WorldWideScience

Sample records for aviation accidents findings

  1. Aviation Accidents and Stock Market Reaction: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance literature shows that a variety of mood variables affect the stock prices. Aviation accidents are uncommon that generally cause a high number of casualties. Therefore, they have a strong social repercussion in the country. This negative sentiment driven by bad mood might affect the investment decisions of investors. This study examines the effect of aviation accidents on Borsa Istanbul Index and Borsa Istanbul Transportation Index. Turkish aviation companies had only 5 serious accidents from 1990 to 2013. On the contrary to the previous findings, it is found that the aviation disasters do not have any effect on the stock market.

  2. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

    2016-12-01

    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

    2001-06-01

    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabi...

  5. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  7. Improving Aviation Safety in Indonesia: How Many More Accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Aditya Nugraha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous and consecutive aircraft accidents combined with a consistent failure to meet international safety standards in Indonesia, namely from the International Civil Aviation Organization and the European Aviation Safety Agency have proven a nightmare for the country’s aviation safety reputation. There is an urgent need for bureaucracy reform, harmonization of legislation, and especially ensuring legal enforcement, to bring Indonesian aviation safety back to world standards. The Indonesian Aviation Law of 2009 was enacted to reform the situation in Indonesia. The law has become the ground for drafting legal framework under decrees of the Minister of Transportation, which have allowed the government to perform follow-up actions such as establishing a single air navigation service provider and guaranteeing the independency of the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee. A comparison with Thailand is made to enrich the perspective. Finally, foreign aviation entities have a role to assist states, in this case Indonesia, in improving its aviation safety, considering the global nature of air travel.

  8. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

  9. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  10. Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of accidents in five categories of sport aviation aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, R.R.A.; de Voogt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports and compares causes of, and factors contributing to, 2,118 documented accidents of sport aviation represented by diverse aircraft types including balloons and blimps, gliders, gyroplanes, and ultralights. For the 26-year period, accidents were aircraft-specific regarding da

  11. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents during 1993-2012 Based on Flight Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2016-01-01

    Usually aviation accidents are categorized and analyzed within flight conduct rules (Part 121, Part 135, Part 91) because differences in accident rates within flight rules have been demonstrated. Even within a particular flight rule the flights have different purposes. For many, Part 121 flights are synonymous with scheduled passenger transport, and indeed this is the largest group of Part 121 accidents. But there are also non-scheduled (charter) passenger transport and cargo flights. The primary purpose of the analysis reported here is to examine the differences in aviation accidents based on the purpose of the flight. Some of the factors examined are the accident severity, aircraft characteristics and accident occurrence categories. Twenty consecutive years of data were available and utilized to complete this analysis.

  12. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  13. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  14. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (pengine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold increased representation of single engine airplanes. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify novel precursive factors for accidents involving turbine aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. This research highlights areas that should receive further emphasis in training/recurrency in a pre-emptive attempt to nullify candidate accident-precipitating factor(s).

  15. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  16. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  17. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  18. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  19. THE USE OF AVIATION ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORTS AS EVIDENCE IN COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana POP PĂUN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Air transport is an essential part of the international society, constituting a liaison between people and continents and an important contributor to the world economy and globalization. Aircraft operation has grown in complexity needing for a safety level to be maintained and constantly grown. Along with the development of the aviation industry, the legal system in the aviation field has registered significant challenges, one of them being the claims related to air crashes which are contested. The investigation process of an accident or incident has become not only important for the safety of operations but also to the establishment of legal fault and blame. The article proposes to present the principles of conducting and accident and incident investigation, the value of the report and new developments in relation to the recent case law on the use of the accident investigation report in Court.

  20. Classification of Air Force Aviation Accidents: Mishap trends and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-02

    proactive are Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) and Line Operational Safety Audits ( LOSA ). These two safety initiatives collect data during...2004). LOSA , is similar to an annual flight physical, periodically using expert observers to collect data on flight crew performance as the pilots...interact with the aircraft, the operational environment, and each other (Federal Aviation Administration [FAA], 2006). LOSA is not a check-ride, only an

  1. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  2. Assessment of the potential impact of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick assessments of potential impacts are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima cases, exemplary case studies shall be provided to assess the potential impacts of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the impact assessment, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.

  3. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  4. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Uryasev, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sampath, S.G. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A synthetic model of scheduled-commercial U.S. aviation fatalities was constructed from linear combinations of the time-spectra of critical systems reporting using 5.5 years of Service Difficulty Reports (SDR){sup 2} and Accident Incident Data System (AIDS) records{sup 3}. This model, used to predict near-future trends in aviation accidents, was tested by using the first 36 months of data to construct the synthetic model which was used to predict fatalities during the following eight months. These predictions were tested by comparison with the fatality data. A reliability block diagram (RBD) and third-order extrapolations also were used as predictive models and compared with actuality. The synthetic model was the best predictor because of its use of systems data. Other results of the study are a database of service difficulties for major aviation systems, and a rank ordering of systems according to their contribution to the synthesis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  6. As assessment of power system vulnerability to release of carbon fibers during commercial aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of a power distribution system in Bedford and Lexington, Massachusetts to power outages as a result of exposure to carbon fibers released in a commercial aviation accident in 1993 was examined. Possible crash scenarios at Logan Airport based on current operational data and estimated carbon fiber usage levels were used to predict exposure levels and occurrence probabilities. The analysis predicts a mean time between carbon fiber induced power outages of 2300 years with an expected annual consequence of 0.7 persons losing power. In comparison to historical outage data for the system, this represents a 0.007% increase in outage rate and 0.07% increase in consequence.

  7. NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  8. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Medical History of Fatally Injured Aviation Accident Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Civil Aviation Safety Authority; 2005 Sep. 13. Silberman WS. Medications in civil aviation: what is acceptable and what is not? Aviat Space Environ Med...2003; 74:85–6. 14. Silberman WS. SSRI policy reminder. Fed Air Surg Med Bull 2005; 43(2):9. 15. Sweetman SC, ed. Martindale: the complete drug

  9. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  10. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  11. Prevalence of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pilot Fatalities of Civil Aviation Accidents, 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Some of the drugs—such as atropine, lidocaine , etomidate, and analgesics—found in the pilot fatalities could have been administered by emergency...system of the pilots prior to the accidents. Thus, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic- level interactions of SSRIs and their active metabolites...2002. 17 6. Baumann P. Pharmacokinetic- pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet 1996; 31:444

  12. An analysis of the effectiveness of emergency locator transmitters to reduce response time and locate wreckage in U.S. general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudoss, Ajit

    Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) help search crews to locate aircraft in distress and to rescue survivors. This study analyzed ELT data from U.S. General Aviation accidents during the period 2006 to 2010. This study examined the effectiveness of ELTs in terms of ELT Success Rate (ESR) and False Negative Rate (FNR) based on ELT-Aided. This study found a significant difference between ELT-Operated and ELT-Aided. The ESR was found to be 38.58% whereas the FNR was found to be 61.42 %. The Missing Data Ratio (MDR), where accident reports had no ELT information, was found to be above 95%. Recommendations were made to include ELT information in all accident reports and to stress the importance of including response time in the accident report. Also the significant differences between ELT-Operated and ELT-Aided were explained.

  13. Toxicological Findings in 889 Fatally Injured Obese Pilots Involved in Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    controlled by diet and/or disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism 11 Labile hypertension 10 Diabetes controlled by hypoglycemic drugs 6 Glycosuria or...weight-loss .emedtv . com/obesity/obesity-chart .html . 20 . Gearhardt an, corbin Wr, Brownell Kd . Food addiction : an examination of the diagnostic...criteria for dependence . J addict Med 2009; 3(1):1–7 . 21 . heymsfield sB, allison dB, heshka s, Pierson rn, Jr . assessment of human body composition

  14. Development of the source term PIRT based on findings during Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Shoichi, E-mail: suehiro-shouichi@tepsys.co.jp [TEPCO SYSTEMS Co., 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Sugimoto, Jun [Kyoto University, Yoshida Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Hidaka, Akihide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Okada, Hidetoshi [The Institute of Applied Energy, 14-2 Nishi-Shimbashi 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Mizokami, Shinya [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho 1-Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8560 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji [The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed the source term PIRT based on findings during the Fukushima accident. • The FoM is the masses or fractions of radionuclides released into the environment. • 68 phenomena were identified as influencing to the FoM. • Radionuclide release from molten fuel had the highest score in the early phase. • MCCI, iodine chemistry, and chemical form had the highest score in the later phase. - Abstract: Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident of AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan) has developed thermal hydraulic PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) and source term (ST) PIRT based on findings during the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident. These PIRTs aim to explore the debris distribution and the current condition in the NPPs with high accuracy and to extract higher priority from the aspect of the sophistication of the analytical technology to predict the severe accident phenomena by the analytical codes. The ST PIRT is divided into 3 phases for time domain and 9 categories for spatial domain. The 68 phenomena have been extracted and the importance from the viewpoint of the source term has been ranked through brainstorming and discussions among experts. The present paper describes the developed ST PIRT list and summarizes the high ranked phenomena in each phase.

