WorldWideScience

Sample records for aviation fuel

  1. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  2. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  3. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  4. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2011-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the avi...

  5. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  6. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    This report contains fuel use figures for Danish civil aviation broken down into domestic and international numbers from 1985 to 2000, using a refined fuel split procedure and official fuel sale totals. The results from two different models are used. The NERI (National Environmental Research...... Institute) model estimates the fuel use per flight for all flights leaving Danish airports in 1998, while the annual Danish CORINAIR inventories are based on improved LTO/aircraft type statistics. A time series of fuel use from 1985 to 2000 is also shown for flights between Denmark and Greenland/the Faroe...... Islands, obtained with the NERI model. In addition a complete overview of the aviation fuel use from the two latter areas is given, based on fuel sale information from Statistics Greenland and Statistics Faroe Islands, and fuel use data from airline companies. The fuel use figures are presented on a level...

  7. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  8. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  9. Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Particle Counter Methodology • Particle counts are taken utilizing calibration methodologies and standardized cleanliness code ratings – ISO 11171 – ISO...Limits Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18/16/13 14/10/7 Pamas / Parker / Particle Solutions 19/17...12 U.S. DOD 19/17/14/13* Diesel Fuel World Wide Fuel Charter 5th 18/16/13 DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Caterpillar 18/16/13 Detroit Diesel 18/16/13 MTU

  10. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  11. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remain the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do—at least the ones we are studying—massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  12. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  13. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  14. Fuel cells for naval aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)

  15. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  16. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  17. Panorama 2009 - aviation and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Several key priorities have been targeted for development in the aviation industry: diversifying energy resources, keeping consumption levels under control and reducing polluting emissions to improve air quality. Like the road transport sector, the air transport sector is mounting a determined effort to reduce the level of its greenhouse gas emissions. Among the various solutions under consideration, alternative fuels are attracting particular attention. However, not all alternative solutions can be exploited, because of the constraints specific to the use of aircraft. A precise assessment should be made of all possible solutions to determine which ones should take preference

  18. The Potential of Turboprops to Reduce Aviation Fuel Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Aviation system planning, particularly fleet selection and adoption, is challenged by fuel price uncertainty. Fuel price uncertainty is due fuel and energy price fluctuations and a growing awareness of the environmental externalities related to transportation activities, particularly as they relate to climate change. To assist in aviation systems planning under such fuel price uncertainty and environmental regulation, this study takes a total logistic cost approach and evaluates three represe...

  19. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.

    2013-07-15

    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.

  20. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass for sustainable aviation fuel/fuel additives

    OpenAIRE

    Subagyono, Dirgarini Julia Nurlianti

    2017-01-01

    Research in renewable energy is essential because of the limited supply of fossil fuel, particularly liquids, and the problem resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases, NOx and H₂S. For aviation/jet fuel, organic liquids cannot yet be replaced by electricity, solar cells, or gas. Currently, CO₂ emission from aviation fuels appears to be a small problem compared to that from road transport, but CO₂ emissions per passenger from fossil derived aviation fuel is actually higher than that from a...

  1. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  2. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  3. Ignition behavior of aviation fuels and some hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, F.

    1975-01-01

    Air relighting of jet engines is an important contribution to the operation safety of aircraft engines. Reignition is influenced by fuel properties in addition to the engine design. A survey is presented on the problems, considering the specific fuel properties. Investigations were made on the ignition behavior of aviation fuels and hydrocarbons in a simplified model combustion chamber. Air inlet conditions were 200 to 800 mbar and 300 to 500 K. Correlation between physical and chemical properties and ignitability is discussed.

  4. Certification Report: Army Aviation Alternative Fuels Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Fuel Injector Coking Rig Description • Combustor Section Rig • Full Annular Rig • Sea Level and Simulated Altitude Engine Testing...purpose requirements in ASTM D4054 and MIL-HDBK- 510 for aviation fuel, as modified by the tri-service group to include diesel engine-related properties...atomized and vaporized when passing through the fuel nozzles into the combustor. In the combustor, it is vaporized, ignited and burned to provide the

  5. Evaluation of Instrumentation for Measuring Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel Schmitigal... water ) in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel, JP-8, aviation fuel, contamination, free water , undissolved water , Aqua-Glo 16...Michigan 48397-5000 Evaluation of Instrumentation for Measuring Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuels per ASTM D3240 Joel Schmitigal Force

  6. Piston Aviation Fuel Initiative (PAFI) – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikasalam, K.; Rahmat, M.; Fahmi, A. G. Mohammad; Zulkifli, A. M.; Shawal, N. Noor; Ilanchelvi, K.; Ananth, M.; Elayarasan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Aviation gasoline (Avgas) has remained unchanged for seventy years and the existing fleet of piston aircraft was designed to be compatible with its chemical and physical properties to achieve superior levels of safety. Tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) is an octane-enhancing metal additive used in aviation gasoline to prevent knocking. Studies have shown that lead causes brain damage in children reducing their IQ and cardiovascular difficulties and kidney failure in adults. Friends of the Earth (FOE) petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006 to make a finding that lead emissions from general aviation (GA) aircraft cause to public health endangerment or carry out studies and issue a report on its findings. PAFI was set up by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to find most suitable unleaded replacements for Avgas to recognize best unleaded fuel that have the capacity to in fact satisfy the requirements of the present aircraft fleet while additionally considering the creation, dispersion, cost, availability, environmental impacts. This study will technically review PAFI and broaden the limited knowledge on piston aviation fuels in Malaysia by giving a comprehensive analysis and possible gap in reciprocation aviation engine market in Malaysia.

  7. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  8. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considered a noxious weed, it produces 5–10 kg-biomass/m2-yr (similar to macroalgae ), a source of pyrolysis fuels with beneficial water treatment International...donax) pro- duce 23–50 ton/acre. It tolerates some salinity and brackish waters and also overwhelms native vegetation. Seaweed, a macroalgae , has...halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water , and seawater— have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for

  9. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  10. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  11. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  12. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  13. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Zavyalik; V. S. Oleshko; V. M. Samoylenko; E. V. Fetisov

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  14. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  15. Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  16. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test

  17. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Kapadia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of  <  2.5 µm and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in  ∼  3600 [95 % CI: 1310–5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb of non-CO2 aviation emissions as −13.3 mW m−2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC  =  15 ppm has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by  ∼  620 [95 % CI: 230–1020] mortalities a−1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m−2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE. We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud

  18. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  19. DEVICE FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF AVIATION FUEL PURITY IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF AIRCRAFT FUEL SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Brailko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, special attention is paid to the aircraft fuel quality as a component of safety to ensure trouble-free operation of the fuel system. The existing system of quality control involves periodic sampling of the fuel in the container and their subsequent control by the normalized quality indicators that do not identify possible reasons for the deterioration of these indicators to remove them for trouble-free operation and do not identify the factors of pollution sources. The monitoring system generally ensures the implementation of measures to preserve the quality of aviation fuel and flight safety of serviced civil aviation airlines at current level according to regulatory requirements. The article describes the mathematical model for calculation parameters of indicator filtering partitions based on cascade filtration theoretical studies of mechanical impurities. Pores of indicator filtering partitions calculated by means of mathematical model have been experimentally tested on simulator stand and showed a good convergence of calculated and experimental results. The use of cascade filtration of fuel with different indicator partitions parameters made it possible to develop a device for fuel purity monitoring, allowing continuous (inline monitoring the level of liquid flow contamination at various points of technological equipment (for example, after the pump, at the inlet and outlet of tanks and units, the output of the filter, etc. and to carry out functional diagnostics of units condition process equipment by monitoring changes of particle parameters and the wear occurrence.

  20. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  1. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  2. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation... certificates that may affect the airplane fuel tank system, for turbine-powered transport category airplanes...

  4. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... knowledge and belief, it is true, correct and complete. Printed or typed name of the person signing Title of... statements, and, to the best of Seller's knowledge and belief, it is true, correct and complete. Printed or... the second producer has not included the amount of that tax in the sales price of the aviation fuel to...

  6. Preliminary studies on readiness of biojet fuel for commercial aviation: The feasibility and potential in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, H. Mohd; Mahammad Taher, M. N.; Rodrigo, G. A.; Rahman, N. A. Abdul; Othman, J.; Yahaya, N. H. R.

    2017-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a new alternative energy using biojet fuel in commercial aviation. The demand of air travels leads the authority, airlines and government in seeking for new renewable and sustainable energy for aircraft operation in the future. This study looks into the level of readiness in using biofuel. 40 personnel who are working in the aviation industries have participated and completed the survey questionnaires. The preliminary findings suggest that the impact towards this new fuel will lead to a better environment, less cost, better maintenance and energy sustainability. The usage of biojet fuel seems possible to be pursued in Malaysia.

  7. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  8. Report on the Audit of Commercial Aviation Fuel Invoice Payments in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-22

    We are providing this final report on the Audit of Commercial Aviation Fuel Invoice Payments in Europe for your information and use. The audit was...vendors for fuel purchases made by U.S. aircrews. The objectives of the audit were to determine whether DOD and the Military Departments were complying

  9. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  10. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zavyalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  11. Improved correlations of hydrogen content versus combustion performance related properties of aviation turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Sharma, R.L.; Sagu, M.L.; Tiwari, G.B. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the hydrogen content of Aviation Fuels has generated considerable interest. Various investigators have suggested correlation of hydrogen content with combustion related properties of aviation turbine fuel (ATF). A suitable threshold value of hydrogen content 13.8 wt% is being considered as a waiver of specifications such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point, aromatic content, naphthalenes and luminometer number. In the present paper relationship between the hydrogen content and combustion related properties has been examined and improved correlations of hydrogen content with several combustion related properties have been developed by incorporating a characterization factor in the equations. The supporting threshold value of a hydrogen content of 13.8wt% is verified with 25 data points for waiving of combustion properties such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point and aromatic content from aviation turbine fuel. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Army Demonstration of Light Obscuration Particle Counters for Monitoring Aviation Fuel Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Hydraulic industry has utilized this technology for decades and created a mature process •Hydraulic industry has developed recognized calibration ...Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18/16/13 14/10/7 Pamas/Parker/Particle Solutions 19/17/12 U.S. Army 19...17/14/13* Diesel Fuel World Wide Fuel Charter 4th 18/16/13 DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Bosch/Cummins 18/16/13 Donaldson 22/21/18 14/13/11 12/9/6 P ll

  13. Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of alternative aviation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical properties of GTL fuel are different from those of conventional jet fuels. • Spray characteristics of GTL and Jet A-1 fuels are experimentally investigated using phase Doppler anemometry. • Regions near the nozzle are influenced by differences in fuel physical properties. • Spray characteristics of GTL can be predicted by empirical relations developed for conventional jet fuels. - Abstract: Synthetic fuels derived from non-oil feedstock are gaining importance due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. This work investigates spray characteristics of two Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) synthetic jet fuels from a pilot-scale pressure swirl nozzle and compares them with those of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The microscopic spray parameters are measured at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures at several points in the spray using phase Doppler anemometry. The results show that the effect of fuel physical properties on the spray characteristics is predominantly evident in the regions close to the nozzle exit at the higher injection pressure. The lower viscosity and surface tension of GTL fuel seems to lead to faster disintegration and dispersion of the droplets when compared to those of Jet A-1 fuel under atmospheric conditions. Although the global characteristics of the fuels are similar, the effects of fuel properties are evident on the local spray characteristics at the higher injection pressure

  14. International marine and aviation bunker fuel. Trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises and characterises fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions from international transport based on energy statistics compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Shares in 1990 and 1970-1995 trends in national and global bunker fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions are analysed for marine and air transport. Also, the global total of international transport emissions are compared with national emissions and domestic transport emissions. During the last 25 years the average global annual increase was for marine bunkers about 0.8% and for aviation emissions about 3.3%. Annual variations per country of marine bunker fuel use larger than of aviation fuel use, sometimes more than 50%. However, the distinction between fuel use for domestic and for international aviation is more difficult to monitor. The dominant fuel in marine bunker fuel consumption is residual fuel oil ('heavy fuel oil'). The share of diesel oil has slowly increased from 11% in 1970 to 20% in 1990. Aviation fuels sold are predominantly jet fuel ('jet kerosene'). The small share of aviation gasoline is slowly decreasing: from about 4% in 1970 to 1.3% in 1990. Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of international marine bunker fuels and aviation contributed in 1990 globally about 1.8% and 2.4% expressed as percentage of global total anthropogenic emissions (excluding deforestation). However, aviation emissions include an unknown part of domestic aviation. When comparing with total transport emissions, then international transport has a share of 20%. For both marine and aviation bunker fuel, the Top-10 of largest consuming countries account for about 2/3 of the global total; the Top-25 countries cover already 85% or more of global total CO2 emissions

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counter Contamination Limits for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    assurance testing though conducting periodic fuel sampling for gravimetric analysis. The Army currently utilizes two methods for measuring particulate...contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation Fuel by Line Sampling, and ASTM D5452...while filter effectiveness is checked every 30 days by gravimetric analysis (ASTM D2276). One of the problems with the gravimetric methods is the

  16. Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell Systems for Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kadyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of fuel cells for the main energy supply of passenger transportation aircraft is discussed. Using a physical model of a fuel cell, general design considerations are derived. Considering different possible design objectives, the trade-off between power density and efficiency is discussed. A universal cost–benefit curve is derived to aid the design process. A weight factor w P is introduced, which allows incorporating technical (e.g., system mass and efficiency as well as non-technical design objectives (e.g., operating cost, emission goals, social acceptance or technology affinity, political factors. The optimal fuel cell design is not determined by the characteristics of the fuel cell alone, but also by the characteristics of the other system components. The fuel cell needs to be designed in the context of the whole energy system. This is demonstrated by combining the fuel cell model with simple and detailed design models of a liquid hydrogen tank. The presented methodology and models allows assessing the potential of fuel cell systems for mass reduction of future passenger aircraft.

  17. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, Megan S; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO 2 , the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or

  18. Production of microscopic algae for its consequent use as aviation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, T.; Akamatsu, N. [Research Inst. of Tsukuba Bio-tech Corp., Ibaraki (Japan); Jia, J.; Intabon, K. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Terazawa, Y. [Nakamura Gakuen Univ. Fukuoka (Japan). Nourishment Science Dept.

    2010-07-01

    There is a large market for aviation fuel in Japan's aviation industry whose annual demand for aviation fuel is 12 million KL. In this study, a biofuel was produced from microscopic algae for use as jet fuel at an industrial scale. In order to comply with the cap-and-trade environmental policy of the European Union, algal oil as a biomass fuel must represent 3 per cent , 5 per cent and 10 per cent of total annual demand by 2011, 2013, and 2020, respectively. The microscopic algae Euglena gracilis was used in this study. Its lipid concentration was about 20 per cent. The extraction residue contains a high-density protein that can be used in animal feed. The electricity required to supply the light needed to cultivate E. gracilis ranged from 180 MW to 900 MW for 4 L of bioreactor medium. The maximum quantity of photons needed in the cultivation liquid was determined along with the light intensity required during the start up period for the cultivation of E. gracilis. Continuous harvesting in high yields of E. gracilis kept the density of the dry matter of E. gracilis between 0.5 g/l to1.5 g/l. It was concluded that the liquid used to cultivate E. gracilis should be sterilized by maintaining a low pH level by blowing carbon dioxide into the liquid.

  19. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  20. A Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    classification by the RDP Classifier, sequences similar to members of the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria , Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria... Actinobacteria 85 63 4 152 Bacteroidetes 5 0 0 5 Chloroflexi 7 0 0 7 Cyanobacteria 56 0 0 56 Deinococcus-Thermus 2 0 0 2 Firmicutes 83 99 2 184...Members of the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were represented in all three fuel types; in Jet A and Biodiesel they were the only

  1. Simulation-Based Analysis of the Potential of Alternative Fuels towards Reducing CO2 Emissions from Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Kieckhäfer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mid-term framework of global aviation is shaped by air travel demand growth rates of 2–5% p.a. and ambitious targets to reduce aviation-related CO2 emissions by up to 50% until 2050. Alternative jet fuels such as bio- or electrofuels can be considered as a potential means towards low-emission aviation. While these fuels offer significant emission reduction potential, their market success depends on manifold influencing factors like the maturity of the production technology or the development of the price of conventional jet fuel. To study the potential for adoption of alternative jet fuels in aviation and the extent to which alternative fuels can contribute to the reduction targets, we deploy a System Dynamics approach. The results indicate that the adoption of alternative fuels and therefore their potential towards low-emissions aviation is rather limited in most scenarios considered since current production processes do not allow for competitive prices compared to conventional jet fuel. This calls for the development of new production processes that allow for economic feasibility of converting biomass or hydrogen into drop-in fuels as well as political measures to promote the adoption of alternative fuels.

  2. Coordinating Support of Fuels and Lubricant Research and Development (R&D) 2. Delivery Order 0002: Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties - 2004 Third Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Over the years aviation gasoline (Avgas) has become composed primarily of synthetic components, while turbine fuels are largely straight-run distillates and therefore depend on crude oil type for their primary characteristics...

  3. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  4. Aviation Fuel System Reliability and Fail-Safety Analysis. Promising Alternative Ways for Improving the Fuel System Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with design requirements for an aviation fuel system (AFS, AFS basic design requirements, reliability, and design precautions to avoid AFS failure. Compares the reliability and fail-safety of AFS and aircraft hydraulic system (AHS, considers the promising alternative ways to raise reliability of fuel systems, as well as elaborates recommendations to improve reliability of the pipeline system components and pipeline systems, in general, based on the selection of design solutions.It is extremely advisable to design the AFS and AHS in accordance with Aviation Regulations АП25 and Accident Prevention Guidelines, ICAO (International Civil Aviation Association, which will reduce risk of emergency situations, and in some cases even avoid heavy disasters.ATS and AHS designs should be based on the uniform principles to ensure the highest reliability and safety. However, currently, this principle is not enough kept, and AFS looses in reliability and fail-safety as compared with AHS. When there are the examined failures (single and their combinations the guidelines to ensure the AFS efficiency should be the same as those of norm-adopted in the Regulations АП25 for AHS. This will significantly increase reliability and fail-safety of the fuel systems and aircraft flights, in general, despite a slight increase in AFS mass.The proposed improvements through the use of components redundancy of the fuel system will greatly raise reliability of the fuel system of a passenger aircraft, which will, without serious consequences for the flight, withstand up to 2 failures, its reliability and fail-safety design will be similar to those of the AHS, however, above improvement measures will lead to a slightly increasing total mass of the fuel system.It is advisable to set a second pump on the engine in parallel with the first one. It will run in case the first one fails for some reasons. The second pump, like the first pump, can be driven from the

  5. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF OIL PRESENCE IN THE AVIATION FUEL ON PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz JASIŃSKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from aircraft engines represent a highly complex and important issue, which is related to the risk to human health. Particles emitted in urban areas and in the vicinity of airports affect air quality and have a particularly negative impact on airport workers. The development of measurement techniques and the methodology for evaluating exhaust emissions have allowed for the elaboration of appropriate procedures for the certification of aircraft and the enhancement of existing standards. Particulate matter emissions depend, among other things, on the composition of the fuel used and its additives. Some aircraft engine designs require a fuel additive in the form of oil, which ensures the proper operation of the fuel supply system. This article presents the results of studies conducted on jet engines powered by clean aviation fuel and fuel with the addition of oil. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of oil on the size distribution and concentration of emitted particles. It was found that, for small values of thrust, oil additive increases the concentration of particles. With an increase in the thrust force, the reduction of particles concentration was recorded in the case of the engine powered by fuel with oil additive. There was no significant effect of oil additive on the size distribution of emitted particles.

