermore, we demonstrate that opsonized live M. avium is phagocytosed by macrophages involving membrane receptors not related with JAK/STAT1 signalling pathway. On the contrary, heat-inactivated bacilli or latex particles seem to be internalized only after involvement of FcγRs and subsequent Stat1 phosphorylation.

  9. Cryptosporidium avium n. sp (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Nikola; Sak, Bohumil; Horčičková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; Květoňová, Dana; Menchaca, S.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 6 (2016), s. 2243-2251 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium avium * morphology * molecular analyses * transmission studies * Cryptosporidium avian genotype V Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  10. Characterization and expression of secA in Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia, A; Sangari, F J; Wagner, D; Bermudez, L E

    2001-04-13

    Mycobacterium avium is both a pathogen that infects several hosts such as humans, pigs, and birds, as well as a microorganism that is encountered in environmental sources (soil and water). Protein secretion by the bacterium is likely to influence its ability to overcome adverse and competitive conditions both within or outside the host. Using a combination of cloning and information available in the databank, we characterized the secA gene from M. avium, encoding for a major preprotein translocase subunit associated with the secretion system of prokaryotics. In addition, we cloned the secA promoter sequence in a reporter construct upstream of a promoterless gfp. It was determined that the secA of M. avium shares large homology with the secA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not with secA of Mycobacterium leprae. secA expression was determined to be greater at logarithmic growth phase although it was also expressed at low levels during the stationary phase. secA expression was also observed when the bacteria were incubated in water as well as within human monocyte-derived macrophages and in conditions that are associated with biofilm formation. Future evaluation of the sec pathway in M. avium might provide important information about secreted proteins that are required for survival in different environments.

  11. Enhanced Sleep Mode MAC Control for EPON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler.......This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler....

  12. Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide for Mac OS

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, David; Corporation, Tekserve

    2009-01-01

    The Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide covers the most common user hardware and software trouble. It's not just a book for Mac OS X (although it includes tips for OS X and Jaguar), it's for anyone who owns a Mac of any type-- there are software tips going back as far as OS 6. This slim guide distills the answers to the urgent questions that Tekserve's employee's answer every week into a handy guide that fits in your back pocket or alongside your keyboard.

  13. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  14. [Identification of novel variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in Mycobacterium avium and development of an effective means of VNTR typing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Uchiya, Kei-Ichi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hiroyasu; Niimi, Masaki; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Inagaki, Takayuki; Moriyama, Makoto; Nikai, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yuta; Nakagawa, Taku; Ogawa, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    To make more effective use of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, we identified novel VNTR loci in Mycobacterium avium and used them for modified M. avium tandem repeat-VNTR (MATR-VNTR) typing. Analysis of a DNA sample extracted from a clinical isolate (strain HN135) with the FLX system genome sequencer (Roche Diagnostic System) led to discovery of several novel VNTR loci. The allelic diversity of the novel VNTR loci was evaluated for 71 clinical isolates and compared with the diversity of the MATR-VNTR loci. To improve efficacy of MATR-VNTR typing, we tested typing using 2 sets of loci selected from the newly identified loci and the MATR loci, i.e., one set containing 7 and another 16 loci. Hunter Gaston's discriminatory index (HGDI) was calculated for these sets. Six VNTR loci were newly identified, of which 5 showed a high diversity. The HGDI was 0.980 for the improved new typing using a set of 7 loci, and 0.995 for another set of 16 loci, while it was 0.992 for the conventional MATR-VNTR typing. VNTR typing with the set of the 7 loci enabled a rapid analysis, and another set of 16 loci enabled a precise analysis, as compared with conventional MATR-VNTR typing. A method that uses only VNTR loci with relatively high allelic diversity is considered to be a useful tool for VNTR typing of MAC isolates.

  15. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Tips and techniques for forward-thinking MacBook Pro users Now that you have a MacBook Pro, you need just one more accessory, your very own copy of MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition. This handy, compact book lets you in on a wealth of tips and tricks, so you get the very most out of Apple's very popular notebook. Discover the latest on the most recent release of iLife, get the skinny on the new Intel Core i7 and i5 processors in the Pro, see how to go wireless in a smart way, and much more. The book is easy to navigate, doesn't skimp on the essentials, and helps you save time and avoi

  16. MacSelfService online tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Mac Self-Service is a functionality within the Mac Desktop Service built and maintained to empower CERN users by giving them easy access to applications and configurations through the Self-Service application. This tutorial (text attached to the event page) explains how to install Mac Self-Service and how to use it to install applications and printers. Content owner: Vincent Nicolas Bippus Presenter: Pedro Augusto de Freitas Batista Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) https://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  17. Optimal sensor placement for maximum area coverage (MAC) for damage localization in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiene, M.; Sharif Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper an optimal sensor placement algorithm for attaining the maximum area coverage (MAC) within a sensor network is presented. The proposed novel approach takes into account physical properties of Lamb wave propagation (attenuation profile, direction dependant group velocity due to material anisotropy) and geometrical complexities (boundary reflections, presence of openings) of the structure. A feature of the proposed optimization approach lies in the fact that it is independent of characteristics of the damage detection algorithm (e.g. probability of detection) making it readily up-scalable to large complex composite structures such as aircraft stiffened composite panel. The proposed fitness function (MAC) is independent of damage parameters (type, severity, location). Statistical analysis carried out shows that the proposed optimum sensor network with MAC results in high probability of damage localization. Genetic algorithm is coupled with the fitness function to provide an efficient optimization strategy.

  18. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  19. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Discover loads of tips and techniques for the newest MacBook Pro You're already ahead of the game with a MacBook Pro. Now you can get even more out the popular Apple notebook with the new edition of this handy, compact book. Crammed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this book will help you increase your productivity and keep your Apple digital lifestyle on track. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications, this book avoids fluff, doesn't skimp on the essentials, saves you time and hassle, and shows you what you most want to know. Include

  20. A MAC Mode for Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luykx, Atul; Preneel, Bart; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography strives to protect communication in constrained environments without sacrificing security. However, security often conflicts with efficiency, shown by the fact that many new lightweight block cipher designs have block sizes as low as 64 or 32 bits. Such low block sizes lead...... no effect on the security bound, allowing an order of magnitude more data to be processed per key. Furthermore, LightMAC is incredibly simple, has almost no overhead over the block cipher, and is parallelizable. As a result, LightMAC not only offers compact authentication for resource-constrained platforms...

  1. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis predicted serine protease is associated with acid stress and intraphagosomal survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Kugadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophage and MAC-T cells and coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc2 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increase bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5 conditions. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted.

  2. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: a rare cause of subacromial bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Raj; Tuckett, John; Hide, Geoff; Dildey, Petra; Karsandas, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Septic subacromial bursitis is an uncommon disorder with only a few reported cases in the literature. The most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report the case of a 61-year-old female with a septic subacromial bursitis where the causative organism was found to be Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). The diagnosis was only made following a biopsy, and we use this case to highlight the importance of recognising the need to consider a biopsy and aspiration in atypical situations.

  3. Environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis hosted by free-living amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis in animals. This disease, leading to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, has a high impact on animal health and an important economic burden. The environmental life cycle of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratube...

  4. Roles for Cell Wall Glycopeptidolipid in Surface Adherence and Planktonic Dispersal of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs). Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. aviu...

  5. Cell wall peptidolipids of Mycobacterium avium: from genetic prediction to exact structure of a nonribosomal peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total lipids from an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) ovine strain (S-type) contained no identifiable glycopeptidolipids or lipopentapeptide, yet both lipids are present in other M. avium subspecies. We determined the genetic and phenotypic basis for this difference using sequence analysis and...

  6. Isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium avium from porcine lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, van J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, van C.B.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium

  7. Isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium avium from porcine lymph nodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, J. van; Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, C.B. van; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium

  8. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  9. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  10. Putative in vitro expressed gene fragments unique to Mycobacterium avium subspecies para tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard; Ahrens, Peter

    2002-01-01

    By a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. para tuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. Database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria. The uniquen......By a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. para tuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. Database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria....... The uniqueness and diagnostic potential of seven of these fragments in relation to M. paratuberculosis closest relative Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. avium) was confirmed by species-specific PCR and Southern blot. Furthermore, RT-PCR indicated that eight of the nine fragments originate from areas...

  11. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cellulitis occurring with septic arthritis after joint injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch David M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.

  12. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are at sign ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit's position while within a building when satellite signals are not available

  13. Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Time for Big MACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Andrea; Pollard, Steven M; Dai, Junbiao; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-10-21

    The enabling technologies of synthetic biology are opening up new opportunities for engineering and enhancement of mammalian cells. This will stimulate diverse applications in many life science sectors such as regenerative medicine, development of biosensing cell lines, therapeutic protein production, and generation of new synthetic genetic regulatory circuits. Harnessing the full potential of these new engineering-based approaches requires the design and assembly of large DNA constructs-potentially up to chromosome scale-and the effective delivery of these large DNA payloads to the host cell. Random integration of large transgenes, encoding therapeutic proteins or genetic circuits into host chromosomes, has several drawbacks such as risks of insertional mutagenesis, lack of control over transgene copy-number and position-specific effects; these can compromise the intended functioning of genetic circuits. The development of a system orthogonal to the endogenous genome is therefore beneficial. Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are functional, add-on chromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes-being replicating and portioned to daughter cells at each cell division. They are deployed as useful gene expression vectors as they remain independent from the host genome. MACs are maintained as a single-copy and can accommodate multiple gene expression cassettes of, in theory, unlimited DNA size (MACs up to 10 megabases have been constructed). MACs therefore enabled control over ectopic gene expression and represent an excellent platform to rapidly prototype and characterize novel synthetic gene circuits without recourse to engineering the host genome. This review describes the obstacles synthetic biologists face when working with mammalian systems and how the development of improved MACs can overcome these-particularly given the spectacular advances in DNA synthesis and assembly that are fuelling this research area.

  14. Fabrication of a Novel Conductometric Biosensor for Detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bolin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD is one of the most costly bacterial diseases in cattle. In the U.S., economic losses from the disease have been estimated to exceed $1,500,000,000 per year, mainly from the effects of reduced milk production. Current diagnostic tests for JD are laboratory based and many of those tests require specialized equipment and training. Development of rapid and inexpensive diagnostic assays, which are adapted for point-ofcare applications, would aid in the control of JD. In this study, a polyaniline (Pani-based conductometric biosensor, in an immunomigration format, was fabricated for the detection of serum antibody (IgG against the causal organism of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Immobilized Mycobacterium avium purified proteins in the capture membrane were used to detect MAP IgG, previously bound with Pani/anti-bovine IgG* conjugate in the conjugate membrane. After detection, the Pani in the sandwiched captured complex bridges an electrical circuit between the silver electrodes, flanking the capture membrane. The electrical conductance, caused by Pani, was measured as drop in electrical resistance. Testing of the biosensor with known JD positive and negative serum samples demonstrated a significant difference in the mean resistance observed between the groups. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a conductometric biosensor could detect MAP IgG in 2 minutes. The biosensor’s speed of detection and the equipment involved would, among other things, support its application towards the various point-ofcare opportunities aimed at JD management and control.

  15. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  16. MacBook All-in-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Get comfortable and confident with your MacBook! Combining the fun-but-straightforward content of nine minibooks, this new edition of MacBook All-in-One For Dummies delivers helpful coverage of the rich features and essential tools you need to know to use the MacBook to its fullest potential. You'll learn an array of MacBook basics while veteran author Mark Chambers walks you through setting up your MacBook, running programs, finding files with Finder, searching with Spotlight, keeping track with Address Book, enjoying music with iTunes, creating cool multimedia projects with iLife, and more.

  17. MacBook Pro portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Learn the skills, tools and shortcuts you need in order to make the most of your MacBook Pro This easy-to-use, compact guide skips the fluff and gets right to the essentials so that you can maximize all the latest features of the MacBook Pro. Packed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this handy book aims to help you increase your productivity and save you time and hassle. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications and more, this book shows you what you want to know. Includes the latest version of OS X, iCloud, FaceTime, and moreCovers al

  18. Improved b lifetime measurement from MAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Two recent publications, from the MAC and Mark II collaborations, have reported the somewhat surprising result that the lifetime of particles made up of b quarks is in the 1 to 2 picosecond range, or somewhat longer than the lifetimes of charm particles. Although the charm decays are favored transitions while those of b particles depend upon off-diagonal elements of the weak flavor mixing matrix, the smallness of the b decay rates in face of the large available phase space indicates that the off-diagonal elements are indeed very small. The possibility for complete determination of the mixing matrix was brought significantly nearer by the availability of the lifetime information; what is needed now is to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements, which was about 33% for both experiments. We describe here an extension of the b lifetime study with the MAC detector, incorporating some new data and improvements in the analysis. 12 references

  19. Millisecond timing on PCs and Macs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, W J; Taylor, T L

    2001-05-01

    A real-time, object-oriented solution for displaying stimuli on Windows 95/98, MacOS and Linux platforms is presented. The program, written in C++, utilizes a special-purpose window class (GLWindow), OpenGL, and 32-bit graphics acceleration; it avoids display timing uncertainty by substituting the new window class for the default window code for each system. We report the outcome of tests for real-time capability across PC and Mac platforms running a variety of operating systems. The test program, which can be used as a shell for programming real-time experiments and testing specific processors, is available at http://www.cs.dal.ca/~macinnwj. We propose to provide researchers with a sense of the usefulness of our program, highlight the ability of many multitasking environments to achieve real time, as well as caution users about systems that may not achieve real time, even under optimal conditions.

  20. Wound Healing in Mac-1 Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    significant difference was seen between Mac-1 -/- and WT over the time course of wound healing for these three cytokines (Fig. 3, C, D & E). IL-6 was...approximately 90% collagen I (red-orange) and 10% collagen III (green) (Fig. 5C& D ). By day 7 after wound placement, collagen III was predominant in...counts, increased immunoglobulin levels, a severe defect in T cell proliferation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and abundant plasma cells in skin

  1. Environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Hosted by Free-Living Amoebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascel Samba-Louaka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis in animals. This disease, leading to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, has a high impact on animal health and an important economic burden. The environmental life cycle of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is poorly understood and several studies suggest that free-living amoebae (FLA might be a potential environmental host. FLA are protozoa found in water and soil that are described as reservoirs of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in the environment. Indeed, bacteria able to survive within these amoebae would survive phagocytosis from immune cells. In this study, we assessed the in vitro interactions between several strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Acanthamoeba castellanii. The results indicate that the bacteria were able to grow within the amoeba and that they can survive for several days within their host. To explore the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental amoebae, we sampled water from farms positive for paratuberculosis. A M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain was detected within an environmental amoeba identified as related to the poorly described Rosculus genus. The bacterial strain was genotyped, showing that it was similar to previous infectious strains isolated from cattle. In conclusion, we described that various M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were able to grow within amoebae and that these bacteria could be found on farm within amoebae isolated from the cattle environment. It validates that infected amoebae might be a reservoir and vector for the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  2. Mycobacterium avium genotype is associated with the therapeutic response to lung infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Kobashi, Y; Hirano, T; Tode, N; Santoso, A; Tamada, T; Fujimura, S; Mitsuhashi, Y; Honda, Y; Nukiwa, T; Kaku, M; Watanabe, A; Ichinose, M; Drancourt, M

    2014-01-01

    Factors that can interfere with the successful treatment of Mycobacterium avium lung infection have been inadequately studied. To identify a potent predictor of therapeutic responses of M. avium lung infection, we analyzed variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) at 16 minisatellite loci of M. avium clinical isolates. Associations between the VNTR profiling data and a therapeutic response were evaluated in 59 subjects with M. avium lung infection. M. avium lung infection of 30 subjects in whom clarithromycin-containing regimens produced microbiological and radiographic improvement was defined as responsive disease, while that of the remaining 29 subjects was defined as refractory disease. In phylogenetic analysis using the genotypic distance aggregated from 16-dimensional VNTR data, 59 M. avium isolates were divided into three clusters, which showed a nearly significant association with therapeutic responses (p 0.06). We then subjected the raw 16-dimensional VNTR data directly to principal component analysis, and identified the genetic features that were significantly associated with the therapeutic response (p VNTR data from only four minisatellite loci. In conclusion, we identified four mycobacterial minisatellite loci that together were associated with the therapeutic response of M. avium lung infections. PMID:23829301

  3. Visualization of integrin Mac-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kihong; Hyun, Young-Min; Lambert-Emo, Kris; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-11-01

    β2 integrins play critical roles in migration of immune cells and in the interaction with other cells, pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. Among the β2 integrins, Mac-1 (Macrophage antigen-1), composed of CD11b and CD18, is mainly expressed in innate immune cells and plays a major role in cell migration and trafficking. In order to image Mac-1-expressing cells both in live cells and mouse, we generated a knock-in (KI) mouse strain expressing CD11b conjugated with monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mYFP). Expression of CD11b-mYFP protein was confirmed by Western blot and silver staining of CD11b-immunoprecipitates and total cell lysates from the mouse splenocytes. Mac-1-mediated functions of the KI neutrophils were comparable with those in WT cells. The fluorescence intensity of CD11b-mYFP was sufficient to image CD11b expressing cells in live mice using intravital two-photon microscopy. In vitro, dynamic changes in the intracellular localization of CD11b molecules could be measured by epifluorescent microscopy. Finally, CD11b-expressing immune cells from tissue were easily detected by flow cytometry without anti-CD11b antibody staining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  5. Influence of sublingual immunotherapy on the expression of Mac-1 integrin in neutrophils from asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Kotula, Iwona; Pyrzak, Beata; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Asthma can be effectively treated with sublingual immunotherapy. The influence of -sublingual immunotherapy on the function of granulocytes in asthmatic patients is largely unknown. Mac-1 integrin is a transmembrane protein containing α (CD11b) and β (CD18) chains. High expression of the complex is found on the surface of neutrophils, NK cells, and macrophages. CD11b/CD18 may bind to CD23, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-4. It plays a crucial role in diapedesis of neutrophils. The aim of the present study was to assess Mac-1 expression on neutrophils from asthmatic children before and after sublingual immunotherapy. Twenty five children aged of 8.1 ± 3.1 suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis, shortlisted for specific immunotherapy, served as the study group. Fifteen healthy individuals, aged 9.8 ± 3.4, served as a control group. The assessment of CD11b and CD18 expression on cells from peripheral blood was performed with a flow cytometer. The tests were performed before and after 12 months of sublingual immunotherapy. In the asthmatic children, 98.08 (90.79-99.12)% of Mac-1 positive neutrophils were detected. The group was divided into two subgroups: of more than 98% and less than 95% of neutrophils with CD11b/CD18 expression in the sample. After immunotherapy, the percentage of Mac-1 positive granulocytes increased to 99.60 (99.29-99.68)%, p = 0.01. In the control group, 90.56 (87.08-88.86)% granulocytes were Mac-1 positive, p = 0.002. We conclude that sublingual immunotherapy strongly influences the function of the immunological system, including Mac-1 expression on neutrophils.

  6. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis predicted serine protease is associated with acid stress and intraphagosomal survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen that persists inside host macrophages despite severe oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation. Intrabacterial pH homeostasis is vital to pathogenic mycobacteria to preserve cellular biological processes and stability of ...

  7. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  8. Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific peptides for inclusion in a subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tollefsen, S.; Olsen, I.

    Paratuberculosis in ruminants is caused by an infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and is a chronic disease characterized by granulomatous enteritis. Available vaccines against paratuberculosis consist of variations of whole bacteria with adjuvant showing various...

  9. Composition and potency characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis purified protein derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain ATCC 19698. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37oC, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtrat...

  10. Clinical outbreak of Bordetella avium infection in two turkey breeder flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B J; Ghazikhanian, G Y; Mayeda, B

    1986-01-01

    An acute upper respiratory disease was observed in two broad-breasted white (BBW) turkey primary breeder flocks. Associated clinical signs included sneezing, depression, and a deep dry cough originating from large conducting airways. Morbidity reached approximately 15-20% of the hens in an affected house. None of the turkeys died, and total feed consumption was not affected. A minimal effect upon egg production was noticed. Sera from an acutely affected flock exhibited a marked rise in titer to Bordetella avium compared with preinfection sera samples. In Case 1, B. avium was isolated in pure culture from affected birds. In Case 2, B. avium was diagnosed by serological results and clinical signs; bacteriological examination was not attempted. The findings presented here are consistent with an acute clinical outbreak of B. avium-induced turkey rhinotracheitis (turkey coryza) in BBW turkey breeder hens.

  11. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  12. [A modified MacConkey medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Tong, M

    1999-01-01

    We used MacConkey Agar(MCA) medium powder as a basis and added 6-benzoy-2-naphthyl phosphate disodium salt to modify MCA medium. This method was identified by examining several kinds of enteric pathogenic bacteria. Thus it allows us to observe lactose fermentative and phosphatase reaction simultaneously and to recognize Enterobacteriaceae from non-fermentable bacteria on primary culture plates according to the color of colony. This improved method simplifies the recognition procedure and shortens the time so that it is helpful to correctly choosing identification kit.