  15. Mortality pattern according to autopsy findings among traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yashar Moharamzad; Hamidreza Taghipour; Nader Hodjati Firoozabadi; Abolfazl Hodjati Firoozabadi; Mojtaba Hashemzadeh; Mehdi Mirjalili; Abed Namavari

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe mortality pattern and to deter-mine undiagnosed fatal injuries according to autopsy find-ings among road traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, 251 victims of road traffic accidents who were admitted to a tertiary trauma hospital over a two-year period (2006 and 2007) and received medical cares were included. Hospital records were reviewed to gather demographic characteristics, road user type, and medical data. Autopsy records were also reviewed to determine actual causes of death and possible undiagnosed injuries occurred in the initial assessment of the emergency unit or during hospitalization. Results: There were 202 males (80.5%) and 49 females (19.5%). The mean (±SD) age of fatalities was 34.1 (±21.5) years. Pedestrian-vehicle accidents were the most common cause of trauma (100 cases, 39.8%). The most common cause of death was central nervous system injury ( 146 cases, 58.1%). The other causes were skull base fractures (10%), internal bleeding (8%), lower limb hemorrhage (8%), skull vault fractures (4%), cervical spinal cord injury (3.6%), airway com-promise (3.2%), and multifactor cases (5.1%), respectively.Thirtysix fatal injuries in 30 victims (12%) mainly contributed to death according to autopsy, but were not diagnosed in initial assessments. The head (72.2%) and cervical spine (13.8%) regions were the two most common sites for undiagnosed injuries. Conclusion: Training courses for emergency unit medical staff with regard to interpreting radiological findings of head and neck and high clinical suspicion for cervical spine injuries are essential to improve the quality of early hospital care and reduce the mortality and morbidity of traffic accident patients.

  16. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated With Commercial Aviation Accidents: A Real-Time Turbulence Model (RTTM) Designed for the Operational Prediction of Hazardous Aviation Turbulence Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Huffman, Allan W.; Riordan, Allen J.; Slusser, Sarah W.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Charney, Joseph J.; Waight, Kenneth T.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time prediction of environments predisposed to producing moderate-severe aviation turbulence is studied. We describe the numerical model and its postprocessing system designed for said prediction of environments predisposed to severe aviation turbulence as well as presenting numerous examples of its utility. The numerical model is MASS version 5.13, which is integrated over three different grid matrices in real time on a university work station in support of NASA Langley Research Center s B-757 turbulence research flight missions. The postprocessing system includes several turbulence-related products, including four turbulence forecasting indices, winds, streamlines, turbulence kinetic energy, and Richardson numbers. Additionally, there are convective products including precipitation, cloud height, cloud mass fluxes, lifted index, and K-index. Furthermore, soundings, sounding parameters, and Froude number plots are also provided. The horizontal cross-section plot products are provided from 16 000 to 46 000 ft in 2000-ft intervals. Products are available every 3 hours at the 60- and 30-km grid interval and every 1.5 hours at the 15-km grid interval. The model is initialized from the NWS ETA analyses and integrated two times a day.

  17. Multi-model Integrated Analysis and Control Strategies of Human Factors in Aviation Accidents%航空事故人为因素多模型集成分析与控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐璇; 王华伟; 王祥

    2016-01-01

    Human factors are leading causes of modern aviation accidents. So it is helpful to improve the level of flight safety and realize intrinsic safety by analyzing characteristics of human factors and further proposing preventive measures. In this paper,multi-model integrated analysis and control processes are put forward combining FTA and HFACS,to find direct and deep causes of the accidents and to fully rec-ognize human factors,accident mechanisms and evolutionary processes. An quantitative method is also ap-plied to identify key factors so that some targeted strategies can be put forward to prevent similar accidents caused by human factors. Besides,according to the associative hazard analysis,potential unsafe factors of the accidents are found to realize accident prevention in an active way.%人为因素是现代航空事故最主要的致因因素,分析航空事故中人为因素的特点,进一步提出预防措施,有利于提高飞行安全水平,实现本质安全。提出多模型集成的航空事故人为因素分析与控制流程,将事故树分析方法( FTA)和人因分析及分类系统( HFACS)相结合,寻找事故的直接原因和深层次原因,全面识别航空事故中的人为因素、事故机理及事故演化过程;运用定量方法找出关键因素,针对性地提出避免由人为因素导致航空事故的策略;根据关联危害性分析法,挖掘事故的潜在不安全因素,实现主动的事故预防。

  18. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  19. Finding a needle in a haystack: toward a psychologically informed method for aviation security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Thomas C; Dando, Coral J

    2015-02-01

    Current aviation security systems identify behavioral indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in vivo double-blind randomized-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioral indicator recognition. As well as revealing advantages of veracity testing over behavioral indicator identification, the study provides the highest levels to date of deception detection in a realistic setting where the known base rate of deceptive individuals is low.

  20. Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christina; Schön, Corinna A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin

    2008-10-01

    Accidental or intentional falls from a height are a form of blunt trauma and occur frequently in forensic medicine. Reports describing elevator accidents as a small subcategory of falls from heights are rare in the medical literature and no report on injury patterns or scene reconstruction of such an accident was found. A case of an accident in a hydraulic elevator with a man falling 3m was examined using post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and autopsy. The man suffered an unusually extensive trauma and died at the scene. Post-mortem MSCT examination showed a comminute fracture of the skull, the right femur and the first lumbar vertebra. Severe lacerations of the brain with epidural, subdural and subarachnoidal haemorrhages over both hemispheres were diagnosed. Autopsy confirmed these findings. To reconstruct the accident we used radiological and autopsy results as well as findings at the scene.

  1. Cutaneous mucormycosis and motor vehicle accidents: Findings from an Australian case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Paul R; Suthananthan, Arul E; Rajan, Ruben; Pryce, Todd M; Sieunarine, Kishore; Gardam, Dianne J; Heath, Christopher H

    2014-11-01

    Cutaneous disease is the third most frequent manifestation of mucormycosis. The clinical manifestations of and subsequent mortality due to cutaneous mucormycosis are dependent on the mode of acquisition and the host immune status. Here, we describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, and outcomes of 16 cutaneous mucormycosis infections managed in an Australian tertiary hospital over a 15-year period. The proportion with localized (56%), deep (38%), and disseminated (6%) cutaneous disease as well as the overall mortality (25%) were consistent with findings reported in the published literature. Two novel forms of hospital-acquired infection were reported following a sacral pressure sore and insertion of a foreign body during a bone graft procedure. The majority of patients were immunocompetent (75%) and/or suffered trauma (56%) with associated environmental contamination. A novel finding was that motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) accounted for 78% of all trauma-related cases, suggesting MVAs should receive greater recognition as a potential precipitant of cutaneous mucormycosis. Aggressive decontamination and debridement of devitalized tissue following trauma is therefore likely to play an important role in the prevention of this rare but potentially devastating infection.