  7. Bio-aviation fuel production from hydroprocessing castor oil promoted by the nickel-based bifunctional catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyang; Zhu, Qingqing; Guan, Qingxin; He, Liangnian; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bio-aviation fuel was firstly synthesized by hydroprocessing castor oil in a continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor with the main objective to obtain the high yield of aviation fuel and determine the elemental compositions of the product phases as well as the reaction mechanism. Highest aviation range alkane yields (91.6 wt%) were achieved with high isomer/n-alkane ratio (i/n) 4.4-7.2 over Ni supported on acidic zeolites. In addition, different fuel range alkanes can be obtained by adjusting the degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrocracking. And the observations are rationalized by a set of reaction pathways for the various product phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Camelina-Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and its Implications on the Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    Although the aviation industry contributes toward global economic growth via transportation of passengers and cargo, the increasing demand for air transportation causes concern due to the corresponding increase in aircraft engine exhaust emissions. Use of alternative fuels is one pathway that has been explored for reducing emissions in the aviation industry. Hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) (also known as Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids - HEFA) fuels have been approved for blending with traditional jet fuel up to 50% by volume to be used as drop-in fuels. However, limited information exists on the economic viability of these fuels. While techno-economic studies have been conducted on the HRJ production process using soybean oil, different vegetable oils possess different hydrocarbon structures that affect the yield of HRJ fuels. This study involves the techno-economic analysis of producing Camelina-derived HRJ fuel using the option of hydro-deoxygenation (HDO). The hydrodeoxygenation option requires extra hydrogen and hence affects the overall cost of HRJ fuel production. Similar studies have been conducted on the production of Camelina-derived HRJ fuels using the same path of hydrodeoxygenation with minor contributions from both decarbonylation and decarboxylation reactions. This study, however, employs the UOP Honeywell procedure using the hydrodeoxygenation chemical reaction to estimate the breakeven price of Camelina-derived HRJ fuel. In addition, the study treats the cultivation of Camelina oilseeds, extraction of oilseeds, and the conversion of HRJ fuel as separate entities. The production of Camelina oilseed, Camelina oil, and finally Camelina-derived HRJ fuel is modeled in order to estimate the breakeven price of the fuel. In addition, the information obtained from the techno-economic analysis is used to assess the breakeven carbon price. All costs are analyzed based on 2016 US dollars. The breakeven price of Camelina oilseeds is found to be 228

  10. Generation and mid-IR measurement of a gas-phase to predict security parameters of aviation jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Andrade, J M; Calviño, M A; Prada, D; Fernández, E; Muniategui, S

    2003-07-27

    The worldwide use of kerosene as aviation jet fuel makes its safety considerations of most importance not only for aircraft security but for the workers' health (chronic and/or acute exposure). As most kerosene risks come from its vapours, this work focuses on predicting seven characteristics (flash point, freezing point, % of aromatics and four distillation points) which assess its potential hazards. Two experimental devices were implemented in order to, first, generate a kerosene vapour phase and, then, to measure its mid-IR spectrum. All the working conditions required to generate the gas phase were optimised either in a univariate or a multivariate (SIMPLEX) approach. Next, multivariate prediction models were deployed using partial least squares regression and it was found that both the average prediction errors and precision parameters were satisfactory, almost always well below the reference figures.

  11. Potential pyrolysis pathway assessment for microalgae-based aviation fuel based on energy conversion efficiency and life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fang; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High lipid content in microalgae increases energy conversion efficiency. • Indirect pathway has the highest mass ratio, energy ratio and energy efficiency. • The Isochrysis indirect pathway produces most kerosene component precursor. • The Isochrysis indirect pyrolysis pathway shows the best performance in LCA. - Abstract: Although the research of microalgae pyrolysis has been conducted for many years, there is a lack of investigations on energy efficiency and life cycle assessment. In this study, we investigated the biocrude yield and energy efficiency of direct pyrolysis, microalgae residue pyrolysis after lipid extraction (indirect pyrolysis), and different microalgae co-pyrolysis. This research also investigated the life cycle assessment of the three different pyrolysis pathways. A system boundary of Well-to-Wake (WTWa) was defined and included sub-process models, such as feedstock production, fuel production and pump-to-wheels (PTW) stages. The pathway of Isochrysis indirect pyrolysis shows the best performance in the mass ratio and energy ratio, produces the most kerosene component precursor, has the lowest WTWa total energy input, fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and resultes in the best energy efficiency. All the evidence indicates that Isochrysis R2 pathway is a potential and optimal pyrolysis pathway to liquid biofuels. The mass ratio of pyrolysis biocrude is shown to be the decisive factor for different microalgae species. The sensitivity analysis results also indicates that the life cycle indicators are particularly sensitive to the mass ratio of pyrolysis biocrude for microalgae-based hydrotreated pyrolysis aviation fuel.

  12. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ -1 MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO 2 e·MJ -1 MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ -1 MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfur-Tolerant Autothermal Reforming Catalysts for Aviation Fuel, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) approach commercialization, interest in broader applications of this technology is mounting. While the first commercialized systems...

  14. Forecasting world and regional aviation jet fuel demands to the mid-term (2025)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal; Chevallier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This article provides jet fuel demand projections at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Air traffic forecasts are performed using dynamic panel-data econometrics. Then, the conversion of air traffic projections into quantities of jet fuel is accomplished by using a complementary approach to the 'Traffic Efficiency' method developed previously by the UK Department of Trade and Industry to support the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (). According to our main scenario, air traffic should increase by about 100% between 2008 and 2025 at the world level, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of 4.7%. World jet fuel demand is expected to increase by about 38% during the same period, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of 1.9% per year. According to these results, energy efficiency improvements allow reducing the effect of air traffic rise on the increase in jet fuel demand, but do not annihilate it. Jet fuel demand is thus unlikely to diminish unless there is a radical technological shift, or air travel demand is restricted. - Highlights: → Jet fuel demand is forecasted at the worldwide and regional level until 2025. → Regional heterogeneity must be considered when forecasting jet fuel demand. → World air traffic should increase by about 100% between 2008 and 2025. → World jet fuel demand is expected to increase by about 38% during the same period. → Technological progress will not be enough to decrease the world jet fuel demand.

  15. Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) JP-5/JP-8 Aviation Turbine Fuel Elastomer Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muzzell, Pat; Stavinoha, Leo; Chapin, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    ... to seal performance may arise, possibly leading to fuel leakage. The key objective of this study was to compare and contrast the material compatibility of nitrile coupons and O-rings with selected petroleum-derived fuels, Fisher-Tropsch (FT...

  16. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels. Keywords: Caryophyllene, Caryolan-1-ol, Caryophyllene synthase, Caryolan-1-ol synthase, Mevalonate pathway, Bioproduct

  17. Aviation Fuel Gauging Sensor Utilizing Multiple Diaphragm Sensors Incorporating Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance fuel gauging sensor is described that uses five diaphragm-based pressure sensors, which are monitored using a linear array of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The sensors were initially characterized using water, revealing a sensitivity of 98 pm/cm for four of the sensors...... of sensors manufactured with a polyurethane-based diaphragm showed no measurable deterioration over a three month period immersed in fuel. These sensors exhibited a sensitivity of 39 pm/cm, which is less than the silicone rubber devices due to the stiffer nature of the polyurethane material used....

  18. Biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes for bio-aviation fuel by metabolic engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Xu, Haijun; Fang, Yunming; Tan, Tianwei; Baeyens, Jan; Liu, Luo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the synthesis of medium-chain length alkanes (MCLA), as bio-aviation product. To control the chain length of alkanes and increase the production of MCLA, Escherichia coli cells were engineered by incorporating (i) a chain length specific thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (UC), (ii) a plant origin acyl carrier protein (ACP) gene and (iii) the whole fatty acid synthesis system (FASs) from Jatropha curcas (JC). The genetic combination was designed to control the product spectrum towards optimum MCLA. Decanoic, lauric and myristic acid were produced at concentrations of 0.011, 0.093 and 1.657mg/g, respectively. The concentration of final products nonane, undecane and tridecane were 0.00062mg/g, 0.0052mg/g, and 0.249mg/g respectively. Thioesterase from UC controlled the fatty acid chain length in a range of 10-14 carbons and the ACP gene with whole FASs from JC significantly increased the production of MCLA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aviation Neuropsychiatry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A few of the specific objectives include: Elucidating the use of the Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation, providing a general understanding of human factors in aviation, examining concepts regarding pilot personality, covering...

  20. Combustion phenomenon, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with aviation turbine JP-8 fuel and rapeseed biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The 5 vol% RME added to JP-8 fuel improved lubricity 1.7 times according corrected wear scar diameter, μm. • The reverse trends revealed in the autoignition delay when operating with identical fuel blends J10 and B10. • The brake thermal efficiency increased by 1.0–3.6% when running on bio-fuels J5–J30 at speed of 2200 rpm. • The NO_x emissions increased by 5.2% when operating on bio-jet fuel J30 at full load and speed of 2200 rpm. • CO, HC emissions and smoke decreased with biofuel J20 and higher blends at both speeds of 1400 and 2200 rpm. - Abstract: The article presents the test results of an engine operating with diesel fuel (B5), turbine type JP-8 fuel and its 5 vol%, 10 vol%, 20 vol%, and 30 vol% blends with rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME). Additional fuel blend B10 was prepared by pouring 10 vol% of RME to diesel fuel to extend interpretation of the test results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using jet-biodiesel fuel blends J5, J10, J20, J30, and B10 on the start of injection, ignition delay, combustion history, heat release, engine performance, and exhaust emissions. The engine performance parameters were examined at light 15% (1400 rpm) and 10% (2200 rpm), medium 50%, and high 100% loads and the two speeds: 1400 rpm at which maximum torque occurs and a rated speed of 2200 rpm. The autoignition delay and maximum heat release rate decreased, maximum cylinder pressure, and pressure gradients increased, whereas brake specific fuel consumption changed little and brake thermal efficiency was 1.0–3.6% higher when running with fuel blends J5 to J30 at rated speed compared with the data measured with neat jet fuel. The NO_x emissions increased slightly, but the CO, THC emissions, and smoke opacity boosted up significantly when using jet fuel blend J10 with a smooth reduction of unburned hydrocarbons for jet-biodiesel fuel blends with higher CN ratings. Operation at a full (100%) load with fuel blend J10

  1. Antares DLR H2. Studies and experimental data for a fuel cell propulsion module for general aviation airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallo, Josef; Rathke, Philipp; Stephan, Thomas; Schirmer, Johannes [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2013-06-01

    The Institute of Technical Thermodynamics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR e.V.) has been conducting research on airborne fuel cell systems for several years. One important mainstay in this context is the flying testbed Antares DLR H2. This fuel cell powered motor glider permits scientific research of fuel cell systems under airborne conditions. The Antares DLR H2 is the first manned fuel cell powered motor glider with the ability to take off and fly merely by fuel cell power. In August 2012 a new generation fuel cell propulsion module has been integrated successfully into this aircraft, providing significant improvements over the former systems. During September 2012 long-distance flight testing has been carried out in which an overall flight time of more than 11 hours and an overall distance of nearly 1500 km have been flown. In this paper an overview of the design of the fuel cell propulsion module is provided. Furthermore exemplary measurements, focusing on the tank system during flight, are presented. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary Study on Effect of Aviation Fuel in the Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Crashed by Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Byeong Moo; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Seok; Kim, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    As the safety assessments of nuclear power plants for the hypothetical large civil aircraft crash should be made mandatory, studies on large aircraft-nuclear power plant impact analyses and assessments are actively in progress. The large civil aircraft are being operated with a large amount of fuel and the fuel can be assumed to contribute to the impact loads at the impact. The fuel, i.e., the internal liquid can be considered as added masses classically in the evaluation of the impact load. According to the recent experimental research, it has been shown that the impact load of high speed impacting body with internal liquid is much higher than that of the mass-equivalent impacting body. In this study, the impact loads according to the existence of the internal liquid are computed by numerical methods and the safety assessment of nuclear power plant crashed by large civil aircraft are performed as an application

  3. A case for biofuels in aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  4. Production of aviation gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-25

    A process is described for preparing gasoline possessing properties for use as a fuel, particularly for aviation motors, beginning with gasolines composed among others of cyclic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, consisting in treating the gasoline by means of selective solvents of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, and preferably at the same time employing liquid hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal conditions and adding to the refined product nonaromatics which boil in the range of the gasoline and have an actane number above 95 or which give the mixture an octane number of 82.5.

  5. Aviation medicine, FAA-1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-12-01

    The health and safety of more than 80,000,000 aircraft passengers, approximately 500,000 active civilian pilots and other civilian aviation personnel is the concern of the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine.

  6. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  7. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  8. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2005-01-01

    General aviation (GA) -- a catch-all category that includes about 57% of all civilian aviation activity within the United States -- encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations...

  9. Helicopter fuel burn modeling in AEDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents work done to enhance helicopter fuel consumption modeling in the Federal Aviation : Administrations Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Fuel consumption and flight performance data : were collected from helicopter flig...

  10. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  11. Artifical Microorganism Infection in Aviation Kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vallo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel used in the aviation engineering has to be clean and dry, it may not contain mechanical impurities and water. Water inaviation kerosene may occur in soluble and insoluble form. The danger inheres in the insoluble form, which may drop out in the crystallineform and cause various failures, such as those caused by mechanical impurities. The water assists in the biological matter formation createdby various species of microorganisms (bacteria, mould fungi and yeast. The microorganisms, present in water phase occurring on thebottom of tanks or on the interface water phase – kerosene, grow and reproduce and subsequently may pollute (impair the fuel by thebiomass or by the products of their metabolism. There is a possibility to infect the fuel artificially by a selected reference microorganismstrain, which usually occur in contaminated fuel, or by microorganisms which cause a biological contamination of aviation kerosene.Out of the selected reference strains used in the experiments, the reference strains of Proteus vulgaris, Sacharamyces cerevisiae andClostridium perfringens were not cultivated in the sterile aviation kerosene and the propagating nutrient medium. The aviation kerosene actsas a biocide medium for the presented reference microorganism strains.

  12. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  13. Aviation safety and ICAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiefang

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the

  14. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  15. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  16. Aviation and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and...

  17. Radiation safety in aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The guide presents the requirements governing radiation safety of aircrews exposed to cosmic radiation and monitoring of such exposure. It applies to enterprises engaged in aviation under a Finnish operating licence and to Finnish military aviation at altitudes exceeding 8,000 metres. The radiation exposure of aircrews at altitudes of less than 8,000 metres is so minimal that no special measures are generally required to investigate or limit exposure to radiation

  18. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1994. This publication is designed to provide: : - a brief history of the role of aviation in motivating young : people to learn. : - examples of aviation magnet activities, programs, projects and : school curriculums. : - documentation ...

  19. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be refined further to produce domestic kerosene and gasoline. The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water ...

  20. Flammability of kerosene in civil and military aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochet, I.; Gillard, P. [Universite d' Orleans, Lab. Energetique Explosions Structures, Bourges cedex, 18 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The investigation of the ignition conditions of kerosene vapors in the air contained in an aircraft fuel tank contributes to the definition of onboard safety requirements. Civil and military kerosene are characterized by specification. The specification of civil aviation kerosene is based upon usage requirements and property limits, while military kerosene is primarily controlled by specific chemical composition. Characterization of the flammability properties is a first step for the establishment of aircraft safety conditions. Flash point, vapor pressure, gas chromatography analysis, and flammability properties of the kerosene used by the French Military aviation (F-34 and F-35 kerosene) are compared with the flammability properties of civil kerosene. The empirical law established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1998, expressing the ignition energy in terms of fuel, temperature, flash point and altitude is modified and expressed in terms of fuel temperature, flash point and pressure. (Author)

  1. FAA statistical handbook of aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents statistical information pertaining to the Federal Aviation Administration, the National Airspace System, Airports, Airport Activity, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Fleet, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Operating Data, Airmen, General Aviation Ai...

  2. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong

    2008-01-01

    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  3. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  4. Concerning the order of the Ministry of Transport for the amendment to part of the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel, the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous Objects, and the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Ministry of Transport is planning to make amendments to the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel, the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous objects, and the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act, on the basis of results of a study carried out by the Working Group for the Protection of Nuclear Material, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The planned amendments to the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel cover the locking and sealing of containers, the development of transportation plans, the arrangement and operations of responsible persons and guards for its transportation, and improvement in the communications and liaison system. The amendments to the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous Objects are related to the range of nuclear fuel substances to be protected, the measures to be taken for their protection during transportation by ship, the approval by the Minister of Transport, and the notification to the Regional Maritime Safety Headquarters. The planned amendments to the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act cover the range of nuclear fuel substances to be protected, etc. (N.K.)

  5. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  7. US general aviation: The ingredients for a renaissance. A vision and technology strategy for US industry, NASA, FAA, universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    General aviation today is a vital component in the nation's air transportation system. It is threatened for survival but has enormous potential for expansion in utility and use. This potential for expansion is fueled by new satellite navigation and communication systems, small computers, flat panel displays, and advanced aerodynamics, materials and manufacturing methods, and propulsion technologies which create opportunities for new levels of environmental and economic acceptability. Expanded general aviation utility and use could have a large impact on the nation's jobs, commerce, industry, airspace capacity, trade balance, and quality of life. This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of U.S. general aviation. Topics covered include general aviation shipment and billings; airport and general aviation infrastructure; cockpit, airplane, and airspace technologies; market demand; air traffic operations and aviation accidents; fuel efficiency comparisons; and general aviation goals and strategy.

  8. Safety lessons from aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Phil

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years ago the world of Commercial Aviation provided a challenging environment. In my early flying days, aircraft accidents were not unusual, flying was seen as a risky business and those who took part, either as a provider or passenger, appeared grudgingly willing to accept the hazards involved. A reduction in the level of risk was sought in technological advances, greater knowledge of physics and science, and access to higher levels of skill through simulation, practice and experience. While these measures did have an impact, the expected safety dividend was not realized. The most experienced, technically competent individuals with the best equipment featured far too regularly in the accident statistics. We had to look at the human element, the impact of flaws or characteristics of the human condition. We call this area Human Factors. My paper describes the concept of Human Factors, its establishment as a key safety tool in aviation and the impact of this on my working life.