  13. One of the First Portable Macs

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    It was one of the first portable macs released. The Portable had many new advances in mobile computing : The display was crispy clear, and looked beautiful when used in daylight ; The Portable came with a Lead-acid gel/cell battery that could run a anywhere from 6 -12 hours ; It supported to internal hard drives, and an external one. The reaction to the laptop was weak because it was slow, it had no capacity for expansion, it weighed heavily, its price was expensive. It has been stayed 1 year and half on the market.

  14. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is influe......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...

  15. Analysis of CD4+ Th1 cells in immunity to intracellular Mycobacterium avium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Marit Øien

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections are considered a major health problem internationally. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the infectious agent causing tuberculosis, kills 1.4 million people each year. Other non-tuberculous species such as Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) are less pathogenic but cause opportunistic infections mainly in immune-compromised people. The current treatment for different mycobacterial infections is elaborate, expensive and ineffective and new targets for treatment are needed. ...

  16. Turning the Big Mac Index into the Medical MAC Index | Wilson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to create a global medical earnings index, called the Medical MAC Index, to enable a comparison of what medical specialists earn in the countries included in the study. Design: The study gathered data on the earnings of specialist anaesthetists employed in state hospitals with five ...

  17. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously.

  18. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  19. Paradox applications integration ATP's for MAC and mass balance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs

  20. Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial Resources of Selected University Libraries in Nigeria. Bola Olure, Baba S Aduku. Abstract. This study was carried out to assess the Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project in Selected University Libraries in Nigeria. Four research questions were posed in order to ...

  1. Pair configurations to molecular activity coefficients : PAC-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweere, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of the development of the Pair Configuration to Molecular Activity Coefficient (PAC-MAC) model. PAC-MAC is a computational method to predict thermodynamic miscibility properties of various molecular solutions. Examples of calculated thermodynamic miscibility

  2. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  3. Increasing the permeability of Escherichia coli using MAC13243

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muheim, Claudio; Götzke, Hansjörg; Eriksson, Anna U.

    2017-01-01

    -phenylnapthylamine, and (2) more susceptible to large-scaffold antibiotics when sub-inhibitory concentrations of MAC13243 were used. To exclude the possibility that the permeability was caused by an off-target effect, we genetically reconstructed the MAC13243-phenotype by depleting LolA levels using the CRISPRi system....

  4. Alasdair MacIntyre, joven lector de Freud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis Barceló, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show the reading of Freud that MacIntyre made from 1955 to 1970. For this purpose, it summarizes the ideas of MacIntyre in the intellectual context, mainly the use of philosophical ideas of Freud against the Enlightenment project. MacIntyre criticises Marxist interpreters and the mixing between Marx and Freud. MacIntyre uses the philosophical ideas of Freud for answering two problems on determinism: the links between determinism and reasons for action and determinism and Marxism. The main conclusion is that MacIntyre used Freud in his own advantage: as an ally in the criticism of the Enlightenment.

    Este artículo trata de mostrar la lectura que MacIntyre hizo de Freud desde 1955 hasta 1970. Con este fin, se resumen las ideas de MacIntyre en el contexto intelectual, principalmente el uso de las ideas filosóficas de Freud contra el proyecto de la Ilustración. MacIntyre critica a los intérpretes de Marx y a la mezcla entre Marx y Freud. MacIntyre usa las ideas filosóficas de Freud para contestar dos problemas sobre el determinismo: los vínculos entre el determinismo y las razones para la acción y el determinismo y el marxismo. La conclusión principal es que MacIntyre usó a Freud en su propio beneficio: como un aliado en la crítica de la Ilustración.

  5. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  6. Concomitant Mycobacterium avium infection and Hodgkin's disease in a lymph node from an HIV-negative child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started.

  7. The persistence of Mycobacterium avium in a drinking water system, what is the risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water is believed to be a major source of human exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) such as Mycobacterium avium. We monitored the prevalence of M. avium in a drinking water system during the addition of filtration treatment. Our goal was to determine if the pre...

  8. ISOLATION OF THE GENOME SEQUENCE STRAIN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM 104 FROM MULTIPLE PATIENTS OVER A 17-YEAR PERIOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...

  9. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  10. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs. In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  11. iMac G3 Blueberry 350MHz

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The iMac G3 is an all-in-one personal computer, encompassing both the monitor and the computer in one package. It allowed to revitalize the Apple brand that was in decline and close to financial ruin. Originally released in striking bondi blue and later a range of other translucent plastic envelopes in bright colors. The iMac comes with a keyboard and mouse matching the color of the case. The iMac G3 was sold from 1998 to 2003 and has been updated many times.

  12. Traducir con ordenadores Mac, ¿es posible?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Vidal Carballido

    2009-01-01

    El creciente éxito de los productos de Apple y el impulso que esto ha supuesto para su sistema operativo, Mac OS X, hace que cada vez haya más traductores que se planteen la opción de dejar de utilizar Windows a favor del sistema operativo de Apple. En el presente artículo se ofrece una perspectiva general sobre la situación actual y las distintas opciones, desde el uso de Windows en ordenadores Mac hasta el abandono completo de Microsoft Windows para usar Mac OS X en exclusiva. -------------...

  13. Primary Klebsiella identification with MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, S T; Seidler, R J

    1978-09-01

    MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar has successfully been used as a primary selective medium for Klebsiella enumeration. With pure cultures, nearly 100% recovery of Klebsiella was observed by membrane filtration. With environmental samples using membrane filtration, 95% of typical pink- to red-colored colonies were verified as Klebsiella, as opposed to only 1% of yellow background colonies. Recovery of Klebsiella on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar was as good or better than on mEndo agar LES (Difco Laboratories). Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar were greater than for other proposed Klebsiella selective media.

  14. Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

    Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

  15. MacRuby Ruby and Cocoa on OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Aimonetti, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Want to build native Mac OS X applications with a sleek, developer-friendly alternative to Objective-C? MacRuby is an ideal choice. This in-depth guide shows you how Apple's implementation of Ruby gives you access to all the features available to Objective-C programmers. You'll get clear, detailed explanations of MacRuby, including quick programming techniques such as prototyping. Perfect for programmers at any level, this book is packed with code samples and complete project examples. If you use Ruby, you can tap your skills to take advantage of Interface Builder, Cocoa libraries, the Objec

  16. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  17. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium in captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old captive female Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and Gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain revealed few acid-fast organisms in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. A polymerase chain reaction assay of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. This is an unusual case of disseminated infection of a wild mammal with avian mycobacteriosis, and is believed to be most likely associated with the feeding of tigers with culled chickens infected with M. avium.

  18. Infecting Windows, Linux & Mac in one go

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still love bashing on Windows as you believe it is an insecure operating system? Hold on a second! Just recently, a vulnerability has been published for Java 7.   It affects Windows/Linux PCs and Macs, Internet Explorer, Safari and Firefox. In fact, it affects all computers that have enabled the Java 7 plug-in in their browser (Java 6 and earlier is not affected). Once you visit a malicious website (and there are plenty already out in the wild), your computer is infected… That's "Game Over" for you.      And this is not the first time. For a while now, attackers have not been targeting the operating system itself, but rather aiming at vulnerabilities inherent in e.g. your Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash or Java programmes. All these are standard plug-ins added into your favourite web browser which make your web-surfing comfortable (or impossible when you un-install them). A single compromised web-site, however, is sufficient to prob...

  19. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  20. Antimycobacterial agents differ with respect to their bacteriostatic versus bactericidal activities in relation to time of exposure, mycobacterial growth phase, and their use in combination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); W. van Vianen (Wim); D. van Soolingen (Dick); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.A. van Agtmael (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA number of antimycobacterial agents were evaluated with respect to their bacteriostatic activity (growth inhibition) versus the bactericidal activity against a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] strain 101) in relation to the time of exposure and

  1. The effect of Cerasus avium stalk extract on albumin glycation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abdoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins is the major cause of diabetic complications. The inhibition of glycation process can reduce complications of diabetes. In the Iranian traditional medicine, the decoction (boiled extraction of Cerasus avium stalk is used as a hypoglycemic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of decoction and ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stalk on albumin glycation reaction. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the ethanolic, aqueous and decoction extracts of Cerasus avium stalk were prepared. Then, different concentrations of these extracts were prepared and added to albumin and glucose solutions. Finally, compared to control group that was not treated with any extracts, the albumin glycation rate in the groups treated with various concentrations of extracts was evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. Results: The results showed that compared to control group, decoction of Cerasus avium stalk in the concentrations of 20, 10 and 2 mg/dl could reduce albumin glycation to 85.10±1.55, 72.35±1.75 and 51.25±1.22 %, respectively (P>0.001. Moreover, in the concentration of 20 mg/dl, the inhibitory effect of decoction of Cerasus avium stalk on the albumin glycation reaction was higher than those of aqueous (P=0.021 and ethanolic (P=0.009 extracts. Conclusion: The findings showed that the extracs of Cerasus avium stalk, in particular in the decoction form, could significantly reduce the rate of albumin glycation; therefore, it can be used for decreasing diabetes mellitus complications.

  2. Description of a Novel Adhesin of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Noelia Viale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP by host cells are fibronectin (FN dependent. In several species of mycobacteria, a specific family of proteins allows the attachment and internalization of these bacteria by epithelial cells through interaction with FN. Thus, the identification of adhesion molecules is essential to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize FN binding cell wall proteins of MAP. We searched for conserved adhesins within a large panel of surface immunogenic proteins of MAP and investigated a possible interaction with FN. For this purpose, a cell wall protein fraction was obtained and resolved by 2D electrophoresis. The immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and a homology search was performed. We selected elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu as candidate for further studies. We demonstrated the FN-binding capability of EF-Tu using a ligand blot assay and also confirmed the interaction with FN in a dose-dependent manner by ELISA. The dissociation constant of EF-Tu was determined by surface plasmon resonance and displayed values within the μM range. These data support the hypothesis that this protein could be involved in the interaction of MAP with epithelial cells through FN binding.

  3. Big Mac arvestab raha ostujõudu / Harli Uljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uljas, Harli

    2005-01-01

    The Economist võrdleb maailma valuutade suhestamiseks Big Mac'i burgeri hindu 120 riigis, kuna see meetod võimaldab saada ülevaate riikide elanikkonna tegelikust ostujõust. Tabel: Hamburgeri standard

  4. After MacIntyre : Kaasaegsest vooruseetikast / Meego Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmel, Meego

    2006-01-01

    Alasdair MacIntyre panus 20. sajandi eetikasse. Tema käsitlus vooruseetikast ja vooruseetilisest perspektiivist, mida on võimalik näha komplekselt, vaadeldes voorust, praktikat, narratiivi ja traditsiooni mõisteid

  5. MacSPOC: Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Dan

    1991-01-01

    Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: laptop computing in the Space Shuttle program; current laptop prototyping with MacSPOC; future laptop applications; and summary.

  6. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  7. Mac OS X : Tiger edition the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2005-01-01

    You can set your watch to it: As soon as Apple comes out with another version of Mac OS X, David Pogue hits the streets with another meticulous Missing Manual to cover it with a wealth of detail. The new Mac OS X 10.4, better known as Tiger, is faster than its predecessors, but nothing's too fast for Pogue and Mac OS X: The Missing Manual. There are many reasons why this is the most popular computer book of all time. With its hallmark objectivity, the Tiger Edition thoroughly explores the latest features to grace the Mac OS. Which ones work well and which do not? What should you look for? Th

  8. MAC mini acceptance test procedure, software Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some major improvements made to it to organize the main-tables by Location, Canister, and Material. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness

  9. Biodegradation of naphthalene by Bordetella avium isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater in Egypt and its pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Abo-State

    2018-01-01

    The results revealed that isolate MAM-P22 was the best Naphthalene degrader. It degraded 95% of the highest concentration 7 mM. The best Naphthalene degrader bacterial Isolate MAM-22 was identified by 16S-rRNA showed a similarity of 98% to Bordetella avium strain with accession No. 041769.1. The results of GC/MS analysis revealed that Bordetella avium MAM-P22 degraded Naphthalene to give six intermediate compounds, These compounds were 1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, Butyl-2,4-dimethyl-2-nitro-4-pentenoate, 1-Nonen-3-ol, Eicosane, Nonacosane.

  10. MacEdward Leach and the Songs of Atlantic Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Beverley Diamond; Ian Brodie

    2013-01-01

    MacEdward Leach made the earliest ethnographic recordings of folksong on both Cape Breton Island and Newfoundland, recordings that remained largely unknown for over 50 years. This essay describes the history of the MacEdward Leach and the Songs of Atlantic Canada website and the efforts to provide context for the songs for two key audiences: the academy in general and the local community who understand the songs as a cultural inheritance.

  11. A Mac Protocol Implementation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a flexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics of different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic efficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully modeled. The protocol implementation is done using VHDL language. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the MAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution for terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer. Primarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of consecutive clear channel assessment (CCA for packet transmission. We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the enhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach among the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture.

  12. Detection of Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR in tracheal swabs from wildlife birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A

    2017-03-28

    Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR. The assay specificity was evaluated by testing DNA isolated from 8 other bacteria that can be present in avian respiratory tract, and there was no amplification from non-Bordetella avium agents. Test sensitivity was determined by preparing standard tenfold serial dilutions of DNA isolated from positive control. The assay revealed to be sensitive, with detection limit of approximately 4.07x10^2 copies of Bordetella avium DNA. The genetic material of Bordetella avium was found in 54.54% of common pheasants, in 9.09% of Eurasian coots, in 3.22% of black-headed gulls and in 2.77% of mallard ducks. The results of this study point to low prevalence of Bordetella avium infections in wildlife birds. The results also show that described molecular assay proved to be suitable for the rapid diagnosis of bordetellosis in the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  13. The MacGyver effect: alive and well in health services research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriarty Helen J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a manner similar to the television action hero MacGyver, health services researchers need to respond to the pressure of unpredictable demands and constrained time frames. The results are often both innovative and functional, with the creation of outputs that could not have been anticipated in the initial planning and design of the research. Discussion In the conduct of health services research many challenges to robust research processes are generated as a result of the interface between academic research, health policy and implementation agendas. Within a complex and rapidly evolving environment the task of the health services researcher is, therefore, to juggle sometimes contradictory pressures to produce valid results. Summary This paper identifies the MacGyver-type dilemmas which arise in health services research, wherein innovation may be called for, to maintain the intended scientific method and rigour. These 'MacGyver drivers' are framed as opposing issues from the perspective of both academic and public policy communities. The ideas expressed in this paper are illustrated by four examples from research projects positioned at the interface between public policy strategy and academia.

  14. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  15. HMGB1 acts on microglia Mac1 to mediate chronic neuroinflammation that drives progressive neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Ming; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Wilson, Belinda C; Kam, Wayneho; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2011-01-19

    What drives the gradual degeneration of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that persistent neuroinflammation was indispensible for such a neurodegenerative process. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rotenone, three toxins often used to create PD models, produced acute but nonprogressive neurotoxicity in neuron-enriched cultures. In the presence of microglia (brain immune cells), these toxins induced progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. More importantly, such neurodegeneration was prevented by removing activated microglia. Collectively, chronic neuroinflammation may be a driving force of progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Conversely, ongoing neurodegeneration sustained microglial activation. Microglial activation persisted only in the presence of neuronal damage in LPS-treated neuron-glia cultures but not in LPS-treated mixed-glia cultures. Thus, activated microglia and damaged neurons formed a vicious cycle mediating chronic, progressive neurodegeneration. Mechanistic studies indicated that HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1), released from inflamed microglia and/or degenerating neurons, bound to microglial Mac1 (macrophage antigen complex 1) and activated nuclear factor-κB pathway and NADPH oxidase to stimulate production of multiple inflammatory and neurotoxic factors. The treatment of microglia with HMGB1 led to membrane translocation of p47(phox) (a cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase) and consequent superoxide release, which required the presence of Mac1. Neutralization of HMGB1 and genetic ablation of Mac1 and gp91(phox) (the catalytic submit of NADPH oxidase) blocked the progressive neurodegeneration. Our findings indicated that HMGB1-Mac1-NADPH oxidase signaling axis bridged chronic neuroinflammation and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration, thus identifying a mechanistic basis for chronic PD

  16. Simulation of 64-bit MAC Unit using Kogge Stone Adder and Ancient Indian Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Aapurva Kaul; Abhijeet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes that multiply and accumulate (MAC) unit plays a very vital role in various Digital Signal Processing applications. Speed of these applications depends on the speed of these three sub units of MAC multiply unit, adder unit and accumulator unit. In this paper the delay of 64-bit MAC unit is decreased as compared to the previous MAC units. In this Kogge Stone Adder is used as adder in design Vedic Multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra. The designing of MAC un...

  17. Learning Unix for Mac OS X Tiger Unlock the Power of Unix

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated for Mac OS X Tiger, this new edition introduces Mac users to the Terminal application and shows you how to navigate the command interface, explore hundreds of Unix applications that come with the Mac, and, most importantly, how to take advantage of both the Mac and Unix interfaces. If you want to master the command-line, this gentle guide to using Unix on Mac OS X Tiger is well worth its cover price

  18. Sardinian Type 1 diabetes patients, Transthyretin and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masala Speranza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the cause of Johne’s disease, an enteric granulomatous disease. Recently, MAP has been associated with different autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D and multiple sclerosis. Transthyretin (TTR is a plasma transport protein for thyroid hormone and forms a complex with retinol-binding protein. Reduced TTR plasma levels in MAP infected ovines have been reported. TTR exerts also a functional role in the pancreas promoting insulin release and protecting β-cells from death. Our objective was to identify a protein that could be used as a diagnostic marker of T1D for determining disease progression and monitoring at-risk patients. We postulate that serological TTR levels would be reduced in T1D MAP exposed patients. Our hypothesis is based on the observation of cases of T1D patients with decreased TTR levels beside the reduced TTR plasma levels in ovines with Johne’s disease. We quantified the plasma protein levels of TTR in 50 people with T1D and 51 age-matched healthy controls (HCs by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Findings Our pilot study showed that plasma TTR levels were not significantly lower/higher in T1D Sardinian cases compared to the HCs. Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that plasma TTR may not be a good candidate biomarker for T1D diagnosis and further studies to elucidate the possible link are needed.

  19. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  20. Molecular Analysis of Mycobacterium avium Isolates by Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel-Caron, Martine; Graff, Gabriel; Berthelot, Gilles; Pons, Jean-Louis; Lemeland, Jean-François

    1999-01-01

    Genetic relationships among 46 isolates of Mycobacterium avium recovered from 37 patients in a 2,500-bed hospital from 1993 to 1998 were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311. Each technique enabled the identification of 27 to 32 different patterns among the 46 isolates, confirming that the genetic heterogeneity of M. avium strains is high in a given community. Furthermore, this retrospective analysis of sporadic isolates allowed us (i) to suggest the existence of two remanent strains in our region, (ii) to raise the question of the possibility of nosocomial acquisition of M. avium strains, and (iii) to document laboratory contamination. The methods applied in the present study were found to be useful for the typing of M. avium isolates. In general, both methods yielded similar results for both related and unrelated isolates. However, the isolates in five of the six PCR clusters were distributed among two to three PFGE patterns, suggesting that this PCR-based method may have limitations for the analysis of strains with low insertion sequence copy numbers or for resolution of extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:10405383

  1. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  2. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study.

  3. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis within and around a dairy barn under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Rutten, V.P.; Heederik, D.; Koets, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    To establish environmental contamination in and around a dairy barn, cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were housed in a freestall barn. Fecal samples were collected 15 times at 3-wk intervals, and samples of all animals were cultured by using the Trek Diagnostic Systems

  4. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of the infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN- gamma, ELI...

  5. COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Current evidence suggests that drinking water, soil, and produce are potential sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person. Methods: We sampled water during 2000 - 2002 from a large municipal drinking wate...

  6. Vaccination with peptides of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) reduces MAP burden of infected goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Hassan, Sufia Butt; Thakur, Aneesh

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the cause of paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants that is widespread worldwide. We investigated the effect of post-exposure vaccination with Map specific peptides in a goat model aiming at developing a Map vaccine that will neither...

  7. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne’s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...

  8. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...

  9. Shared Mycobacterium avium genotypes observed among unlinked clinical and environmental isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our understanding of the sources of Mycobacterium avium infection is partially based on genotypic matching of pathogen isolates from cases and environmental sources. These approaches assume that genotypic identity is rare in isolates from unlinked cases or sources. To test this, ...

  10. Shared Mycobacterium avium genotypes observed among unlinked clinical and environmental isolates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our understanding of the sources of Mycobacterium avium infection is partially based on genotypic matching of pathogen isolates from cases and environmental sources. These approaches assume that genotypic identity is rare in isolates from unlinked cases or sources. To test this a...

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from clinically affected cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...