  2. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  3. Thyroid ultrasound findings 7 years after the Chernobyl accident. A comparative epidemiological study in the Bryansk region of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpusalo, L. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Kumpusalo, E. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Community Health and General Practice; Soimakallio, S. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Salomaa, S. [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Paile, W. [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Kolmakow, S. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Oral Pathology, Roentgenology and Forensic Odontology; Zhukowsky, G. [National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilchenko, I. [National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nissinen, A. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Community Health and General Practice

    1996-11-01

    Aims: The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station occurred in April 1986. We report on a comparative epidemiological study on thyroid abnormalities in the contaminated and uncontaminated populations of the Bryansk region, South-West Russia, in 1993, 7 years after the accident. Material and Methods: The study material consisted of all inhabitants aged 3-34 years in the contaminated village of Mirnyi and in the uncontaminated village of Krasnyi Rog, excluding those who had moved to be villages after the accident. The total material comprised 302 inhabitants in Mirnyi and 200 in Krasnyi Rog. Results: No pathological US findings in either village were found in children born after the accident. In the age group 0-9 years old at the time of the accident, the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities was 8.1% in the contaminated village compared to 1.6% in the uncontaminated village. In the age group 10-27 years the corresponding figures were 18.8% and 17.7%. Only 55% of the pathological US findings were detected by physical palpation. Conclusion: The total prevalence of thyroid abnormalities was higher among children in the contaminated village. We recommend an active screening of young contaminated subjects with US, supplemented with fine needle biopsy. (orig.).

  4. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  5. Clinical and Paraclinical Findings of Cerebrovascular Accidents in Children Admitted to Pediatric Medical Center from 1993 till 2003

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dehghani; H Montazer Lotfe Elahi; M Ashrafi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Stroke is a clinical diagnosis which brings up cerebrovascular diseases. Stroke includes any cerebrovascular accident which leads to local neural defect and lasts more than 24 hours. Stroke has severe and irreversible complications and high rates of recurrence after first episode, therefore we decided to study clinical and paraclinical findings of this disease for better diagnosis and prevention of it. Methods: We prepared a case series study to review medical files of the patie...

  6. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  7. Distribution of Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid in Postmortem Biological Fluids and Tissues From Pilots Fatally Injured in Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Schoor M. Letter: effects of marihuana on flying ability. JAMA 230(9):1258 (1974). 8. Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M, Bozzetti LP...Simulated flying performance after marihuana intoxication. Aviat Space Environ Med 47(2):124-128 (1976a). 9. Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M

  8. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  9. Research on the framework of safety recommendations for human factor in aviation accident investigation%航空事故调查中人的因素安全建议框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍志勤; 谢孜楠; 张永一

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe acts of human in aviation accidents were analyzed systemically. The errors were classified into sense and perceptual errors, memory error, decision-making error and skill error. Violation were classified into routine and exceptional violation. The dimensions for human factor intervention were organization and management,human/team, technology, task and the environment. After preliminary recommendations were made to various unsafe acts, they were necessary to be assessed comprehensively and chosen in accordance with the feasibility, acceptability, cost and effectiveness. Practical study showed that human factors intervention matrix provides an effective tool for developing the proposed safety recommendations and the frame on aviation accident investigation has excellent adaptability.%对航空事故中人的不安全行为进行了系统分析,将失误划分为感知失误、记忆失误、决策失误、技能失误4个类别,将违章划分为习惯性违章和偶然性违章.将人的因素干预维度确定为组织管理、人/团队、技术、任务和环境.针对不安全行为制定相应的初步改进措施后,还需从措施的可行性、可接受性、经济性和有效性4个方面进行综合评估和取舍.实证研究表明,人的因素干预矩阵是制定安钱建议的有效工具,该框架具备良好的适用性.

  10. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  11. 灰色加权马氏链组合在航空装备事故预测中的应用%Grey Weighted Markov Chains Combination Method and Application in Aviation Equipment Accident Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘旭升; 李华平; 高建国

    2014-01-01

    为提高传统灰色马氏链组合模型的航空装备事故预测水平,引入加权马氏链,提出了一种改进的灰色马氏链组合预测方法。该方法先通过建立灰色模型,提取事故序列的趋势信息,然后再利用灰色残余信息构建加权马氏链模型,合理发挥各步长马氏链的作用,以期准确刻画随机波动规律。为验证其有效性,在美国空军A级飞行事故万时率实际数据基础上,建立了灰色加权马氏链组合预测模型,结果表明,模型对2000年~2002年预测的相对误差平均控制在4.59%以内,远高于灰色叠加马氏链模型,所建的模型能够比较客观地反映航空安全的未来发展现状。%To improve the prediction level of traditional Grey Markov chains model in aviation accident,an improved Grey Markov chains combination prediction method based on Weighted Markov chains is proposed. In the method,Grey model is firstly established to extract the trend information from accident data series,and then weighted Markov chains model for the residual information of Grey model is constructed to reasonably play the role of various step-size Markov chains for describing the stochastic fluctuation law. To prove its validity,on the basis of a class flight accident 10,000-hour-rate actual data of USAF,Grey weight Markov chains combination model is established. The result shows that the average relative error of prediction of model during 2000 to 2002 is 4.59%,well above that of Grey stacked Markov chains model. The built model can objectively reflect the future development tendency of aviation safety.

  12. Effect of Cellular Phone and Radar Forensics on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) are generally the primary tool for locating distressed aircrews following an aircraft accident. In 2009, the International COSPAS-SARSAT organization ordered the cessation of 121.5 MHz ELT satellite monitoring to alleviate systemic false alarms and encourage pilots to upgrade ELTs to modern 406 MHz models. While most nations acquiesced to the mandate, the United States encountered severe resistance from pilot groups. As a result, 121.5 MHz ELTs are still i...

  13. Clinical and Paraclinical Findings of Cerebrovascular Accidents in Children Admitted to Pediatric Medical Center from 1993 till 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dehghani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is a clinical diagnosis which brings up cerebrovascular diseases. Stroke includes any cerebrovascular accident which leads to local neural defect and lasts more than 24 hours. Stroke has severe and irreversible complications and high rates of recurrence after first episode, therefore we decided to study clinical and paraclinical findings of this disease for better diagnosis and prevention of it. Methods: We prepared a case series study to review medical files of the patients admitted to pediatric medical center with the diagnosis of CVA between 1993 and 2003. 19 patients were assessed in this study. Results: Their mean age was 5.72 (SD=3.801. Among clinical signs hemiparesis was the most common finding (89.5%. Vital signs were normal except for two patients with low-grade fever or hypertension. Such cardiac diseases as cardiomyopathy, valvular disorder, d-TGA, and congestive heart failure were common predisposing factors. According to CT scan reports, 6 patients (31.6% suffered from deep ischemic stroke, and 5 (21.3%, and 2 patients (10.5% suffered from superficial ischemic stroke and and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. 2 patients manifested signs of both superficial and deep ischemic stroke. One of them suffered from Moyamoys syndrome and the other was a known case of MELAS (mitochondrial encepholomyopaty lactic acidosis syndrome. CBC was the most important abnormal test. Conclusion: According to this study, congenital heart diseases are the most common cause of stroke in children. Stroke in children is not frequently associated with vital signs change, and deep ischemic stroke is the most common type of the stroke in children.

  14. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  15. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  16. 近12年中国民航人因事故与事故征候的分类研究%A Classification on Human Factor Accident/Incident of China Civil Aviation in Recent Twelve Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓利

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study human factor accident/incident occurred during 1990~2001 using new classification standard. Method The human factor accident/incident classification standard is developed on the basis of Reason's Model, combining with CAAC's traditional classifying method, and applied to the classified statistical analysis for 361 flying incidents and 35 flight accidents of China civil aviation, which is induced by human factors and occurred from 1990 to 2001. Result 1) the incident percentage of taxi and cruise is higher than that of takeoff, climb and descent. 2) The dominating type of flight incidents is diverging of runway, overrunning, near-miss, tail/wingtip/engine strike and ground obstacle impacting. 3) The top three accidents are out of control caused by crew, mountain collision and over runway. 4) Crew's basic operating skill is lower than what we imagined, the mostly representation is poor correcting ability when flight error happened. 5) Crew errors can be represented by incorrect control, regulation and procedure violation, disorientation and diverging percentage of correct flight level. Conclusion The poor CRM skill is the dominant factor impacting China civil aviation safety, this result has a coincidence with previous study, but there is much difference and distinct characteristic in top incident phase, the type of crew error and behavior performance compared with that of advanced countries. We should strengthen CRM training for all of pilots aiming at the Chinese pilot behavior characteristic in order to improve the safety level of China civil aviation.%目的对中国民航1990~2001年期间发生的人因事故征候和飞行事故进行分类研究.方法 运用Reason事故链模型,结合中国民航的传统分类方法,制订人因事故与事故征候分类标准,在此基础上按分类标准进行分类统计和分析.结果 1)在飞行的各个阶段中,滑行和巡航阶段小于间隔飞行的事故征候发生的百分比高于