  9. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  10. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  11. Aviation Safety Hotline Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aviation Safety Hotline Information System (ASHIS) collects, stores, and retrieves reports submitted by pilots, mechanics, cabin crew, passengers, or the public...

  12. Investigation of hydrogen usage in aviation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, İlker; İlbaş, Mustafa; Taştan, Murat; Tarhan, Cevahir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine usage of liquid hydrogen as a fuel in aircrafts. ► Engine performance is a little better for liquid hydrogen fuel than kerosene. ► Liquid hydrogen can be a potential alternative to kerosene as aviation fuel. ► Usage of liquid hydrogen will provide national independence for fuel supply. ► Increased production of liquid hydrogen will decrease its cost disadvantage. - Abstract: Fossil-based fuels are commonly used in aircraft engines but they have a polluting effect and they cause a greenhouse effect for our world. This study reports a research about aircraft gas turbine engines which are fired by liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) in terms of performance and environmental aspects. Also, the performance and emissions of LH 2 fueled engines are compared with those of kerosene fired aircraft engines. Same flights from Istanbul to London, and Paris to Kabul are examined to estimate the emission from a conventional aircraft as an application in aviation sector. It is shown that the amount of NO x , HC and CO emissions for traveling by a conventional aircraft for London is 78.36, 1.202 and 22.4 kg, while Paris is 71.55, 1.171 and 21.63 kg, and Kabul is 111.44, 1.36 and 26.11 kg, respectively. For the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel, amount of gas emissions decreases for any destination like London, Paris and Kabul. Total HC and CO emissions are going to be nearly 0 kg because of lack of carbon in the fuel. Also NO x emission is lower because of wider flammability limit of LH 2 . Results show that the aircraft engines with LH 2 have great potential for emissions reduction and engine performance parameters are a little better for LH 2 fuel. It is strongly emphasized that one of the most important advantages for the use of LH 2 is national independence for fuel supply. Oil cannot be extracted in every countries territory but LH 2 is producible for every country and this is so important for a countries freedom.

  13. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  14. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  15. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  16. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on...

  17. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft... 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  18. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to... address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports...

  19. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY... Nicely, Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports...

  20. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  1. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  2. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  3. Sustainable development – the key for green aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MRAZOVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has always been seeking the technological progress that will optimise the economic, operational and environmental way of flying. In the first part of this study the author describes the impact of the CO2 emissions on the climate change. Also, the author emphasises the fact that once again the aviation environment is asking for new breakthroughs to face the challenge of the aviation’s sustainable growth. Airbus and its approach with the least possible impact on environment are introduced in the last part of this paper. Additionally, the environmental way of greener aviation is illustrated by examples of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions measurements made for several selected airlines.

  4. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-07

    Testimony of Gerald L. Dillingham, Associate Director, Transportation Issues, : Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division before the Subcommittee : on Aviation, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate on : the Fe...

  5. The Impact of Commercial Aviation on Naval Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    incentive for officers to serve as aviators throughout a military career . Payments start once aviators actually begin to fly and log flight hours which...actual number of hours they work but the number of hours they fly. An airline pilot is not actually compensated for the hours they spend on the ground...boarding gate. This type of system can result in two pilots both spending the same number of hours at work but each being paid for a different number

  6. 75 FR 57103 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of... Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September 28, 2010, via teleconference...

  7. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of... Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19, 2010, in Everett, Washington...

  8. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  9. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  10. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  11. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  12. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  13. The attitudes of UK tourists to the use of biofuels in civil aviation: An exploratory study.

    OpenAIRE

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Högström, M.

    2017-01-01

    Tourism generates substantial carbon footprint with its air transport sector holding the largest share. Biofuel technology has been repeatedly trialled in aviation to minimise this carbon footprint. While biofuels can become mainstream aviation fuels in the near future, little is known about public knowledge on and perception of its use within the air transport sector. This signifies considerable knowledge gap as the level of public awareness of a new technology determines the speed of its so...

  14. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  15. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  16. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  17. Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-29

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Environment and Energy (FAA-AEE) is : developing a comprehensive suite of software tools that will allow for thorough assessment of the environmental effects of aviation. The main goal of the effort is ...

  18. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Operations Specifications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  19. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is...

  20. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  1. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodology to address key challenges for aviation (current and future) including a performance based approach for safety and fatigue management in the aviation sector, mainly inflight operations and maint...

  2. Near-term feasibility of alternative jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This technical report documents the results of a joint study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RAND Corporation on alternative fuels for commercial aviation. The study compared potential alternative jet fuels on the basis of ...

  3. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-26034 Filed 10-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  4. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-16464 Filed 7-8-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  5. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... 4. U.S. Mail: Leslie Grey--AAL-614, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th...

  6. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grewe, V.; Linke, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the

  7. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  8. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  9. The aviation safety reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The aviation safety reporting system, an accident reporting system, is presented. The system identifies deficiencies and discrepancies and the data it provides are used for long term identification of problems. Data for planning and policy making are provided. The system offers training in safety education to pilots. Data and information are drawn from the available data bases.

  10. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  11. Potential Avenues for Significant Biofuels Penetration in the U.S. Aviation Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Industry associations have set goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase fuel efficiency. One focal area for reducing GHG emissions is in the use of aviation biofuel. This study examines assumptions under which the United States could see large production in aviation biofuel. Our results suggest that a high penetration (6 billion gallons) of aviation biofuels by 2030 could be possible, but factors around policy design (in the absence of high oil prices) contribute to the timing and magnitude of aviation biofuels production: 1) Incentives targeted towards jet fuel production such as financial incentives (e.g., producer tax credit, carbon tax) can be sufficient; 2) Investment in pre-commercial cellulosic technologies is needed to reduce the cost of production through learning-by-doing; 3) Reduction of investment risk through loan guarantees may allow production to ramp up more quickly through accelerating industry learning. In cases with high levels of incentives and investment in aviation biofuels, there could be a 25 percent reduction in overall GHG emissions from the aviation sector.

  12. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  13. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  14. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  15. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  16. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  17. Alternative jet fuel scenario analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This analysis presents a bottom up projection of the potential production of alternative aviation (jet) fuels in North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico) and the European Union in the next decade. The analysis is based on available pla...

  18. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  19. MARSOC Aviation: An Incremental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-24

    MARSOC. Through a series of near, mid, and long term investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of aMarine Corps...investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of a Marine Corps special operations aviation element can be...from the current AH-1W attack helicopter. The Zulu has increased speed, range, payload, endurance, standoff ability, and situational awareness

  20. World tendences of civil aviation development and the enlargement of the Lithuanian civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Butkevičius

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with global trends in civil aviation, such as: liberalisation of aviation market, globalisation of airlines, privatisation of airlines and invasion of low cost airlines into the market. Also the influence of these trends on the Lithuanian civil aviation activities has been defined. The Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been analysed: activities of international airports, passenger and cargo carriers, passenger routes and passenger flows, transportation market and airplane fleet. The problems of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been identified and suggestions for the development of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been proposed.

  1. 14 CFR 25.995 - Fuel valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel valves. 25.995 Section 25.995 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.995 Fuel valves. In addition...

  2. 14 CFR 29.995 - Fuel valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel valves. 29.995 Section 29.995 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.995 Fuel valves. In addition...

  3. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance with...

  4. 14 CFR 27.995 - Fuel valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel valves. 27.995 Section 27.995 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.995 Fuel valves. (a) There must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a...

  6. Understanding Human Error in Naval Aviation Mishaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the external factors that influence the performance and decisions of aviators involved in Naval aviation mishaps. Mishaps in complex activities, ranging from aviation to nuclear power operations, are often the result of interactions between multiple components within an organization. The Naval aviation mishap database contains relevant information, both in quantitative statistics and qualitative reports, that permits analysis of such interactions to identify how the working atmosphere influences aviator performance and judgment. Results from 95 severe Naval aviation mishaps that occurred from 2011 through 2016 were analyzed using Bayes' theorem probability formula. Then a content analysis was performed on a subset of relevant mishap reports. Out of the 14 latent factors analyzed, the Bayes' application identified 6 that impacted specific aspects of aviator behavior during mishaps. Technological environment, misperceptions, and mental awareness impacted basic aviation skills. The remaining 3 factors were used to inform a content analysis of the contextual information within mishap reports. Teamwork failures were the result of plan continuation aggravated by diffused responsibility. Resource limitations and risk management deficiencies impacted judgments made by squadron commanders. The application of Bayes' theorem to historical mishap data revealed the role of latent factors within Naval aviation mishaps. Teamwork failures were seen to be considerably damaging to both aviator skill and judgment. Both the methods and findings have direct application for organizations interested in understanding the relationships between external factors and human error. It presents real-world evidence to promote effective safety decisions.

  7. Techno-economic assessment of biorefinery technologies for aviation biofuels supply chains in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Catarina; Valk, Misha; de Jong, S.A.; Bonomi, Antonio; van der Wielen, Luuk; Mussatto, Solange

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Production of aviation biofuels has been strongly encouraged by the volatility of oil prices and environmental concerns. Brazilian society, companies, and government are taking a step forward in the production of renewable jet fuel from biomass feedstocks largely available in the

  8. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... demand can be furnished only on message authority obtained from the Aviation Supply Office, Philadelphia... intended landing, the alternate airport, and fuel supply in hours shall be placed on file prior to takeoff..., agriculture, and public health laws and regulations. He shall also be responsible for paying fees, charges for...

  9. Aviation Risk and Safety Management : Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) decision to require aviation organizations to adopt Safety Management Systems poses a major problem especially for small and medium sized aviation companies. The complexity of regulations overstrains the aviation stakeholders who seek to fully advantage from them but have no clear guidance. The aim of the book is to show the implementation of such a new system with pragmatic effort in order to gain a gradation for smaller operators. This ...

  10. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...

  11. Contracting, An Alarming Trend in Aviation Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooke, J

    1998-01-01

    .... Aviation operational and maintenance units struggle to balance peacetime requirements for general military and technical training, organization and installation support, training and operational...

  12. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  13. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  14. The rebound effect in the aviation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Antony; Schäfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The rebound effect, i.e., the (partial) offset of the energy efficiency improvement potential due to a reduction in marginal usage costs and the associated increase in consumer demand, has been extensively studied for residential energy demand and automobile travel. This study presents a quantitative estimate of the rebound effect for an air traffic network including the 22 busiest airports, which serve 14 of the highest O–D cities within the domestic U.S. aviation sector. To satisfy this objective, passenger flows, aircraft operations, flight delays and the resulting energy use are simulated. Our model results indicate that the average rebound effect in this network is about 19%, for the range of aircraft fuel burn reductions considered. This is the net impact of an increase in air transportation supply to satisfy the rising passenger demand, airline operational effects that further increase supply, and the mitigating effects of an increase in flight delays. Although the magnitude of the rebound effect is small, it can be significant for a sector that has comparatively few options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: ► We estimate the rebound effect for an air traffic network of 22 airports in the US. ► Passenger flows, aircraft operations, flight delays and energy use are simulated. ► Our model results indicate that the rebound effect in this network is about 19%. ► This is primarily due to an increase in flights to satisfy rising passenger demand

  15. Economic utilization of general aviation airport runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The urban general aviation airport economics is studied in detail. The demand for airport services is discussed, and the different types of users are identified. The direct cost characteristics of the airport are summarized; costs to the airport owner are largely fixed, and, except at certain large airports, weight is not a significant factor in airport costs. The efficient use of an existing airport facility is explored, with the focus on the social cost of runway congestion as traffic density at the airport build up and queues form. The tradeoff between aircraft operating costs and airport costs is analyzed in terms of runway length. The transition from theory to practice is treated, and the policy of charging prices only on aircraft storage and fuel is felt likely to continue. Implications of the study from the standpoint of public policy include pricing that spreads traffic peaks to improve runway utilization, and pricing that discriminates against aircraft requiring long runways and causes owners to adopt V/STOL equipment.

  16. Flight plan: taking responsibility for aviation emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimber, Hugo

    2007-07-01

    Aviation emissions make up less than 2 per cent of the world total, but are rising fast. These environmental costs must be balanced with development gains, however: air travel can hugely benefit poor countries' economies. The good news is that much can be done to curb emissions while keeping those benefits on board. Workable tools and guidelines for passengers, travel providers, government and airlines are waiting in the wings. A vital area for improvement is the way emissions are reported and calculated. Airlines, travel providers and carbon companies currently report emissions using a hotchpotch of methods, all producing varying results. Basing reports on fuel usage will make standardised ecolabelling possible. With an informed choice, passengers can buy tickets strategically and so encourage airlines to use more efficient technology. Airports can integrate ways of limiting emissions into their daily operations, while governments can invest in better air traffic control. Collective responsibility — and action — could make flying a much more sustainable means of travel.

  17. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Christopher K; Barrett, Steven R H; Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi

    2013-01-01

    Aviation NO x emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NO x on O 3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O 3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry–transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O 3 production due to aviation NO x emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NO x emitted in October causes 40% more O 3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4–5 times more tropospheric O 3 per unit NO x than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O 3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O 3 -producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O 3 -producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O 3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NO x emissions. (letter)

  18. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  19. 75 FR 34520 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be... of the global economy. The Aviation Safety Subcommittee will develop a list of priority safety issues...

  20. History of aviation safety; the satisfying sighs of relief due to developments in Aviation safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety is an Integral part of my career. Being part of TU Delft’s impressive record of research on Aviation safety, my career has been with a sense of purpose and a responsibility to equip students to deal with the status quo challenges on Aviation safety, developments, Investigations and

  1. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  2. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 27.971 Section 27.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel tank...

  3. 14 CFR 29.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 29.963 Section 29.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each fuel...

  4. 14 CFR 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 25.963 Section 25.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each fuel...

  5. 14 CFR 27.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 27.963 Section 27.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each fuel...

  6. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel tank...

  7. 14 CFR 29.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel tank...

  8. 14 CFR 29.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank tests. 29.965 Section 29.965 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.965 Fuel tank tests. (a) Each fuel tank...

  9. 14 CFR 27.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank tests. 27.965 Section 27.965 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.965 Fuel tank tests. (a) Each fuel tank...

  10. INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL-SUPPLY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zheleznaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of aviation fuel in the life of air transport. Fueling industry worldwide solves two main tasks - ensuring the safety and economy of air traffic. In Russia, there is one more task of airlines fuel supply. The article deals with fuel pricing taking into consideration today's realities.

  11. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  12. Industry assessment of human factors in aviation maintenance and inspection research program : an assessment of industry awareness and use of the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance and Inspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Ten years ago the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine embarked on a research and development program dedicated to human factors in aviation maintenance and inspection. Since 1989 FAA has invested over $12M in maintenance...

  13. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    product used as a diesel product for ground use (1). Free water contamination (droplets) may appear as fine droplets or slugs of water in the fuel...methods and test procedures for the calibration and use of automatic particle counters. The transition of this technology to the fuel industry is...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18

  14. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  15. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a controlled...

  16. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  17. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  18. Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges in Modernizing the Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    FAA's efforts to implement initiatives in five key areas-air traffic control modernization, procurement and personnel reform, aviation safety, aviation and computer security, and financial management...

  19. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  20. Aviation investigation report : hard landing : fuel leak and fire[Sundance Balloons International Firefly 12B (hot air balloon) C-FNVM, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 15 nm NE, 11 August 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This investigation report discussed an incident in Winnipeg in which a hot air balloon attempting to land during strong winds was dragged on its side for approximately 700 feet. The balloon's burners struck the ground as the balloon came to a stop, after which a propane leak occurred. An intense, uncontrolled fire ensued as balloon passengers were exiting from the partially-inverted basket. The pilot and 2 passengers suffered serious injuries, while another 4 passengers suffered minor injuries. The balloon's 2 propane tanks and a fire extinguisher canister exploded during the fire, which destroyed the balloon's basket. The rigging of the balloon was examined and no failures were discovered. Pressure tests showed that the balloon's hoses started leaking at the crimped sleeve fittings at 150 psi. While the pilot had been informed of potentially heavy winds and thunderstorms, changes in wind speed and direction occurred earlier than the forecasted time of 10:00. It was concluded that standards are needed to ensure balloon cabin safety. Balloon operators do not currently require the use of protective helmets or gloves in case of dragged landings. A review will be conducted to address the issue of proposed emergency fuel shut-offs for balloons carrying fare-paying passengers. 2 figs.

  1. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  2. Fuel storage tanks at FAA facilities : Order 1050.15A : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-30

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has over 4,000 fuel storage tanks (FST) in its inventory. Most of these FSTs are underground storage tanks (UST) that contain fuel for emergency backup generators providing secondary power to air navigational...

  3. Review of Jet Fuel Life Cycle Assessment Methods and Sustainability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to help aviation jet fuel purchasers (primarily commercial airlines and the U.S. military) to understand the sustainability implications of their jet fuel purchases and provide guidelines for procuring sustainable fue...

  4. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.K.; Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  5. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Aviation Research and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Antoinette M.

    1995-01-01

    The Internet is a network of networks. It was originally funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DOD/DARPA and evolved in part from the connection of supercomputer sites across the United States. The National Science Foundation (NSF) made the most of their supercomputers by connecting the sites to each other. This made the supercomputers more efficient and now allows scientists, engineers and researchers to access the supercomputers from their own labs and offices. The high speed networks that connect the NSF supercomputers form the backbone of the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a menu system. It gathers Internet resources from all over the world into a series of screens that appear on your computer. The WWW is also a distributed. The distributed system stores data information on many computers (servers). These servers can go out and get data when you ask for it. Hypermedia is the base of the WWW. One can 'click' on a section and visit other hypermedia (pages). Our approach to demonstrating the importance of aviation research through the Internet began with learning how to put pages on the Internet (on-line) ourselves. We were assigned two aviation companies; Vision Micro Systems Inc. and Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT). We developed home pages for these SBIR companies. The equipment used to create the pages were the UNIX and Macintosh machines. HTML Supertext software was used to write the pages and the Sharp JX600S scanner to scan the images. As a result, with the use of the UNIX, Macintosh, Sun, PC, and AXIL machines, we were able to present our home pages to over 800,000 visitors.

  7. General aviation internal-combustion engine research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An update is presented of non-turbine general aviation engine programs. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. It's three major thrusts are: (1) reduced SFC's; (2) improved fuels tolerance; and (3) reduced emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980's, for engines whose life cycle fuel costs are 30 to 50% lower than today's conventional engines.

  8. General aviation internal combustion engine research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An update is presented of non-turbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (a) reduced SFC's; (b) improved fuels tolerance; and (c) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to late 1980's, for engines whose life cycle fuel costs are 30 to 50% lower than today's conventional engines.