  12. Transcriptional profiling of ileocecal valve of Holstein dairy cows infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s), chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advan...

  13. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses associated with Johne’s disease arise due to premature culling, reduced production of milk and wool and mortalities. The disease is characterised by a long inc...

  14. Characteristics of an Extensive Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Protein Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first step of a comprehensive large-scale antigen discovery project, 651 Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. All of these were purified by affinity chromatography, dialyzed in phosphate buffered saline, and analyzed on SDS-PAGE gels. C...

  15. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recombinant proteins modulate antimycobacterial functions of bovine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...

  16. Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...

  17. Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU-VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Santema, W.J.; Koets, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP

  18. Search for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antigens for the Diagnosis of Paratuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mon, M.L.; Vale, M.; Baschetti, G.; Alvarado Pinedo, F.; Gioffre, A.; Traveria, G.; Willemsen, P.; Bakker, D.; Romano, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide panel of antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to select candidates for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis (PTB). A total of 54 recombinant proteins were spotted onto nitrocellulose membranes and exposed to sera from animals with

  19. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  20. Victor Bérard et la Macédoine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Savev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un helléniste convaincu, Victor Bérard, en vient, au début du XXe siècle à soutenir l’existence de « Macédoniens » et le slogan « la Macédoine aux Macédoniens”.Le Congrès de Berlin en 1878 avait laissé la Macédoine aux mains des Ottomans. La Grèce, la Serbie et la Bulgarie, parvenues à ses limites et prévoyant le retrait futur des Ottomans peaufinent les arguments linguistiques et historiques qui justifieront leurs revendications territoriales. Victor Bérard, un helléniste respecté et bon connaisseur de la région sud balkanique, effectue des enquêtes en Macédoine en 1896 et 1903 qu’il publie à Paris.Cette étude montre comment, dans le contexte de la propagande nationaliste des prétendants à la possession de la Macédoine, Victor Bérard en vient progressivement à affirmer qu’il existe une population autochtone, les Macédoniens. Il soutient leur programme pour la constitution d’une fédération ou confédération avec le slogan « la Macédoine aux Macédoniens » ce qui fait toute l’actualité de ses ouvrages.In 1878, the Congress of Berlin had left Macedonia in the hands of the Ottomans. Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria had reached its limits. Anticipating the Ottoman retreat, they polish language and historical arguments that will justify their territorial claims. Victor Bérard, a respected Hellenist and a good expert of the southern Balkans, is doing researches in Macedonia in 1896 and 1903. These will be later published in Paris.This study shows how, in the context of the nationalist propaganda build-up made by the candidates for the possession of Macedonia, Victor Bérard comes progressively to assert the existence of a native population: the Macedonians. He supports their program for the forming of a federation or confederation which slogan would be “Macedonia to Macedonians”. This makes his works very topical.

  1. Design and FPGA implementation for MAC layer of Ethernet PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengxi; Lin, Rujian; Chen, Jian; Ye, Jiajun; Chen, Xinqiao

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet passive optical network (EPON), which represents the convergence of low-cost, high-bandwidth and supporting multiple services, appears to be one of the best candidates for the next-generation access network. The work of standardizing EPON as a solution for access network is still underway in the IEEE802.3ah Ethernet in the first mile (EFM) task force. The final release is expected in 2004. Up to now, there has been no standard application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip available which fulfills the functions of media access control (MAC) layer of EPON. The MAC layer in EPON system has many functions, such as point-to-point emulation (P2PE), Ethernet MAC functionality, multi-point control protocol (MPCP), network operation, administration and maintenance (OAM) and link security. To implement those functions mentioned above, an embedded real-time operating system (RTOS) and a flexible programmable logic device (PLD) with an embedded processor are used. The software and hardware functions in MAC layer are realized through programming embedded microprocessor and field programmable gate array(FPGA). Finally, some experimental results are given in this paper. The method stated here can provide a valuable reference for developing EPON MAC layer ASIC.

  2. Office for iPad and Mac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The easy way to work with Office on your iPad or Mac Are you a Mac user who isn't accustomed to working with Microsoft Office? Consider this friendly guide your go-to reference! Written in plain English and packed with easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions, Office for iPad and Mac For Dummies walks you through every facet of Office, from installing the software and opening files to working with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook-and beyond. Plus, you'll discover how to manage files, share content and collaborate online through social media, and find help when you need it. Two things a

  3. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  4. A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-05-01

    A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated.

  5. Immune-enhancing effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides on DNA vaccine expressing Bordetella avium ompA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujie eZhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella avium is the causative agent of bordetellosis, which remains to be the cause of severe losses in the turkey industry. Given the lack of vaccines that can provide good protection, developing a novel vaccine against B. avium infection is crucial. In this study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid, which expressed the outer membrane protein A (ompA of B. avium, to prepare a B. avium recombinant ompA-DNA vaccine. Three concentrations (low, middle, and high of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS, a known immunomodulator, were used as adjuvants, and their immune conditioning effects on the developed DNA vaccine were examined. The pure ompA-DNA vaccine, Freund's incomplete adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine, and the empty plasmid served as the controls. The chickens in each group were separately inoculated with these vaccines three times at 1, 7 and 14 days old. Dynamic changes in antibody production, cytokine secretion, and lymphocyte count were then determined from 7 days to 49 days after the first inoculation. Protective rates of the vaccines were also determined after the third inoculation. Results showed that the pure DNA vaccine obviously induced the production of antibodies, the secretion of cytokines, and the increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, as well as provided a protective rate of 50% to the B. avium-challenged chickens. The chickens inoculated with the TPPPS adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine and Freund’s adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine demonstrated higher levels of immune responses than those inoculated with pure ompA-DNA vaccine, whereas only the ompA-DNA vaccine with 200 mg/mL TPPPS completely protected the chickens against B. avium infection. These findings indicate that the B. avium ompA-DNA vaccine combined with TPPPS is a potentially effective B. avium vaccine.

  6. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  7. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  8. Forensic investigation into Mac OS X volatile memory

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, Tom; Gan, Diane

    2013-01-01

    An important area for forensic investigations is live memory analysis captured from a running machine. The RAM may provide an in depth picture of the system when it was seized which could reveal many vital pieces of evidence otherwise unobtainable on the computer hard disk. Research in this area is relatively low on all platforms, but especially for Mac OS X. The aim of this work was to investigate volatile memory analysis for a Mac and to develop a tool, called VolaGUI, to assist forensic ex...

  9. Mapping of MAC Address with Moving WiFi Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wifi is one of the most useful technologies that can be used for detecting and counting MAC Address. This paper described using of WiFi scanner which carried out seven times circulated the bus. The method used WiFi and GPS are to counting MAC address as raw data from the pedestrian smartphone, bus passenger or WiFi devices near from the bus as long as the bus going around the route. There are seven processes to make map WiFi data.

  10. Alasdair MacIntyre: relatividad conceptual, tomismo y liberalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Isler S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenciado por Thomas Kuhn, Alasdair MacIntyre presenta una teoría conceptualmente relativista sobre las tradiciones de investigación, la cual pretende no sólo describir la estructura de las distintas tradiciones, sino también encontrar un principioque permita resolver las disputas entre ellas. Se expone esta teoría y se analiza su compatibilidad con el tomismo, tradición a la que MacIntyre dice pertenecer, y con el liberalismo, tradición a la que critica con vigor.

  11. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  12. Algorithme distribué pour l'assignation de rôles dans Molecular MAC, une couche MAC multicanal

    OpenAIRE

    Darties, Benoit; Theoleyre, Fabrice; Duda, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Une couche MAC multicanal semble une approche intéressante afin d'optimiser le débit d'un réseau maillé radio en multiplexant les transmissions sur des canaux orthogonaux. En particulier, Molecular MAC pro- posé récemment étends I E E E 802.11 DCF afin d'offrir une telle fonctionnalité. Cependant, ce protocol requiert une assignation de rôles et canaux : certains noeuds utilisent un canal statique tandis que les autres sautent continuellement de canal. Nous étendons ici ...

  13. The Talloires Network and the MacJannet Prize for Global Citizenship: Explorations on sustainable and innovative leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianda Hernandez Cavalcanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education does not exist in a vacuum. Institutions of higher learning should serve as vibrant and dynamic anchors to their communities and to society. Civic engagement and community service should be inextricable from research, teaching and learning. The Talloires Network is an international coalition of higher education institutions founded on such a vision. It is because of this vision that the MacJannet Foundation approached the Talloires Network in 2009 to establish the MacJannet Prize for Global Citizenship. Following in the footsteps of founders Donald and Charlotte MacJannet, the international Foundation is dedicated to providing pathways for individuals and institutions to use their skills for the good of their communities. The MacJannet Prize recognizes exceptional student community engagement initiatives at Talloires Network member universities and contributes financially to their ongoing public service efforts. This special edition journal of Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement features articles from five first-place MacJannet Prize winners and one second-place winner. The articles offer a glimpse of university civic engagement projects in six countries created to help marginalised and vulnerable communities. They highlight the complexity of civic engagement efforts in different institutional environments and regions of the world and provide insight into the pedagogy and practice of engagement. Further, the articles highlight the many challenges associated with this type of work, not only with scaling up the initiatives but with institutionalising them. Finally, these accounts serve as a reminder of the critical importance higher education institutions have in the success of these initiatives and the dedication of the individuals who lead them.

  14. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  15. Link-layer Jamming Attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  16. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  17. Throughput modeling of the IEEE MAC for sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderwater (Martijn); G.J. Hoekstra (Gerard); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we provide a model for analyzing the saturation throughput of the ieee 802.15.4 mac protocol, which is the de-facto standard for wireless sensor networks, ensuring fair access to the channel. To this end, we introduce the concept of a natural layer, which reflects the time

  18. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents MAC/FAC, a model of similarity-based retrieval that attempts to capture psychological phenomena; discusses its limitations and extensions, its relationship with other retrieval models, and its placement in the context of other work on the nature of similarity. Examines the utility of the model through psychological experiments and…

  19. Evaluation of the MacDonald scabbler for highway use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The MacDonald Scabbler is a small, hand held machine suitable for use in cleaning and roughening concrete surfaces, It weighs 308 pounds (140 kg), has 11 cutting heads, and, as a power source, requires a compressor capable of delivering 365 cubic foo...

  20. Florence Jessie MacWilliams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    famous mathematician Oscar Zariski, well known for his work in algebraic geometry, at. Johns Hopkins University, following him to Harvard University to study with him for a year. There was a break in her studies for many years following her marriage in 1941 to. W al ter Mac Williams, an engineer, and the birth and raising of ...

  1. 42 CFR 405.1130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1130 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations, Redeterminations... court within 60 calendar days after the date it receives notice of the MAC's decision. [74 FR 65338, Dec...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The total... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac mortgage....5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN...

  3. Pyrogen testing of lipid-based TPN using Mono Mac 6 monocyte cell line and DELFIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells.......Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells....

  4. f-MAC: A Deterministic Media Access Control Protocol Without Time Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Roedig, Utz; Barroso, Andre; Sreenan, Cormac J.

    2006-01-01

    Nodes in a wireless network transmit messages through a shared medium. Thus, a Media Access Control (MAC) protocol is necessary to regulate and coordinate medium access. For some application areas it is necessary to have a deterministic MAC protocol which can give guarantees on message delay and channel throughput. Schedule based MAC protocols, based on time synchronization among nodes, are currently used to implement deterministic MAC protocols. Time synchronization is difficult and costly, ...

  5. MIRU-VNTR genotype diversity and indications of homoplasy in M. avium strains isolated from humans and slaughter pigs in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvisa, Adrija; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Silamikelis, Ivars; Skenders, Girts; Broka, Lonija; Zirnitis, Agris; Jansone, Inta; Ranka, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Diseases which are caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasing problem in the developed countries. In Latvia, one of the most clinically important members of NTM is Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated from several lung disease patients and tissue samples of slaughter pigs. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of the M. avium isolates in Latvia and to compare the distribution of genotypic patterns among humans and pigs. Eleven (Hall and Salipante, 2010) clinical M. avium samples, isolated from patients of Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (years 2003-2010), and 32 isolates from pig necrotic mesenterial lymph nodes in different regions (years 2003-2007) were analyzed. The majority (42 of 43) of samples were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis; one porcine isolate belonged to M. avium subsp. avium. MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 13 distinct genotypes, among which nine genotype patterns, including M. avium subsp. avium isolate, were newly identified. IS1245 RFLP fingerprinting of 25 M. avium subsp. hominissuis samples yielded 17 different IS1245 RFLP patterns, allowing an efficient discrimination of isolates. Clusters of identical RFLP profiles were observed within host species, geographical locations and time frame of several years. Additional in silico analysis on simulated MIRU-VNTR genotype population datasets showed that the MIRU-VNTR pattern similarity could partly arise due to probabilistic increase of acquiring homoplasy among subpopulations, thus the similar MIRU-VNTR profiles of M. avium strains even in close geographical proximity should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis of Respiratory and Household Water Biofilm Isolates of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” with Establishment of a PCR Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; Howard, Susan T.; Brown Elliott, Barbara A.; McNulty, Steven; Newman, Kristopher L.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Turenne, Christine

    2016-01-01

    “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is an important cause of pulmonary disease. It is acquired from environmental sources, but there is no methodology for large population studies. We evaluated the potential of variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Clinical and household biofilm M. avium isolates underwent molecular identification. Testing for IS901 was done to separate M. avium subsp. avium from M. avium subsp. hominissuis. VNTR types were defined using VNTR loci, and subtyping was performed using 3′ hsp65 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Forty-nine VNTR types and eight subtypes of M. avium subsp. hominissuis (IS901 negative) were identified among 416 isolates of M. avium from 121 patients and 80 biofilm sites. Of those types, 67% were found only among patient isolates, 11% only among household water isolates, and 23% among both. Of 13 VNTR types that included ≥4 patients, the majority (61.5%) represented geographic clustering (same city). Most VNTR types with multiple patients belonged to the same 3′ hsp65 sequence code (sequevar). A total of 44 isolates belonging to four M. avium subsp. hominissuis VNTR types (8%), including three with the rare Mav-F ITS sequence and 0/8 subspecies, produced amplicons with IS901 PCR primers. By sequencing, all 44 amplicons were not IS901 but ISMav6, which was recently observed in Japan but had not been previously described among U.S. isolates. VNTR analysis of M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates is easier and faster than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven VNTR loci separated 417 isolates into 49 types. No isolates of M. avium subsp. avium were identified. The distributions of the VNTR copy numbers, the allelic diversity, and the low prevalence of ISMav6 differed from the findings for respiratory isolates reported from Japan. PMID:26739155

  7. Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) as a modifying factor in Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2010-02-01

    Crohn\\'s disease (CD) is a multifactorial syndrome with genetic and environmental contributions. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been frequently isolated from mucosal tissues of patients with CD but the cellular immune response to this bacterium has been poorly described. Our aim was to examine the influence of MAP on T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  8. Molecular biology techniques as a tool for detection and characterisation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Stina

    2002-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, also known as Johne’s disease, a chronic intestinal infection in cattle and other ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterised by diarrhea and weight loss that occurs after a period of a few months up to several years without any clinical signs. The considerable economic losses to dairy and beef cattle producers are caused by reduced milk production and poor reproduction performance i...

  9. 42 CFR 421.404 - Assignment of providers and suppliers to MACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (MACs) § 421.404 Assignment of providers and suppliers to MACs. (a) Definitions. As used in this section... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of providers and suppliers to MACs. 421... indirectly, to significantly influence or direct the actions or policies of the group of suppliers or...

  10. Lactase persistence, NOD2 status and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection associations to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elguezabal Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD, which includes both Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, is caused by a complex interplay involving genetic predisposition, environmental factors and an infectious agent. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a promising pathogen candidate since it produces a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in ruminants that resembles CD in humans. MAP is a ubiquitous microorganism, although its presence in the food chain, especially in milk from infected animals, is what made us think that there could be an association between lactase persistence (LP and IBD. The LCT mutation has brought adaptation to dairy farming which in turn would have increased exposure of the population to infection by MAP. NOD2 gene mutations are highly associated to CD. Methods In our study, CD and UC patients and controls from the North of Spain were genotyped for the lactase gene (LCT and for three NOD-2 variants, R702W, G908R and Cins1007fs. MAP PCR was carried out in order to assess MAP infection status and these results were correlated with LCT and NOD2 genotypes. Results As for LP, no association was found with IBD, although UC patients were less likely to present the T/T−13910 variant compared to controls, showing a higher C-allele frequency and a tendency to lactase non-persistence (LNP. NOD2 mutations were associated to CD being the per-allele risk higher for the Cins1007fs variant. MAP infection was more extended among the healthy controls (45.2% compared to CD patients (21.38% and UC patients (19.04% and this was attributed to therapy. The Asturian CD cohort presented higher levels of MAP prevalence (38.6% compared to the Basque CD cohort (15.5%, differences also attributed to therapy. No interaction was found between MAP infection and LCT or NOD2 status. Conclusions We conclude that LP is not significantly associated with IBD, but that MAP infection and NOD2 do show not mutually

  11. Microaerobic growth and anaerobic survival of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Herndon Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4–1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996 [1]. MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37 °C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989 [2]. MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model. After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%, while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%. M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels.

  12. Microaerobic growth and anaerobic survival of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy Herndon; Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-03-01

    Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air) and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4-1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air) and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996) [1]). MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37°C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU) survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989) [2]). MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model). After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%), while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%). M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  14. Hot tub lung: an intriguing diffuse parenchymal lung disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hot Tub Lung(HTL) is a perplexing pulmonary disease attributed to the Mycobacterium Avium-intracellulare Complex (MAC). MAC is a ubiquitous atypical mycobacterium present in moist environment, and is not considered pathogenic, without the predisposing conditions like immunosuppression. However, HTL is a unique ...

  15. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monowar, Muhammad; Hassan, Mohammad; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS de...

  16. Una lectura interpretativa de Tras la virtud, de Alasdair MacIntyre - An Interpretive Reading of After Virtue, by Alasdair MacIntyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Llebrez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article centers on the thought of Alasdair MacIntyre, whose most prominente work, After Virtue, is considered a classic of political science. In contrast with other reviews, this article will examine After Virtue within the broader context of MacIntyre’s thinking and publications. An overview of MacIntyre’s literary corpus and the evolution of his thinking will shed light on the volume examined and trace certain ideas that are characteristic of this Scottish political philosopher. Matters that remained unsettled in After Virtue have become over time more defined in MacIntyre’s thinking, such as the influence exerted upon him by Thomas Aquinas.

  17. Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users Advanced Capabilities and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Granneman, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users: Advanced Capabilities and Techniques is for Mac OS X users who want to go beyond the obvious, the standard, and the easy. If want to dig deeper into Mac OS X and maximize your skills and productivity using the world's slickest and most elegant operating system, then this is the book for you. Written by Scott Granneman, an experienced teacher, developer, and consultant, Mac OS X for Power Users helps you push Mac OS X to the max, unveiling advanced techniques and options that you may have not known even existed. Create custom workflows and apps with Automa

  18. RLT Code Based Handshake-Free Reliable MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of underwater acoustic channels such as long propagation delay and low bit rate cause the medium access control (MAC protocols designed for radio channels to either be inapplicable or have low efficiency for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. Meanwhile, due to high bit error, conventional end-to-end reliable transfer solutions bring about too many retransmissions and are inefficient in UWSN. In this paper, we present a recursive LT (RLT code. With small degree distribution and recursive encoding, RLT achieves reliable transmission hop-by-hop while reducing the complexity of encoding and decoding in UWSN. We further propose an RLT code based handshake-free (RCHF reliable MAC protocol. In RCHF protocol, each node maintains a neighbor table including the field of state, and packages are forwarded according to the state of a receiver, which can avoid collisions of sending-receiving and overhearing. The transmission-avoidance time in RCHF decreases data-ACK collision dramatically. Without RTS/CTS handshaking, the RCHF protocol improves channel utilization while achieving reliable transmission. Simulation results show that, compared with the existing reliable data transport approaches for underwater networks, RCHF can improve network throughput while decreasing end-to-end overhead.

  19. LHC@home online tutorial for Mac users - recording

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A step-by-step online tutorial about LHC@home for Mac users by Alexandre Racine. It contains detailed instructions on how-to-join this volunteer computing project.  There are 3 screen capture videos with the real installation process accelerated attached to the event page. This 5' video is linked from http://lhcathome.web.cern.ch/join-us Also from the CDS e-learning category.

  20. Performance of MAC protocols in beaconing Mobile Adhoc Multibroadcast Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rico García, Cristina; Lehner, Andreas; Robertson, Patrick; Strang, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of infrastructureless safety applications in dierent transportation systems is a hot research topic. The nodes in thevnetwork are designed to advertise to the rest of the nodes informationabout the current traffic situation by means of short beacon messages containing speed, direction, positions and other relevant safety information. The scheduling should be organized by the MAC layer so that the transmitted messages arrive successfully as soon as possible at the recei...