  17. Medical analysis of a flying turbulence accident on civil aviation aerobus%一起民航客机飞行颠簸事件的医学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖毅; 马晓波; 陈环; 杨伟发; 邓明钊; 雷方; 张世鹏; 张莹; 李向东

    2007-01-01

    Objective To analyze the course of flying accident and injury condition of the wounded persons,as well as to investigate the methods of modern general medical rescue. Methods A severe flying turbulence accident was analyzed retrospectively. Results On July 6th 2007,37persons were injured on flight CZ322 of China Southern Airlines from Sydney to Guangzhou,owing to severe clear air turbulence encountered at 100 miles(1 mile=1852 m)from the waypoint Molly on the flight level 350 when the aircraft was cruising.The injured persons included 9 air attendants(60% of aircrew members)and 28 passengers(13% of all passengers).The major injuries were trauma of head,face,neck,and then the trauma of limbs.Most were soft tissue injuries.Organic injury and bone fracture were not found.The reason for the injuries was mechanical injury due to severe flying clear air turbulence.The iniury condition was evaluated and emergency procedure was conducted by the aircrew immediately.The personnel from Airport Emergency Response Center went onboard for initial medical treatment and then transported injured passengers to Civil Aviation Guangzhou Hospital.and then the personnel from Aviation Medicine Center of China Southern Airlines transponed some injured passengers to regional hospitals according to their injury conditions.Civil Aviation Guangzhou Hospital and relative regional hospitals carried out comprehensive examination and medical treatment tO the injured passengers.All the injured persons had recovered due to timely treatment after the accident, quick and efficient response of related organizations and personnel.as well as good cooperation of Airport Emergence Response Center and regional hospitals.impact of the injured shall be noticed in medical treatment.%目的 分析一起飞行颠簸事件发生经过和相关伤员的伤情并探讨现代综合医疗救护方法.方法 对一起严重飞行颠簸事件的伤员伤情及急救处理进行回顾性医学分析.结果 2007年7月6

  18. General Aviation Aircraft Safety, The Princeton University Conference (119th) Held at Princeton, N.J. on October 24-25 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Accident Records" 3 Charles 0. Miller, Director, Bureau of Aviation Safety, National Transportation Safety Board "General Aviation Accident Patterns...Accident Records Charles 0. Miller Director, Bureau of Aviation Safety National Transportation Safety Board The title of my paper today, "An Analysis...Bethesda, Maryland 20014 Aviation Consumer Magazine James Holahan Pan Am Bldg., Teterboro Airport Bally Tully Teterboro New Jersey 07608 Bede Aircraft

  19. Product Liability and Moral Hazard: Evidence from General Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Product liability law reduces the costs of accidents to consumers, thus reducing their incentives to invest in safety. We estimate the impact of tort liability on a subset of consumers who have significant control over the probability of an accident: the consumers of general aviation aircraft. The General Aviation Revitalization Act of 1994 exempted manufacturers of small aircraft from product liability claims when their aircraft reached 18 years of age. We use the exemption at age 18 to esti...

  20. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  1. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  2. Pilots' perception of risks and hazards in general aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, D

    1990-07-01

    A sample of licensed pilots completed the Aeronautical Risk Judgment Questionnaire (ARJQ) which was developed to obtain data on pilots' perceptions of their abilities, willingness to take risks, hazard awareness, and judgments of the risks of general aviation. A subset of these subjects was tested on a computerised test of flight decision-making involving a proposed VFR flight in marginal weather conditions. Results from the ARJQ indicate relatively low levels of risk and hazard awareness combined with a generally optimistic self-appraisal of abilities by this sample of general aviation pilots. Younger subjects (under 30) were found to rate the likelihood of being involved in an accident more highly than did older pilots. Experienced pilots obtained higher scores on a measure of "personal invulnerability" from factors commonly associated with accidents. This does not appear to be due simply to overconfidence in their abilities, since it was the younger and less experienced pilots who held the most unrealistically optimistic appraisals of their ability. Pilots who proceeded with the computerised flight rate themselves as having a greater willingness to take risks, and were likely to be younger and have higher total hours than those who rejected the flight. They were also found to have significantly higher scores on the measure of "personal invulnerability." The results are discussed in relation to previous epidemiological findings and possible safety prevention strategies.

  3. Aviation Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  4. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  5. Aviation Expo Taking off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 12nd Beijing Aviation Expo(Aviation Expo/China 2007) was held this September 19-22 at the China International Exhibition Center.Beijing Aviation Expo is the ONLY aviation exhibition (Civil & Military,including Airport & Air Traffic Control) organized in Beijing,taking place every two years.It is also the most influential aviation exhibition with the longest history in China.

  6. Reducing health care hazards: lessons from the commercial aviation safety team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Goeschel, Christine A; Olsen, Kyle L; Pham, Julius C; Miller, Marlene R; Berenholtz, Sean M; Sexton, J Bryan; Marsteller, Jill A; Morlock, Laura L; Wu, Albert W; Loeb, Jerod M; Clancy, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The movement to improve quality of care and patient safety has grown, but examples of measurable and sustained progress are rare. The slow progress made in health care contrasts with the success of aviation safety. After a tragic 1995 plane crash, the aviation industry and government created the Commercial Aviation Safety Team to reduce fatal accidents. This public-private partnership of safety officials and technical experts is responsible for the decreased average rate of fatal aviation accidents. We propose a similar partnership in the health care community to coordinate national efforts and move patient safety and quality forward.

  7. Aviation medicine and the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this short series of articles is not to present the reader with a vast amount of technical data, soon to be forgotten, but to provide some items of general interest from the past, present, and future of Army aviation. Obviously there will be a concentration on medical matters, but the aim is to give the reader a feel for the rapid progress being made in helicopter design and the likely problems we may face in the future. The first article serves as an introduction to the series and three further articles will cover various aspects of the speciality. The second will be concerned with AAC helicopter accidents and will include accident investigation, crashworthiness and the contribution made by pilot error. The third article will cover major environmental problems of helicopters, particularly noise, vibration and thermal stress. The fourth article will examine ways in which microprocessors and modern technology will affect future helicopter and ancillary equipment development; for instance, a helicopter with no external windows has been suggested, 'The Iron Cockpit'. The fifth article will be concerned with the clinical aspects of Army Aviation medicine.

  8. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  9. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  10. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  11. Safety Culture in Modern Aviation Systems – Civil and Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Marian IORDACHE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding important aspects of the safety culture should be the main objective for identifying hazards, mitigate and manage risk and find solutions to problems before accidents and incidents occur. The two defining elements of aeronautical decision-making are hazard and risk; risk management is an important component of decisional process and by understanding some issues regarding risk and safety, we will be able to realize the feasible solutions that we may have to apply in flight or ground operations. As aviation is in continous development and worldwide expansion, in order to better understand the associated risks and mitigate them, proper control methods which can give a thoroughly comprehension of the aeronautical system must be used.

  12. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  13. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  14. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  15. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  16. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  17. Impact of Aviation Fuel Quality on Flight Safety and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Yakovleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of aviation fuels quality for provision of flight safety is described. Statistics on jet fuel consumption all over the world and Ukraine in particular is presented. Analysis of flight accidents is done; the role of fuel quality as a reason of such events as well as a factor affecting the environment is investigated.

  18. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  19. Violent explosion after inadvertent mixing of nitric acid and isopropanol – Review 15 years later finds basic accident data corrupted, no evidence of broad learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Folmer Nielsen, Merete; Hagen Mikkelsen, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    steel tank disintegrated with such force that fragments lodged in walls of concrete. The explosion ravaged the cellar, destroyed equipment, blew out a masonry wall and released large amounts of nitrous oxide fumes. Likely, 62% nitric acid (CAS 7697-37-2) and isopropanol (2-propanol, CAS 67-63-0) reacted...... the brewery to court for negligence, they did not report or investigate the accident, or attempt to disseminate information available to them. Today, the general literature is silent on the explosion hazards of mixing the two chemicals. The paper argues that without institutional support, learning...