  9. Assessing the impact of aviation on climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Marais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an assessment of the marginal climate impacts of new aviation activities. We use impulse response functions derived from carbon-cycle and atmospheric models to estimate changes in surface temperature for various aviation impacts (CO2, NOx on methane, NOx on ozone, sulfates, soot, and contrails/induced cirrus. We use different damage functions and discount rates to explore health, welfare and ecological costs for a range of assumptions and scenarios. Since uncertainty is high regarding many aviation effects, we explicitly capture some uncertainty by representing several model parameters as probabilistic distributions. The uncertainties are then propagated using Monte Carlo analysis to derive estimates for the impact of these uncertainties on the marginal future climate impacts. Our goal is to provide a framework that will communicate the potential impacts of aviation on climate change under different scenarios and assumptions, and that will allow decision-makers to compare these potential impacts to other aviation environmental impacts. We present results to describe the influence of parametric uncertainties, scenarios, and assumptions for valuation on the expected marginal future costs of aviation impacts. Estimates of the change in global average surface temperature due to aviation are most sensitive to changes in climate sensitivity, the radiative forcing attributed to short-lived effects (in particular those related to contrails and aviation-induced cirrus, and the choice of emissions scenario. Estimates of marginal future costs of aviation are most sensitive to assumptions regarding the discount rate, followed by assumptions regarding climate sensitivity, and the choice of emissions scenario.

  10. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  11. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that comprise ASAC. This report describes an Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model (CBM) that meets these requirements. The ASAC CBM is distinguished from many of the aviation cost-benefit models by its exclusive focus on commercial air carriers. The model considers such benefit categories as time and fuel savings, utilization opportunities, reliability and capacity enhancements, and safety and security improvements. The model distinguishes between benefits that are predictable and those that occur randomly. By making such a distinction, the model captures the ability of air carriers to reoptimize scheduling and crew assignments for predictable benefits. In addition, the model incorporates a life-cycle cost module for new technology, which applies the costs of nonrecurring acquisitions, recurring maintenance and operation, and training to each aircraft equipment type independently.

  12. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  13. 77 FR 60887 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  14. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety... must grant Aviation Safety Inspectors bearing FAA Form 110A free and uninterrupted access to public-use...

  15. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., into the U.S., or codeshare with a U.S. air carrier, complies with international aviation safety... subject to that country's aviation safety oversight can serve the United States using its own aircraft or...

  16. 14 CFR 121.316 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks. 121.316 Section 121.316 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.316 Fuel tanks. Each...

  17. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and SO2 from civil aviation in China in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiyi; Sun, Yifei; Zhu, Tianle; Wen, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Civil aviation in China has developed rapidly in recent years, and the effects of civil aviation emissions on the atmospheric environment should not be neglected. The establishment of emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants from civil aviation contributes to related policy formation and pollution control. According to the 2010's China flight schedules, aircraft/engine combination information and revised emission indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization emission data bank based on meteorological data, the fuel consumption and HC, CO, NOx, CO2, SO2 emissions from domestic flights of civil aviation in China (excluding Taiwan Province) in 2010 are estimated in this paper. The results show that fuel consumption in 2010 on domestic flights in China is 12.12 million tons (metric tons), HC, CO, NOx, CO2 and SO2 emissions are 4600 tons, 39,700 tons, 154,100 tons, 38.21 million tons and 9700 tons, respectively. The fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of China Southern Airline are responsible for the largest national proportion of each, accounting for 27% and 25-28%, respectively.

  18. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there was...

  19. Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Office of the Secretary of Defense Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation outlines the key issues that must be addressed to achieve the goal of safe, routine use of the National Airspace System (NAS...

  20. Aviation safety courses available through the FAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-02

    The FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) offers a 1-day training course to familiarize U.S. civil aviation pilots and flight crews with the physiological and psychological stresses of flight. Pilots who are knowledgeable about physiological p...

  1. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Park

    1999-01-01

    .... The Army's Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM) principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk management...

  2. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  3. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is defined as “unwanted sound.” Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children’s learning, sleep disturbance, and health. It also briefly discusses civilian supersonic aircraft as a future source of aviation noise.

  4. Aviation and externalities : the accomplishments and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Janić, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Civil aviation has become a major industry and in one of the fastest growing sectors of the world economy. The growth of civil aviation has advantages and disadvantages for the society. The advantages include the direct and indirect generation of new jobs within and around the sector as well as providing a strong stimulus to the globalisation of the industry, business and long distance tourism. Disadvantages include its negative impacts on the environment. This paper presents an overview of t...

  5. Aviation Safety Concerns for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.; Roelen, Alfred L. C.; den Hertog, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) is a multidisciplinary international group of aviation professionals that was established to identify possible future aviation safety hazards. The principle was adopted that future hazards are undesirable consequences of changes, and a primary activity of FAST became identification and prioritization of possible future changes affecting aviation. Since 2004, FAST has been maintaining a catalogue of "Areas of Change" (AoC) that could potentially influence aviation safety. The horizon for such changes is between 5 to 20 years. In this context, changes must be understood as broadly as possible. An AoC is a description of the change, not an identification of the hazards that result from the change. An ex-post analysis of the AoCs identified in 2004 demonstrates that changes catalogued many years previous were directly implicated in the majority of fatal aviation accidents over the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of the current content of the AoC catalogue and a subsequent discussion of aviation safety concerns related to these possible changes. Interactions among these future changes may weaken critical functions that must be maintained to ensure safe operations. Safety assessments that do not appreciate or reflect the consequences of significant interaction complexity will not be fully informative and can lead to inappropriate trade-offs and increases in other risks. The FAST strongly encourages a system-wide approach to safety risk assessment across the global aviation system, not just within the domain for which future technologies or operational concepts are being considered. The FAST advocates the use of the "Areas of Change" concept, considering that several possible future phenomena may interact with a technology or operational concept under study producing unanticipated hazards.

  6. 75 FR 67805 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of..., announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Aviation Safety, which will be held at the offices [[Page... needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Aviation Safety will...

  7. Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool : Description, Methodology, and Demonstration Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes an Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool (AFTOT), developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) in support of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)....

  8. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The wax content decreases as temperature increases .The highest quantity ... polyethylene are generated . The producers of ... increase in the volume of waste generated daily by its usage in .... aviation industry and other domestic fuel users.

  9. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Sheth, Kapil; Ng, Hok Kwan; Morando, Alex; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  10. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  11. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  12. Sulphur in liquid fuels 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Fuels Div., Oil, Gas and Energy Branch ; Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Environment Canada has developed new regulations for sulphur content in fuels in an effort to align with requirements recently passed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report summarizes data regarding sulphur content in liquid fuels for the year 2002. The requirements of the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulation came into effect in 2002, limiting the average sulphur content of gasoline to 150 mg/kg. In January 2005, a 30 mg/kg average limit will come into effect. Also, in July 2002, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulation stipulated a maximum limit of 500 mg/kg for on-road diesel fuel. The new regulation continues this limit until mid-2006 at which time a 15 mg/kg limit will come into effect for on-road diesel fuel. Nationally, the average sulphur content in gasoline in 2002 was 246 mg/kg, which was 14.3 per cent lower than in 2001. The data covers the period from January 1 to December 31, 2002 and was obtained from petroleum refineries and importing companies that are required to submit quarterly information to the regional office of Environment Canada. Failure to comply results in penalties. The report includes data for aviation turbo fuel, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene oil, low-sulphur diesel fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. 16 tabs., 17 figs., 7 appendices.

  13. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  14. R&D control study : plan for future jet fuel distribution quality control and description of fuel properties catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Broad Agency Announcement Alternative Aviation Fuels was a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) / John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center with funding...

  15. 14 CFR 25.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 25.959 Section 25.959 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.959 Unusable fuel supply. The unusable...

  16. 14 CFR 23.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 23.959 Section 23.959 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Unusable fuel supply. (a) The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than that...

  17. 14 CFR 23.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 23.969 Section 23.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....969 Fuel tank expansion space. Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of not less than two...

  18. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  19. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  20. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  1. 14 CFR 23.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank tests. 23.965 Section 23.965 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.965 Fuel...

  2. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section 25.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler...

  3. 14 CFR 25.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank tests. 25.965 Section 25.965 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.965 Fuel tank tests. (a) It must be...

  4. 14 CFR 27.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 27.967 Section 27.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.967 Fuel tank installation. (a...

  5. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 23.971 Section 23.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.971 Fuel...

  6. 14 CFR 29.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 29.967 Section 29.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.967 Fuel tank installation...

  7. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section 27.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection...

  8. 14 CFR 23.963 - Fuel tanks: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks: General. 23.963 Section 23.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.963 Fuel...

  9. 14 CFR 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank installations. 25.967 Section 25.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.967 Fuel tank installations...

  10. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section 29.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank filler...

  11. Definition of Aviation Turbine Fuel Contamination under Simulated Combat Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    metals ill a riet system as would quIarttz. The plagio - clase thus con tribiites no0 seven t to ttile test. As a reSU~ti t i A.( . Test O ust reail l...the test package inl that oxides of’ iron. quartz. and mineralls inl thle plagio )Clase feldspar tammiji were idemitt Iitd t’or example, 210 see

  12. An Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Military Aviation Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    does not contact moisture. Corrosion occurs during the natural tendency of the elemental metals (except noble metals) to revert to a combined form...losing the primary stain). The Gram stain procedure used here consisted of staining a fixed smear with the primary dye crystal violet. An iodine...solution was applied as a mordant . The primary stain was next decolorized with acetone/alcohol and the smear was counterstained with safranin. The

  13. Aviation and the atmospheric environment. Present regulations; L`aviation et l`environnement atmospherique la reglementation actuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, Ch [Direction Generale de l` Aviation Civile (France)

    1994-12-31

    The two main environmental impacts of air transport are caused by noise and emissions. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) decided to address environmental issues in the early seventies and started establishing an action programme regarding the environment. Emissions standards were adopted in 1981 and introduced in ICAO Annex 16 as Volume II. Contracting States are required to include ICAO standards in their national regulations or to notify any differences. VOLUME II contains standards relating to the control of fuel venting, smoke and gaseous emissions (namely hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides) from turbo-jet and turbofan engines intended for subsonic and supersonic propulsion. The stringency of NO{sub x} emissions limits was increased as from 1993. An ICAO Council committee, known as the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), is in charge of proposing amendments to Annex 16. One of its working groups is assessing the need to modify current Volume II provisions and studying possible evolution of emissions standards. As a result of its work programme, it will submit several proposals for amendments of Annex 16 - Volume II at the next Committee meeting scheduled in late 1995 or early 1996. (author)

  14. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  15. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance—Part A: Combustor Performance and Part B: Combustor Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Hendricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C. W.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, Capt. T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F or ASTM D 7566 standards, respectively, and are classified as “drop-in’’ fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are acceptable. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires “smart fueling systems’’ or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines, without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements...

  16. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 1.4 million reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 6,000 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides selected de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http:asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation will discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  17. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  18. Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines changes in cirrus cloud cover (CCC in possible association with aviation activities at congested air corridors. The analysis is based on the latest version of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data set and covers the period 1984-1998. Over the studied areas, the effect of large-scale modes of natural climate variability such as ENSO, QBO and NAO as well as the possible influence of the tropopause variability, were first removed from the cloud data set in order to calculate long-term changes of observed cirrus cloudiness. The results show increasing trends in (CCC between 1984 and 1998 over the high air traffic corridors of North America, North Atlantic and Europe. Of these upward trends, only in the summertime over the North Atlantic and only in the wintertime over North America are statistically significant (exceeding +2.0% per decade. Over adjacent locations with low air traffic, the calculated trends are statistically insignificant and in most cases negative both during winter and summer in the regions studied. These negative trends, over low air traffic regions, are consistent with the observed large scale negative trends seen in (CCC over most of the northern middle latitudes and over the tropics. Moreover, further investigation of vertical velocities over high and low air traffic regions provide evidence that the trends of opposite signs in (CCC over these regions, do not seem to be caused by different trends in dynamics. It is also shown that the longitudinal distribution of decadal changes in (CCC along the latitude belt centered at the North Atlantic air corridor, parallels the spatial distribution of fuel consumption from highflying air traffic, providing an independent test of possible impact of aviation on contrail cirrus formation. The correlation between the fuel consumption and the longitudinal variability of (CCC is significant (+0.7 over the middle latitudes but not over the tropics

  19. A review of Curtiss-Wright rotary engine developments with respect to general aviation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1979-01-01

    Aviation related rotary (Wankel-type) engine tests, possible growth directions and relevant developments at Curtiss-Wright have been reviewed. Automotive rotary engines including stratified charge are described and flight test results of rotary aircraft engines are presented. The current 300 HP engine prototype shows basic durability and competitive performance potential. Recent parallel developments have separately confirmed the geometric advantages of the rotary engine for direct injected unthrottled stratified charge. Specific fuel consumption equal to or better than pre- or swirl-chamber diesels, low emission and multi-fuel capability have been shown by rig tests of similar rotary engine.

  20. Applications of Geostationary Satellite Data to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellrod, Gary P.; Pryor, Kenneth

    2018-03-01

    Weather is by far the most important factor in air traffic delays in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS) according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Geostationary satellites have been an effective tool for the monitoring of meteorological conditions that affect aviation operations since the launch of the first Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) in the United States in 1974. This paper will review the global use of geostationary satellites in support of aviation weather since their inception, with an emphasis on the latest generation of satellites, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (16) with its Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Specific applications discussed in this paper include monitoring of convective storms and their associated hazards, fog and low stratus, turbulence, volcanic hazards, and aircraft icing.

  1. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  2. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  3. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  4. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    solution is war- more effe-ctive use of human resoUrecs , the neat step Ls to ane- uassol o efogte.S a hr sn tes te de. Af piot progfctram can...and Subtitle 5. Report Date November 1991 Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance - Phase One Progress Report 6. Perfarng Oon z’on Code i8. Perfo-rrng...Independence Avenue, SW 14. Sponsor,mg Agency Code Washington, DC 20591 15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract "• This human factors research in aviation

  5. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  6. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  7. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An index to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1995) and Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aviation med...

  8. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... ``Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231... of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct responsibility to inspect...

  9. FAA aviation forecasts : fiscal years 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report contains the Fiscal Years 1997-2008 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) forecasts of aviation activity at FAA facilities. These include airports with both FAA and contract control towers, air route traffic control centers, and flight se...

  10. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-24

    This report by the General Accounting Office examines the Federal Aviation : Administration's (FAA) oversight of the aviation repair station industry. : Specifically, this report addresses the following questions: (1) What is the : nature and scope o...

  11. Aviation safety : FAA and DOD response to similar safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Report to the Honorable Norman Y. Mineta, Secretary of Transportation, and the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense. : Safety of aircraft is a paramount concern in both civilian and military aviation. The Federal Aviation Administration...

  12. Aviation medical examiner 2012 feedback survey : content analysis of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), as a component of the Office of Aerospace Medicine (OAM), surveyed the population of aviation medical examiners (AMEs), as federal designees, in 2012 to assess their satisfaction with Federal Aviation Adm...

  13. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  14. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  15. Future Retention of the Marine Corps Top Performing Aviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    balance, and Aviator Continuation Pay. 15. SUBJECT TERMS USMC Aviator Retention, USMC Aviation Manpower, Marine Corps Talent Management , Marine Corps...Wing Aircraft: Includes AH-1, UH-1, and CH-53 platforms. Talent Management : The process through which employers anticipate and meet their needs for...a bias due to his experience as an executive officer responsible for the talent management of company grade WTI aviators. All attempts have been

  16. Effect of Additional Incentives for Aviation Biofuels: Results from the Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory supported the Department of Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office, with analysis of alternative jet fuels in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Airlines for America requested additional exploratory scenarios within FAA analytic framework. Airlines for America requested additional analysis using the same analytic framework, the Biomass Scenario Model. The results were presented at a public working meeting of the California Air Resources Board on including alternative jet fuel in the Low Carbon Fuel Standard on March 17, 2017 (https://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/lcfs_meetings/lcfs_meetings.htm). This presentation clarifies and annotates the slides from the public working meeting, and provides a link to the full data set. NREL does not advocate for or against the policies analyzed in this study.

  17. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  18. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  19. Demonstration of Sensor Data Integration Across Naval Aviation Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Concepts, Programs and Processes; Maintenance Unit Department, Division Organization; Manpower Management ; and Aviation Officers.” http...Naval Aviation Maintenance Alejandra Jolodosky and Adi Zolotov February 2018 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract...underutilized sensor data. CNA proposed a pilot program that integrated sensor data across maintenance levels to expedite repairs of aviation parts

  20. 77 FR 43135 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... second meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The second meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. By notice dated June 13...

  1. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection (ACACP) and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's...

  2. 77 FR 53961 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... third meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The third meeting of...)), established the Advisory Committee on Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as...

  3. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... first meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The first meeting of... recommendations to the Secretary for improving existing aviation consumer protection programs and for establishing...

  4. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., energy security and economic stability for aviation. The aviation industry has made a commitment to... developing aviation in a manner that enhances and promotes the Nation's economic, environmental, and social... effectiveness of various policies, including economic incentives to limit and reduce CO 2 emissions. The U.S. is...

  5. Design study of general aviation collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M. R.; Moore, L. D.; Scott, W. V.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of a time/frequency collision avoidance system for use in general aviation aircraft is discussed. The modifications to airline transport collision avoidance equipment which were made to produce the simpler general aviation system are described. The threat determination capabilities and operating principles of the general aviation system are illustrated.

  6. Review of Biojet Fuel Conversion Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Batan, Liaw [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry’s strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

  7. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  8. Is Fatigue a Problem in Army Aviation: The Results of a Survey of Aviators and Aircrews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John

    2000-01-01

    .... The current study, in which the responses from 241 Army aviators and 120 Army enlisted crew members were analyzed, indicates that inadequate sleep and/or insufficient sleep quality is adversely...

  9. Solar powered aviation beacon/landing light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the work was to design, develop and test Solar Powered Aviation Landing Lights/Obstruction Beacons. The entire lighting units were to be stand alone devices capable of producing their own individual power supply. The whole process was to be documented to provide insight into the processes and decisions involved. (author)

  10. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  11. Aviation Medicine Research: A Historical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-18

    School of Aviation Medicina , with an Officer in Charge and research as a department. In July 1951, the Schoo! became a separate command under a...the South China Sea. Let’s see, we had three WestPac I went to the CO of the ship, and made a recommendation that we cruises out there. Each one was

  12. The Air Force Aviation Investment Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    7 Procurement percentage excludes modification funding. 8 IOC from Department of Defense, Annual Aviation Inventory and Funding Plan, Fiscal Years...Through a Non-Air Force Budget As part of its markup of the Navy’s proposed FY2015 budget, Congress created the National Sea- Based Deterrence Fund

  13. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J. [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  14. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  15. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  16. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  17. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Clark, C.; Hansell, A.; Hileman, J.; Janssen, S.; Shepherd, K.; Sparrow, V.