  1. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: presencia en los alimentos y su relación con la enfermedad de Crohn Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in food and its relationship with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cirone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis o enfermedad de Johne es una enteritis crónica producida por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, que afecta a bovinos y a otras especies. En la Argentina se ha caracterizado en rodeos bovinos y de ciervos, con aislamientos tipificados en distintos patrones genéticos. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ha sido vinculado en humanos con una inflamación crónica del intestino, denominada enfermedad de Crohn. Existen evidencias clínicas y experimentales que relacionan a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis con la enfermedad en el humano, mediante su detección por PCR y por cultivo a partir de biopsias de órganos, de leche materna y de sangre de pacientes afectados. La leche y sus subproductos serían posibles fuentes de infección y se ha sugerido que M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis resistiría las condiciones de pasteurización. Diversos trabajos de investigación demostraron que esta micobacteria podría estar presente en leches comercializadas en diversos países, como Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, República Checa, y también en la Argentina. La presencia de M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis en productos lácteos y agua de consumo ha sido relacionada con la resistencia del microorganismo tanto a los procesos de elaboración como a los factores climáticos adversos, lo que enfatiza el rol de los alimentos y del agua como vías de transmisión al humano. Las investigaciones en curso podrían ratificar el riesgo y las implicancias de la exposición del humano a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis a través de los alimentos y del agua contaminados, para determinar la importancia de la paratuberculosis como enfermedad zoonótica.Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of the cattle and other small ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In Argentina, the strains were characterized in beef and dairy cattle and deer in different genetic patterns by molecular tools. M. avium

  2. MAC Layer Jamming Mitigation Using a Game Augmented by Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhichu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MAC layer jamming is a common attack on wireless networks, which is easy to launch by the attacker and which is very effective in disrupting the service provided by the network. Most of the current MAC protocols for wireless networks, for example, IEEE 802.11, do not provide sufficient protection against MAC layer jamming attacks. In this paper, we first use a non-cooperative game model to characterize the interactions among a group of self-interested regular users and a malicious user. It can be shown that the Nash equilibrium of this game is either inefficient or unfair for the regular users. We introduce a policer (an intervention user who uses an intervention function to transform the original non-cooperative game into a new non-cooperative game augmented by the intervention function, in which the users will adjust to play a Nash equilibrium of the augmented game. By properly designing the intervention function, we show that the intervention user can effectively mitigate the jamming attacks from the malicious user, and at the same time let the regular users choose more efficient transmission strategies. It is proved that any feasible point in the rate region can be achieved as a Nash equilibrium of the augmented game by appropriately designing the intervention.

  3. Resposta imune específica de bovinos experimentalmente sensibilizados com inóculos inativados de Mycobacterium bovis e Mycobacterium avium Specific immune response of cattle to experimental sensibilization by inactivated Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson F.C. Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico presuntivo da tuberculose bovina é baseado na análise da resposta imune celular a antígenos micobacterianos. Procedeu-se à simulação experimental de sensibilização por Mycobacterium bovis e Mycobacterium avium inativados em bovinos a fim de acompanhar a resposta imune a partir do teste cervical comparativo e da evolução da produção específica de interferon-gama, além de identificar a interferência de reações inespecíficas por M. avium nos resultados dos testes. Verificou-se que os animais desencadearam resposta de hipersensibilidade tardia contra os bacilos inativados, e que ambos os testes diagnósticos da tuberculose bovina foram eficientes na identificação dos animais sensibilizados com M. bovis e na discriminação das reações geradas pela inoculação dos bovinos com M. avium.The presumptive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis is based on analysis of the immune response to micobacterial antigens. This experimental simulation of sensibilization by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium in cattle aimed to verify the immune response by both the cervical comparative test and the evolution of the specific production of gamma-interferon, and also to identify interference of unspecified reactions by M. avium on the test results. The results support that the experimental animals started a response of delayed hypersensitivity to the inactivated bacilli, and that both diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis were efficient for the identification of animals sensitized with M. bovis and for discrimination of reactions generated by inoculation of cattle with M. avium.

  4. Sounding of the Plasmasphere by McMAC Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, P. J.; McMAC Team

    2012-04-01

    Properly positioned ground magnetometers can be used to detect resonance of magnetospheric field lines as a way to make unique observations of the plasma mass density of the magnetosphere. In this paper we describe the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies systematically observed by the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC), which consists of 10 stations in the United States and Mexico along 300° magnetic longitude. With an average separation by 272 km between adjacent stations McMAC is well suited to remotely sensing the plasma density at L-values between 1.6 and 3.3 through the gradient method of FLR measurements. We analyzed a full year of McMAC observations spanning between July 2006 and June 2007, and FLR frequencies were automatically identified in cross-phase and cross-power spectrograms by a computer routine. In all of the FLR observations by pairs of McMAC stations, the occurrence rate of FLR can reach as high as 55% around local noon at L = 2.7. The occurrence rate drops at lower latitudes due to weaker FLR signals. At L = 3.3 the FLR occurrence is clearly reduced in afternoon hours, possibly because of occasional presence of the plasmapause that can obstruct FLR generation and/or detection. By examining the results from all possible pairs of McMAC stations, we find that, at L ≤ 2.5, FLR signatures can still be found even when the separation between two stations exceeds 1000 km. The fundamental mode FLR frequencies, in addition to the inferred equatorial plasma mass densities of the magnetosphere, are tabulated with respect to L-value and time. The most probable fundamental mode frequency is found to be approximately 75 mHz at L = 1.6 and decreases with increasing L-value. The distribution of the fundamental mode frequency at L = 3.3, however, exhibits two distinct groups: The lower frequencies centered at 10 mHz representing the measurements inside the plasmasphere whereas the higher frequencies centered at 39 mHz indicating the faster field

  5. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  6. Development and Validation of the McMaster Prescribing Competency Assessment for Medical Trainees (MacPCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent; Chan, Oscar; Maxwell, Simon R; Levine, Mitchell A; Perri, Dan; Sebalt, Rolf J; Baw, Bandar; Holbrook, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Prescribing is an essential skill for all physicians, built on knowledge of clinical pharmacology, therapeutics and toxicology across the life cycle. The decline in organized clinical pharmacology training in medical schools, combined with an expanding pharmacopeia and increasing complexity of patient care, makes prescribing competency difficult for medical students to master. To develop and validate the McMaster Prescribing Competency Assessment (MacPCA), an online tool suitable for evaluating clinical pharmacology knowledge and prescribing skills of medical trainees in Canada. The MacPCA was developed using an online examination platform scalable to multiple sites across Canada. Questions represented 8 domains of safe and effective prescribing with level of difficulty aimed at a final year medical student. Validation assessment concentrated on face and construct validity. 58 participants (7, 12 and 21 medical students in Years 1, 2, and 3, respectively and 8 undergraduate controls) were recruited. Mean scores were 31% (SD 13.6), 46% (SD 14.9), 75% (SD 8.3) and 81% (SD 10.5) for the controls, Year 1, Year 2, and Year 3 (final year) students, respectively. Combined Year 2/Year 3 scores were significantly better than control/Year 1 scores (pstudent feedback indicated the test was fair, clear and unambiguous, aimed at the right level, with sufficient time for completion. The MacPCA demonstrated good face validity and successfully discriminated between upper year medical students and their junior colleagues. Further expansion of testing and validation is warranted.

  7. Association between milk antibody and interferon-gamma responses in cattle from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study was to evalu......Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study...

  8. Stool cultures for Shigella spp: improved specificity by using MacConkey agar with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, M; Buser, J; von Graevenitz, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 678 stool specimens were cultured on four different agars: on xylose-lysine-desoxycholate agar (XLD), MacConkey agar (Mac), MacConkey agar supplemented with xylose (Mac-X), and Hektoen enteric agar (HE). Isolation rates for shigellae were 77% on HE, 86% on Mac and Mac-X, and 91% on XLD. The specificities of the media were 61% for Mac, 75% for HE, and 78% for XLD and Mac-X. After overnight incubation, Mac-X is much easier to read than XLD, which requires incubation for at least 22 hours. Based on these results and also on the practical aspect that incubation for 22-21 hours does not fit well in our schedule, we now use Mac-X whenever shigellae need to be looked for (i.e. mainly patients with recent travel to tropical countries). As compared to our previous procedure the workload in the laboratory could be reduced by about 20%.

  9. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476

  10. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... example is the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide, which besides its successful application in agriculture constitutes an excellent experimental system to research controlled endodormancy release. In this project, we treated dormant sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) flower buds with hydrogen cyanamide...

  11. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.

  12. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  13. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection

  14. TMAC: Timestamp-Ordered MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2011-05-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged to meet a need for a self-organized and self-configured multi-hop wireless network infrastructure. Low cost infrastructure and ease of deployment have made WMNs an attractive technology for last mile access. However, 802.11 based WMNs are subject to serious fairness issues. With backlogged TCP traffic, nodes which are two or more hops away from the gateway are subject to starvation, while the one-hop away node saturates the channel with its own local traffic. We study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in WMNs to aid us in understanding and overcoming the unfairness problem. We propose a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically derive the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs via a manipulative per-node scheduling mechanism which takes advantage of the age of each packet as a priority metric. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of TMAC. Our results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining above 90% of maximum link capacity in parking lot and large grid topologies. Our work illuminates the factors affecting TCP fairness in WMNs. Our theoretical and empirical findings can be used in future research to develop more fairness-aware protocols for WMNs.

  15. The prognostic role of MAC30 in advanced gastric cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Feiqing; Ji, Xiuhai; Ren, Kewei; Shan, Ye; Mao, Xuhua; Fen, Yan; Chen, Ruhua; Ding, Hui; Fu, Xingli

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate a practical profile of MAC30 on chemotherapeutic response in gastric cancer (GC). We elected 87 GC patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy in this study. MAC30 levels in tumor and adjuvant nontumor tissues were confirmed via reverse transcription-PCR to identify the clinical profile in GC and the correlation with therapeutic response. We found elevated MAC30 in GC compared with the matched adjacent nontumor tissues. GC with enhanced MAC30 exhibited poorer survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis and poor response to adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. A multivariate analysis showed that MAC30 was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival in GC receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. MAC30 could play as a potential biomarker for prognosis of GC with platinum-based chemotherapy.

  16. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  17. The MacAndrew Scale as a measure of substance of abuse and delinquency among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathus, S A; Fox, J A; Ortins, J B

    1980-04-01

    Used regression equations to determine the predictive power of the abbreviated MacAndrew Scale of the MMPI-168 on self-reported delinquent behavior of 1,672 suburban high school students. The abbreviated MacAndrew Scale score successfully predicted alcohol abuse, but was also shown to be related to crimes against property and persons and to marijuana usage. It was concluded that the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale may not be uniquely sensitive to alcohol abuse among the population sampled.

  18. Comparison of two commercial formulations of the MacConkey agar test for mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, G P; Vitvitsky, J

    1974-05-01

    Recent evaluations of the MacConkey agar test for differentiation of rapidly growing mycobacteria have revealed that certain strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. chelonei that were expected to grow on MacConkey agar failed to do so. Investigation of two formulations of MacConkey agar showed that these two species grew better on the medium when the crystal violet dye was omitted. Several possible reasons for this difficulty are discussed. It is recommended that clinical laboratories engaged in differential identification of mycobacteria utilize commercial MacConkey agar without crystal violet when testing rapidly growing species of this genus.

  19. Utility of gallium imaging in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, M.C.; Bagwell, S.P.; Masur, H.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body Ga-67 scans revealed increased uptake in lymph nodes accessible for biopsy in three patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infected by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). In diagnostically difficult cases where the usual methods for diagnosing MAI are not helpful, Ga-67 studies may be of value

  20. Divergent cellular responses during asymptomatic subclinical and clinical states of disease in cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of the host with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) results in a chronic and progressive enteritis that traverses both subclinical and clinical stages. The mechanism(s) for the shift from asymptomatic subclinical disease state to advanced clinical disease are not fully under...

  1. COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATES FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Current evidence suggests that drinking water, soil, and produce are potential sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person. Methods: We sampled water during 2000-2002 from a large municipal drinking water ...

  2. Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutant libraries reveals loci-dependent transcription biases and strategies to novel mutant discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and it has been implicated as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans. The generation of comprehensive random mutant banks by transposon mutagenesis is a fundamental wide genomic technology utilized...

  3. Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis mutant libraries reveals loci-dependent transposition biases and strategies to novel mutant discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease, is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in ruminants. The lack of efficacious control measures demands a thorough understanding of MAP pathogenesis to develop new vaccines and diagnostic tests. The ge...

  4. MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATED FROM A FRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that drinking water, soil, and produce may be sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person. We sampled water from a large municipal drinking water distribution system in which surface source water is used. M...

  5. Antigenicity of recombinant maltose binding protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins with and without factor Xa cleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that MAP expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such prot...

  6. Evaluation of eight live attenuated vaccine candidates for protection against challenge with virulent Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), which results in serious economic losses worldwide in farmed livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. To control this disease, an effective vaccine with minimal adverse effects is needed. In order to identify a live va...

  7. Evaluation of two mutants of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for Johne's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to control Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. To address this problem we examined the potential of targeted gene disruption as a method to develop candidate vaccines with impaired c...

  8. UV Light Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk as Assessed by FASTPlaqueTB Phage Assay and Culture▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altic, Leslie C.; Rowe, Michael T.; Grant, Irene R.

    2007-01-01

    UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log10 reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (2.5- to 3.3-log10 reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml). The FASTPlaqueTB phage assay provided more rapid enumeration of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (within 24 h) than culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (6 to 8 weeks). Despite the fact that plaque counts were consistently 1 to 2 log10 lower than colony counts throughout the study, UV inactivation rates for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived using the phage assay and culture results were not significantly different (P = 0.077). PMID:17435001

  9. UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk as assessed by FASTPlaqueTB phage assay and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altic, Leslie C; Rowe, Michael T; Grant, Irene R

    2007-06-01

    UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log(10) reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (2.5- to 3.3-log(10) reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml). The FASTPlaqueTB phage assay provided more rapid enumeration of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (within 24 h) than culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (6 to 8 weeks). Despite the fact that plaque counts were consistently 1 to 2 log(10) lower than colony counts throughout the study, UV inactivation rates for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived using the phage assay and culture results were not significantly different (P = 0.077).

  10. Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...

  11. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in soil, crops, and ensiled feed following manure spreading on infected dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Hovingh, Ernest; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil, crops, and ensiled feeds following manure spreading. This bacterium was often found in soil samples, but less frequently in harvested feeds and silage. Spreading of manure on fields used for crop harvest is preferred to spreading on grazing pastures.

  12. Gamma-delta T cell responses in subclinical and clinical stages of Bovine Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The early immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle is characterized by a Th1-like immune response effective in controlling bacterial proliferation during the subclinical stage of infection. In young calves nearly 60% of circulating lymphocytes are gamma delta T ...

  13. ZAP-70, CTLA-4, and proximal T cell receptor signaling in cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A hallmark of paratuberculosis is a transition from a cell-mediated Th1 type response to a humoral Th2 response with the progression of disease from a subclinical to clin...

  14. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  15. C-MAC compared with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A manikin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereka, Jacek; Ladny, Jerzy R; Naylor, Amanda; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare C-MAC videolaryngoscopy with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in simulated cervical spine immobilization conditions. The study was designed as a prospective randomized crossover manikin trial. 70 paramedics with immobilization (Scenario A); manual inline cervical immobilization (Scenario B); cervical immobilization using cervical extraction collar (Scenario C). Scenario A: Nearly all participants performed successful intubations with both MAC and C-MAC on the first attempt (95.7% MAC vs. 100% C-MAC), with similar intubation times (16.5s MAC vs. 18s C-MAC). Scenario B: The results with C-MAC were significantly better than those with MAC (pimmobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning Microsoft Excel 2011 for Mac video training DVD

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Guy

    2011-01-01

    In this video tutorial for Microsoft Excel 2011 For Mac, expert author Guy Vaccaro teaches you to effectively utilize the features and functions of Excel through project based learning. You will complete various projects, and along they way learn to leverage the power of the most important features Excel 2011 has to offer the Mac user. Starting your training course with the creation of a spreadsheet to record and monitor sales data, you will learn the basics of what you can do with a spreadsheet. You will then move on to creating a Profit and Loss report, learning formulas along the way. Moving to score sheets for a sports day, you will discover conditional based formatting, lookups, and more. You then create a functional expense claim form, advancing your Excel expertise. Moving on to a sales contact management sheet, you will discover how you can manipulate text, and even create mail merges from Excel. Finally, you will utilize all your knowledge thus far to create a sales report, including charts, pivot ta...

  17. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing tremendously in the domains of habitat, tele-health, industry monitoring, vehicular networks, home automation and agriculture. This trend is a strong motivation for malicious users to increase their focus on WSNs and to develop and initi......Applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing tremendously in the domains of habitat, tele-health, industry monitoring, vehicular networks, home automation and agriculture. This trend is a strong motivation for malicious users to increase their focus on WSNs and to develop...... and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered...... the most harmful as they directly affect the available resources and thus the nodes’ energy consumption. The first endeavour of this paper is to model the activities of MAC layer security attacks to understand the flow of activities taking place when mounting the attack and when actually executing it...

  18. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  19. MACS, Lattice Vibrations Structure Factors for Thermal Neutron Scattering in Moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, H.L.; Suitt, W.J.; Worlton, T.G.; Martin, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    example, if two-angle coordinates which have a common atom at the end of a leg of each angle interact, the user must specify the associated criteria which include the distance between the two apex atoms and between the farthest separated leg atoms. The REVISED-MVFC code uses the positions in the primitive cell and searches for all coordinate interactions which satisfy each of the criteria stipulated in MVFC. The user is spared the tedious task of calculating angles between bonds, distances between atoms, etc. In DIPOLE-SUM, the procedure of Kaplan and Sullivan is applied. In MODEL-PI, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix are used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: For all codes which produce eigenvectors, nearly equal eigenvalues can be encountered, in which case the basis vectors for the corresponding vector subspace are not uniquely determined. In MACS-C, the largest Jacobian matrix which can be computed is 40 x 15. The largest force constant vector applied is of dimension 15. The largest real or complex matrices are 40 x 40. In MACS-J, the largest real and complex matrices are 32 x 32. The largest force constant vector is of dimension 50. In REVISED-D, the largest number of elements in 3-dimensional arrays is 2400. The maximum number of groups is 20. The maximum number of atoms per group is 50. The largest force constant vector is of dimension 30. In REVISED-MVFC, the largest indices of 3-dimensional variables are (20,8,8). The largest matrices are 150 x 150. The dimension of the largest force constant vector is 60. In ADJUSTER, the largest matrices are 32 x 32. In DIPOLE-SUM, the largest number of alpha-beta pairs is 15. The largest number of k-kprime pairs is 15. In MODEL-PI, there cannot be more than 4 dipoles per primitive cell. The largest matrices are 32 x 32. The dimension of the largest force constant vector is 50

  20. Coexistent Pseudogout and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Septic Arthritis in a Patient with HIV and ESRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wais Afzal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogout is a crystal-induced arthropathy characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD crystals in synovial fluid, menisci, or articular cartilage. Although not very common, this entity can be seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI is a rare entity that can affect immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or those who are on immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe a 51-year-old female who presented with fever, right knee pain, swelling, warmth, and decreased range of motion for several days. The initial assessment was consistent with pseudogout, with negative bacterial and fungal cultures. However, due to high white blood cell (WBC count in the synovial fluid analysis, she was empirically started on intravenous (IV vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam and discharged on IV vancomycin and cefepime, while acid-fast bacilli (AFB culture was still in process. Seventeen days later, AFB culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI, and she was readmitted for relevant management. This case illustrates that septic arthritis due to MAI should be considered in the differential diagnosis of septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients.