  20. Aviation safety and ICAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiefang

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the Intern

  1. Aviation. Teacher Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on aviation. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Airmail Art; Eyewitness; Kite Power); (2) "Geography" (U.S. Airports); (3) "Information" (Aviation Alphabet; Glossary; Four Forces…

  2. An Examination of Safety Management Systems and Aviation Technologies in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Steven A.

    The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) industry has a significant role in the transportation of injured patients, but has experienced more accidents than all other segments of the aviation industry combined. With the objective of addressing this discrepancy, this study assesses the effect of safety management systems implementation and aviation technologies utilization on the reduction of HEMS accident rates. Participating were 147 pilots from Federal Aviation Regulations Part 135 HEMS operators, who completed a survey questionnaire based on the Safety Culture and Safety Management System Survey (SCSMSS). The study assessed the predictor value of SMS implementation and aviation technologies to the frequency of HEMS accident rates with correlation and multiple linear regression. The correlation analysis identified three significant positive relationships. HEMS years of experience had a high significant positive relationship with accident rate (r=.90; pNVG) (r=.38; pNVG, TAWS, and SMS, HEMS years of experience explained 81.4% of the variance in accident rate scores (p<.05), and HEMS years of experience was found to be a significant predictor of accident rates (p<.05). Additional quantitative regression analysis was recommended to replicate the results of this study and to consider the influence of these variables for continued reduction of HEMS accidents, and to induce execution of SMS and aviation technologies from a systems engineering application. Recommendations for practice included the adoption of existing regulatory guidance for a SMS program. A qualitative analysis was also recommended for future study SMS implementation and HEMS accident rate from the pilot's perspective. A quantitative longitudinal study would further explore inferential relationships between the study variables. Current strategies should include the increased utilization of available aviation technology resources as this proactive stance may be beneficial for the establishment of

  3. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  4. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  5. Future aviation fuels overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  6. Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data. US Carrier Operations Calendar Year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-24

    U.S. AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS 1987 - 1997 Number of Accidents by Segements of Aviation Involved Accidents S135 N135 N135 S121 Total and and and and Year...planning/decision 1 1 Lack of familiarity with geographic area 1 0 Proper alignment 1 1 Raising of flaps 1 0 Refueling 1 0 Self-induced pressure 1 0

  7. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  8. An Integrated Framework for Fostering Human Factor Sustainability and Increased Safety in Aviation Ramp Operations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aviation work environment has one of the highest accident rates of any industry sector in the United States, resulting in significant costs for both employee injuries and equipment damage. In fact, injury rates exceed rates found in areas that are widely recognized as hazardous, such as construction and mining, and it is estimated that aircraft ground damage costs are as high as 5 billion to 10 billion dollars per year. Purdue University’s Aviation Technology Department has conducted nume...

  9. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its predecessor organizations, Civil Aeronautics Agency (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) have pioneered the use of aviation education in working with schools and colleges of the nation to attain their objectives. This publication includes: a brief history of the role of aviation in…

  10. Safety Study in Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a brief look at safety studies, which are a necessary part of every change of system or a new system in aviation. The main focus is put on the area of air traffic management, because it affects most of the aviation stakeholders. The article begins with a description of safety and safety assessment of changes in systems. Then it discusses analysis of processes, hazard identification and risk assessment. Main part focuses on Safety studies and briefly...

  11. Safety Study in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Štumper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to provide a brief look at safety studies, which are a necessary part of every change of system or a new system in aviation. The main focus is put on the area of air traffic management, because it affects most of the aviation stakeholders. The article begins with a description of safety and safety assessment of changes in systems. Then it discusses analysis of processes, hazard identification and risk assessment. Main part focuses on Safety studies and briefly describes the elements of the study. At the end, possible ways of safety study evaluation are mentioned.

  12. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  13. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong

    2008-01-01

    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  14. Aviation Forecasting in ICAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmahon, J.

    1972-01-01

    Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil aviation. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.

  15. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  16. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  17. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  19. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  20. Characteristics of civil aviation atmospheric hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Montoya, J.; Richards, Mark A.; Galliano, J.

    1994-01-01

    Clear air turbulence, wake vortices, dry hail, and volcanic ash are hazards to civil aviation that have not been brought to the forefront of public attention by a catastrophic accident. However, these four hazards are responsible for major and minor injuries, emotional trauma, significant aircraft damage, and in route and terminal area inefficiency. Most injuries occur during clear air turbulence. There is significant aircraft damage for any volcanic ash encounter. Rolls induced by wake vortices occur near the ground. Dry hail often appears as an area of weak echo on the weather radar. This paper will present the meteorological, electromagnetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics of each hazard. A description of a typical aircraft encounter with each hazard will be given. Analyzed microwave and millimeter wave sensor systems to detect each hazard will be presented.

  1. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  2. Safety Management and Risk Modelling in Aviation: The challenge of quantifying management influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aviation accidents result from a combination of many different causal factors ( human errors, technical failures, environmental and organisational influences). Increasing interest over the past two decades in causal modelling of organisational factors has been motivated by the desire to understand t

  3. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  4. The Future of Green Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of aviation's economic impact in the U.S. including aviation's impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible aviation.

  5. Aviation Safety Hotline Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aviation Safety Hotline Information System (ASHIS) collects, stores, and retrieves reports submitted by pilots, mechanics, cabin crew, passengers, or the public...

  6. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  7. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  8. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  9. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  10. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  11. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  12. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  13. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th Avenue, Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513. 5....

  14. Innovation Engineer Aviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China National Guizhou Aviation Industry (Group) Co.Ltd. originally started as an aviation base for development and production,initiated in 1964 by China’s former Premier Zhou Enlai.Situated in a mountainous area,the base formerly specialized in manufacturing fighter trainer aircraft and air- craft engines as an important constituent of major construction projects at the strategic rear base.This can be considered as the group’s first step on the thorny path of development. At that time,thousands of young people devoted their youth to the construction of the group.Among them was Tan Weidong,who 40 years later became chairman of board, leading 46 subsidiary enterprises and institutions.Staffed with a total of 51,000 employees,the group has over the years become a large state-owned enterprise integrating production of both military and civilian products.On the sidelines of the 2006-07 China Automotive Summit Forum,recently held in Guiyang, Guizhou Province of southwest China,Tan shared with Beijing Review his experience of innovating.

  15. 浅析水上交通事故调查结论在诉讼中的地位性质及作用%Analysis of the findings of maritime accidents in the nature and status of the proceedings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娟

    2015-01-01

    海事部门作为水上交通事故调查处理机关,根据法定职责作出的水上交通事故调查结论涉及各方利益随着国家法治建设的完善,人们的法律意识也在增强,越来越多的人开始通过法律诉讼途径来解决水上交通事故中民事侵权纠纷等问题。本文就事故调查结论在司法诉讼中能否作为法庭定案的证据,以及事故调查结论所起的作用和注意事项等问题进行探讨。%Maritime sector as water traffic accident investigation and handling, according to the legal responsibility of water traffic accident investigation conclusion involving the interests of all parties with the improvement of the national rule of law construction, people's legal consciousness enhancement, more and more people begin to through legal channels to solve the problem of water traffic accident tort disputes, etc. In this paper, the accident investigation conclusion in the judicial lawsuit can be as evidence of the court finalized, and the role of the accident investigation conclusion and discusses the matters needing attention.

  16. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  17. 78 FR 72141 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  18. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  19. 78 FR 34139 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  20. 78 FR 50138 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... September 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  1. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  2. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  3. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  4. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  5. China Gradually Deregulates Aviation Fuels Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China will gradually deregulate the aviation fuels market to allow the oil and petrochemical enterprises to become shareholders of China Aviation Fuels Corporation (CAFC) so that the aviation fuels suppliers can operate at a lower cost. Deregulation of the air fuels market aims at reduction of aviation fuels price to spur development of China's air transportation industry.

  6. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19,...

  7. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...-OST-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice.... ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of meeting... meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24, 2010, in Chicago,...

  8. 75 FR 57103 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September...

  9. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  10. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  11. 76 FR 17353 - Aviation Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; suspension of effectiveness. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications...