    2017-01-01

    Noise is defined as 'unwanted sound.' Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in

  18. Technologies to counter aviation security threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Steve

    2017-11-01

    The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) makes TSA responsible for security in all modes of transportation, and requires that TSA assess threats to transportation, enforce security-related regulations and requirements, and ensure the adequacy of security measures at airports and other transportation facilities. Today, TSA faces a significant challenge and must address a wide range of commercial, military grade, and homemade explosives and these can be presented in an infinite number of configurations and from multiple vectors. TSA screens 2 million passengers and crew, and screens almost 5 million carry-on items and 1.2 million checked bags daily. As TSA explores new technologies for improving efficiency and security, those on the forefront of research and development can help identify unique and advanced methods to combat terrorism. Research and Development (R&D) drives the development of future technology investments that can address an evolving adversary and aviation threat. The goal is to rethink the aviation security regime in its entirety, and rather than focusing security at particular points in the enterprise, distribute security from the time a reservation is made to the time a passenger boards the aircraft. The ultimate objective is to reengineer aviation security from top to bottom with a continued focus on increasing security throughout the system.

  19. An analysis of aviation test scores to characterize Student Naval Aviator disqualification

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Erich J.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy uses the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTh) to identify those Student Naval Aviator (SNA) applicants most likely to succeed in flight training. Using classification and regression trees, this thesis concludes that individual answers to an ASTh subtest, the Biographical Inventory, are not good predictors of SNA primary flight grades. It also concludes that those SNA who score less than a 6 on the Pilot Biographical Inv...

  20. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Nebraska Aviation Education Association Conference (1st, Omaha, Nebraska, January 1994). The UNO Aviation Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crehan, James E., Ed.

    This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of…

  2. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  3. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  4. Sensor performance considerations for aviation weather observations for the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL CT-AWX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John; Helms, David; Miner, Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Airspace system demand is expected to increase as much as 300 percent by the year 2025 and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being developed to accommodate the super-density operations that this will entail. Concomitantly, significant improvements in observations and forecasting are being undertaken to support NextGen which will require greatly improved and more uniformly applied data for aviation weather hazards and constraints which typically comprise storm-scale and microscale observables. Various phenomena are associated with these hazards and constraints such as convective weather, in-flight icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash as well as more mundane aviation parameters such as cloud tops and bases and fuel-freeze temperatures at various flight levels. Emerging problems for aviation in space weather and the environmental impacts of aviation are also occurring at these scales. Until recently, the threshold and objective observational requirements for these observables had not been comprehensively documented in a single, authoritative source. Scientists at NASA and NOAA have recently completed this task and have established baseline observational requirements for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and expanded and updated the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL) for Aviation (CT-AWX) to better inform National Weather Service investments for current and future observing systems. This paper describes the process and results of this effort. These comprehensive aviation observation requirements will now be used to conduct gap analyses for the aviation component of the Integrated Earth Observing System and to inform the investment strategies of the FAA, NASA, and NOAA that are needed to develop the observational architecture to support NextGen and other users of storm and microscale observations.

  5. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Buffi, Marco; Tacconi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant

  6. Preliminary report. Preliminary findings and views concerning the exemption of aviation gasoline from the Mandatory Petroleum Allocation and Price Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary findings indicate that: the fuel is not in short supply; exemption will not have an adverse impact on supply of any other petroleum product subject to the Emergency Petroleum allocation Act of 1973; competition and market force are adequate; exemption will not result in inequitable prices; and exemption will not have adverse state or regional impacts or any other adverse impacts. Chapter II provides background information on the use, production, and distribution of aviation gasoline. Chapter III analyzes the historical interaction of supply, demand, and price, and explores the market structure for aviation gasoline during 1968 to 1976, prior to and during imposition of allocation and price controls. Chapter IV examines aviation gasoline supply, demand, price, and market structure impacts of exempting aviation gasoline from controls. In Chapter V, the potential economic impacts of exemption are evaluated. Chapter VI provides a final summary of the DOE's findings and views in support of its preliminary judgment that aviation gasoline should be exempted from allocation and price regulations. (MCW)

  7. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section 23.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23...

  8. Jet fuels of higher volatility: An airline view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, M.H.

    1982-05-01

    Use of jet fuels of higher volatility is reviewed by some airlines periodically on a routine basis. Most often, however, airlines become concerned when aviation kerosine supply problems are encountered or anticipated. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the known principles of fuel selection and how they influence airline consideration.

  9. Ocular Problems of the Aging Military Aviator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    neuropathy 3 these ocular conditions seen in the older aviator and on Ocular trauma/angle recession 3 his flight status? Branch retinal vein occlusion 2...bifocals, Nutritional amblyopia (RPW) 1 trifocals, double segs, newer progressive lenses, contact Fuch’s heterochromic iridocyclitis 1 lenses, and...In the Surveillance Only part of the program no drug therapy is DISCUSSION: Under present FAA regulations, the used but the flight surgeon must

  10. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  11. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  12. Parallels in safety between aviation and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Claudia R

    2018-05-01

    Aviation and healthcare are complex industries and share many similarities: the cockpit and the operating theater, the captain and the surgeon. While North American commercial aviation currently enjoys a tremendous safety record, it was not always this way. A spike of accidents in 1973 caused 3214 aviation-related fatalities. Over the past 20years, the rate of fatal accidents per million flights fell by a factor of five, while air traffic increased by more than 86%. There have been no fatalities on a U.S. carrier for over 12years. Last year, there were 251,454 deaths in the United States owing to medical error. Pilots pioneered ways to address risks through crew resource management (CRM), and threat and error management (TEM). Both strategies, which are aimed at minimizing risk and optimizing safety, are applicable to surgery and the healthcare industry. These strategies as well as the Swiss Cheese Model, Checklists and the Normalization of Deviance will be reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial neuroscience in aviation evaluation of mental states in aviation personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the emerging field of industrial neuroscience, and reports on the authors’ cutting-edge findings in the evaluation of mental states, including mental workload, cognitive control and training of personnel involved either in the piloting of aircraft and helicopters, or in managing air traffic. It encompasses neuroimaging and cognitive psychology techniques and shows how they have been successfully applied in the evaluation of human performance and human-machine interactions, and to guarantee a proper level of safety in such operational contexts. With an introduction to the most relevant concepts of neuroscience, neurophysiological techniques, simulators and case studies in aviation environments, it is a must-have for both students and scientists in the field of aeronautic and biomedical engineering, as well as for various professionals in the aviation world. This is the first book to intensively apply neurosciences to the evaluation of human factors and mental states in aviation.

  14. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. (a...

  15. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  16. AVIATION SAFETY CULTURE MEASUREMENT MODEL FIT VALIDATION OF A SURVEY FOR THE AVIATION MAINTENANCE REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Vahap ÖNEN

    2017-01-01

    It is believed that safety is the major issue for the aviation industry. According to Boeing Study %15 of the fatal accidents are incurred by maintenance sources related. On the other hand, from the last ten years safety management system which firstly introduced by ICAO became popular in the aviation industry. In the beginning, enforcement by ICAO Annex 19 then following it consequtively by EASA’s regulation, at the same time issued many advisory circulars by FAA that SMS entried in force an...

  17. Jet Fuel Kerosene is not Immunosuppressive in Mice or Rats Following Inhalation for 28 Days

    OpenAIRE

    White, Kimber L.; DeLorme, Michael P.; Beatty, Patrick W.; Smith, Matthew J.; Peachee, Vanessa L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that inhalation of JP-8 aviation turbine fuel is immunosuppressive. However, in some of those studies, the exposure concentrations were underestimated, and percent of test article as vapor or aerosol was not determined. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the observed effects are attributable to the base hydrocarbon fuel (jet fuel kerosene) or to the various fuel additives in jet fuels. The present studies were conducted, in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (...

  18. Rotary engine developments at Curtiss-Wright over the past 20 years and review of general aviation engine potential. [with direct chamber injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the rotary engine as a viable power plant capable of wide application is reviewed. Research results on the stratified charge engine with direct chamber injection are included. Emission control, reduced fuel consumption, and low noise level are among the factors discussed in terms of using the rotary engine in general aviation aircraft.

  19. General Roy S. Geiger, USMC: Marine Aviator, Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This is a strong assertion, given the significant and better-known contributions of great Marines such as John Lejeune, Smedley Butler, Alexander...While stationed in Panama, Geiger made a favorable impression on Major Smedley Butler, who later earned the Medal of Honor twice and became a...fifth Naval Aviator. 43 Johnson, 5. 44 Robert Sherrod, History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II (Baltimore, MD: The Nautical and Aviation

  20. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  1. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  2. Selecting Optimal Control Portfolios to Improve Army Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelton, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    .... The Safety Center chartered the Aviation Safety Investment Strategy Team to evaluate accidents to determine their hazards, or contributing conditions, and their controls, or reduction measures...

  3. New Refractive Surgery Procedures and Their Implications for Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2006-01-01

    ...., myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) with corrective surgery. Prior Federal Aviation Administration research studies have shown that the number of civil airmen with refractive surgery continues to increase...

  4. Effects of decarbonising international shipping and aviation on climate mitigation and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessens, Olivier; Anger, Annela; Barker, Terry; Pyle, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A global emissions trading scheme is applied to international aviation and shipping. • We couple an energy–environment–economy model with an atmospheric model. • 65% reduction on CO 2 emissions in 2050 reduces other pollutants emissions. • Climate effects are reduced and air quality is improved by the scheme. - Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of a global emissions trading scheme (GETS) for international aviation and shipping as a way of reducing emissions of both greenhouse gases (GHG) and other atmospheric emissions that lead to air pollution. A prior assessment of such integration requires the coupling of energy–environment–economy (E3) global modelling of mitigation policies with the atmospheric modelling of pollution sources, mixing and deposition. We report the methodology and results of coupling of the E3MG model and the global atmospheric model, p-TOMCAT. We assess the effects of GETS on the concentrations of atmospheric gases and on the radiative forcing, comparing a GETS scenario to a reference BASE scenario with higher use of fossil fuels. The paper assesses the outcome of GETS for atmospheric composition and radiative forcing for 2050. GETS on international shipping and aviation reduces their CO 2 and non-CO 2 emissions up to 65%. As a consequence atmospheric concentrations are modified and the radiative forcing due to international transport is reduced by different amounts as a function of the pollutant studied (15% for CO 2 , 35% for methane and up to 50% for ozone)

  5. Flying Wings. A New Paradigm for Civil Aviation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martinez-Val

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 50 years, commercial aviation has been mainly based what is currently called the conventional layout, characterized by a slender fuselage mated to a high aspect ratio wing, with aft-tail planes and pod-mounted engines under the wing. However, it seems that this primary configuration is approaching an asymptote in its productivity and performance characteristics. One of the most promising configurations for the future is the flying wing in its distinct arrangements: blended-wing-body, C-wing, tail-less aircraft, etc. These layouts might provide significant fuel savings and, hence, a decrease in pollution. This configuration would also reduce noise in take-off and landing. All this explains the great deal of activity carried out by the aircraft industry and by numerous investigators to perform feasibility and conceptual design studies of this aircraft layout to gain better knowledge of its main characteristics: productivity, airport compatibility, passenger acceptance, internal architecture, emergency evacuation, etc. The present paper discusses the main features of flying wings, their advantages over conventional competitors, and some key operational issues, such as evacuation and vortex wake intensity. 

  6. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... evolving transportation needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Aviation Safety... activities associated with the list of priority safety issues developed during the first meeting. The subcommittee will also develop a work plan for future meetings. DATES: The meeting will be held on August 24...

  7. Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management: Importance for Aviation Companies, Aerospace Industry Organizations and Relevant Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Szabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper in the introductory part underlines some aspects concerning the importance of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management and informs on basic international standards for the processes and stages of life cycle. The second part is focused on definition and main objectives of system life cycle management. The authors subsequently inform on system life cycle stages (in general and system life cycle processes according to ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 standard. Following the fact, that life cycle cost (LCC is inseparable part and has direct connection to the life cycle management, the paper contains brief information regarding to LCC (cost categories, cost breakdown structure, cost estimation a.o.. Recently was issued the first part of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management monograph (in Slovak: ”Manažment životného cyklu leteckej techniky I”, written by I.Koblen and S.Szabo. Following this fact and direct relation to the topic of article it is a part of article briefly introduced the content of two parts of this monograph (the 2nd part of monograph it has been prepared for the print. The last part of article is focused on issue concerning main assumptions and conditions for successful application of aviation technology life cycle management in aviation companies, aerospace industry organizations as well as from the relevant stakeholders side.

  8. A psychologist's view of validating aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Earl S.; Wagner, Dan

    1994-01-01

    All systems, no matter what they are designed to do, have shortcomings that may make them less productive than was hoped during the initial development. Such shortcomings can arise at any stage of development: from conception to the end of the implementation life cycle. While systems failure and errors of a lesser magnitude can occur as a function of mechanical or software breakdown, the majority of such problems, in aviation are usually laid on the shoulders of the human operator and, to a lesser extent, on human factors. The operator bears the responsibility and blame even though, from a human factors perspective, error may have been designed into the system. Human factors is not a new concept in aviation. The name may be new, but the issues related to operators in the loop date back to the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and certainly to the aviation build-up for World War I. During this first global confrontation, military services from all sides discovered rather quickly that poor selection and training led to drastically increased personnel losses. While hardware design became an issue later, the early efforts were primarily focused on increased care in pilot selection and on their training. This actually involved early labor-intensive simulation, using such devices as sticks and chairs mounted on rope networks which could be manually moved in response to control input. The use of selection criteria and improved training led to more viable person-machine systems. More pilots survived training and their first ten missions in the air, a rule of thumb arrived at by experience which predicted ultimate survival better than any other. This rule was to hold through World War II. At that time, personnel selection and training became very sophisticated based on previous standards. Also, many psychologists were drafted into Army Air Corps programs which were geared towards refining the human factor. However, despite the talent involved in these programs

  9. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-31

    Passenger Screening Results 12. Scope of Civil Aviation Security Program 13. Basic Policies 14. Explosives Detection Dog Teams 15. Explosives Detection... policies guiding the program recognize airline responsibilities for the safety of passengers, baggage and cargo in their care as well as for the...U *i * (U U Los -7 .cn cf) 1-4 ~~LL _m e- Hf LMU 0- u,-C -oL -ccJLL LII -~ LLIOL 0 _ CL. LLJ cr-L LCnIJ C ~ ~ CnCD C. ) &j 2ic- nc r JL AJ -L JC C.- L

  10. Criterion of titanium aviation alloy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasyunas, O.P.

    1976-01-01

    The most significant statistic mechanical characteristics are presented of titanium as compared with those of aluminium and steel. Based on these data one can draw conclusions as to the advantages and disadvantages of titanium. High chemical activity and diffusivity of titanium place limitations on the use of its alloys. Despite the promising features of a needle-like structure, specifications still keep relying on a globular structure, which is explained by the easeiness of the production. Titanium is expensive, sometimes its cost may by a factor of 20 exceed that of other aviation materials

  11. Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, David; Morrison, William

    2003-01-01

    Our focus is the evolution of business strategies and network structure decisions in the commercial passenger aviation industry. The paper reviews the growth of hub-and-spoke networks as the dominant business model following deregulation in the latter part of the 20 century, followed by the emergence of value-based airlines as a global phenomenon at the end of the century. The paper highlights the link between airline business strategies and network structures, and examines the resulting competition between divergent network structure business models. In this context we discuss issues of market structure stability and the role played by competition policy.

  12. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  13. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. (GRA)

  14. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1996) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aviation medicine reports ...

  15. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1993) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It lists all FAA aviation medicine reports publish...

  16. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An index to Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-2000), : CARI Reports (1961-1963), and Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports is presented for those : engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index l...

  17. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1998) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aviation medicine reports published from ...

  18. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An index to Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1999) and : Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine : and related activities. The index lists all FAA av...

  19. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested...) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will be holding a public meeting to discuss issuing a new Technical Standard...

  20. Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

  1. Risk assessment techniques for civil aviation security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamasi, Galileo, E-mail: g.tamasi@enac.rupa.i [Ente Nazionale per l' Aviazione Civile-Direzione Progetti, Studi e Ricerche, Via di Villa Ricotti, 42, 00161 Roma (Italy); Demichela, Micaela, E-mail: micaela.demichela@polito.i [SAfeR-Centro Studi su Sicurezza, Affidabilita e Rischi, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks in New York a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimization of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantification can strongly affect both the security level as the investments needed to reach it. The paper proposes a set of methodologies to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the risk in the security of civil aviation and the risk assessment process based on the threats, criticality and vulnerabilities concepts, highlighting their correlation in determining the level of risk. RAMS techniques are applied to the airport security system in order to analyze the protection equipment for critical facilities located in air-side, allowing also the estimation of the importance of the security improving measures vs. their effectiveness.

  2. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. Risk assessment techniques for civil aviation security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamasi, Galileo; Demichela, Micaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks in New York a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimization of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantification can strongly affect both the security level as the investments needed to reach it. The paper proposes a set of methodologies to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the risk in the security of civil aviation and the risk assessment process based on the threats, criticality and vulnerabilities concepts, highlighting their correlation in determining the level of risk. RAMS techniques are applied to the airport security system in order to analyze the protection equipment for critical facilities located in air-side, allowing also the estimation of the importance of the security improving measures vs. their effectiveness.

  4. Aviation Maintenance Technology. Course Content Guides. FAA Approved Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrawder, Jack; And Others

    Course content guides are provided for the 30 courses in this aviation maintenance technology curriculum approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Course titles are physics for technicians; aircraft information, regulations, and procedures; aircraft assembly; fundamentals of aircraft electronics; aircraft electrical components; aircraft…

  5. FAA statistical handbook of aviation, calendar year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-15

    The FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation is published annually by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The handbook is provided here in MS Excel. format as downloadable files and as text tables that can be viewed in PDF format. The prime purpos...

  6. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) of the FAA when appropriate authorization has been furnished by the FAA...

  7. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation... the evolving transportation needs, challenges and opportunities of the United States and global... influence the need to consider rulemaking; e.g., safety, capacity, cost, environmental impacts...

  8. 77 FR 69916 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory... take place at the Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591.... Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics 6. Status Report from the FAA a. Process...

  9. How did aviation become so safe, and beyond?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aviation has been recognized as one of the ultimate safe socio-technical systems. This contribution discusses the conditions and context that moulded the system safety to its present level by applying integral safety, a sectoral approach and safety as a strategic value. At present the aviation

  10. 77 FR 10797 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task... is to inform the public of the FAA's decision to withdraw this task. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  11. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's charter, drafted in...