  1. Short communication: Recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I A; Pietralonga, P A G; Schwarz, D G G; Faria, A C S; Moreira, M A S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Some researchers have indicated a possible role of MAP in Crohn's disease. Despite extensive research and large and important advances in the past few decades, the etiology of Crohn's disease remains indefinite. The most probable transmission route of MAP from animals to humans is milk and dairy products. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis has already been detected in milk samples worldwide, and some studies have reported that MAP is resistant to pasteurization. In Brazil, MAP has been reported in raw milk samples; however, Brazilian retail pasteurized milk has not yet been tested for viable MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate MAP in pasteurized milk in the region of Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Thirty-seven samples were collected and processed for culture of MAP. One colony similar to MAP was observed and confirmed by IS900-nested PCR and sequencing. Analysis revealed 97 to 99% identity with the MAP K-10 strain. This study is the first report of the presence of MAP in retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Mycobacterium avium tumoral infection mimicking a lung adenocarcinoma: A potential diagnostic pitfall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiogbe, A A; Liistro, G; Hoton, D; Pieters, T

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of atypical mycobacterial infection in Europe is estimated at one case per 100,000 persons/year. Despite the low incidence of Mycobacterium avium infection, it can result in a nodular lesion simulating lung cancer. We report a case of atypical mycobacteriosis, mimicking lung cancer, which led to a lobectomy. It was a right pulmonary upper lobe nodule found in a 63-year-old COPD patient, partially nephrectomized for renal carcinoma, and weekly treated by methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. FDG uptake was weakly positive on PET-CT (SUV=2.2) in the upper fissure. Bronchoscopy yielded no lesions and no bacteriological findings. Percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma stage T1 (a) N0M0. An upper lobectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed epithelioid granuloma surrounded by giant cells suggestive of tuberculomas. The bronchial washing fluid culture was positive for Mycobacterium avium after 7 weeks. In pseudo-neoplastic forms of atypical mycobacteriosis, the presence of alveolar, inflammatory cytonuclear abnormalities can mimic an adenocarcinoma. Making the difference between the cytonuclears defects related to inflammation or neoplasia remains a daily challenge in histopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact and Finding of No Practicable Alternative: Construction of Visiting Quarters - Phase One and Phase Two MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    wastewater treatment plant ( WWTP ). The WWTP is in the southeastern corner of the base on Bayshore Drive. The WWTP is permitted to treat 1.2 million...adjacent to the WWTP . The two golf courses at the Bay Palms Golf Complex on Base use most of the discharge for irrigation purposes. During dry...Avenue. The WWTP service area does not completely encompass the Base; therefore, MacDill AFB uses on-site septic systems for wastewater treatment

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, M J; Rodriguez, F C; Luna, M D; Benavente, M C

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonei) to ticarcillin in combination with calvulanic acid (CA) was studied by the agar dilution method. All the M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum strains were inhibited at a ticarcillin concentration of 32 micrograms/ml or lower in combination with 5 micrograms of CA. M. chelonae and M. avium strains ...

  5. 78 FR 65541 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... that can be traded at fair value and an explicit public backstop.'' From the FCA's perspective, whether... conditions, events that would impact the market's perception of Farmer Mac,\\8\\ or a broad and significant... risk and legal risk could affect the market's perception of Farmer Mac. \\9\\ Id. III. History of This...

  6. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  7. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in

  8. Age-related iso-MAC charts for isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickalls, R W D; Mapleson, W W

    2003-08-01

    The motivation for this study was the current difficulty in estimating the total age-related MAC for a patient in a clinical setting. Age-related iso-MAC charts for isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane were developed for the clinically useful MAC range (0.6-1.6), age range 5-95 yr, and put in a convenient form for use by practising anaesthetists. The charts are based on Mapleson's meta-analysis (1996) of the available MAC data and can be used to allow for the contribution of nitrous oxide to the total MAC. The charts indicate the influence of age on anaesthetic requirements, showing, for example, that a total MAC of 1.2 using isoflurane and nitrous oxide 67% in oxygen requires an end-expired isoflurane concentration of only 0.25% in a patient of 95 yr vs 1% in a 5-yr-old patient. Colleagues found the charts to be helpful and simple to use clinically. The iso-MAC charts show clearly how patient age can be used to guide the choice of end-expired agent concentration. They also allow a consistent total MAC to be maintained when changing the inspired nitrous oxide concentration, thereby reducing the chance of inadvertent awareness, particularly at the extremes of age.

  9. Scheduled MAC in Beacon Overlay Networks for Underwater Localization and Time-Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleunen, W.A.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we introduce a MAC protocol designed for underwater localization and time-synchronisation. The MAC protocol assumes a network of static reference nodes and allows blind nodes to be localized by listening-only to the beacon messages. Such a system is known to be very scalable. We show

  10. The MacAndrew Scale as a Measure of Substance Abuse and Delinquency among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathus, Spencer A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Used regression equations to determine the predictive power of the abbreviated MacAndrew Scale of the MMPI-168 on self-reported delinquent behavior of 1,672 high school students. The abbreviated MacAndrew Scale score successfully predicted alcohol abuse but was also related to crimes against property and persons and to marijuana usage. (Author)

  11. 77 FR 66375 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... investments mature is not a regulatory violation as long as the profits are incidental to the specified... allow Farmer Mac to use non-program investments as a business strategy to enhance returns for investors... Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION...

  12. Discriminative validity of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale with Cluster B personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S R; Hilsenroth, M J

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC-R) to differentiate between outpatients with personality disorders with Substance-Related Disorders (SRDs) and without SRDs. MMPI-2 validity, clinical, and MAC-R scale scores were compared in an SRD Cluster B group (comprised of Narcissistic, Antisocial, Borderline, and Histrionic; n = 15), a non-SRD Cluster B group (n = 33), and a non-SRD group with personality disorders from Clusters A and C (n = 18). Results revealed that the substance-abusing Cluster B group scored significantly higher on the MAC-R ( p Personality Disorder (r =.60, p Personality Disorders were most related to MAC-R scores (R =.78, R(2) =.60). This indicates that the MAC-R may be more related to the presence of an SRD than has been suggested, and when used in outpatient settings as MacAndrew (1965) intended, the MAC-R may be useful as a screening device for assessing SRD among outpatients with Axis II psychopathology.

  13. MACS low-background doubly focusing neutron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Smee, S A; Scharfstein, G A; Qiu, Y; Brand, P C; Anand, D K; Broholm, C L

    2002-01-01

    A novel doubly focusing neutron monochromator has been developed as part of the Multi-Analyzer Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. The instrument utilizes a unique vertical focusing element that enables active vertical and horizontal focusing with a large, 357-crystal (1428 cm sup 2), array. The design significantly reduces the amount of structural material in the beam path as compared to similar instruments. Optical measurements verify the excellent focal performance of the device. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations predict that, when mounted at the NIST cold-neutron source, the device should produce a monochromatic beam (DELTA E=0.2 meV) with flux phi>10 sup 8 n/cm sup 2 s. (orig.)

  14. Antimoulting Activity of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Resumo. Os extratos e metabólitos secundários de plantas podem agir como agentes tóxicos e inibidores do da alimentação e do desenvolvimento em insetos. Neste estudo foi utilizado Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas (Hemiptera como modelo experimental a fim de avaliar as atividades do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das flores ou caules de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, na mortalidade e sobre o desenvolvimento do inseto. A fração butanólica obtida do extrato etanólico mostrou toxidade sobre as ninfas de O. fasciatus, bem como atividade de inibição do crescimento. Os resultados sugerem que a fração butanólica de E. erythropappus possui substâncias ativas sobre a fisiologia, crescimento e desenvolvimento de insetos.

  15. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  16. MicMac GIS application: free open source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L.; Moutinho, O.; Teodoro, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. MicMac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface (for each command). The main objective of this work was the integration of MicMac with QGIS, which is also an open source software, in order to create a new open source tool applied to photogrammetry/remote sensing. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: produce the points cloud, create the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and produce the orthophoto of the study area. The application was tested considering 35 photos, a subset of images acquired by a RPAS in the Aguda beach area, Porto, Portugal. They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

  17. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...... studies aiming at estimating the occurrence of MAP in on-farm BTM and IM by meta-analysis. A total of 692 articles were identified through electronic databases and initially screened using title and abstract. The quality of the 61 potentially relevant articles was assessed using full text and 31 articles...

  18. Protein Kinase G Induces an Immune Response in Cows Exposed to Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish infection, pathogens secrete virulence factors, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, to modulate the signal transduction pathways used by host cells to initiate immune response. The protein MAP3893c is annotated in the genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne’s disease, as the serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG. In this work, we report that PknG is a functional kinase that is secreted within macrophages at early stages of infection. The antigen is able to induce an immune response from cattle exposed to MAP in the form of interferon gamma production after stimulation of whole blood with PknG. These findings suggest that PknG may contribute to the pathogenesis of MAP by phosphorylating macrophage signalling and/or adaptor molecules as observed with other pathogenic mycobacterial species.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    1999-01-01

    animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture......Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11......-negative on intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism....

  20. Impact of salt concentration on persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Iranian UF white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Hanifian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is considered as a potential significant public health threat due to its possible association with Crohn’s disease in humans. This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of different salt concentrations on survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis during ripening and storage of Iranian ultra-filtrate-white cheese (IUFWC. For this purpose, retentate was inoculated with 2 Log cfu/g of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Afterwards, model cheeses were prepared with 2%, 3% and 4% of salt. Quantity of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was estimated throughout the ripening and storage of IUFWC using F57-quantitative real time PCR (F57-qPCR and culture assay. Along with, the populations of lactic acid bacteria as well as physicochemical properties of cheese samples were determined. According to the results, at the early stage of storage period (1 to 30 days the number of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was almost constant; however, it was decreased significantly (p

  1. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...... of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA...

  2. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  3. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the wild cherry (Prunus avium L. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademović Zahida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic content, evaluate antioxidant propertie and antimicrobial potential, and identify phenolic compounds in alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the wild cherry (Prunus avium L. stems collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Alcoholic extracts had higher contents of phenolic and flavonoid components, as well as the antioxidant and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity in comparison to aqueous extracts. All extracts were characterized by HPLC analysis. Furthermore, for the first time, the antimicrobial properties of wild cherry stem extracts were evaluated. Quercetin and (+-catechin were the main compounds identified in the alcoholic extract, followed by chlorogenic acid and rutin. Quercetin was also the major component detected in aqueous extracts. Besides, alcoholic extract showed better antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus as a representative gram-positive bacteria than infusion, whereas none of the samples showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and fungus Candida albicans.

  4. IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

    2010-01-01

    The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

  5. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug

  6. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisle John T

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis

  7. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  8. Removal of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) from drinking water by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E A; Shin, G-A

    2015-03-01

    There has been a growing concern over human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) through drinking water due to its ubiquitous presence in natural waters and remarkable resistance to both chemical and physical disinfectants in drinking water treatment processes. However, little is known about the effectiveness of physico-chemical water treatment processes to remove MAH. Therefore, we determined the removal of MAH by alum coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes in optimized drinking water treatment conditions using standard jar test equipment. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, the results of this study show that removal of MAH by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes was only moderate (approx. 0.65 log10) under low turbidity treatment conditions and the removal of MAH was actually lower than that of Escherichia coli (reference bacterium) in all the waters tested. Overall, the results of this study suggested that coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes may not be a reliable treatment option for removing MAH, and more efforts to find an effective control measures against MAH should be made to reduce the risk of MAH infection from drinking water. Despite a growing concern over human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) through drinking water and its remarkable resistance to water disinfectants, little is known about the effectiveness of physico-chemical water treatment processes to remove MAH. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, the results of this study suggest that coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes may not be a reliable treatment option for MAH removal. As these processes have been the last remaining conventional drinking water treatment processes that might be effective against MAH, more efforts should be urgently made to find an effective control measures against this important waterborne pathogen. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Structure of the MacAB-TolC ABC-type tripartite multidrug efflux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabrés, Salomé; Neuberger, Arthur; Blaza, James N.; Bai, Xiao-chen; Okada, Ui; Murakami, Satoshi; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Zachariae, Ulrich; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Luisi, Ben F.

    2017-01-01

    The MacA-MacB-TolC assembly of Escherichia coli is a transmembrane machine that spans the cell envelope and actively extrudes substrates, including macrolide antibiotics and polypeptide virulence factors. These transport processes are energized by the ATPase MacB, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We present an electron cryo-microscopy structure of the ABC-type tripartite assembly at near-atomic resolution. A hexamer of the periplasmic protein MacA bridges between a TolC trimer in the outer membrane and a MacB dimer in the inner membrane, generating a quaternary structure with a central channel for substrate translocation. A gating ring found in MacA is proposed to act as a one-way valve in substrate transport. The MacB structure features an atypical transmembrane domain (TMD) with a closely packed dimer interface and a periplasmic opening that is the likely portal for substrate entry from the periplasm, with subsequent displacement through an allosteric transport mechanism. PMID:28504659

  10. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  11. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  12. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  13. Genetic variation and heritability of the antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Danish Hostein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Hanne; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Berg, Peer

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic variation and the heritability of the ability to establish an immune response by producing antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Antibody levels were determined using an ELISA and measuring optical density (OD) values from...... milk samples of 11,535 cows from 99 herds. The pedigree of the 11,535 cows and information about days in milk, parity, milk yield, and others were obtained from the Danish Cattle database. The statistical analyses were made using a bivariate mixed animal model. The bivariate model with daily milk yield...... and OD as dependent variables showed a significant heritability of the ability to produce Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies of 0.102 (genetic variance = 0.054) and a nonsignificant genetic correlation of −0.037 between daily milk yield and OD. When a sire model was used...

  14. McMAC: towards a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-11-12

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency.

  15. A Study on the Distributed Antenna Based Heterogeneous Cognitive Wireless Network Synchronous MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Fen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces distributed antennas into a cognitive radio network and presents a heterogeneous network. The best contribution of this paper is that it designs a synchronous cognitive MAC protocol (DAHCWNS-MAC protocol: distributed antenna based heterogeneous cognitive wireless network synchronous MAC protocol. The novel protocol aims at combining the advantages of cognitive radio and distributed antennas to fully utilize the licensed spectrum, broaden the communication range, and improve throughput. This paper carries out the mathematical modeling and performance simulation to demonstrate its superiority in improving the network throughput at the cost of increasing antenna hardware costs.

  16. MAC Version 3.2, MBA Version 1.3 acceptance test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Materials Balance (MBA) programs had the Paradox Conversion to 4.0 ATP run to check out the systems. This report describes the results of the test and provides the signoff sheets associated with the testing. The test primarily concentrated on verifying that MAC and MBA software would run properly in the Paradox 4.0 environment. Changes in the MAC and MBA programs were basically limited to superficial items needed to accommodate the enhanced method of execution

  17. Identification of (+)-erythro-mefloquine as an active enantiomer with greater efficacy than mefloquine against Mycobacterium avium infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Luiz E; Inderlied, Clark B; Kolonoski, Peter; Chee, Christopher B; Aralar, Priscilla; Petrofsky, Mary; Parman, Toufan; Green, Carol E; Lewin, Anita H; Ellis, William Y; Young, Lowell S

    2012-08-01

    Infection caused by Mycobacterium avium is common in AIDS patients who do not receive treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or who develop resistance to anti-HIV therapy. Mefloquine, a racemic mixture used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment, is bactericidal against M. avium in mice. MICs of (+)-erythro-, (-)-erythro-, (+)-threo-, and (-)-threo-mefloquine were 32 μg/ml, 32 μg/ml, 64 μg/ml, and 64 μg/ml, respectively. The postantibiotic effect for (+)-erythro-mefloquine was 36 h (MIC) and 41 h for a concentration of 4× MIC. The mefloquine postantibiotic effect was 25 h (MIC and 4× MIC). After baseline infection was established (7 days), the (+)- and (-)-isomers of the diastereomeric threo- and erythro-α-(2-piperidyl)-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinolinemethanol were individually used to orally treat C57BL/6 bg(+)/bg(+) beige mice that were infected intravenously with M. avium. Mice were also treated with commercial mefloquine and diluent as controls. After 4 weeks of treatment, the mice were harvested, and the number of bacteria in spleen and liver was determined. Mice receiving (+)- or (-)-threo-mefloquine or (-)-erythro-mefloquine had numbers of bacterial load in tissues similar to those of untreated control mice at 4 weeks. Commercial mefloquine had a bactericidal effect. However, mice given the (+)-erythro-enantiomer for 4 weeks had a significantly greater reduction of bacterial load than those given mefloquine. Thus, (+)-erythro-mefloquine is the active enantiomer of mefloquine against M. avium and perhaps other mycobacteria.

  18. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  19. Virulence-related Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis MAV_2928 gene is associated with vacuole remodeling in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Steven

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (previously Mycobacterium avium subsp avium is an environmental organism associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Mycobacterium hominissuis infects and replicates within mononuclear phagocytes. Previous study characterized an attenuated mutant in which the PPE gene (MAV_2928 homologous to Rv1787 was inactivated. This mutant, in contrast to the wild-type bacterium, was shown both to have impaired the ability to replicate within macrophages and to have prevented phagosome/lysosome fusion. Results MAV_2928 gene is primarily upregulated upon phagocytosis. The transcriptional profile of macrophages infected with the wild-type bacterium and the mutant were examined using DNA microarray, which showed that the two bacteria interact uniquely with mononuclear phagocytes. Based on the results, it was hypothesized that the phagosome environment and vacuole membrane of the wild-type bacterium might differ from the mutant. Wild-type bacterium phagosomes expressed a number of proteins different from those infected with the mutant. Proteins on the phagosomes were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. The environment in the phagosome of macrophages infected with the mutant differed from the environment of vacuoles with M. hominissuis wild-type in the concentration of zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium. Conclusion The results suggest that the MAV_2928 gene/operon might participate in the establishment of bacterial intracellular environment in macrophages.

  20. IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of Mycobacterium avium from patients admitted to a reference hospital in Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Panunto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium is an important pathogen among immunodeficient patients, especially patients with AIDS. The natural history of this disease is unclear. Several environmental sources have been implicated as the origin of this infection. Polyclonal infection with this species is observed, challenging the understanding of its pathogenesis and treatment. In the present study 45 M. avium strains were recovered from 39 patients admitted to a reference hospital between 1996 and 1998. Species identification was performed using a species-specific nucleic acid hybridization test (AccuProbe® from Gen-Probe®. Strains were genotyped using IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. Blood was the main source of the organism. In one patient with disseminated disease, M. avium could be recovered more than once from potentially sterile sites. Strains isolated from this patient had different genotypes, indicating that the infection was polyclonal. Four patient clones were characterized in this population, the largest clone being detected in eight patients. This finding points to a common-source transmission of the organism.

  1. Mycobacterium avium MAV2052 protein induces apoptosis in murine macrophage cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-In; Choi, Han-Gyu; Son, Yeo-Jin; Whang, Jake; Kim, Kwangwook; Jeon, Heat Sal; Park, Hye-Soo; Back, Yong Woo; Choi, Seunga; Kim, Seong-Woo; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium and its sonic extracts induce apoptosis in macrophages. However, little is known about the M. avium components regulating macrophage apoptosis. In this study, using multidimensional fractionation, we identified MAV2052 protein, which induced macrophage apoptosis in M. avium culture filtrates. The recombinant MAV2052 induced macrophage apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in macrophages treated with MAV2052. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required for the apoptosis induced by MAV2052. In addition, ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in MAV2052-mediated TNF-α and IL-6 production. ROS-mediated activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-JNK pathway was a major signaling pathway for MAV2052-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MAV2052 bound to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 molecule and MAV2052-induced ROS production, ΔΨm loss, and apoptosis were all significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Altogether, our results suggest that MAV2052 induces apoptotic cell death through TLR4 dependent ROS production and JNK pathway in murine macrophages.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex mycobacteria as amoeba-resistant organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Mba Medie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most environmental non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been demonstrated to invade amoebal trophozoites and cysts, but such relationships are largely unknown for members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. An environmental source has been proposed for the animal Mycobacterium bovis and the human Mycobacterium canettii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using optic and electron microscopy and co-culture methods, we observed that 89±0.6% of M. canettii, 12.4±0.3% of M. tuberculosis, 11.7±2% of M. bovis and 11.2±0.5% of Mycobacterium avium control organisms were phagocytized by Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a ratio significantly higher for M. canettii (P = 0.03, correlating with the significantly larger size of M. canetti organisms (P = 0.035. The percentage of intraamoebal mycobacteria surviving into cytoplasmic vacuoles was 32±2% for M. canettii, 26±1% for M. tuberculosis, 28±2% for M. bovis and 36±2% for M. avium (P = 0.57. M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. avium mycobacteria were further entrapped within the double wall of <1% amoebal cysts, but no M. canettii organisms were observed in amoebal cysts. The number of intracystic mycobacteria was significantly (P = 10(-6 higher for M. avium than for the M. tuberculosis complex, and sub-culturing intracystic mycobacteria yielded significantly more (P = 0.02 M. avium organisms (34×10(4 CFU/mL than M. tuberculosis (42×10(1 CFU/mL and M. bovis (35×10(1 CFU/mL in the presence of a washing fluid free of mycobacteria. Mycobacteria survived in the cysts for up to 18 days and cysts protected M. tuberculosis organisms against mycobactericidal 5 mg/mL streptomycin and 2.5% glutaraldehyde. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that M. tuberculosis complex organisms are amoeba-resistant organisms, as previously demonstrated for non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria. Intercystic survival of tuberculous mycobacteria, except for M. canettii, protect them

  3. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  4. Pliable Cognitive MAC for Heterogeneous Adaptive Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Medhwahi, Mohammed; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam; Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Sali, Aduwati

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of wireless monitoring and surveillance applications in several domains reinforces the trend of exploiting emerging technologies such as the cognitive radio. However, these technologies have to adjust their working concepts to consider the common characteristics of conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN), still an immature technology, has to deal with new networks that might have different types of data, traffic patterns, or quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we design and model a new cognitive radio-based medium access control (MAC) algorithm dealing with the heterogeneous nature of the developed networks in terms of either the traffic pattern or the required QoS for the node applications. The proposed algorithm decreases the consumed power on several fronts, provides satisfactory levels of latency and spectrum utilization with efficient scheduling, and manages the radio resources for various traffic conditions. An intensive performance evaluation is conducted to study the impact of key parameters such as the channel idle time length, node density, and the number of available channels. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows a better performance than the comparable protocols. Moreover, the results manifest that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real time monitoring applications.