  12. Aviation and Remote Sensing Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Efficiency and effectiveness of aerial photograph acquisition by the Region 3 Aviation Program will be improved with use of newly purchased upgrades for the Applanix...

  13. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  14. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  15. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  16. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  17. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  18. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  19. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  20. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  1. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  2. LANGUAGE TESTING IN AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of measurement and assessment of language proficiency ofaviation personnel. The types of tests appropriate for use in aviation context are being describedand approaches to Aviation English test design are being identified in compliance with thelanguage ICAO requirements for pilots and controllers.Розглянуто проблему вимірювання та оцінки рівня володіння англійською мовоюфахівцями авіаційної галузі. Описано види тестування і типи тестів. Обґрунтовано підходидо розроблення тестів для авіаційного персоналу з урахуванням міжнародних вимог ІСАО домовної підготовки фахівців льотного і диспетчерського складу. Запропоновано шляхиудосконалення процедури вимірювання та оцінки рівня володіння англійською мовою вавіаційному контексті.Рассмотрена проблема измерения и оценки уровня владения английским языкомспециалистами авиационной отрасли. Описаны виды тестирования и типы тестов.Обоснованы подходы к разработке тестов для авиационного персонала с учетоммеждународных требований IСАО к языковой подготовке специалистов летного идиспетчерского состава. Предложены пути совершенствования процедуры измерения иоценки уровня владения английским языком в авиационном контексте.

  3. Communication Research in Aviation and Space Operations: Symptoms and Strategies of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    implicated in accidents and incidents. NASA/Ames Crew Factors researchers have been developing a model of effective crew coordination in order to understand the sources of performance breakdowns, and to develop effective solutions and interventions. Because communication is a primary mechanism by which information is received and transmitted, and because it is observable behavior, we focus on these group processes in order to identify patterns of communication that distinguish effective from less effective crew performance. Since a prime objective is to develop training recommendations for enhancing communication skills, we interpret our findings in the context of relevant task and environmental conditions, role and procedural constraints, and the normal real-time parameters of flight operations. Another research objective is to consider how communication and coordination can be enhanced through design. For example, flight deck and hardware design as well as procedural and software design may greatly influence the efficiency with which crews communicate and coordinate their work. In addition, teams and tasks may be designed, organized, and trained so that team interactions with each other are based upon appropriately shared knowledge, procedures and situation awareness. In short, we are interested in enhancing communication practices through (1) the training of specific communication skills, and (2) the design of equipment, tasks, procedures, and teams that optimize smooth, unambiguous communication processes. Two examples of communication research will be described; one in aviation and one in space operations. The first example is a high-fidelity full mission simulation study which investigates the affect of flightdeck automation on crew coordination and communication (contrasting crew performance in the DC-9 vs. MD88). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...

  5. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  6. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  7. Aviation Warrant Officer Program and Enlisted Aviator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Advanced Courses Hours Instructional Segement Purose 4 Enlisted Personnel Procedures for enlisted person- Management nel classification, assignment...way that will provide "aircraft qualified" aviators to operational units. The units would then conduct unit training to support whatever geographic

  8. 浅析交通肇事罪“逃逸”的认定难点--以一起交通肇事案例为视角%Traffic Accident crime,"Escape"finds difficulty---Together with the Traffic Accident Cases in Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何如; 石冰莹

    2016-01-01

    The Supreme People's Court"on the trial of criminal cases of traffic accident a number of issues of interpreta-tion"(hereinafter referred to as the "interpretation")in the "escape"of the content is defined as"the perpetrator after a traffic accident to avoid legal action and escape behavior."[1],shows that determine the behavior of people constitute escape,there are two aspects of the subjective,one is"knowingly"traffic accidents,and the second is"to avoid legal action,"neither of them is not.In this paper,a traffic accident case to start,because the focus of the analysis"know-ingly"caused by different understanding,judicial circles as to whether the case should be recognized disagreement es-cape,and "Escape"and the understanding to be explored.%最高人民法院《关于审理交通肇事刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》(以下简称《解释》)中将“逃逸”的内涵界定为“行为人发生交通事故后,为逃避法律追究而逃跑的行为”[1],由此可见判断行为人构成逃逸,其主观上有两个方面的内容,其一是“明知”交通事故发生,其二是“为逃避法律追究”,两者缺一不可。本文以一起交通事故的案例入手,重点分析因为对“明知”的不同理解而导致的,司法实务界对此案是否应当认定逃逸的分歧意见,并对“逃逸”内涵的理解加以探讨。

  9. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  10. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume IV - General Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The findings and recommendations of the Panel on General…

  11. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume II - Military Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The findings and recommendations of the Panel on Military…

  12. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  13. National Survey Results: Retention of Women in Collegiate Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann; Bishop, James C.; Karp, Merrill R.; Niemczyk, Mary; Sitler, Ruth L.; Green, Mavis F.

    2002-01-01

    Since the numbers of women pursuing technical careers in aviation continues to remain very low, a study on retention of women was undertaken by a team of university faculty from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Arizona State University, and Kent State University. The study was initiated to discover the factors that influence women once they have already selected an aviation career and to ascertain what could be done to support those women who have demonstrated a serious interest in an aviation career by enrolling in a collegiate aviation program. This paper reports preliminary results of data collected in the first and second years of the study. The data was collected from surveys of 390 college students (195 women and 195 men) majoring in aviation programs in nine colleges and universities, representing widely varied geographic areas and including both two- and four-year institutions. Results revealed significant areas of concern among women in pilot training. When queried about these concerns, differences were evident in the responses of the male and female groups. These differences were expected. However, a surprising finding was that women in early stages of pilot training responded differently from women in more experienced stages, These response differences did not occur among the men surveyed. The results, therefore, suggest that women in experienced stages of training may have gone through an adaptation process and reflect more male-like attitudes about a number of objects, including social issues, confidence, family, and career.

  14. Brigadier General Theodore C Lyster [correction of Lister], MD: father of American aviation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, J; O'Leary, J P

    2000-07-01

    Aviation medicine came into existence as a recognized entity when certain standards were established during and shortly after World War I. During this time, accident rates were high. In fact, a larger number of pilots were dying in accidents than in combat. Figures from Great Britain's casualty list at the close of the first year of World War I indicated that for every 100 aviators killed, 60 died as a result of some individual physical defect, 30 from some form of recklessness or careless behavior, 8 as a result of some mechanical defect in the airplane, and only 2 at the hands of the enemy. Aviators were found to be in poor physical condition. Because there were no established regulations with regard to workloads, aviators were frequently found to have been flying to a point beyond exhaustion. Because of workload, chronic fatigue, and emotional stress, aviators were constantly called upon to perform superhuman feats when not in peak physical condition. Errors in judgement were common. The majority of pilots lost weight as a somatic sign of stress. This was recognized by Theodore Lyster [corrected] who had recently been appointed as the Chief Surgeon, Aviation Section of the U.S. Army. Such problems were not diagnosed by medical officers because they were not trained to recognize them. Theodore Charles Lyster [corrected] was the son of Captain William J. and Martha Doughty Lyster [corrected]. He was an Army "brat" who entered the world on July 10, 1875. His childhood was spent in various posts around the country. At the age of 7, Lyster [corrected] contracted yellow fever while living in Fort Brown, TX. The boy was treated by William Gorgas, a young post surgeon. Gorgas was credited with the young boy's recovery. Later, Gorgas was to marry Lyster's [corrected] aunt making Lyster [corrected] his nephew by marriage. Having survived the yellow fever infection, young Lyster [corrected] had a lifelong immunity to the disease.

  15. Research And Development Contributions to Aviation Progress (RADCAP): Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Positive contributions of military aeronautical research and development programs to civil aviation are reviewed and some possible future contributions of those military programs are assessed. A summary is presented of detailed results concerned with: (1) review of the progress that has been made in aviation since 1925 and the significant technological advances that have been made; (2) an examination of current and planned military aeronautical research and technology programs and an assessment of their relevancy to the aeronautical R and D needs of civil aviation; (3) the relationship of the development base generated by military programs to the needs of civil airliner design, development, and production; (4) information on aeronautical R and D funding; and (5) the findings and observations of the RADCAP study.