  12. Frequency and Variance of Communication Characteristics in Aviation Safety Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Kaspers, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    In the aviation sector, communication problems have contributed into 70% to 80% of safety occurrences. However, to date we haven’t depicted which communication aspects have affected aviation safety most frequently. Based on literature, we developed a tool which includes communication characteristics

  13. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  14. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Wilkerson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The global commercial aircraft fleet in 2006 flew 31.26 million flights, burned 188.20 million metric tons of fuel, and covered 38.68 billion kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect atmospheric composition and climate. The emissions products, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate matter, are not emitted uniformly over the Earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is important for modeling aviation's climate impacts. Global commercial aircraft emission data for 2004 and 2006, provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, were computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT. Continuous improvement in methodologies, including changes in AEDT's horizontal track methodologies, and an increase in availability of data make some differences between the 2004 and 2006 inventories incomparable. Furthermore, the 2004 inventory contained a significant over-count due to an imperfect data merge and daylight savings error. As a result, the 2006 emissions inventory is considered more representative of actual flight activity. Here, we analyze both 2004 and 2006 emissions, focusing on the latter, and provide corrected totals for 2004. Analysis of 2006 flight data shows that 92.5% of fuel was burned in the Northern Hemisphere, 69.0% between 30N and 60N latitudes, and 74.6% was burned above 7 km. This activity led to 162.25 Tg of carbon from CO2 emitted globally in 2006, more than half over three regions: the United States (25.5%, Europe (14.6, and East Asia (11.1. Despite receiving less than one percent of global emissions, the Arctic receives a uniformly dispersed concentration of emissions with 95.2% released at altitude where they have longer residence time than surface emissions. Finally, 85.2% of all

  15. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2010-07-01

    The global commercial aircraft fleet in 2006 flew 31.26 million flights, burned 188.20 million metric tons of fuel, and covered 38.68 billion kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect atmospheric composition and climate. The emissions products, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate matter, are not emitted uniformly over the Earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is important for modeling aviation's climate impacts. Global commercial aircraft emission data for 2004 and 2006, provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, were computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Continuous improvement in methodologies, including changes in AEDT's horizontal track methodologies, and an increase in availability of data make some differences between the 2004 and 2006 inventories incomparable. Furthermore, the 2004 inventory contained a significant over-count due to an imperfect data merge and daylight savings error. As a result, the 2006 emissions inventory is considered more representative of actual flight activity. Here, we analyze both 2004 and 2006 emissions, focusing on the latter, and provide corrected totals for 2004. Analysis of 2006 flight data shows that 92.5% of fuel was burned in the Northern Hemisphere, 69.0% between 30N and 60N latitudes, and 74.6% was burned above 7 km. This activity led to 162.25 Tg of carbon from CO2 emitted globally in 2006, more than half over three regions: the United States (25.5%), Europe (14.6), and East Asia (11.1). Despite receiving less than one percent of global emissions, the Arctic receives a uniformly dispersed concentration of emissions with 95.2% released at altitude where they have longer residence time than surface emissions. Finally, 85.2% of all flights by number in 2006

  16. Louis H. Bauer and the origins of civil aviation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Theresa L

    2012-12-01

    With the passage of the Air Commerce Act in May 1926, civil aviation safety became a federal responsibility under the Department of Commerce (DoC). In November of that year, Louis Hopewell Bauer (1888-1964) became the DoC's first Aviation Medical Director. After earning his medical degree at the Harvard School of Medicine in 1912, Bauer joined the U.S. Army Medical Corps, where he helped develop the role of the military flight surgeon and then served as director of the Army's School of Aviation Medicine. Upon taking the federal position, he undertook to define medical standards and examination frequencies for civilian pilots and identifiy disqualifying conditions that could compromise a pilot's ability to operate an aircraft safely. Bauer also personally selected 57 private physicians (soon to be known as Aviation Medical Examiners) distributed across the country to give medical examinations for pilot licenses. Bauer subsequently played a leading role in organizing the Aviation Medical Association in 1929.

  17. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  18. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  19. DoD Fuel Facilities Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Pantograph Feb-2010 UFGS 33 58 00 Leak Detection for Fueling Systems Apr-2008 UFGS 33 52 43.13 Aviation Fuel Piping Feb-2010 UFGS 33 59 00 Tightness of... Pipeline Pressure Testing Guidelines  Specifications  Questions 2 7/12/2017 3 7/12/2017 DoD Fuels Facilities Documents  Unified...UFGS)  Most in the 33 nn nn series  Associated with Standard Designs  Available on WBDG site  Coating Systems 4 7/12/2017 Pipeline

  20. Fuel Burn Estimation Using Real Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for estimating fuel burned based on actual flight track data, and drag and fuel-flow models is described. The procedure consists of estimating aircraft and wind states, lift, drag and thrust. Fuel-flow for jet aircraft is determined in terms of thrust, true airspeed and altitude as prescribed by the Base of Aircraft Data fuel-flow model. This paper provides a theoretical foundation for computing fuel-flow with most of the information derived from actual flight data. The procedure does not require an explicit model of thrust and calibrated airspeed/Mach profile which are typically needed for trajectory synthesis. To validate the fuel computation method, flight test data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration were processed. Results from this method show that fuel consumed can be estimated within 1% of the actual fuel consumed in the flight test. Next, fuel consumption was estimated with simplified lift and thrust models. Results show negligible difference with respect to the full model without simplifications. An iterative takeoff weight estimation procedure is described for estimating fuel consumption, when takeoff weight is unavailable, and for establishing fuel consumption uncertainty bounds. Finally, the suitability of using radar-based position information for fuel estimation is examined. It is shown that fuel usage could be estimated within 5.4% of the actual value using positions reported in the Airline Situation Display to Industry data with simplified models and iterative takeoff weight computation.

  1. Secure Network-Centric Aviation Communication (SNAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul H.; Muha, Mark A.; Sheehe, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    The existing National Airspace System (NAS) communications capabilities are largely unsecured, are not designed for efficient use of spectrum and collectively are not capable of servicing the future needs of the NAS with the inclusion of new operators in Unmanned Aviation Systems (UAS) or On Demand Mobility (ODM). SNAC will provide a ubiquitous secure, network-based communications architecture that will provide new service capabilities and allow for the migration of current communications to SNAC over time. The necessary change in communication technologies to digital domains will allow for the adoption of security mechanisms, sharing of link technologies, large increase in spectrum utilization, new forms of resilience and redundancy and the possibly of spectrum reuse. SNAC consists of a long term open architectural approach with increasingly capable designs used to steer research and development and enable operating capabilities that run in parallel with current NAS systems.

  2. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Wang, Shengbin; Shi, Meixia; Jin, Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  4. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  5. Job Satisfaction among Turkish Business Aviation Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Uyar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most applicable models in safety management put the human factors, employers’ attitudes and behaviors at the center. This study reports an investigation of job satisfaction among business aviation technicians. A demographic information form and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS were used to collect data from 44 individuals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Our results show that there is significant difference in total job satisfaction levels with regard to marital status while other personal factors are not related to the total job satisfaction levels. However several sub dimensions of job satisfaction are affected by the workers’ military or civilian origin, their training background, types of companies they work in or their license category. No difference is found in age and position groups. Secondly, study shows that technicians are the most satisfied from the nature of their work, while they are the least satisfied by operational procedures.

  6. Locomotor problems of supersonic aviation and astronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, P

    1989-04-01

    Modern high-speed aviation and space flight are fraught with many problems and require a high standard of health and fitness. Those responsible for the health of pilots must appreciate the importance of early diagnosis even before symptoms appear. This is particularly true in terms of preventing spinal injuries where even a single Schmorl's node may make a pilot unfit for high-speed flying. Spinal fractures are frequent during emergency ejection and landing. Helicopter crews are particularly prone to spinal disc degeneration due to vibration. By effective lowering of vibration by changes in the seats, a reduction in such lesions is possible. The osteoporosis and muscle atrophy occurring among astronauts subjected to prolonged weightlessness can be prevented by regular physical exercises.

  7. Aviator's Fluid Balance During Military Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovsky, Anna; Abot-Barkan, Sivan; Chapnik, Leah; Doron, Omer; Levy, Yuval; Heled, Yuval; Gordon, Barak

    2018-02-01

    A loss of 1% or more of bodyweight due to dehydration has a negative effect on cognitive performance, which could critically affect flight safety. There is no mention in the literature concerning the amounts of military pilots' fluid loss during flight. The aim of this study was to quantify fluid loss of pilots during military flight. There were 48 aviators (mean age 23.9) from the Israeli Air Force who participated in the study, which included 104 training flights in various flight platforms. Bodyweight, urine specific gravity, and environmental heat strain were measured before and after each flight. Fluid loss was calculated as the weight differences before and after the flight. We used a univariate and one-way ANOVA to analyze the effect of different variables on the fluid loss. The mean fluid loss rate was 462 ml · h-1. The results varied among different aircraft platforms and depended on flight duration. Blackhawk pilots lost the highest amount of fluids per flight, albeit had longer flights (mean 108 min compared to 35.5 in fighter jets). Jet fighter pilots had the highest rate of fluid loss per hour of flight (up to 692 ml, extrapolated). Overall, at 11 flights (11%) aircrew completed their flight with a meaningful fluid loss. We conclude that military flights may be associated with significant amount of fluid loss among aircrew.Levkovsky A, Abot-Barkan S, Chapnik L, Doron O, Levy Y, Heled Y, Gordon B. Aviator's fluid balance during military flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):9498.

  8. Improving Aviation Safety in Indonesia: How Many More Accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Aditya Nugraha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous and consecutive aircraft accidents combined with a consistent failure to meet international safety standards in Indonesia, namely from the International Civil Aviation Organization and the European Aviation Safety Agency have proven a nightmare for the country’s aviation safety reputation. There is an urgent need for bureaucracy reform, harmonization of legislation, and especially ensuring legal enforcement, to bring Indonesian aviation safety back to world standards. The Indonesian Aviation Law of 2009 was enacted to reform the situation in Indonesia. The law has become the ground for drafting legal framework under decrees of the Minister of Transportation, which have allowed the government to perform follow-up actions such as establishing a single air navigation service provider and guaranteeing the independency of the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee. A comparison with Thailand is made to enrich the perspective. Finally, foreign aviation entities have a role to assist states, in this case Indonesia, in improving its aviation safety, considering the global nature of air travel.

  9. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  11. THE KINETICS OF CONTAMINANTS ACCUMULATION IN THE JET FUEL DURING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ITS PREPARATION FOR AIRCRAFT REFUELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Brailko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is payed to the tasks for ensuring domestic and international aircraft safety and regularity, which are multifaceted and complex. One of them is the system of ensuring the quality of aviation fuel for refueling aircraft at airports. A significant influence of the quality, chemical composition and fuel range on the reliability and lifetime of components and parts of the aircraft fuel system was studied in the process of development and experience accumulation of aircraft operating, processes of aviation fuel production, as well as during storage, quality control, transportation, refueling preparation and aircraft refueling. Currently, work is being done to study the influence of fuel quality on the units of the technological scheme of fuel-filling complexes, which provide the required cleanliness of the fuel according to the regulations. The article describes the trend level of aviation fuel cleanliness at the stages from receipt to issuance to the refueling station. The evaluation of compliance with existing regulations on the level of jet fuel cleanliness and the efficiency of fuel cleaning facilities is carried out. It is stated that one of the problems of insufficient level of aviation fuel cleaning quality is a violation of the acceptable contamination level of the fuel before the filter. It was found that the disadvantage of the used filter paper is the fiber wash out process. According to this research it was found that while cleaning fuel from mechanical admixtures it is necessary to take into account the technical condition of the filtering element, and proposal was developed for fuel-filling systems to ensure aviation fuel cleanliness in compliance with regulations.

  12. 77 FR 33622 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation... Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  13. THE AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT RATE IN CIVIL AVIATION DURING AIR TRANSPORT OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Запорожець

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft accident dates in civil aviation Ukraine and in republics of participants Agreement werecollected. The aircraft accident rate per 1 million flights was defined for civil aviation Ukraine and republicsof participants Agreement. Dynamics of aircraft accident rate was represented for civil aviation Ukraine.This dynamics was done for civil aviation of republics of participants Agreement and worldwide.

  14. Vehicle Technology for Civil Aviation: The Seventies and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The panel discussion on aviation technology for the seventies and beyond is reported. Topics discussed include: Government role in developing and applying new aeronautical technologies, noise and environmental problems, and congestion in the vicinity of major air terminals.

  15. Aviation and Airports, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Aviation and Airports Search DOT&PF State of pages view official DOT&PF Flickr pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box

  16. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  17. Drugs of abuse in aviation fatalities : 1. Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Isopropyl alcohol swabs taken from the oral cavities of pilots killed in general aviation accidents were analyzed for marijuana by the modified Duquenois-Levine test. During the 2-year period from October 1982 through September 1984, 289 pilot fatali...

  18. FAA National Aviation Safety Inspection Program. Annual Report FY90

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    This report was undertaken to document, analyze, and place : into national perspective the findings from the 1990 National : Aviation Safety Inspection Program (NASIP). This report is the : fifth in a series of annual reports covering the results of ...

  19. Aviation Safety: FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the military services often face common safety issues as they oversee the operation of similar aircraft or even dissimilar aircraft that use common parts and materials...

  20. FAA Offers Free Guide on Elementary Aviation Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a teaching guide in aviation education for grades 2 through 6. The guide contains activities designed to enrich an existing science curriculum. An address for ordering the guide is included. (MA)

  1. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  2. Supply Inventory Management: Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Investment Strategy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DLA investment strategy to improve supply support to aviation weapon systems by increasing the stockage levels of consumable repair parts...

  3. Improving Pilot/ATC Voice Communication in General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    ...) Basic General Aviation Research Simulator (BGARS). Prior to flying the simulator each pilot was provided with familiarization training, listened to and read back ATC messages spoken in either grouped or sequential format...

  4. Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:It is the mission of the Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory to provide a means by which to virtually duplicate products...

  5. Aviation Security: Urgent Issues Need to Be Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-11

    This is the statement of Keith O. Fultz, Assistant Comptroller General, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, General Accounting Office (GAO), before the Subcommittee on Aviation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Hou...

  6. Financial management : Federal Aviation Administration lacked accountability for major assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-18

    This short report is in response to a request by the Congress that the General : Accounting Office (GAO) analyze the Department of Transportation (DOT) Inspector : General's (IG) audit report on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) : fiscal ye...

  7. Advanced aviation environmental modeling tools to inform policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-19

    Aviation environmental models which conform to international guidance have advanced : over the past several decades. Enhancements to algorithms and databases have increasingly : shown these models to compare well with gold standard measured data. The...

  8. Supply and Demand for Business Education in Naval Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Obra L

    2005-01-01

    ... modernization with current readiness. This project analyzes the supply and demand for postgraduate business education to determine how prepared Naval Aviation is to achieve long-term transformation objectives...

  9. Visual field tunneling in aviators induced by memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L J

    1995-04-01

    Aviators are required rapidly and accurately to process enormous amounts of visual information located foveally and peripherally. The present study, expanding upon an earlier study (Williams, 1988), required young aviators to process within the framework of a single eye fixation a briefly displayed foveally presented memory load while simultaneously trying to identify common peripheral targets presented on the same display at locations up to 4.5 degrees of visual angle from the fixation point. This task, as well as a character classification task (Williams, 1985, 1988), has been shown to be very difficult for nonaviators: It results in a tendency toward tunnel vision. Limited preliminary measurements of peripheral accuracy suggested that aviators might be less susceptible than nonaviators to this visual tunneling. The present study demonstrated moderate susceptibility to cognitively induced tunneling in aviators when the foveal task was sufficiently difficult and reaction time was the principal dependent measure.

  10. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  11. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the

  12. Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.

  13. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  14. AVIATION SECURITY AS AN OBJECT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Elisov Lev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the problem formalization of the subject area related to aviation security in civil aviation. The formalization task is determined by the modern issue of providing aviation security. Aviationsecurity in modern systems is based upon organizational standard of security control. This standard doesn’t require calcu- lating the security level. It allows solving the aviation security task without estimating the solution and evaluating the per- formance of security facilities. The issue of acceptable aviation security level stays unsolved, because its control lies in inspections that determine whether the object security facilities meet the requirements or not. The pending problem is also in whether the requirements are calculable and the evaluation is subjective.Lately, there has been determined quite a certain tendency to consider aviation security issues from the perspective of its level optimal control with the following identification, calculation and evaluation problems solving and decision mak- ing. The obtained results analysis in this direction shows that it’s strongly recommended to move to object formalization problem, which provides a mathematical modeling for aviation security control optimization.In this case, the authors assume to find the answer in the process of object formalization. Therefore aviation secu- rity is presented as some security environment condition, which defines the parameters associated with the object protec-tion system quality that depends on the use of protective equipment in conditions of counteraction to factors of external andinternal threats. It is shown that the proposed model belongs to a class of boundary value problems described by differential equations in partial derivatives. The classification of boundary value problems is presented.

  15. Measuring weather for aviation safety in the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for an improved aviation weather system are defined and specifically include the need for (1) weather observations at all airports with instrument approaches, (2) more accurate and timely radar detection of weather elements hazardous to aviation, and (3) better methods of timely distribution of both pilot reports and ground weather data. The development of the discrete address beacon system data link, Doppler weather radar network, and various information processing techniques are described.

  16. Asymptotic procedures for aviation constructions calcul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zveriaev, E.H.

    1994-01-01

    Theory of elasticity equations for statics, dynamics, stability of aviation constructions are very complex and very difficult to decide. To get the solution engineers pass on to the applied theories -- ones of bars, plates, shells. In this case some hypothesises are input. A quantity of the ones in vague, and its might be excessive and even contradicting. In this work some procedures permitting to establish the necessary and sufficient quantity of hypothesises, estimating each member contribution into equation, throwing off secondary members and keeping of principals. For example, in such a manner all without exception applied theories of bar, plates and shells are obtained from three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The fact is interesting that all the theories are obtained on a basis of the mapping contracting principle. The proposed approach essence is contained in that some small parametres are singled out of the input equations and the ones are rewritten in the suitable aspect small parametre to the some power value is attached to the symbols of differentiation. This unknown power is determined from the condition of coincidence of the starting approximation, power with the one of the first approximation. As the first example the problem for the unit width long rectangular strip with the fixed short edges (x=1,1) and the free longitudinal edges (y=+1, -1) is considered. The longitudinal edges are loaded with some distributed charge

  17. Global Turbulence Decision Support for Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.; Sharman, R.; Kessinger, C.; Feltz, W.; Wimmers, A.

    2009-09-01

    Turbulence is widely recognized as the leading cause of injuries to flight attendants and passengers on commercial air carriers, yet legacy decision support products such as SIGMETs and SIGWX charts provide relatively low spatial- and temporal-resolution assessments and forecasts of turbulence, with limited usefulness for strategic planning and tactical turbulence avoidance. A new effort is underway to develop an automated, rapid-update, gridded global turbulence diagnosis and forecast system that addresses upper-level clear-air turbulence, mountain-wave turbulence, and convectively-induced turbulence. This NASA-funded effort, modeled on the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration's Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG) and GTG Nowcast systems, employs NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) model output and data from NASA and operational satellites to produce quantitative turbulence nowcasts and forecasts. A convective nowcast element based on GFS forecasts and satellite data provides a basis for diagnosing convective turbulence. An operational prototype "Global GTG” system has been running in real-time at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research since the spring of 2009. Initial verification based on data from TRMM, Cloudsat and MODIS (for the convection nowcasting) and AIREPs and AMDAR data (for turbulence) are presented. This product aims to provide the "single authoritative source” for global turbulence information for the U.S. Next Generation Air Transportation System.