  5. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Meseguer, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel; Pistonesi, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging. PMID:27355950

  6. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills, oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging.

  7. Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namboodiri Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.

  8. Emergency Handling for MAC Protocol in Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Youngmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body communication (HBC is a technology that enables short range data communication using the human body as a medium, like an electrical wire. Thus it removes the need for a traditional antenna. HBC may be used as a type of data communication in body area network (BAN, while the devices are being in contact with body. One of important issues in BAN is an emergency alarm because it may be closely related to human life. For emergency data communication, the most critical factor is the time constraint. IEEE 802.15.6 specifies that the emergency alarm for the BAN must be notified in less than 1 sec and must provide prioritization mechanisms for emergency traffic and notification. As one type of BAN, the HBC must follow this recommendation, too. Existing emergency handling methods in BAN are based on the carrier sensing capability on radio frequencies to detect the status of channels. However, PHY protocol in HBC does not provide the carrier sensing. So the previous methods are not well suitable for HBC directly. Additionally, in the environment that the emergency rate is very low, the allocation of dedicated slot(s for emergency in each superframe is very wasteful. In this work, we proposed specific emergency handling operation for human body communication's medium access control (HBC-MAC protocol to meet the emergency requirements for BAN. We also showed the optimal number of emergency slots for the various combinations of beacon intervals and emergency rates.

  9. Modified pterional craniotomy without "MacCarty keyhole".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Samuel; Mizrahi, Cezar José; Margolin, Emil; Spektor, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Pterional craniotomy is one of the most widely used approaches in neurosurgery. The MacCarty keyhole has remained the preferred means of beginning the craniotomy to achieve a low access point; however, the bone opening may result in a residual defect and an aesthetically unpleasant depression in the periorbital area. We present our modification of the traditional technique. Instead of drilling the keyhole in the frontoperiorbital area, the classical location, we perform a 5 × 15 mm strip craniectomy at the lowest accessible point in the infratemporal fossa, corresponding to the projection of the most lateral point of the sphenoid ridge. The anterior half of this opening exposes the basal frontal dura, while the posterior half brings the temporal dura into view. This modified technique was applied in 48 pterional craniotomies performed for removal of a variety of neoplasms during 2014-2015. There were no approach-related complications. Aesthetic outcomes and patient acceptance have been good; no patient developed skin depression in the periorbital area. In our experience, craniotomy for a pterional approach with the lowest possible access to the frontotemporal skull base may be performed by drilling a narrow oblong opening, without the use of any keyhole or burr hole, to create a smaller skull defect and achieve optimal aesthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 26711 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... liquidity are ``Cash,'' ``Contingency Funding Plan,'' ``Liquidity Maturity Management Plan,'' and... management rule became effective, it ``commenced an evaluation and rebalancing of its investment portfolio in... Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity Management ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment...

  11. Four new species of Adicella MacLachlan (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Triaenodini) from Sabah, East Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Andersen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Four new species of Adicella MacLachlan, 1877, A. anakpanah spec, nov., A. bavanga spec, nov., A. danumensis spec, nov., and A. gada spec, nov., from Sabah (Borneo), East Malaysia, are described and figured.

  12. Water Entry Onto the MAC 200 Immersion Suit During Simulated Parachute Jump and Drag Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ducharme, Michel

    1998-01-01

    The MAC 200 immersion suit newly developed by Mustang Survival (Richmond, B.C.) has recently been considered a potential replacement suit for the constant wear dry immersion suit currently used by Canadian Forces aircrew...

  13. Detection and Prevention of MAC Layer Misbehavior for ad hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardenas, Alvaro A; Radosavac, Svetlana; Baras, John S

    2004-01-01

    ...) attacks targeting the MAC layer. In this study we assess the performance of the CSMA/CA scheme and investigate its efficiency with regard to security and information assurance in mobile ad hoc wireless networks...

  14. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  15. Corrections to "Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woo-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found the errors in the throughput formulae presented in our paper "Connectivity-based reliable multicast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs". We provide the corrected formulae and numerical results.

  16. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  17. Behavioral Modeling of WSN MAC Layer Security Attacks: A Sequential UML Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    is the vulnerability to security attacks/threats. The performance and behavior of a WSN are vastly affected by such attacks. In order to be able to better address the vulnerabilities of WSNs in terms of security, it is important to understand the behavior of the attacks. This paper addresses the behavioral modeling...... of medium access control (MAC) security attacks in WSNs. The MAC layer is responsible for energy consumption, delay and channel utilization of the network and attacks on this layer can introduce significant degradation of the individual sensor nodes due to energy drain and in performance due to delays....... The behavioral modeling of attacks will be beneficial for designing efficient and secure MAC layer protocols. The security attacks are modeled using a sequential diagram approach of Unified Modeling Language (UML). Further, a new attack definition, specific to hybrid MAC mechanisms, is proposed....

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  19. Toxicité du macérât de Carica papaya L. contre Coptotermes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par des tests biologiques, cette étude a examiné, au laboratoire, les effets du macérât de graines de C. papaya sur la toxicité, la survie, l'alimentation et la tâche de construction de galeries des ouvriers du termite souterrain Formosan, Coptotermes formosanus. Dans les bio-essais, le macérât non fermenté de graines et ...

  20. A Cognitive CSMA-based Multichannel MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Po-Yao; Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Chiou, Sheng-Lun

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel media access control (MAC) protocols have been widely considered for future mobile ad hoc networks and various wireless data networks. However, ALOHA-based protocols have been extensively studied in current researches for their simplicities both in design and analysis. To cope with co-existing multiple systems under the cognitive radio (CR) paradigm, we introduce the cognition capability and CSMA into multichannel MAC protocol, along with learning functionality of CR and a multic...

  1. Analisa Kinerja Protokol Sensor Media Access Control (S-MAC) Pada Jaringan Sensor Nirkabel

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Kusuma; Wirawan, Wirawan

    2013-01-01

    Jaringan sensor nirkabel digunakan untuk memantau suatu kondisi lingkungan seperti daerah rawan bencana. Konsumsi energi merupakan hal utama yang harus diperhatikan karena sangat susah untuk mengganti baterai dalam kondisi lingkungan yang jauh dari jangkauan manusia. Untuk topologi sepuluh hop dengan interval pengiriman satu detik, protokol s-mac adaptif listening mempunyai nilai throughput 66,33% lebih kecil dibanding protokol s-mac tanpa periode tidur, dan protokol tanpa adaptif listening m...

  2. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Species Potentially Occurring On or Near MacDill AFB Common Name Scientific Name Federal Status State Status Notes Amphibians/ Reptiles American...species (e.g., birds) would be expected to recover faster than more sedentary species (e.g., reptiles ); however, wildlife species in the proposed project...HABS III 5 NOAA 1941 NRHP Eligible as part of MacDill Field Historic District and individually, 1993 HABS 6 Joint Intelligence Center 1953 Not

  3. A Critique of MacIntyrean Morality From a Kantian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Mani Pathak

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of MacIntyre’s notion of morality in reference to Kant’s deontological moral theory. The examination shows that MacIntyre (a) criticizes Kant’s moral theory to defend virtue ethics or neo-Aristotelian ethics with a weak notion of morality; (b) favors the idea of local morality, which does not leave any room for moral assessment and reciprocity in an intercultural domain; and (c) f...

  4. Precipitate produced by Serratia marcescens on MacConkey agar: useful diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W A

    1978-11-01

    The production of a precipitate by Serratia marcescens on Oxoid MacConkey agar has proven useful as a laboratory diagnostic test. This phenomenon is specific for Serratia within the Enterobacteriaceae, although precipitate production is also given by Acinetobacter anitratus and some Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas species. Precipitate production seems to be specific for certain batches of MacConkey agar, and is probably related to a specific property of some batches of bile salts.

  5. Enumeration of Klebsiella spp. in cold water by using MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, B J; Jones, K; Bailey, H

    1987-01-01

    MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite agar was field tested for its ability to selectively enumerate Klebsiella species from the waters of the Saint John River Basin, which include fresh and marine waters. Water temperature varied from 1 to 6 degrees C during the survey period. Results of the study indicated that 77% of the typical colonies on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite medium were Klebsiella species, but the total Klebsiella population enumerated was greatly underestimated.

  6. Enumeration of Klebsiella spp. in cold water by using MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, B J; Jones, K; Bailey, H

    1987-07-01

    MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite agar was field tested for its ability to selectively enumerate Klebsiella species from the waters of the Saint John River Basin, which include fresh and marine waters. Water temperature varied from 1 to 6 degrees C during the survey period. Results of the study indicated that 77% of the typical colonies on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite medium were Klebsiella species, but the total Klebsiella population enumerated was greatly underestimated.

  7. MAC Version 3.3, MBA Version 1.3 acceptance test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Materials Balance (MBA) programs had the Paradox Code Cleanup ATP run to check out the systems. This report describes the results of the test and provides the signoff sheets associated with the testing. The Acceptance Test results indicate that the MAC and MBA systems are ready for operation using the cleaned up code. The final codes were removed to the production space on the customer server on April 15th

  8. Hsp70 expression and free radical release after exposure to non-thermal radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and ultrafine particles in human Mono Mac 6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkó, M; Hartwig, C; Lantow, M; Lupke, M; Mattsson, M-O; Rahman, Q; Rollwitz, J

    2006-02-08

    The contemporary urban environment has become increasingly complex in its composition, leading to discussions regarding possible novel health effects. Two factors that recently have received considerable attention are ultrafine particles (UFP; 217Hz or GSM-nonDTX)), alone or in combination influences levels of the superoxide radical anion or the stress protein heat-shock protein (Hsp70) in the human monocyte cell line Mono Mac 6. Heat treatment (42-43 degrees C, 1h) was used as positive control for both stress reaction and for heat development in the RF exposure setup. Our results clearly show that Mono Mac 6 cells are capable to internalise UFP, and that this phagocytic activity is connected to an increased release of free radicals. This increase (40-45% above negative control) is stronger than the effect of heat treatment. On the other hand, none of the employed RF exposures showed any effects on free radical levels. Co-exposure of RF and UFP did not potentiate the UFP effect either. Our investigations showed a significantly increased Hsp70 expression level by heat treatment in a time-dependent manner, whereas UFP, RF, or UFP+RF were without any effect. Therefore, we conclude that in the investigated Mono Mac 6 cells, RF exposure alone or in combination with UFP cannot influence stress-related responses.

  9. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Arduino, Matthew J.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexisting risk factors and frequently require hospitalization. Objectives The objectives of this report are to alert professionals of the impact of OPPPs, the fact that 30% of the population may be exposed to OPPPs, and the need to develop means to reduce OPPP exposure. We herein present a review of the epidemiology and ecology of these three bacterial OPPPs, specifically to identify common and unique features. Methods A Water Research Foundation–sponsored workshop gathered experts from across the United States to review the characteristics of OPPPs, identify problems, and develop a list of research priorities to address critical knowledge gaps with respect to increasing OPPP-associated disease. Discussion OPPPs share the common characteristics of disinfectant resistance and growth in biofilms in water distribution systems or premise plumbing. Thus, they share a number of habitats with humans (e.g., showers) that can lead to exposure and infection. The frequency of OPPP-infected individuals is rising and will likely continue to rise as the number of at-risk individuals is increasing. Improved reporting of OPPP disease and increased understanding of the genetic, physiologic, and structural characteristics governing the persistence and growth of OPPPs in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing is needed. Conclusions Because broadly effective community-level engineering interventions for the control of OPPPs have yet to be identified, and because the number of at-risk individuals will continue to rise, it is likely that OPPP-related infections will continue to increase. However, it is possible that individuals can take measures (e.g., raise hot water heater temperatures and filter

  10. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

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    Marion Jaud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in sub-optimal survey conditions (rugged terrain, with a large variety of morphological features covering a range of roughness sizes, poor GPS reception. A set of UAV images has been taken by a hexacopter drone above the Rivière des Remparts, a river on Reunion Island. This site was chosen for its challenging survey conditions: the topography of the study area (i involved constraints on the flight plan; (ii implied errors on some GPS measurements; (iii prevented an optimal distribution of the Ground Control Points (GCPs and; (iv was very complex to reconstruct. Several image processing tests are performed with different scenarios in order to analyze the sensitivity of each software package to different parameters (image quality, numbers of GCPs, etc.. When computing the horizontal and vertical errors within a control region on a set of ground reference targets, both methods provide rather similar results. A precision up to 3–4 cm is achievable with these software packages. The DSM quality is also assessed over the entire study area comparing PhotoScan DSM and MicMac DSM with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point cloud. PhotoScan and MicMac DSM are also compared at the scale of particular features. Both software packages provide satisfying results: PhotoScan is more straightforward to use but its source code is not open; MicMac is recommended for experimented users as it is more flexible.

  11. Chandra and JVLA Observations of HST Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Pearce, Connor J. J.; David, L.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ogrean, G. A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Bulbul, E. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Clarke, T. E. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Churazov, E. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Goulding, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mason, B. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Merten, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mroczkowski, T., E-mail: rvanweeren@cfa.harvard.edu [ESO—European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between thermal and non-thermal components in merger galaxy clusters, we present deep JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The Chandra image shows a complex merger event, with at least four components belonging to different merging subclusters. Northwest of the cluster, ∼0.7 Mpc from the center, there is a ram-pressure-stripped core that appears to have traversed the densest parts of the cluster after entering the intracluster medium (ICM) from the direction of a galaxy filament to the southeast. We detect a density discontinuity north-northeast of this core, which we speculate is associated with a cold front. Our radio images reveal new details for the complex radio relic and radio halo in this cluster. In addition, we discover several new filamentary radio sources with sizes of 100–300 kpc. A few of these seem to be connected to the main radio relic, while others are either embedded within the radio halo or projected onto it. A narrow-angled-tailed (NAT) radio galaxy, a cluster member, is located at the center of the radio relic. The steep spectrum tails of this active galactic nucleus lead into the large radio relic where the radio spectrum flattens again. This morphological connection between the NAT radio galaxy and relic provides evidence for re-acceleration (revival) of fossil electrons. The presence of hot ≳20 keV ICM gas detected by Chandra near the relic location provides additional support for this re-acceleration scenario.

  12. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

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    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS with multi-constraints (delay and reliability whilepreserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes inWBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands andintroduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respectiveQoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMACis also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate itsperformance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliabilityguarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energyefficiency.

  13. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment lenght polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains

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    Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 Aids inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  14. Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Harri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs, was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16 and humans (n = 13 and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other.

  15. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  16. Immunogenicity of PtpA secreted during Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Eviatar; Raizman, Eran A; Vanderwal, Rich; Soto, Paolete; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg; Pogranichniy, Roman; Bach, Horacio

    2018-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease. To survive within host macrophages, the pathogen secretes a battery of proteins to interfere with the immunological response of the host. One of these proteins is tyrosine phosphate A (PtpA), which has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of its close relative M. tuberculosis within infected macrophages. In this study, the immune response to recombinant PtpA used as an antigen was investigated in a cohort of ∼1000 cows infected with MAP compared to negative control animals using ELISA. The sera from MAP-infected cows had significantly higher levels of antibodies against PtpA when compared to uninfected cows. The data presented here indicate that the antibodies produced against PtpA are sensitive enough to detect infected animals before the appearance of the disease symptoms. The use of PtpA as an antigen can be developed as an early diagnostic test. Moreover, PtpA is a candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in cows infected with MAP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine milk from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de; Santos, André de Souza; Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz de; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Erika Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes; Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro

    The aim of this study was to detect the IS900 region of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine milk samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and conventional PCR, and to study the agreement between these tests. A total of 121 bovine milk samples were collected from herds considered positive for MAP, from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. MAP DNA was detected in 20 samples (16.5%) using conventional PCR and in 34 samples (28.1%) using qPCR. MAP DNA was detected in all of the 6 animal farms studied. Moderate agreement was found between qPCR and conventional PCR results, where the sensitivity and specificity of conventional PCR in relation to qPCR were 50% and 96.6%, respectively. Thus, the IS900 region of MAP was found in bovine milk samples from the State of Pernambuco. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MAP DNA found in bovine milk in Northeast Brazil. We also demonstrated the qPCR technique is more sensitive than conventional PCR with respect to detection of MAP in milk samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Gold nanoparticle-based probes for the colorimetric detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganareal, Thenor Aristotile Charles S; Balbin, Michelle M; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2018-02-12

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is considered to be the most stable metal nanoparticle having the ability to be functionalized with biomolecules. Recently, AuNP-based DNA detection methods captured the interest of researchers worldwide. Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic gastroenteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), was found to have negative effect in the livestock industry. In this study, AuNP-based probes were evaluated for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. AuNP-based probe was produced by functionalization of AuNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotide and was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize AuNPs. DNA detection was done by hybridization of 10 μL of DNA with 5 μL of probe at 63 °C for 10 min and addition of 3 μL salt solution. The method was specific to MAP with detection limit of 103 ng. UV-Vis and SEM showed dispersion and aggregation of the AuNPs for the positive and negative results, respectively, with no observed particle growth. This study therefore reports an AuNP-based probes which can be used for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaching of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Soil under In Vitro Conditions

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    Eran A. Raizman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map, the causative agent of Johne's disease, has a robust ability to survive in the environment. However, the ability of Map to migrate through soil to drainage tiles or ground water, leave the farm, and leak into local watersheds is inadequately documented. In order to assess the ability of Map to leach through soil, two laboratory experiments were conducted. In the first study, 8 columns (30 cm long each of a sandy loam soil were treated with pure cultures of Map. Two soil moisture levels and two Map concentrations were used. The columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for three weeks, the leachate was collected, and detection analysis was conducted. In the second experiment, manure from Map negative cows (control and Map high shedder cows (treatment were deposited on 8 similar columns and the columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for four weeks. Map detection and numeration in leachate samples were done with RT-PCR and culture techniques, respectively. Using RT-PCR, Map could be detected in the leachates in both experiments for several weeks but could only be recovered using culture techniques in experiment one. Combined, these experiments indicate the potential for Map to move through soil as a result of rainfall or irrigation following application.

  20. Leaching of Mycobacterium avium Subsp paratuberculosis in Soil under In Vitro Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizman, Eran A; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Wu, Ching C; Lin, Tsang L; Negron, M; Turco, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of Johne's disease, has a robust ability to survive in the environment. However, the ability of Map to migrate through soil to drainage tiles or ground water, leave the farm, and leak into local watersheds is inadequately documented. In order to assess the ability of Map to leach through soil, two laboratory experiments were conducted. In the first study, 8 columns (30 cm long each) of a sandy loam soil were treated with pure cultures of Map. Two soil moisture levels and two Map concentrations were used. The columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for three weeks, the leachate was collected, and detection analysis was conducted. In the second experiment, manure from Map negative cows (control) and Map high shedder cows (treatment) were deposited on 8 similar columns and the columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for four weeks. Map detection and numeration in leachate samples were done with RT-PCR and culture techniques, respectively. Using RT-PCR, Map could be detected in the leachates in both experiments for several weeks but could only be recovered using culture techniques in experiment one. Combined, these experiments indicate the potential for Map to move through soil as a result of rainfall or irrigation following application.

  1. Gamma interferon-induced T-cell loss in virulent Mycobacterium avium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórido, Manuela; Pearl, John E; Solache, Alejandra; Borges, Margarida; Haynes, Laura; Cooper, Andrea M; Appelberg, Rui

    2005-06-01

    Infection by virulent Mycobacterium avium caused progressive severe lymphopenia in C57BL/6 mice due to increased apoptosis rates. T-cell depletion did not occur in gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-deficient mice which showed increased T-cell numbers and proliferation; in contrast, deficiency in nitric oxide synthase 2 did not prevent T-cell loss. Although T-cell loss was IFN-gamma dependent, expression of the IFN-gamma receptor on T cells was not required for depletion. Similarly, while T-cell loss was optimal if the T cells expressed IFN-gamma, CD8(+) T-cell depletion could occur in the absence of T-cell-derived IFN-gamma. Depletion did not require that the T cells be specific for mycobacterial antigen and was not affected by deficiencies in the tumor necrosis factor receptors p55 or p75, the Fas receptor (CD95), or the respiratory burst enzymes or by forced expression of bcl-2 in hematopoietic cells.