  16. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauha Hussain Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  17. 77 FR 10798 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... the FAA, other civil aviation authorities and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... provided support to the ICAO Operations Panel and provided updates to the All Weather Operations Manual for ICAO. These efforts are important to the FAA and other civil aviation authorities; however, they...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  20. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  1. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Auria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  2. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  3. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  4. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  5. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  6. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  7. Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Ji, Ming; Lan, Jijun; You, Xuqun

    2016-01-28

    Optimism bias is a crucial feature of risk perception that leads to increased risk-taking behaviour, which is a particularly salient issue among pilots in aviation settings due to the high-stakes nature of flight. The current study sought to address the roles of narcissism and promotion focus on optimism bias in risk perception in aviation context. Participants were 239 male flight cadets from the Civil Aviation Flight University of China who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13, the Work Regulatory Focus Scale, and an indirect measure of unrealistic optimism in risk perception, which measured risk perception for the individual and the risk assumed by other individuals performing the same task. Higher narcissism increased the likelihood of underestimating personal risks, an effect that was mediated by high promotion focus motivation, such that high narcissism led to high promotion focus motivation. The findings have important implications for improving the accuracy of risk perception in aviation risks among aviators.

  8. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2016-01-01

    More than 4 years has passed since the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Immediately after the accident, 40 to 50 academic staff of the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo created an independent team to monitor the behavior of the radioactive materials in the field and their effects on agricultural farm lands, forests, rivers, animals, etc. When the radioactive nuclides from the nuclear power plant fell, they were instantly adsorbed at the site where they first touched; consequently, the fallout was found as scattered spots on the surface of anything that was exposed to the air at the time of the accident. The adsorption has become stronger over time, so the radioactive nuclides are now difficult to remove. The findings of our study regarding the wide range of effects on agricultural fields are summarized in this report. PMID:27538845

  9. General aviation fuel quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  10. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  11. The survey of occupational accidents in Yazd gas agency (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of coordinated and professional safety system to prevent occurrence of accidents and potential hazards seem to be essential in installing networks of gas distribution projects. Objective: To survey work-related accidents and safety performance indices in project implementation unit of Yazd gas agency. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 197 of workforce in Yazd gas agency in 2013 that were selected by census and they were male. Demographic and accident information were gathered using a self-made questionnaire and face- to- face interview, and required information obtained from dossier to determine the safety performance indicators. Safety performance indicators were calculated in separately of 13 types occupations in project implementation unit of gas agency and data were analyzed using T-test. Findings: The highest accident frequency and severity rate were related to digging occupation and then metal line welding. Consequences of accidents were cuts (%56.7 and soreness (%14.9. The causes of accidents were related to uselessness of personal protective equipment (%25.2 and lack of precision in the task (%19.3. The highest rate of accident was observed among the age group 20-29 years with work experience of 4-6 years. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study and the risk of gas processes, it seems to be necessary the implementation of integrated management systems and training of workers about safety rules to improve the safety culture and prevent accidents.

  12. Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... plant accidents comes mainly from consuming contaminated water, milk, or foods. People may also be exposed by ...

  13. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  14. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  15. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  16. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...

  17. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...

  18. Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Rajguru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, "Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft." The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies.

  19. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  20. Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajguru, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, "Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft." The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies.

  1. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  2. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  3. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  4. History of aviation safety; the satisfying sighs of relief due to developments in Aviation safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety is an Integral part of my career. Being part of TU Delft’s impressive record of research on Aviation safety, my career has been with a sense of purpose and a responsibility to equip students to deal with the status quo challenges on Aviation safety, developments, Investigations and

  5. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  6. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  7. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  8. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  9. An Analysis of Female Representation and Marines Performance in Aviation and Logistics Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Corps may be able to use the findings for this occfield to build expectations about changes in female representation in the ground combat occupations...logistics officers and female aviation officers may be due to differences in the logistics and aviation career paths. Pilots need to maintain currency by...percent of eligible female officers and 17 percent of eligible male officers for career -level education opportunities [19]. The FY 2013 CPIB selected

  10. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  11. 78 FR 20685 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) will meet in Arlington, VA. This.... L. 92-463). The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) provides advice and...

  12. 76 FR 72967 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... matters affecting civil aviation security. This meeting is open to the public, but participation...

  13. 77 FR 26641 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... 4, 2012 Part III Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration Aviation... Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS... Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) on...

  14. 78 FR 41413 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... and provides advice and recommendations for improving aviation security measures to the...

  15. Advanced Operational Aviation Medicine Course (6th), Held at Centre de Medecine Aeronautique, Brussels, Belgium, 24-28 March 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    sont percus dazns ls region endopexienne. Xis peuvent @tre inspiratoires et expiratoires on nniquement inspiratoires. B/ IRS SIMMIS SYSTOLXIMS...t irs e.g. the aiLnificnnce of gene- tic predisposition to develop lung cancer by ci-Irette tmo, ing it one does not smohe . The same holds tre far... Metoprolol and Oxpenolol on delayed differentiation behaviour in the monkey. Br. V Pharmac 59, 452. 7. Mason, J K, Aviation Accident Pathology. (1962

  16. A Review of Research and Development in Crashworthiness of General Aviation Aircraft: Seats, Restraints and Floor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    accident rates in general aviation. 3 q’ ) RtSUM~k Une recherche documentaire a W effectude afin de determiner l’dtat de nos connaissances sur les aspects...extensive computer analyses are necessary because the costs of full-scale aircraft tests are prohibitive. Wittlin 4 1) briefly outlined aircraft crash...subfloors. These analyses are required to defint the requirements for retrofit and new designs. The introduction of the FAA regulations [681 on dynamic

  17. R/S analysis of reaction time in Neuron Type Test for human activity in civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Kang, Ming-Cui; Li, Jing-Qiang; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Human factors become the most serious problem leading to accidents of civil aviation, which stimulates the design and analysis of Neuron Type Test (NTT) system to explore the intrinsic properties and patterns behind the behaviors of professionals and students in civil aviation. In the experiment, normal practitioners' reaction time sequences, collected from NTT, exhibit log-normal distribution approximately. We apply the χ2 test to compute the goodness-of-fit by transforming the time sequence with Box-Cox transformation to cluster practitioners. The long-term correlation of different individual practitioner's time sequence is represented by the Hurst exponent via Rescaled Range Analysis, also named by Range/Standard deviation (R/S) Analysis. The different Hurst exponent suggests the existence of different collective behavior and different intrinsic patterns of human factors in civil aviation.

  18. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  19. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodo

  20. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  1. Agricultural aviation application in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduces the current status of aerial application including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It has a c...

  2. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  3. Traffic accident analysis using GIS: a case study of Kyrenia City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2015-06-01

    Traffic accidents are causing major deaths in urban environments, so analyzing locations of the traffic accidents and their reasons is crucial. In this manner, patterns of accidents and hotspot distribution are analyzed by using geographic information technology. Locations of the traffic accidents in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 are combined to generate the kernel distribution map of Kyrenia City. This analysis aims to find high dense intersections and segments within the city. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation methods Local Morans I and Getis-Ord Gi are employed . The results are discussed in detail for further analysis. Finally, required changes for numerous intersections are suggested to decrease potential risks of high dense accident locations.

  4. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  5. A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

  6. Studies towards assessing the effects of aviation on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Arezoo

    capabilities and limitations of simple climate models for evaluating aviation policy options and tradeoffs, and (2) to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced effects on climate. With regard to the first goal, enhancing the evaluation of SCMs, the carbon cycle and energy balance treatments in several widely used simplified climate models were evaluated. The findings from this study resulted in modifications to the carbon cycle and energy balance model components of the APMT model that is used extensively by FAA in aviation policy analyses. With regard to the second goal, 3 lines of research were pursued to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced effects on climate. First, aviation NOx-induced effects were quantified using three-dimensional (3-D) climate-chemistry models and further, an intercomparison of NOx-induced effects in 3-D climate-chemistry models was performed. The NOx-induced forcings obtained in 3-D simulations were further used to update the parameterization of these effects in SCMs. Second, two additional NOx-induced effects (i.e., reduction in long-term O3 concentrations and lower stratospheric water vapor (SWV)) that have not been fully accounted for in previous studies were quantified based on parameterizing the results obtained in the 3-D simulations. Results indicate that the inclusion of long-term O3 and SWV RFs decreases the net aviation-induced RFs by about 21 to 31% for different range of scenarios studied. Finally, the representation of aviation NOx-induced effects in SCMs were evaluated and improved. The parameterization was improved based on the results of the 3-D simulations and by including the lifetime of the perturbed species and their emissions history into RF calculations. This resulted in 10 to 36% higher aviation NOx-induced net forcing than the net forcings that were reported in the literature, previously. Third, a set of experiments were performed to directly calculate the aviation NOx

  7. First Shanghai International Aviation Symposium Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Shanghai held its first international aviation symposium at its Portman Ritz-Carlton from April 28 to 30 in order to promote the sustainable development of the civil aviation industry in East China and the Yangtze Delta. The forum was also considered as an accelerating effort to build Shanghai into an international air hub. CAAC Minister Yang Yuanyuan and Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng delivered opening speeches.Yang said: "Priority should be given to the human spirit when we step up effort to build the city into an air hub. We aim to let more common people benefit from the development of civil aviation."