  18. Intriguing radiation signatures at aviation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) project captures absorbed dose in Si with a fleet of 6 instruments on research aircraft. These dose rates are then converted to an effective dose rate. Over 325 flights since 2013 have captured global radiation at nearly all altitudes and latitudes. The radiation is predominantly caused by atmospheric neutrons and protons from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). We have not yet obtained dose from solar energetic particle (SEP) events, which are rather rare. On 13 flights we have also measured dose rates that are up to twice the GCR background for approximately a half an hour per event while flying at higher magnetic latitudes near 60 degrees. The timing of the radiation appears to be coincident with periods of mild geomagnetic disturbances while flying above 10 km at L-shells of 3 to 6. The radiation source is best modeled as secondary gamma-ray photons caused by precipitating ultra-relativistic electrons from the outer Van Allen radiation belt originating as loss cone electrons scattered by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. We describe the observations and the lines of evidence for this intriguing new radiation source relevant to aviation crew and frequent flyers.

  19. Sustainability Reporting in the Aviation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Miles Hill [Global Reporting Initiative (Netherlands)

    2008-09-30

    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines are the de-facto standard for sustainability reporting. Thousands of organizations around the world base their annual sustainability report on the GRI G3 Guidelines, including many within the aviation sector, including leading airports, aerospace manufacturers and airlines. The Guidelines are principles based and contain Disclosures on Management Approach and Performance Indicators. To report on the performance indicators a company needs to measure and manage its entities. By doing so targets can be set to improve performance over the years, on sustainability topics ranging from community investment to CO{sub 2} emissions. Each company is different and therefore each company needs to conduct a materiality test to assess which indicators to use, based on Stakeholder Assessments and Decisions and Significance of Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts. Using the Guidelines means that you have a tool for clear and comparable communication with your stakeholders and measuring your performance on sustainability topics like CO{sub 2} emissions. By measuring CO{sub 2} emissions overtime in a uniform way and publishing the emissions in your sustainability report, your stakeholders will appreciate your honesty and better understand when you experience difficulties in meeting your targets to limit the emissions. Additionally it will allow you to be able to benchmark your company against other companies in your sector.

  20. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  1. Aviation Turbulence: Dynamics, Forecasting, and Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Luke N.; Williams, Paul D.; Gill, Philip G.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is a major hazard in the aviation industry and can cause injuries to passengers and crew. Understanding the physical and dynamical generation mechanisms of turbulence aids with the development of new forecasting algorithms and, therefore, reduces the impact that it has on the aviation industry. The scope of this paper is to review the dynamics of aviation turbulence, its response to climate change, and current forecasting methods at the cruising altitude of aircraft. Aviation-affecting turbulence comes from three main sources: vertical wind shear instabilities, convection, and mountain waves. Understanding these features helps researchers to develop better turbulence diagnostics. Recent research suggests that turbulence will increase in frequency and strength with climate change, and therefore, turbulence forecasting may become more important in the future. The current methods of forecasting are unable to predict every turbulence event, and research is ongoing to find the best solution to this problem by combining turbulence predictors and using ensemble forecasts to increase skill. The skill of operational turbulence forecasts has increased steadily over recent decades, mirroring improvements in our understanding. However, more work is needed—ideally in collaboration with the aviation industry—to improve observations and increase forecast skill, to help maintain and enhance aviation safety standards in the future.

  2. Examination of the low frequency limit for helicopter noise data in the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool and Integrated Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aircraft noise modeling tools Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDTc) and Integrated Noise Model (INM) do not currently consider noise below 50 Hz in their computations. This paper describes a preliminary ...

  3. Rapid prototyping methods for the manufacture of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The potential for the application of this method for the manufacture of metallic bipolar plates (BPP for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs is presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of light elements for the construction of PEMFC stacks designed for mobile applications such as aviation technology and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  4. 75 FR 32508 - Harris Stratex Networks Corporation, Currently Known As Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Aviat U.S., Inc., dba... were adversely affected by increased imports following a shift in production to Malaysia and Taiwan...

  5. Investigation of Lubrication Properties of Petroleum Fuel and Biohydrocarbon Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers issues regarding lubricity of petroleum fuels used in piston and turbine engines, containing hydrocarbon biocomponents. Basing on available literature it can be said that the most prospective fuel components are biohydrocarbons. The paper describes effect of biohydrocarbons included in aviation fuel and diesel fuel on lubricity of such blends. The analysis covers two processes for obtaining biohydrocarbons, the HVO and the Fischer-Tropsch process. Due to problems with actual products acquiring, biohydrocarbons models representing chemically the actual ones from specific process. Lubricity testing was carried out according to standard test methods.

  6. Waivers for Mental Disorders in the Aviation Components of the Armed Services: Recommendations for Improving Evidence-Based Decisions and Aviator Return to Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    to be 4 months symptom-free. c. No information given for mood disorders . d. Following attempted suicide , aviator must remain symptom- free...months symptom- free. c. For mood disorders , aviators need to be 6 months symptom-free before submitting a waiver for a mood disorder . d...Following suicidal behaviors, aviators must be 6 months symptom-free. e. For adjustment disorder , the length of time aviators must be symptom

  7. Low NOx Fuel Flexible Combustor Integration Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joanne C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kramer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 40A Low NOx Fuel Flexible Combustor Integration development is being conducted as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Phase 2 of this effort began in 2012 and will end in 2015. This document describes the ERA goals, how the fuel flexible combustor integration development fulfills the ERA combustor goals, and outlines the work to be conducted during project execution.

  8. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-02-01

    The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1). errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2). accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3). major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff.

  9. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A

    2003-01-01

    

 The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1) errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2) accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3) major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possibilities for organisational learning. Reporting physicians were granted immunity, which encouraged open reporting of errors. A telephone "hotline" served the medical staff for direct reporting and receipt of emotional support and medical guidance. Any adverse event which had learning potential was debriefed, while focusing on the human cause of error within a systemic context. Specific recommendations were formulated to rectify processes conducive to error when failures were identified. During the first 5 years of implementation, the aviation safety concept and tools were successfully adapted to ambulatory care, fostering a culture of greater concern for patient safety through risk management while providing support to the medical staff. PMID:12571343

  10. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  11. Development of fuel cell systems for aircraft applications based on synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Samsun, R.C.; Doell, C.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    At present, in the aviation sector considerable scientific project work deals with the development of fuel cell systems based on synthetic fuels to be integrated in future aircraft. The benefits of fuel cell systems in aircraft are various. They offer the possibility to simplify the aircraft layout. Important systems, i.e. the gas turbine powered auxiliary power unit (APU) for electricity supply, the fuel tank inserting system and the water tank, can be substituted by one single system, the fuel cell system. Additionally, the energy demand for ice protection can be covered assisted by fuel cell systems. These measures reduce the consumption of jet fuel, increase aircraft efficiency and allow the operation at low emissions. Additionally, the costs for aircraft related investments, for aircraft maintenance and operation can be reduced. On the background of regular discussions about environmental concerns (global warming) of kerosene Jet A-1 and its availability, which might be restricted in a few years, the aircraft industry is keen to employ synthetic, sulfur-free fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels. These comprise Bio-To-Liquid and Gas-To-Liquid fuels. Within this field of research the Institute of Energy Research (IEF-3) in Juelich develops complete and compact fuel cell systems based on the autothermal reforming of these kinds of fuels in cooperation with industry. This paper reports about this work. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  13. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  14. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  15. Portable Weather Applications for General Aviation Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Ulf; Ohneiser, Oliver; Caddigan, Eamon

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits and impact on pilot behavior from the use of portable weather applications. Seventy general aviation (GA) pilots participated in the study. Each pilot was randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group and flew a simulated single-engine GA aircraft, initially under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The experimental group was equipped with a portable weather application during flight. We recorded measures for weather situation awareness (WSA), decision making, cognitive engagement, and distance from the aircraft to hazardous weather. We found positive effects from the use of the portable weather application, with an increased WSA for the experimental group, which resulted in credibly larger route deviations and credibly greater distances to hazardous weather (≥30 dBZ cells) compared with the control group. Nevertheless, both groups flew less than 20 statute miles from hazardous weather cells, thus failing to follow current weather-avoidance guidelines. We also found a credibly higher cognitive engagement (prefrontal oxygenation levels) for the experimental group, possibly reflecting increased flight planning and decision making on the part of the pilots. Overall, the study outcome supports our hypothesis that portable weather displays can be used without degrading pilot performance on safety-related flight tasks, actions, and decisions as measured within the constraints of the present study. However, it also shows that an increased WSA does not automatically translate to enhanced flight behavior. The study outcome contributes to our knowledge of the effect of portable weather applications on pilot behavior and decision making. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. RESEARCH FOR THE AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Materials Compatibility Tests of Synthesized Hydrocarbon Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    concentrations used in the reported test programs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS synthesized jet fuels ; alternative jet fuels ; renewable jet fuel ; fuel physical...resources for producing jet fuel , there have been complaints from the producers about the time and cost of approving these products for use. Alternately ...Aviation Alternate Fuels Initiative (CAAFI), frustration was exhibited by many of the prospective producers who complained about the time and cost of the

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  19. Design and evaluation of an integrated Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) engine and aircraft propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J.; Fogel, P.; Wilson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The design was based on the LTS-101 engine family for the core engine. A high bypass fan design (BPR=9.4) was incorporated to provide reduced fuel consumption for the design mission. All acoustic and pollutant emissions goals were achieved. A discussion of the preliminary design of a business jet suitable for the developed propulsion system is included. It is concluded that large engine technology can be successfully applied to small turbofans, and noise or pollutant levels need not be constraints for the design of future small general aviation turbofan engines.

  20. The Air Quality and Economic Impact of Atmospheric Lead from General Aviation Aircraft in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, P. J.; Selin, N. E.; Barrett, S. R. H.

    2015-12-01

    While leaded fuels for automobiles were phased-out of use in the United States by 1996, lead (Pb) continues to be used as an anti-knock additive for piston-driven aircraft. We model the annual concentration of atmospheric lead attributable to piston driven aircraft emissions in the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Using aircraft emissions inventories for 2008, we then calculate annual economic damages from lead as lifetime employment losses for a one-year cohort exposed to elevated atmospheric lead concentrations using a range of concentration response functions from literature. Mean and median estimates of annual damages attributable to lifetime lost earnings are 1.06 and 0.60 billion respectively. Economy-wide impacts of IQ-deficits on productivity and labor increase expected damages by 54%. Damages are sensitive to background lead concentrations; as emissions decrease from other sources, the damages attributable to aviation are expected to increase holding aviation emissions constant. The monetary impact of General Aviation lead emissions on the environment is the same order of magnitude as noise, climate change, and air quality degradation from all commercial operations.

  1. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  2. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  3. Ethanol for agricultural aviation: challenges and potential; Etanol na aviacao agricola: desafios e potencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausen, Roberto Begnis; Romano, Leonardo Nabaes [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PPGEA/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Emails: rbhausen@gmail.com, romano@smail.ufsm.br; Martins, Mario Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: marioturbo@gmail.com; Schlosser, Jose Fernando [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PPGEA/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: josefernandoschlosser@gmail.com; Trindade Junior, Airton Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: trindade.airton@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that the gains from the use of ethanol as fuel in agricultural aviation may be even greater to if the aircraft engine is specially designed for that purpose, and to obtain a truly 'green' engine, neutral regarding carbon emissions. Using computational tools, development methods and project management, the engine can be fully developed to be used specifically as an agricultural aircraft propellant operating with ethanol. In Brazil, the current fleet of agricultural airplanes has around 1400 aircrafts and almost all operating with AvGas. There is already in Brazil an aircraft, manufactured by a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer, that uses a conversion kit for the original engine to use ethanol as fuel. The use of ethanol has great technical and economic feasibility when compared to AvGas, even with the low efficiency of the current application. Operational improvement and gains with cost reduction can be already observed. However, with a specific design those gains could be with the low efficiency of the current application. Operational improvement and gains with cost reduction can be already observed. However, with a specific design those gains could be more expressive due to increased engine fuel efficiency and power. (author)

  4. National Survey Results: Retention of Women in Collegiate Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann; Bishop, James C.; Karp, Merrill R.; Niemczyk, Mary; Sitler, Ruth L.; Green, Mavis F.

    2002-01-01

    Since the numbers of women pursuing technical careers in aviation continues to remain very low, a study on retention of women was undertaken by a team of university faculty from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Arizona State University, and Kent State University. The study was initiated to discover the factors that influence women once they have already selected an aviation career and to ascertain what could be done to support those women who have demonstrated a serious interest in an aviation career by enrolling in a collegiate aviation program. This paper reports preliminary results of data collected in the first and second years of the study. The data was collected from surveys of 390 college students (195 women and 195 men) majoring in aviation programs in nine colleges and universities, representing widely varied geographic areas and including both two- and four-year institutions. Results revealed significant areas of concern among women in pilot training. When queried about these concerns, differences were evident in the responses of the male and female groups. These differences were expected. However, a surprising finding was that women in early stages of pilot training responded differently from women in more experienced stages, These response differences did not occur among the men surveyed. The results, therefore, suggest that women in experienced stages of training may have gone through an adaptation process and reflect more male-like attitudes about a number of objects, including social issues, confidence, family, and career.

  5. Developing a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Luo, Min; Hu, Wendong; Ma, Jin; Wen, Zhihong

    2018-03-23

    To assess the fatigue risk is an important challenge in improving flight safety in aviation industry. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive fatigue risk management indicators system and a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots. Participants included 74 (all males) civil aviation pilots. They finished the questionnaire in 20 minutes before a flight mission. The estimation of internal consistency with Cronbach's α and Student's t test as well as Pearson's correlation analysis were the main statistical methods. The results revealed that the fatigue questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency reliability and construct validity; there were significant differences on fatigue scores between international and domestic flight pilots. And some international flight pilots, who had taken medications as a sleep aid, had worse sleep quality than those had not. The long-endurance flight across time zones caused significant differences in circadian rhythm. The fatigue questionnaire can be used to measure Chinese civil aviation pilots' fatigue, which provided a reference for fatigue risk management system to civil aviation pilots.

  6. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  7. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  8. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  9. Investigations of Trace Oxygenates in Middle Distillate Fuels using Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    RENEE LOUISE WEBSTER

    2017-01-01

    There can be up to one million different compounds in aviation or diesel fuels, making the analysis of trace components within the complex matrix highly challenging. Many trace oxygenated compounds may be present in fuels and can have dramatic effects on the fuel’s properties. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques have been used to contribute a critical understanding of the role of trace oxygenates on the chemistry of both emerging alternate and fossil fuels. Knowledge of these molecular s...

  10. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  13. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  14. Volcanic ash hazards and aviation risk: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne C.; Tupper, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The risks to safe and efficient air travel from volcanic-ash hazards are well documented and widely recognized. Under the aegis of the International Civil Aviation Organization, globally coordinated mitigation procedures are in place to report explosive eruptions, detect airborne ash clouds and forecast their expected movement, and issue specialized messages to warn aircraft away from hazardous airspace. This mitigation framework is based on the integration of scientific and technical capabilities worldwide in volcanology, meteorology, and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, which led to a nearly week-long shutdown of air travel into and out of Europe, has prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve how hazardous airspace is defined and communicated. Volcanic ash will continue to threaten aviation and scientific research will continue to influence the risk-mitigation framework.

  15. Studies on Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Nan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the operating condition of aviation engine via autoclave experiment of high temperature and pressure, we studied the physic-chemical property of poly-α-olefin base oil samples mixed with antioxidants of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and p,p’-diisooctyl diphenylamine at different temperature. The mechanism of degradation of PAO aviation lubricating oil was analyzed according to the oxidized products by modern analytical instruments. The results showed that the aviation lubricating oil produced a large number of low molecule compounds while increasing the temperature, and resulted in the viscosity decreasing and acid value increasing which indicated that the thermal oxidation of the oil sample underwent a radical process.

  16. An assessment of General Aviation utilization of advanced avionics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinby, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    Needs of the general aviation industry for services and facilities which might be supplied by NASA were examined. In the data collection phase, twenty-one individuals from nine manufacturing companies in general aviation were interviewed against a carefully prepared meeting format. General aviation avionics manufacturers were credited with a high degree of technology transfer from the forcing industries such as television, automotive, and computers and a demonstrated ability to apply advanced technology such as large scale integration and microprocessors to avionics functions in an innovative and cost effective manner. The industry's traditional resistance to any unnecessary regimentation or standardization was confirmed. Industry's self sufficiency in applying advanced technology to avionics product development was amply demonstrated. NASA research capability could be supportive in areas of basic mechanics of turbulence in weather and alternative means for its sensing.

  17. [Learning from aviation - how to increase patient safety in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Kasparek, M S; Kreis, M; Müller, M H

    2012-04-01

    During the last years attempts have been made to draw lessons from aviation to increase patient safety in medicine. In particular similar conditions are present in surgery as pilots and surgeons may have to support high physical and mental pressure. The use of a few safety instruments from aviation is feasible in an attempt to increase safety in surgery. First a "root caused" accident research may be established. This is achievable by morbidity and mortality conferences and critical incident reporting systems (CIRS). Second, standard operating procedures may assure a uniform mental model of team members. Furthermore, crew resource management illustrates a strategy and attitude concept, which is applicable in all situations. Safety instruments from aviation, therefore, seem to have a high potential to increase safety in surgery when properly employed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  18. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  19. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  20. SHM reliability and implementation - A personal military aviation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Eric A.