  2. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in an Italian Cohort of Type 1 Diabetes Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Manca Bitti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiological agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants. Recent studies have linked MAP to type 1 diabetes (T1D in the Sardinian population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MAP infection in a T1D cohort from continental Italy compared with healthy control subjects. 247 T1D subjects and 110 healthy controls were tested for the presence of MAP. MAP DNA was detected using IS900-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies towards a MAP antigen, heparin binding hemoagglutinin (HBHA, was detected by ELISA. We demonstrated a higher MAP DNA prevalence in plasma samples from T1D patients and a stronger immune response towards MAP HBHA, compared with healthy control subjects. Moreover, in the recent onset patients, we observed an association between anti-MAP antibodies and HLA DQ2 (DQA1 0201/DQB1 0202. These findings taken together support the hypothesis of MAP as an environmental risk factor for the development of T1D in genetically predisposed subjects, probably involving a mechanism of molecular mimicry between MAP antigens and pancreatic islet β-cells.

  3. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Johnston

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of two MAP genes (MAP2121c and MAP3733c can enhance the heterologous expression of two antigens (MMP and MptD respectively, analogous to the form to which they are produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants were preserved in synthetic MMP proteins as shown by monoclonal antibody mediated ELISA. Moreover, MMP is a membrane protein in MAP, which is also targeted to the cellular surface of recombinant L. salivarius at levels comparable to MAP. Additionally, codon optimised MptD displayed the tendency to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane boundary under confocal microscopy and the intracellularly accumulated protein selectively adhered with the MptD-specific bacteriophage fMptD. This work demonstrates there is potential for L. salivarius as a viable antigen delivery vehicle for MAP, which may provide an effective mucosal vaccine against Johne’s disease.

  4. Contamination of food products with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltholth, M M; Marsh, V R; Van Winden, S; Guitian, F J

    2009-10-01

    Although a causal link between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn's disease has not been proved, previous studies suggest that the potential routes of human exposure to MAP should be investigated. We conducted a systematic review of literature concerning the likelihood of contamination of food products with MAP and the likely changes in the quantity of MAP in dairy and meat products along their respective production chains. Relevant data were extracted from 65 research papers and synthesized qualitatively. Although estimates of the prevalence of Johne's disease are scarce, particularly for non-dairy herds, the available data suggest that the likelihood of contamination of raw milk with MAP in most studied regions is substantial. The presence of MAP in raw and pasteurized milk has been the subject of several studies which show that pasteurized milk is not always MAP-free and that the effectiveness of pasteurization in inactivating MAP depends on the initial concentration of the agent in raw milk. The most recent studies indicated that beef can be contaminated with MAP via dissemination of the pathogen in the tissues of infected animals. Currently available data suggests that the likelihood of dairy and meat products being contaminated with MAP on retail sale should not be ignored.

  5. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression in cattle using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombedze, Gesham; Shiri, Tinevimbo; Eda, Shigetoshi; Stabel, Judy R.

    2017-03-01

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN-γ, ELISA-antibody and fecal shedding experimental sensitivity scores for MAP infection detection and disease progression. We used both statistical methods and dynamic mathematical models to (i) evaluate the empirical assays (ii) infer and explain biological mechanisms that affect the time evolution of the biomarkers, and (iii) predict disease stages of 57 animals that were naturally infected with MAP. This analysis confirms that the fecal test is the best marker for disease progression and illustrates that Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/ELISA antibodies) assays are important for infection detection, but cannot reliably predict persistent infections. Our results show that the theoretical simulated macrophage-based assay is a potential good diagnostic marker for MAP persistent infections and predictor of disease specific stages. We therefore recommend specifically designed experiments to test the use of a based assay in the diagnosis of MAP infections.

  6. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis: Human Exposure through Environmental and Domestic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Rhodes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map causes Johne’s disease in animals and is significantly associated with Crohn’s disease (CD in humans. Our previous studies have shown Map to be present in U.K. rivers due to land deposition from chronic livestock infection and runoff driven by rainfall. The epidemiology of CD in Cardiff showed a significant association with the River Taff, in which Map can be detected on a regular basis. We have previously hypothesized that aerosols from the river might influence the epidemiology of CD. In this preliminary study, we detected Map by quantitative PCR in one of five aerosol samples collected above the River Taff. In addition, we examined domestic showers from different regions in the U.K. and detected Map in three out of 30 independent samples. In detecting Map in river aerosols and those from domestic showers, this is the first study to provide evidence that aerosols are an exposure route for Map to humans and may play a role in the epidemiology of CD.

  7. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The genome sequence of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) for use in genomics-assisted breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Ikenaga, Mitsunobu; Saito, Yutaro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko

    2017-10-01

    We determined the genome sequence of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) using next-generation sequencing technology. The total length of the assembled sequences was 272.4 Mb, consisting of 10,148 scaffold sequences with an N50 length of 219.6 kb. The sequences covered 77.8% of the 352.9 Mb sweet cherry genome, as estimated by k-mer analysis, and included >96.0% of the core eukaryotic genes. We predicted 43,349 complete and partial protein-encoding genes. A high-density consensus map with 2,382 loci was constructed using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. Comparing the genetic maps of sweet cherry and peach revealed high synteny between the two genomes; thus the scaffolds were integrated into pseudomolecules using map- and synteny-based strategies. Whole-genome resequencing of six modern cultivars found 1,016,866 SNPs and 162,402 insertions/deletions, out of which 0.7% were deleterious. The sequence variants, as well as simple sequence repeats, can be used as DNA markers. The genomic information helps us to identify agronomically important genes and will accelerate genetic studies and breeding programs for sweet cherries. Further information on the genomic sequences and DNA markers is available in DBcherry (http://cherry.kazusa.or.jp (8 May 2017, date last accessed)). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  10. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics and immune-enhancing activity of pectic polysaccharides from sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Tang, Dandan; Wang, Yue; Li, Xian; Hong, Li; Sun, Chongde

    2018-07-15

    Two water soluble polysaccharides components PAPS-1 and PAPS-2 with homogeneously distributed molecular weight were obtained from Prunus avium. PAPS-1 and PAPS-2 contained GalA: Ara: Gal: Rha: GluA: Glu in 49.38: 32.39: 10.68: 4.66: 1.94: 0.48 and 77.18: 14.91: 3.39: 3.46: 0.93: 0.19 M ratios respectively, as well as trace amount of mannose and fucose. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and methylation analysis indicated that both fractions were type I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I) pectic polysaccharides with glycan side chains constituted mainly of arabinose with minor amount of galactose. Galacturonic acid methylation and sugar acetylation was found in both PAPS-1 and PAPS-2. Both PAPS-1 and PAPS-2 significantly induced the NO release from RAW264.7 cells and the expression of several immune-related molecular (TNFα, IL6, IL10, GCSF, iNOS, COX-2) was induced in RAW264.7 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  13. Disinfection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; De Santi, Mauro; Sisti, Maurizio; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio

    2017-09-13

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are resistant to conventional water treatments, and are opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in hospitalized patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet UV-C lamp treatment against Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water. Ultraviolet treatments (0-192 mJ/cm 2 ) were performed using UV lamp immerged onto cylindrical glass tubes containing artificially contaminated water. The results showed that susceptibility to UV varied considerably according to the strains and the diameter of the tube. With a dose of 32 mJ/cm 2 , a significant inactivation (p < .05) of 3 log (99.9%) or more was obtained in only 5 of the 14 strains. To obtain a complete inactivation of all strains an irradiation of 192 mJ/cm 2 was needed, a dose that is much higher than the limits recommended by the international standards for UV disinfection of drinking water. In conclusion, it may be difficult to standardize a UV dose for the elimination of waterborne mycobacteria.

  14. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and hepatitis E in New World camelids in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitznig, A; Khol, J L; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Wittek, T; Kralik, P; Slana, I; Vasickova, P

    2017-07-07

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants and New World Camelids (NWC). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern worldwide. The virus has been identified in several species, some of them serving as a reservoir for zoonotic HEV strains. Husbandry and breeding of llamas and alpacas have increased in Austria in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MAP and HEV in NWC in Austria. Altogether 445 animals, originating from 78 farms were enrolled in the study. Of the animals sampled, 184 (41.35%) were llamas and 261 (58.65%) were alpacas. 443 blood samples for MAP-ELISA and 399 faecal samples for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture for MAP as well as for HEV detection by RT-qPCR have been collected. All of the 399 animals tested for shedding of MAP were negative by faecal solid culture. Using qPCR, 15 (3.8%) of the animals were MAP positive and 384 (96.2%) negative. Out of the 443 serum samples examined for specific antibodies against MAP by ELISA, 6 (1.4%) were positive, 1 (0.2%) was questionable and 436 (98.4%) samples were negative. All faecal samples were tested negative for HEV.

  15. From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Ryan J; Maattanen, Pekka; Daigle, Joanna; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2014-05-15

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal management practices are complicated by MAP's ability to cause long-term environmental contamination as well as difficulties associated with diagnosis of JD in the pre-clinical stages. As such, there is particular emphasis on the development of an effective vaccine. This is a daunting challenge, in large part due to MAP's ability to subvert protective host immune responses. Accordingly, there is a priority to understand MAP's interaction with the bovine host: this may inform rational targets and approaches for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the early host defenses encountered by MAP and the strategies employed by the pathogen to avert or subvert these responses, during the critical period between ingestion and the establishment of persistent infection in macrophages.

  16. Outside-In Signal Transmission by Conformational Changes in Integrin Mac-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Craig T.; Hyun, Young-Min; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; Waugh, Richard E.; Knauf, Philip A.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular signals associated with or triggered by integrin ligation can control cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Despite accumulating evidence that conformational changes regulate integrin affinity to its ligands, how integrin structure regulates signal transmission from the outside to the inside of the cell remains elusive. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we addressed whether conformational changes in integrin Mac-1 are sufficient to transmit outside-in signals in human neutrophils. Mac-1 conformational activation induced by ligand occupancy or activating Ab binding, but not integrin clustering, triggered similar patterns of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, indicating that global conformational changes are critical for Mac-1-dependent outside-in signal transduction. In neutrophils and myeloid K562 cells, ligand ICAM-1 or activating Ab binding promoted switchblade-like extension of the Mac-1 extracellular domain and separation of the αM and β2 subunit cytoplasmic tails, two structural hallmarks of integrin activation. These data suggest the primacy of global conformational changes in the generation of Mac-1 outside-in signals. PMID:19864611

  17. MAP, MAC, and vortex-rings configurations in the Weinberg-Salam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2015-11-01

    We report on the presence of new axially symmetric monopoles, antimonopoles and vortex-rings solutions of the SU(2)×U(1) Weinberg-Salam model of electromagnetic and weak interactions. When the ϕ-winding number n = 1, and 2, the configurations are monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) and monopole-antimonopole chain (MAC) with poles of alternating sign magnetic charge arranged along the z-axis. Vortex-rings start to appear from the MAP and MAC configurations when the winding number n = 3. The MAP configurations possess zero net magnetic charge whereas the MAC configurations possess net magnetic charge of 4 πn / e. In the MAP configurations, the monopole-antimonopole pair is bounded by the Z0 field flux string and there is an electromagnetic current loop encircling it. The monopole and antimonopole possess magnetic charges ± 4πn/e sin2θW respectively. In the MAC configurations there is no string connecting the monopole and the adjacent antimonopole and they possess magnetic charges ± 4 πn/e respectively. The MAC configurations possess infinite total energy and zero magnetic dipole moment whereas the MAP configurations which are actually sphalerons possess finite total energy and magnetic dipole moment. The configurations were investigated for varying values of Higgs self-coupling constant 0 ≤ λ ≤ 40 at Weinberg angle θW = π/4.

  18. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sandra P.; Schneider, Norma J.; Guthrie, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) has been collecting and storing data on wildland fire perimeters since August 2000. The dataset presented via this U.S. Geological Survey Data Series product contains the GeoMAC wildland fire perimeter data for the calendar year 2008, which are based upon input from incident intelligence sources, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and infrared (IR) imagery. Wildland fire perimeter data are obtained from the incidents, evaluated for completeness and accuracy, and processed to reflect consistent field names and attributes. After a quality check, the perimeters are loaded to GeoMAC databases, which support the GeoMAC Web application for access by wildland fire managers and the public. The wildland fire perimeters are viewed through the Web application. The data are subsequently archived according to year and state and are made available for downloading through the Internet in shapefile and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. These wildland fire perimeter data are also retained for historical, planning, and research purposes. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center HTTP site at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/GeoMAC/historic_fire_data/. The links are also provided on the sidebar.

  19. Capturing coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia: introducing the MACS-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Maarten; Delespaul, Philippe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Huistra, Karola; Walraven, Wil; van Os, Jim

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess coping with psychotic symptoms, the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies (MACS), 24 symptom version, was developed as a refinement of the previous MACS-13. Associations between type of coping and the experienced level of control over psychotic symptoms were examined using MACS-24.MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping factors: symptomatic coping and non-symptomatic coping (combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding).Mean level of distress and perceived control (range: 1-7) were, respectively, 4.2 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.9] and 4.2 (SD = 1.9). The association between distress and perceived control was negative [beta = -0.28; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -0.41 to -0.15]. Type of coping interacted with perceived control (p = 0.005), in that symptomatic coping was negatively associated with perceived control [odds ratio (OR) over seven levels = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.71-0.94], whereas for non-symptomatic coping a positive association was apparent (OR over seven levels = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19).Previous contrasts between symptomatic and non-symptomatic coping were replicated using MACS-24, suggesting clinical validity and utility.

  20. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Shetty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs. A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-01-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul, E-mail: hnc@pusan.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute for Drug Development, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  3. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  4. Efficient MAC Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network with Heterogeneous Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasre Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several Directional Medium Access Control (DMAC protocols have been designed for use with homogeneous networks, it can take a substantial amount of time to change sensor nodes that are equipped with an omnidirectional antenna for sensor nodes with a directional antenna. Thus, we require a novel MAC protocol for use with an intermediate wireless network that consists of heterogeneous sensor nodes equipped with either an omnidirectional antenna or a directional antenna. The MAC protocols that have been designed for use in homogeneous networks are not suitable for use in a hybrid network due to deaf, hidden, and exposed nodes. Therefore, we propose a MAC protocol that exploits the characteristics of a directional antenna and can also work efficiently with omnidirectional nodes in a hybrid network. In order to address the deaf, hidden, and exposed node problems, we define RTS/CTS for the neighbor (RTSN/CTSN and Neighbor Information (NIP packets. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated through a numerical analysis using a Markov model. In addition, the analytical results of the MAC protocol are verified through an OPNET simulation.

  5. The protective effect of a novel antioxidant gene from Mycobacterium avium against nitrosative and oxidative stress in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiyi; Wang, Aiyan; Ning, Xueping; Yang, Dongjun; Ling, Min

    2017-06-01

    The production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) is an important host defense mechanism in response to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A variety of genes have been implicated in resistance to ROI and RNI, including noxR1. However, studies in Mycobacterium avium, an important pathogen among nontuberculous mycobacteria, are limited. We aim to investigate the role of a novel gene cloned from M. avium with high similarity to noxR1, noA, in resistance against RNI and ROI in M. tuberculosis. After subcloning noA into vector for expression in E. coli, we performed survival rate analysis in the bacteria transformed with noA (pET-noA) and without noA (pET-his) after exposure to nitrosative stresses by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitrite, and oxidative stresses by H 2 O 2 . Compared with pET-his, the survival rate of pET-noA was 1 log 10 -fold higher after exposure to GSNO and sodium nitrite. We observed 1 log 10 -fold, 2 log 10 -fold and 3 log 10 -fold higher survival rate in pET-noA than pET-his after exposure to H 2 O 2 for 3, 6 and 9 h, respectively. With the combined treatment of H 2 O 2 and GSNO, we found more than 2 log 10 -fold increase in survival rate in pET-noA comparing with pET-his, suggesting a possible synergistic effect. In summary, noA gene cloned from M. avium has been shown to protect E. coli from both RNI and ROI.

  6. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Guo; Yang Huayan; Wang Chen; Zhang Feng; You Zhendong; Wang Guiying; He Cheng; Chen Yizhang; Xu Zhihan

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to β 2 subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively

  7. Comparing McGRATH® MAC, C-MAC®, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes Operated by Medical Students: A Randomized, Crossover, Manikin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungju Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the McGRATH MAC would decrease the time of intubation compared to C-MAC for novices. Thirty-nine medical students who had used the Macintosh blade to intubate a manikin fewer than 3 times were recruited. The participants performed sequential intubations on the manikin in two simulated settings that included a normal airway and a difficult airway (tongue edema. The intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack-Lehane grade at laryngoscopy, and difficulty using the device were recorded. Each participant was asked to identify the device that was most useful. The intubation time decreased significantly and by a similar amount to the McGRATH MAC and C-MAC compared to the Macintosh blade (P<0.001 and P=0.017, resp.. In the difficult airway, the intubation times were similar among the three devices. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC significantly increased the success rate of intubation, improved the Cormack-Lehane grade, and decreased the difficulty score compared to the Macintosh blade in both airway settings. The majority of participants selected the McGRATH MAC as the most useful device. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC may offer similar benefits for intubation compared to the Macintosh blade in normal and difficult airway situations.

  8. Publicado livro de introdução à obra "After Virtue" de Alasdair MacIntyre

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Helder Buenos Aires de; UFPI

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Christopher Stephen Luitz publicou o livro "Reading Alasdair MacIntyre's After Virtue" em 2012 pela Continuum Publishing Group (a editora original foi adquirda pela Bloomsbury Publishing que agora edita o livro), elogiado pelo próprio MacIntyre como um guia de leitura para sua obra mais conhecida.About Reading Alasdair MacIntyre’s After VirtueAfter Virtue is a watershed in MacIntyre's career. It follows his emergence from Marxism, but draws on Marxist sources and arguments. It precedes ...

  9. Huachipa-Jicamarca: cronología y desarrollo sociopolítico en el Rímac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available HUACHIPA-JICAMARCA : CHRONOLOGIE ET DÉVELOPPEMENT SOCIO-POLITIQUE DANS LA VALLÉE DU RÍMAC. Cet article analyse la période Formative (environ 1700-100 A.C. dans la vallée du Rímac à partir d’une fouille stratigraphique réalisée à Huachipa. Il présente deux intérêts liés entre eux. Le premier concerne la chronologie de la poterie à Huachipa. Une séquence culturelle est proposée, qui commence au Formatif Moyen (environ 1100 A.C. et prend fin au Formatif Récent (environ 100 A.C. avec le style “Blanc sur Rouge”. Selon cette séquence, les régions basses et moyennes du Rímac étaient en contact à preuve, dans les villages et les centres cérémoniels, la présence de poteries de styles similaires. En outre, l'apparition d'un style composé, dénommé Huachipa-Jicamarca C, est tout à fait remarquable en ce qu'il révèle l'existence de liens avec les traditions culturelles de Topará (Chincha et Ocucaje (Ica, probablement aux alentours de 200-100 A.C. De tels liens semblent indiquer que les relations entre la côte centrale et Ica ne furent pas nécessairement sporadiques. Le second intérêt de cet article concerne le type d'occupation humaine et les caractéristiques socio-politiques dans le moyen et le bas Rímac pendant cette période. Au cours de cette étape, me semble-t-il, se développe le village comme modèle d'installation, de même que se développe la construction d'édifices publics, signes, ces derniers, d'organisations socio-politiques similaires aux chefferies et dont le trait le plus remarquable est l'apparition d'une complexe structure sociale religieuse. D'autre part, l'existence d'un temple en U (San Antonio, proche du lieu de peuplement de Huachipa, suggère que village et lieu de culte constituaient un système politiquement intégré. Este artículo examina el período Formativo (circa 1700-100 A.C., en el valle del Rímac, a partir de una muestra estratigráfica excavada en Huachipa y comprende dos

  10. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Morphology, development, and transplant potential of Prunus avium and Cornus sanguinea seedlings growing under different LED lights

    OpenAIRE

    BANTIS, Filippos; RADOGLOU, KALLIOPI

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the morphological and developmental characteristics of wild cherry (Prunus avium) and common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The LEDs used were L20AP67 (moderate blue, red and far-red, high green), AP673L (moderate blue, high red), G2 (low blue, high red and far-red), AP67 (moderate blue, red and far-red), and NS1 (high blue and green, low red, high red:far-red, 1% ultraviolet). Fluorescent ligh...

  12. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution system has generated health concerns. Biofilms are coating of organic and inorganic materials in pipes that can harbor, protect and allow the proliferation of several bacterial pathogens, including Legionella and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Factors that affect bacterial growth ...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169T, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, though Fl-016...

  14. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. Our protocol uses the age of packet as a priority metric for packet scheduling. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of our proposed MAC protocol. We conclude that we can achieve fairness with only little impact on network capacity.

  16. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  17. Learn Objective-C on the Mac for OS X and iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Knaster, Scott; Malik, Waqar

    2012-01-01

    Learn to write apps for some of today's hottest technologies, including the iPhone and iPad (using iOS), as well as the Mac (using OS X). It starts with Objective-C, the base language on which the native iOS software development kit (SDK) and the OS X are based. Learn Objective-C on the Mac: For OS X and iOS, Second Edition updates a best selling book and is an extensive, newly updated guide to Objective-C. Objective-C is a powerful, object-oriented extension of C, making this update the perfect follow-up to Dave Mark's bestselling Learn C on the Mac. Whether you're an experienced C programmer

  18. Microcrystallography, high-pressure cryocooling and BioSAXS at MacCHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englich, Ulrich; Kriksunov, Irina A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Cook, Michael J.; Gillilan, Richard; Gruner, Sol M.; Huang, Qingqui; Kim, Chae Un; Miller, William; Nielsen, Soren; Schuller, David; Smith, Scott; Szebenyi, Doletha M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Three research initiatives pursued by the Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) are presented. The Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) is a national research resource supported by the National Center for Research Resources of the US National Institutes of Health. MacCHESS is pursuing several research initiatives designed to benefit both CHESS users and the wider structural biology community. Three initiatives are presented in further detail: microcrystallography, which aims to improve the collection of diffraction data from crystals a few micrometers across, or small well diffracting regions of inhomogeneous crystals, so as to obtain high-resolution structures; pressure cryocooling, which can stabilize transient structures and reduce lattice damage during the cooling process; and BioSAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering on biological solutions), which can extract molecular shape and other structural information from macromolecules in solution

  19. Conformational stability analyses of alpha subunit I domain of LFA-1 and Mac-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Mao

    Full Text Available β₂ integrin of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 or macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1 binds to their common ligand of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC adhesions in inflammation cascade. Although the two integrins are known to have distinct functions, the corresponding micro-structural bases remain unclear. Here (steered-molecular dynamics simulations were employed to elucidate the conformational stability of α subunit I domains of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in different affinity states and relevant I domain-ICAM-1 interaction features. Compared with low affinity (LA Mac-1, the LA LFA-1 I domain was unstable in the presence or absence of ICAM-1 ligand, stemming from diverse orientations of its α₇-helix with different motifs of zipper-like hydrophobic junction between α₁- and α₇-helices. Meanwhile, spontaneous transition of LFA-1 I domain from LA state to intermediate affinity (IA state was first visualized. All the LA, IA, and high affinity (HA states of LFA-1 I domain and HA Mac-1 I domain were able to bind to ICAM-1 ligand effectively, while LA Mac-1 I domain was unfavorable for binding ligand presumably due to the specific orientation of S144 side-chain that capped the MIDAS ion. These results furthered our understanding in correlating the structural bases with their functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins from the viewpoint of I domain conformational stability and of the characteristics of I domain-ICAM-1 interactions.

  20. LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Eiji [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Emergency and Critical Care Center, Mie University Hospital, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Okamoto, Takayuki, E-mail: okamotot@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Takagi, Yoshimi [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Honda, Goichi [Medical Affairs Department, Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, 1-105 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8101 (Japan); Suzuki, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, 3500-3, Minamitamagaki-cho, Suzuka, Mie 513-8679 (Japan); Imai, Hiroshi [Emergency and Critical Care Center, Mie University Hospital, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Shimaoka, Motomu, E-mail: shimaoka@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking in health and disease by binding primarily to IgSF ligand ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on endothelial cells. Here we have shown that the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin (TM), found on the surface of endothelial cells, functions as a potentially new ligand for leukocyte integrins. We generated a recombinant extracellular domain of human TM and Fc fusion protein (TM-domains 123-Fc), and showed that pheripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) bind to TM-domains 123-Fc dependent upon integrin activation. We then demonstrated that αL integrin-blocking mAb, αM integrin-blocking mAb, and β2 integrin-blocking mAb inhibited the binding of PBMCs to TM-domains 123-Fc. Furthermore, we show that the serine/threonine-rich domain (domain 3) of TM is required for the interaction with the LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins to occur on PBMCs. These results demonstrate that the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on leukocytes bind to TM, thereby establishing the molecular and structural basis underlying LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrin interaction with TM on endothelial cells. In fact, integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells. - Highlights: • LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin. • The serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin is essential to interact with the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on PBMCs. • Integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells.

  1. Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Simone; Rogers, Thomas R; Fitzgibbon, Margaret

    2017-06-01

    Identification of species within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is difficult, and most current diagnostic laboratory tests cannot distinguish between species included in the complex. Differentiation of species within the MAC is important, as Mycobacterium chimaera has recently emerged as a major cause of invasive cardiovascular infections following open heart surgery. A new commercial diagnostic assay, GenoType NTM-DR ver. 1.0, is intended to differentiate between three species within the MAC, namely, Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium intracellulare , and Mycobacterium chimaera In this study, we investigated an archival collection of 173 MAC isolates using 16S rRNA and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing, and GenoType NTM-DR was evaluated for identifying M. chimaera and other species belonging to the MAC. Species identification of 157/173 (91%) isolates with the GenoType NTM-DR assay was in agreement with 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS gene sequencing results. Misidentification occurred with 16 isolates which belonged to four species included in the MAC that are rarely encountered in clinical specimens. Despite some limitations of this assay, GenoType NTM-DR had 100% specificity for identifying M. chimaera This novel assay will enable diagnostic laboratories to differentiate species belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and to accurately identify M. chimaera It can produce rapid results and is also more cost efficient than gene sequencing methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

  3. High-contrast MacNeille-PBS-based LCOS projection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Robinson, Michael G.; Sharp, Gary D.

    2005-04-01

    Contrast limits are investigated for MacNeille PBS based LCOS projection systems that use retarder stack filters (RSF). The two contributing factors are considered separately; namely the color management system and the panel port. To enhance performance of the former, skew ray compensated RSFs are introduced. For the latter, a general methodology is presented to optimize contrast by compensating the LCOS panel. It is shown that the orientation of the LCOS panel and compensator, relative to the MacNeille PBS, is critical. The significant impact of AR coating performance on system contrast is also revealed. A high contrast architecture will be presented by way of example.

  4. MacIntyrova koncepce novověkého vývoje etiky

    OpenAIRE

    JEŽEK, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with the analysis of the book by Alasdair MacIntyre ?After virtue. A Study in Moral Theory ? in which the author discusses the crisis of moral values at the time of Modern Period. The main part of the thesis is devoted to this book and also the views of scholars from Classical times up to the early 20th century. The thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter deals with the thoughts of Alasdair MacIntyre, the second chapter discusses emotivism, the third chapt...

  5. Computing the Chern–Schwartz–MacPherson class of complete simplical toric varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Topological invariants such as characteristic classes are an important tool to aid in understanding and categorizing the structure and properties of algebraic varieties. In this note, we consider the problem of computing a particular characteristic class, the Chern–Schwartz–MacPherson class......, of a complete simplicial toric variety X∑ defined by a fan ∑ from the combinatorial data contained in the fan ∑. Specifically, we give an effective combinatorial algorithm to compute the Chern–Schwartz–MacPherson class of X∑, in the Chow ring (or rational Chow ring) of X∑. This method is formulated by combining...

  6. Endospores of B subtilis are pyrogenic and activate Mono Mac 6 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik W; Christensen, Jens D

    2003-01-01

    The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is sensitive to pyrogens and interleukin-6 secretion is induced after exposure to pyrogens. The aim of this study is to examine the pyrogenic activity and the interleukin-6-inducing capacity of the Gram-positive B. subtilis bacteria, endospores and isolated cell...... wall components. Furthermore the involvement of CD14 in activation of interleukin-6 release is investigated. All test substances are pyrogenic in the rabbit pyrogen test. The test substance is incubated with monocytic cells (Mono Mac 6) for 24 h and the secreted interleukin-6 is determined...

  7. The Mac'OS X command line Unix under the hood

    CERN Document Server

    McElhearn, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The Mac command line offers a faster, easier way to accomplish many tasks. It''s also the medium for many commands that aren''t accessible using the GUI. The Mac OS X Command Line is a clear, concise, tutorial-style introduction to all the major functionality provided by the command line. It''s also packed with information the experienced users need, including little-known shortcuts and several chapters devoted to advanced topics. This is a book to get you started, but also a book you won't soon outgrow.

  8. A Critique of MacIntyrean Morality From a Kantian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mani Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical examination of MacIntyre’s notion of morality in reference to Kant’s deontological moral theory. The examination shows that MacIntyre (a criticizes Kant’s moral theory to defend virtue ethics or neo-Aristotelian ethics with a weak notion of morality; (b favors the idea of local morality, which does not leave any room for moral assessment and reciprocity in an intercultural domain; and (c fails to provide good arguments for his moral historicism and against Kant’s moral universalism.

  9. The MacNew Heart Disease health-related quality of life instrument: A summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of health, the effects of disease, and the impact of health care include not only an indication of changes in disease frequency and severity but also an estimate of patients' perception of health status before and after treatment. One of the more important developments in health care in the past decade may be the recognition that the patient's perspective is as legitimate and valid as the clinician's in monitoring health care outcomes. This has lead to the development of instruments to quantify the patients' perception of their health status before and after treatment. Methods We review evidence supporting the measurement properties of the MacNew Heart Disease Health-related Quality of Life [MacNew] Questionnaire which was designed to evaluate how daily activities and physical, emotional, and social functioning are affected by coronary heart disease and its treatment. Results Reliability was demonstrated by using internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficients for the three domains in the Dutch, English, Farsi, German, and Spanish versions of the MacNew. With internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficients =>0.73, reliability is high. Validity of the MacNew was examined with factor analysis and three core underlying factors, physical, emotional, and social, were identified, explaining 63.0 – 66.5% of the observed variance and replicated in the translations with psychometric data. Construct validity of the MacNew was further demonstrated by extensive substantiation of the logical relationships, defined a priori, between items and other comparison tools. The MacNew is responsive and sensitive to changes in HRQL following various interventions for patients with heart disease with 11 of 13 effect size statistics >0.80. Taking an average of 10 minutes or less to complete, the respondent-burden for the MacNew is low and its acceptability is demonstrated by response rates of over 90

  10. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  11. A rhodanine agent active against non-replicating intracellular Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Tim J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic therapy targeting chronic mycobacterial disease is often ineffective due to problems with the emergence of drug resistance and non-replicating persistent intracellular antibiotic resistant phenotypes. Strategies which include agents able to enhance host cell killing mechanisms could represent an alternative to conventional methods with the potential for host clearance if active against dormant phenotypes. Investigations of agents with potential activity against non-replicating mycobacteria however are restricted due to a need for assays that can assess bacterial viability without having to culture. Results This study describes the development and use of a pre16S ribosomal gene RNA/DNA ratio viability assay which is independent of the need for culture, supported by a novel thin layer accelerated mycobacterial colony forming method for determining viability and culturability of MAP in intracellular environments. We describe the use of these tools to demonstrate intracellular killing activity of a novel rhodanine agent (D157070 against the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP and show that the culturability of MAP decreases relative to its viability on intracellular entry suggesting the induction of a non-culturable phenotype. We further demonstrate that D157070, although having no direct activity against the culturability of extracellular MAP, can bind to cultured MAP cells and has significant influence on the MAP transcriptome, particularly with respect of δL associated genes. D157070 is shown to be taken up by bovine and human cells and able to enhance host cell killing, as measured by significant decreases in both culturability and viability of intracellular MAP. Conclusions This work suggests that pre16srRNA gene ratios represent a viable method for studying MAP viability. In addition, the rhodanine agent D157070 tested is non-toxic and enhances cell killing activity

  12. Dysbiosis of the Fecal Microbiota in Cattle Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Fecteau

    Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD is a chronic, intestinal infection of cattle, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. It results in granulomatous inflammation of the intestinal lining, leading to malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Crohn's disease (CD, a chronic, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease of humans, has many clinical and pathologic similarities to JD. Dysbiosis of the enteric microbiota has been demonstrated in CD patients. It is speculated that this dysbiosis may contribute to the intestinal inflammation observed in those patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity patterns of fecal bacterial populations in cattle infected with MAP, compared to those of uninfected control cattle, using phylogenomic analysis. Fecal samples were selected to include samples from 20 MAP-positive cows; 25 MAP-negative herdmates; and 25 MAP-negative cows from a MAP-free herd. The genomic DNA was extracted; PCR amplified sequenced on a 454 Roche platform, and analyzed using QIIME. Approximately 199,077 reads were analyzed from 70 bacterial communities (average of 2,843 reads/sample. The composition of bacterial communities differed between the 3 treatment groups (P < 0.001; Permanova test. Taxonomic assignment of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified 17 bacterial phyla across all samples. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes constituted more than 95% of the bacterial population in the negative and exposed groups. In the positive group, lineages of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria increased and those of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased (P < 0.001. Actinobacteria was highly abundant (30% of the total bacteria in the positive group compared to exposed and negative groups (0.1-0.2%. Notably, the genus Arthrobacter was found to predominate Actinobacteria in the positive group. This study indicates that MAP-infected cattle have a different composition of their fecal microbiota than MAP-negative cattle.

  13. Exploring the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wynne

    Full Text Available A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC patient, and two non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD control individuals using Illumina sequencing, complemented by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH. MAP isolates derived from two bovine and one ovine host were also subjected to whole genome sequencing and CGH. All seven human derived MAP isolates were highly genetically similar and clustered together with one bovine type isolate following phylogenetic analysis. Three other sequenced isolates (including the reference bovine derived isolate K10 were genetically distinct. The human isolates contained two large tandem duplications, the organisations of which were confirmed by PCR. Designated vGI-17 and vGI-18 these duplications spanned 63 and 109 open reading frames, respectively. PCR screening of over 30 additional MAP isolates (3 human derived, 27 animal derived and one environmental isolate confirmed that vGI-17 and vGI-18 are common across many isolates. Quantitative real-time PCR of vGI-17 demonstrated that the proportion of cells containing the vGI-17 duplication varied between 0.01 to 15% amongst isolates with human isolates containing a higher proportion of vGI-17 compared to most animal isolates. These findings suggest these duplications are transient genomic rearrangements. We hypothesise that the over-representation of vGI-17 in human derived MAP strains may enhance their ability to infect or persist within a human host by increasing genome redundancy and conferring crude regulation of protein expression across biologically important regions.

  14. Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU-VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulzen, K J E; Heuven, H C M; Nielen, M; Hoeboer, J; Santema, W J; Koets, A P

    2011-03-24

    A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP isolates using PCR-based methods detecting genetic elements called Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRUs) to determine if multiple MAP strains can coexist on farms with endemic MAP infection. For 52 temporal isolates originating from infected cattle from 32 commercial dairy herds with known trading history, MIRU-VNTR analysis was applied at 10 loci of which six showed variation. Within the group of 52 isolates, 17 different MIRU-VNTR patterns were detected. One MIRU-VNTR pattern was found in 29 isolates, one pattern in four isolates, one pattern in three isolates, two times one MIRU-VNTR pattern was found occurring in two isolates, and 12 patterns were found only once. Eleven herds provided multiple isolates. In five herds a single MIRU-VNTR pattern was detected among multiple isolates whereas in six herds more than one pattern was found. This study confirms that between dairy farms as well as within dairy farms, infected animals shed MAP with different MIRU-VNTR patterns. Analysis of trading history and age within herds indicated that cows born within the same birth cohort can be infected with MAP strains exhibiting variations in the number of MIRU-VNTR repeats. These data indicate that such multiple genotypes of MAP can coexist within one herd. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Virulence of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. hominissuis Human Isolates in an in vitro Macrophage Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rindi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH is an environmental opportunistic pathogen for humans and swine worldwide; in humans, the vast majority of MAH infections is due to strains belonging to specific genotypes, such as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-sequevars Mav-A and Mav-B that mostly cause pulmonary infections in elderly patients and severe disseminated infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, respectively. To test whether the different types of infections in distinct patients' populations might reflect a different virulence of the infecting genotypes, MAH human isolates, genotyped by ITS sequencing and MIRU-VNTR minisatellite analysis, were studied for the capacity to infect and replicate in human macrophages in vitro. Methods: Cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and phagocytic human leukemic cell line THP-1 cells were infected with each MAH isolate and intracellular colony-forming units (CFU were determined. Results: At 2 h after infection, i.e., immediately after cell entry, the numbers of intracellular bacteria did not differ between Mav-A and Mav-B organisms in both phagocytic cell types. At 5 days, Mav-A organisms, sharing highly related VNTR-MIRU genotypes, yielded numbers of intracellular CFUs significantly higher than Mav-B organisms in both phagocytic cell types. MIRU-VNTR-based minimum spanning tree analysis of the MAH isolates showed a divergent phylogenetic pathway of Mav-A and Mav-B organisms. Conclusion: Mav-A and Mav-B sequevars might have evolved different pathogenetic properties that might account for their association with different human infections.

  16. Low genetic diversity of bovine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates detected by MIRU-VNTR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijf, Marcel; Lesniak, Olga N; Yearsley, Dermot; Ramovic, Elvira; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim

    2017-05-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit and variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) has been developed as a simple, rapid and cost efficient molecular typing method to differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic diversity of MAP across the Republic of Ireland by utilising the MIRU-VNTR typing method on a large collection of MAP isolates. A total of 114 MAP isolates originated from 53 herds across 19 counties in the Republic of Ireland were genotyped based on eight established MIRU-VNTR loci. Four INMV groups were observed during this study. INMV 1 was found in 67 MAP isolates (58.8%) and INMV 2 was observed in 45 isolates (39.4%). INMV 3 and INMV 116 recorded only one isolate each (0.9%). The unique INMV 116 group has never been reported among herds thus far and the molecular pattern of the MAP isolate classified in INMV 116 showed a difference at the MIRU-VNTR X3 locus compared to the other three INMV groups observed. INMV 1, INMV 2 and INMV 3 are observed frequently in Europe and comprised 99.1% of the total MAP isolates characterised in this study, indicating that MAP exhibited low level of genetic diversity across the Republic of Ireland using the MIRU-VNTR method. By the implementation of SNP analysis or MLSSR as an additional typing method, MAP genetic diversity would increase. INMV 3 is unique to Ireland and whereas INMV 116 has never been previously reported among herds by MIRU-VNTR typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Susanne WF

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  18. Mechanical stimuli regulate the allocation of biomass in trees: demonstration with young Prunus avium trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Dupraz, Christian; Jaouen, Gaëlle; Ploquin, Stéphane; Adam, Boris

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tree-shelters are increasingly used to protect tree seedlings against browsing animals and herbicide drifts. The biomass allocation in young seedlings of deciduous trees is highly disturbed by common plastic tree-shelters, resulting in poor root systems and reduced diameter growth of the trunk. The shelters have been improved by creating chimney-effect ventilation with holes drilled at the bottom, resulting in stimulated trunk diameter growth, but the root deficit has remained unchanged. An experiment was set up to elucidate the mechanisms behind the poor root growth of sheltered Prunus avium trees. Tree seedlings were grown either in natural windy conditions or in tree-shelters. Mechanical wind stimuli were suppressed in ten unsheltered trees by staking. Mechanical stimuli (bending) of the stem were applied in ten sheltered trees using an original mechanical device. Sheltered trees suffered from poor root growth, but sheltered bent trees largely recovered, showing that mechano-sensing is an important mechanism governing C allocation and the shoot-root balance. The use of a few artificial mechanical stimuli increased the biomass allocation towards the roots, as did natural wind sway. It was demonstrated that there was an acclimation of plants to the imposed strain. This study suggests that if mechanical stimuli are used to control plant growth, they should be applied at low frequency in order to be most effective. The impact on the functional equilibrium hypothesis that is used in many tree growth models is discussed. The consequence of the lack of mechanical stimuli should be incorporated in tree growth models when applied to environments protected from the wind (e.g. greenhouses, dense forests).

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.

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    Randy J Hempel

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s, chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.

  20. Preparation and Purification of Polyclonal Antibodies against Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis Antigens in Rabbit

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    Hafezeh Alizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Johne’s disease is the chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and a major health hazard worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focused on mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP antigens in diagnostic tests. Identification of antibodies against MAP antigens is, therefore, effective for the diagnosis or preparation of vaccine. The aim of this study was to prepare and purify polyclonal antibodies against MAP antigens. Materials and Methods: A New Zealand white rabbit was immunized at a certain time period with MAP antigens and Freund’s adjuvant. After the immunization of the animal, the rabbit was bled to obtain enriched serum. Immunoglobulins were obtained via sedimentation with ammonium sulfate 35% and then IgG was purified by ion exchange (DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Serologic test was used to evaluate the interaction of antigens and antibodies. Results: Ion exchange chromatography of IgG showed one peak, and SDS_PAGE of IgG showed a single band. Serologic test was applied and clear precipitation lines were appeared up to 1:16 dilution, which indicated the high quality of the product. Conclusion: In this study, the humoral immune response was induced well by immunization with MAP antigens in a New Zealand white rabbit and polyclonal antibodies were produced in high titers. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce in large quantities and can connect to the more connective sites, resulting in better sensitivity. Identification of polyclonal antibodies via immunological tests can play a significant role in studying MAP disorders.