    2016-02-01

    Structural Health Monitoring has been proposed as a solution to address the needs of military aviation to reduce the time and cost to perform nondestructive inspections. While the potential to realize significant benefits exist, there are considerations that have to be addressed before such systems can be integrated into military platforms. Some considerations are pervasive to all aviation, such as how to assess the reliability and reproducible capability of these systems. However, there are other challenges unique to military aviation that must be overcome before these types of systems can be used. This presentation and paper are intended as a complement to the review of the outcome of the SAE G-11 SHM committee special workshop on SHM reliability in April of 2015. It will address challenges unique to military aviation that stem from different approaches to managing structural integrity (i.e. safety), frequency of use, design differences, various maintenance practices, and additional descriptions addressing differences in the execution of inspections. The objective of this presentation is to improve the awareness of the research and development community to the different and unique requirements found in military aviation, including the differences between countries, services, and aircraft type. This information should assist the research and development community in identifying and attacking key challenges. It is not intended to be comprehensive overview of all stakeholders' perspectives, but to serve as a launch point for additional discussion and exploration of opportunities to realize the potential of Structural Health Monitoring to assist in the management of military aviation assets. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

  1. The Implications of Intermediate Stop Operations on Aviation Emissions and Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Linke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various transport modes aviation's impact on climate change deserves special attention. Due to typical flight altitudes in the upper troposphere and above, the effect of aircraft engine emissions like e.g. water vapour, nitrogen oxides and aerosols on radiative forcing agents is substantial. The projected doubling of aircraft movements in the next 15 years will lead to an increase of aviation's impact on climate and requires immediate mitigation options. Besides technological measures also new operational strategies are widely discussed; one of these concepts which has been subject of several studies in the past is Intermediate Stop Operations (ISO. It is based on the idea to reduce the stage length of flights by performing one or more intermediate landings during a mission. Here, we analyse the ISO concept by combining different models, which include a realistic traffic simulation taking into account operational constraints and ambient conditions, like e.g. wind, the calculation of engine emissions and the integration of a climate response model. We analyse the ISO concept for today's worldwide aircraft fleet, including its influence on global emissions distributions as well as the impact on climate change by taking into account CO2 and non-CO2 effects, arising from contrail-cirrus, water vapour and nitrogen oxide emissions. We show in agreement with earlier findings that due to shorter flight distances the amount of fuel burnt over the mission can be reduced by roughly 5 % on average globally. For the first time, we quantify the climate impact of ISO, where the flight trajectory is optimised for fuel use and the aircraft is not redesigned for the ISO procedure. We find an increased warming effect, which arises from nitrogen oxide and water vapour emissions, which are released at higher cruise altitudes and which over-compensate reduced warming effects from CO2 and contrail-cirrus. However, we expect a climate impact reduction for

  2. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  3. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  4. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance: Part A: Combustor Performance Part B: Combustor Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Henricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2010-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of feedstock. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires smart fueling systems or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data for synthetic-parafinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling.

  5. Development of Quality Management System Under ISO 9001:2015 and Joint Inspection Group (JIG for Aviation Fuelling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruamchat Kanon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Joint Inspection Group (JIG standard for aviation fuel quality management assists in the operational process and maintenance of aviation fuel from its point of origin and through distribution systems to airports. Currently, problems arise as the JIG standard and quality management in aviation fuel are isolated and have independent procedures. Merging the JIG standards with ISO 9001:2015 can override original JIG’s philosophy by connecting all quality assessment, and management parties involved, throughout the supply chain. This integration can harmonize auditing tasks, focusing on risk/opportunity, and continue quality improvement focus. This paper proposes a development of quality management system (QMS under ISO 9001:2015 for aviation fuelling service in a systematic way. The content and critical success factors of ISO 9001:2015 and JIG standards were studied. The beneficial synergies, similarities, and logical linkages between both standards are identified. This QMS was developed in the largest petroleum company in Thailand and 60 selected experts were surveyed, with a response rate of 88.3%, for their agreement on integrated criteria. Two external quality auditors, who have ISO 9001 and JIG expertise, were interviewed to modify our initial proposed QMS. The final QMS was implemented in the into-plane fuelling services as the first phase of this implementation. Results of framework implementation are discussed in a case study. There are mutual benefits resulting from the integration of JIG and ISO 9001:2015 standards. This QMS provides a unified process for quality management practices, and enhances the effectiveness of risk evaluation as well as the opportunity for continued quality improvement. It facilitates the identification of ISO 9001:2015 requirements and establishes relationships between the roles of JIG standard and the clauses of ISO 9001:2015. The first experience from five airports as the pilot study of proposed QMS

  6. Auction Theory and Its Potential Use in the Army Aviation Bonus System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verenna, Tony K

    2007-01-01

    .... Included in this increase are Army aviators. Retention of the current soldiers in uniform is becoming very difficult as the deployment schedule of the current Global War on Terrorism wears down the individual aviator...

  7. A Survey of Work and Sleep Hours of U.S. Army Aviation Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, J

    1999-01-01

    .... A total of 157 aviation personnel from 3 Army posts were sampled. The one-page questionnaire indicated that the majority of aviation personnel had experience working night shift/reverse cycle at some point in their careers...

  8. Aviation Acquisition: A Comprehensive Strategy Is Needed for Cultural Change at FAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-22

    The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) timely acquisition of new air : traffic control equipment has become increasingly critical for aviation safety : and efficiency. However, persistent acquisition problems raise questions about : the agency's...

  9. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1973) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented as a quick reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities.

  10. DETERMINE THE PROBABILITY OF PASSENGER SURVIVAL IN AN AVIATION INCIDENT WITH FIRE ON THE GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Pavlovich Turko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conducting the risk level of aviation incident with fire and the impacts of contingence affecting factors on people. Base on statistical data of aviation incident, the model of aircraft fire situation on the ground was offer.

  11. 14 CFR 385.12 - Authority of the Director, Office of Aviation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS Assignment of Functions to Staff Members § 385.12 Authority of the Director, Office of Aviation Analysis. The...

  12. Human Error and General Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiegmann, Douglas; Faaborg, Troy; Boquet, Albert; Detwiler, Cristy; Holcomb, Kali; Shappell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    ... of both commercial and general aviation (GA) accidents. These analyses have helped to identify general trends in the types of human factors issues and aircrew errors that have contributed to civil aviation accidents...

  13. Participant Assessments of Aviation Safety Inspector Training for Technically Advanced Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chidester, Thomas; Hackworth, Carla; Knecht, William

    2007-01-01

    .... Currently, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation safety inspectors are required to inspect technically advanced aircraft, check certified flight instructors, and conduct surveillance of designated pilot examiners who are certifying pilots...

  14. PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION AND FORMATION LAND OF AVIATION TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovska I. O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Independent Ukraine had 50 permanently operating airports in 1991. Nowdays there are currently only 20 operating airports in Ukraine, 2/3 of which require reconstruction and substantial technical re-equipment. Without proper investment, Ukraine is able to lose its status as a transit state, as it is unable to recover its transport infrastructure independently. In connection with this, the international experience of the development of airports, particularly in the Baltic States, Georgia, Norway, Poland, deserves special attention. There are the involvement of foreign companies in the management and reconstruction of airports, especially for the development of tourism and recreation, the coordination of the network of airports with the creation of funds for the development of air routes, the implementation of integrated airport development programs, reducing the base of aviation fees due to the growth of non-aviation revenue, increasing competition in the air transport market through the successful functioning of not only national carriers, but also low-cost carriers. The land-resource potential of different types of transport is the basis of development of the transport system of the country, and also the spatial base. Regulation of land use are conducted depend on the main purpose of the land. A feature of aviation land use transport is the concentration on a small area of land of a significant number of objects and structures of various functional purposes, which provide the work of aviation transport, and require appropriate planning of the territories of airfields and airports. Proceeding from the fact that the airfield belongs to strategic objects, and the airport terminal is considered the object of investment, the separation of land of aviation transport by ownership (state, communal, private and types of use (concession, rent, superficiencies, servitude are rather complex and extremely important task of land management of the respective

  15. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  16. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  17. Preliminary assessment report for Virginia Army National Guard Army Aviation Support Facility, Richmond International Airport, Installation 51230, Sandston, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Virginia Army National Guard (VaARNG) property in Sandston, Virginia. The Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) is contiguous with the Richmond International Airport. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The PA is designed to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The AASF, originally constructed as an active Air Force interceptor base, provides maintenance support for VaARNG aircraft. Hazardous materials used and stored at the facility include JP-4 jet fuel, diesel fuel, gasoline, liquid propane gas, heating oil, and motor oil

  18. Public procurement as a tool of ecological safety in civil aviation (ground maintenance)

    OpenAIRE

    Водоласкова, Катерина Юріївна; Державне підприємство "Міжнародний аеропорт "Бориспіль"

    2016-01-01

    Problem setting.The development of the aviation industry is one of the significant indicators of state economic and technological development. However, this progress has side effects such as negative impact on environment. The main ecological problems in civil aviation are: aircraft noise; effects of emissions of exhaust gases of aircraft engines; various local problems, which arise due to the vicinity of airports, aviation-technical base, aircraft repair plants and other aviation companies.A...

  19. Clinic to Cockpit: Analysis of Aviator Grounding Periods Due to Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Psychological testing performed at the ACS noted elevated levels of depression and anxiety, in addition to significantly increased neuroticism...Major depressive disorder in military aviators: a retrospective study of prevalence. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009; 80(8):734- 737. 3. Marsh RW...Patterson JC, Jones DR, Marsh RW, Drummond FE. Aeromedical management of U.S. Air Force aviators who attempt suicide . Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001; 72

  20. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Huawei Wang; Jun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...

  1. Traditional technologies of fuels production for air-jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бойченко С. В.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available energy resources for various fuels, mainly for gas-turbine engines are presented in the given article. Traditional technologies for jet fuels production from nonrenewable raw materials, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil-shales and others are analyzed in details. Cause and effect relationship between production and use of such fuels and their impact on natural environment is defined. The timeliness and necessity for development of alternative technologies of aviation biofuels production are determined in the given article.

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  3. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  4. The Federal Aviation Administration : a historical perspective, 1903-2008. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has played a key role in the world we live in today. This document highlights the parts that have had significant influence in aviation history. Photographs and a compelling storytelling bring to live the history of the Federal Aviation Admi...

  5. Development of Maritime Patrol Aviation in the Interwar Period, 1918-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    distilled the development of interwar naval aviation to a dualism between 39 Thomas C. Hone, Norman...positive relationships that were fostered through complicated and diplomatic times.65 Like Melhorn, the Hones analyze a variety of influences on the...traditional literature of naval aviation that distills the development of interwar naval aviation to a dualism between unimaginative emotional battle ship

  6. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... its implementation of safety management systems, issued its report titled, ``Managing Risks in Civil... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... responsible for the oversight of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct...

  7. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  8. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1971) and is presented as a quick reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It provides a listing of all FAA aviation medicine reports published from 1961 through 19...

  9. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1978) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It provides a listing of all FAA aviat...

  10. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1991) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It lists all FAA aviation medicine rep...

  11. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1978) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It provides a listing of all FAA aviat...

  12. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1982) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It provides a listing of all FAA aviat...

  13. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1971) and is presented as a quick reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It provides a listing of all FAA aviation medicine reports published from 1961 through 19...

  14. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1982) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It provides a listing of all FAA aviat...

  15. 14 CFR 65.80 - Certificated aviation maintenance technician school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... students has made satisfactory progress at the school and is prepared to take the oral and practical tests... technician school students. 65.80 Section 65.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 65.80 Certificated aviation maintenance technician school students. Whenever an aviation maintenance...

  16. 78 FR 24289 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... safety recommendations; and Safety Promotion framework to support a positive safety culture in the form... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration [Docket No FAA-2013-0316] Aviation...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments SUMMARY...

  17. 77 FR 27538 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-Continuing a Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Committee--Continuing a Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of continuing a task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a continuing task to provide advice and...

  18. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in... presents form FAA 110A, “Aviation Safety Inspector's Credential,” to the pilot in command of an aircraft...

  19. Model validation and parametric study of fluid flows and heat transfer of aviation kerosene with endothermic pyrolysis at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative cooling technology is a promising approach for effective thermal protection of propulsion and power-generation systems. A mathematical model has been used to examine fluid flows and heat transfer of the aviation kerosene RP-3 with endothermic fuel pyrolysis at a supercritical pressure of 5 MPa. A pyrolytic reaction mechanism, which consists of 18 species and 24 elementary reactions, is incorporated to account for fuel pyrolysis. Detailed model validations are conducted against a series of experimental data, including fluid temperature, fuel conversion rate, various product yields, and chemical heat sink, fully verifying the accuracy and reliability of the model. Effects of fuel pyrolysis and inlet flow velocity on flow dynamics and heat transfer characteristics of RP-3 are investigated. Results reveal that the endothermic fuel pyrolysis significantly improves the heat transfer process in the high fluid temperature region. During the supercritical-pressure heat transfer process, the flow velocity significantly increases, caused by the drastic variations of thermophysical properties. Under all the tested conditions, the Nusselt number initially increases, consistent with the increased flow velocity, and then slightly decreases in the high fluid temperature region, mainly owing to the decreased heat absorption rate from the endothermic pyrolytic chemical reactions.

  20. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... knowledge gaps and future research activities. The intent of the Roadmap is to define systematic, focused... research activities and findings among stakeholders and other parties with an interest in aviation noise... register, please provide your name, business affiliation, a contact email and phone number. Background...

  1. New Technologies for Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., III; Jarrell, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed technologies to reduce aviation weather-related accidents. New technologies are presented for data-link and display of weather information to aircraft in flight, for detection of turbulence ahead of aircraft in flight, and for automated insitu reporting of atmospheric conditions from aircraft.

  2. Research and Application Progress of Silicone Rubber Materials in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of heat resistance, cold resistance, electrical conductivity and damping properties of aviation silicone rubber were reviewed in this article. The heat resistance properties of silicone rubber can be enhanced by changing the molecular structure (main chain, end-group, side chain and molecular weight of the gum and adding special heat-resistance filler. The cold resistance of aviation silicone rubber can be enhanced by adjusting the side chain molecular structure of the gum and the content of different gum chain. The electrical conductivity of silicone rubber can be improved by optimizing, blending and dispersing of conductive particles. The damping property of silicone rubber can be improved by designing and synthesizing of high-molecular polysiloxane damping agent. Furthermore, the application of aviation silicone rubber used in high-low temperature seal, electrical conduction and vibration damping technology are also summarized, and the high performance (for example long-term high temperature resistance, ultralow temperature resistance, high electromagnetic shelding, long-term fatigue resistance vibration damping, quasi constant modulus and so on of special silicone rubber is the future direction of aviation silicone rubber.

  3. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... provide its employees and the aviation industry with current information for developing, implementing... findings and the rationale for each position. Any disagreements should be documented, including the rationale for each position and the reasons for the disagreement. Schedule The recommendation report must be...

  4. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H L; Friedl, R R [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  5. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  6. HOW TO SECURE BASIC EVIDENCE AFTER AN AVIATION ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide a synthesis of basic directions indispensable to accurately collecting evidence after an aviation accident. The proper collection procedure ensures the avoidance of the loss of evidence critical for an investigation carried out by law enforcement agencies and/or the criminal justice system, which includes the participation of aviation expert investigators. Proper and complete evidence is also used to define the cause of the accident in the proceedings conducted by Państwowa Komisja Badania Wypadków Lotniczych (State Committee for Aviation Incidents Investigation, The State Committee for Aviation Incidents Investigation, hereafter referred to as the PKBWL. The methodology of securing evidence refers to the evidence collected at the scene of an accident right after its occurrence, and also to the evidence collected at other sites. It also includes, within its scope, additional materials that are essential to furthering the investigation process, although their collection does not require any urgent action. Furthermore, the article explains the meaning of particular pieces of evidence and their possible relevance to the investigation process.

  7. Naval Aviation Integrated Logistics: Technical users guide version 1. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLozier, R.C.; Holder, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    This document summarizes the operational and analytical functions of version 1.0 of the Naval Aviation Integrated Logistic (NAIL) package. NAIL, a logistics management and analysis system, creates standardized reports and performs several categories of statistical operations in support of NAVAIR logistic analytic functions.

  8. 78 FR 11728 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a... will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC... Harmonization Working Group (Transport Airplane and Engine Subcommittee [TAE]) c. Airworthiness Assurance...

  9. Malaysian aviation technologist promotion to managerial role: an empirical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, C. L.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Jacobs, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    The Malaysian aviation industry has continued to march forward. With a turnover of RM23.7 billion in 2013, it is expected to grow higher especially after the Malaysian national aerospace blueprint was launched in 2015. The aviation related organizations currently have a workforce of approximately 13500. These organizations need to be managed by competent managers who have a strong background of technologist. Aviation technologist is one of the key components in the aviation maintenance industry as they are the future managers charged with the responsibility to ensure continuation of the organization's objectives and culture. The technologist role and manager's role are somehow different. The promotion of technologist to managerial roles is quite common but whether the technologist is able to take up managerial role effectively is yet to be fully understood. It is quite common that there was insufficient training for the technologist before being promoted to take up management roles. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of technologists and managers in professional services industries such as MRO and to understand that there is a need within the industry to re-look into the perspective of a proper training to prepare them to take up management roles effectively.

  10. 77 FR 46946 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive... of the oxygen pipe developing a crack. This AD requires modifying the routing of and, if necessary...

  11. 76 FR 81009 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task... Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task to develop a comprehensive program of voluntary accreditation... maintenance program (CAMP). This task addresses, in part, the ARAC recommendation developed by the Commercial...

  12. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  13. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  14. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  15. Optical Illusions and Spatial Disorientation in Aviation Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tena, Miguel Ángel; Alvarez-Peregrina, Cristina; Valbuena-Iglesias, Mª Carolina; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2018-03-19

    Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions. An exhaustive review using pubmed and semantic scholar databases was conducted to find out the most frequent optical illusions in aviation pilots. A total of 45 full text articles published English or Spanish were reviewed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to review exhaustively and describe the main factors involved in spatial disorientation and optical illusions affecting aviation pilots. Mainly, contextual factors: width of landing track lights, nocturnal operations or low visibility, inclination of the landing track, decline of the ground, size of habitual references, low level approach on the water, black hole, sky/terrain confusion, distortion by climatic factors, autokinesis or autocinetics, optional investment illusion, illusions by vection, false horizon, rain on the windshield, misalignment in the approach, vibrations, somatogravic illusion, coriolis illusion and "G" forces. In a lesser extent, human factors and pathologies of the visual systems involved in spatial disorientation and associated optical illusions affecting aviation pilots are also described. Practical implications are further discussed.

  16. Army Aviation’s Pacific Rebalance: Evolution Towards Maritime Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    A with Army Aviation Program Executive Officer Tim Crosby ," Rotor & Wing Magazine, July 2012, accessed August 21, 2015, http...Executive Officer Tim Crosby ." Rotor & Wing Magazine, July 2012. Accessed August 21, 2015. http://accessintelligence.imirus. com/Mpowered/book/vrw12/i7/p56

  17. The aviation industry in Nigeria: A historical overview | Ogbeidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insatiable needs of man necessitated his movement from one place to another and one major means by which he has been doing this is by flying in the aeroplane. The article traces the history of civil aviation in Nigeria, exploring the various phases of development which the industry has gone through. It concludes that ...

  18. Technology, FID, and Afghanistan: A Model for Aviation Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    operators and maintenance is challenging. Power politics in Afghanistan are problematic. Village, tribe and nomadic paradigms permeate the military...is not the biggest Afghan aviation challenge. LOGISTICS Nomadic societies have problems with distributed goods. Afghan power structures rely...will not likely be successful until Afghanistan scores in high single or double digits . This puts end of mission beyond 2030. CONCLUSION Forget

  19. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  20. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D.; Rivera M, T.

    2004-01-01

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)