  8. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  9. Investigation of aviation emission impacts on global tropospheric chemistry and climate using a size-resolved aerosol-chemistry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Borman, Duncan; Mann, Graham; Pringle, Kirsty; Monks, Sarah; Reddington, Carly; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Aviation is responsible for 3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but 2-14% of anthropogenic induced climate warming due to contributions from short lived climate forcers. The global civil aviation fleet is projected to double by 2026 in relation to a 2006 baseline and so will play a substantial role in future climate change. Uncertainty in the net impact of aviation on climate is largely due to uncertainty in the impacts of aviation emissions on ozone and aerosol. To study the impact of aviation emissions we use the GLOMAP-mode global aerosol microphysics model coupled to the 3-D chemical transport model TOMCAT. GLOMAP-mode has been extended to include treatment of nitrate aerosol. We include a full suite of non-CO2 aviation emissions (including NOX, SO2, HCs, BC and OC) in the model. We combined the simulated changes in ozone and aerosol with a 3D radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effect due to aviation non-CO2 emissions. We find that aviation emissions increase O3 concentrations by up to 5.3% in the upper troposphere (UT), broadly matching previous studies. Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations increase by 26.5% and 14.6% respectively in the UT, whereas nitrate aerosol is reduced in some regions due to co-emission of NOX and SO2 In the UT, aviation emissions increase both total aerosol number as well as the concentration of particles greater than 70 nm diameter (N70). Entrainment of these particles into the free troposphere results in aviation emissions also increasing N70 in the boundary layer, causing a cooling through the first aerosol indirect effect. We explore differences in these responses compared with those simulated when using the recommended aviation emissions from CMIP5 (5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project), which only include NOX and BC emissions. Our results suggest that aviation emissions of SO2 and HCs neglected by CMIP5 produce important effects on ozone, aerosol number, and N70. We suggest CMIP5

  10. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  11. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S

    2012-05-01

    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  12. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  13. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  14. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  15. 78 FR 11728 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... held on March 5, 2013, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal...

  16. 77 FR 69916 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation... public of a meeting of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held on December 6, 2012, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal...

  17. A Statistically Based Training Diagnostic Tool for Marine Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    interdiction API aviation preflight indoctrination APR aviation performance record ASPT assault support ATD aviation training division ATF aviation...checklists. ASPT -1802: Introduction to confined area landings (CALs), and assault support techniques. Core Skill TERF-2100: First flight in squadron...conduct a navigation route. Core Skill REC-2300: Introduction to daytime visual reconniassance. ASPT -2400: Introduction to section tactical landings

  18. 77 FR 61539 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... constitute a fire hazard. To address this unsafe condition, Dassault Aviation have developed a structural...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  19. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation. SUMMARY: This notice advises interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on...

  20. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  1. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  2. 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Recommendation for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel Schmitigal 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...31 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits...ABSTRACT None 15. SUBJECT TERMS 2015 Coordinating Research Council Aviation Meetings 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  3. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency...... compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup...... safety in SMEs, as the project also focuses on management factors that can motivate the SMEs to increase their risk awareness and own initiatives. The project is now half way through the project period....

  4. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  5. Costs of IQ Loss from Leaded Aviation Gasoline Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Philip J; Giang, Amanda; Ashok, Akshay; Selin, Noelle E; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-09-06

    In the United States, general aviation piston-driven aircraft are now the largest source of lead emitted to the atmosphere. Elevated lead concentrations impair children's IQ and can lead to lower earnings potentials. This study is the first assessment of the nationwide annual costs of IQ losses from aircraft lead emissions. We develop a general aviation emissions inventory for the continental United States and model its impact on atmospheric concentrations using the community multi-scale air quality model (CMAQ). We use these concentrations to quantify the impacts of annual aviation lead emissions on the U.S. population using two methods: through static estimates of cohort-wide IQ deficits and through dynamic economy-wide effects using a computational general equilibrium model. We also examine the sensitivity of these damage estimates to different background lead concentrations, showing the impact of lead controls and regulations on marginal costs. We find that aircraft-attributable lead contributes to $1.06 billion 2006 USD ($0.01-$11.6) in annual damages from lifetime earnings reductions, and that dynamic economy-wide methods result in damage estimates that are 54% larger. Because the marginal costs of lead are dependent on background concentration, the costs of piston-driven aircraft lead emissions are expected to increase over time as regulations on other emissions sources are tightened.

  6. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... customer satisfaction TSA is engendering across affected constituencies. This committee has experience... TSA to gather customer and stakeholder input concerning the effectiveness of security actions and... aviation security measures to the Administrator of TSA. The committee will meet approximately twice...

  7. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there was...

  8. Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SBIR Phase I Project proposes a new passive microwave airborne sensor for in flight icing hazard detection, Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety. A feasibility...

  9. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  10. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research.

  11. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  13. Using random forests to diagnose aviation turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence poses a significant hazard to aviation, with severe encounters costing airlines millions of dollars per year in compensation, aircraft damage, and delays due to required post-event inspections and repairs. Moreover, attempts to avoid turbulent airspace cause flight delays and en route deviations that increase air traffic controller workload, disrupt schedules of air crews and passengers and use extra fuel. For these reasons, the Federal Aviation Administration and the N...

  14. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  15. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Sheth, Kapil; Ng, Hok Kwan; Morando, Alex; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  16. Spine fractures in falling accidents: analysis of multidetector CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V.; Kiuru, Martti J.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Department of Radiology, Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Topeliuksenkatu 5, 00029, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess incidence, fracture type, and location of spine fractures due to falls. All emergency room CT requests during a time period of 26 months were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had fallen or jumped and were initially examined with multidetector CT (MDCT) were included. The MDCT studies were evaluated by two radiologists for trauma location, fracture type, and multiple level involvement. A total of 237 patients (184 males, 53 female, age range 16-86 years, mean age 42 years) met the inclusion criteria. A total of 203 vertebral fractures were seen in 127 patients. Burst fracture (n=78) was the most frequent type of trauma, usually located in the thoracolumbar junction (50%). Also, compression fracture (n=52) was most common in the thoracolumbar junction (39%). Posterior column fracture (n=52) was most frequently detected in the cervical spine (40%). Multiple-level spine fractures were seen in 41 (32%) of the injured patients, of which 12 (29%) had fractures at noncontinuous levels. With increasing height the overall incidence of fractures increased, and burst fractures and multiple level spine fractures became more frequent. Age had no effect on fracture type or location. Spine fractures due to falls are common. Burst fracture is the most common fracture type and most frequently seen in the thoracolumbar junction. Multiple-level fractures were seen in 32% of the cases, of which 29% were seen at noncontinuous levels. Serious spine fractures are seen in all falling height and age groups. (orig.)

  17. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  18. Traffic accident or dumping? - Striking results of a traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Eric; Bayer, Ronny; Gärtner, Tobias; Dreßler, Jan; Ondruschka, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge. The pedestrian was hit in an upright body position, was lifted up by the car, smashed the windscreen and flew over the car with several body rotations. His flight curve ends directly at the roof of the car during brake processing, where the body touched the roof, smashed the rear-window and landed in the trunk. Based on the technical investigation, the driver of the car was not able to hide the accident. However, the pedestrian could have avoided the collision if he did not cross the motorway on foot.

  19. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  20. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  1. International Civil Aviation Co-operation Reinforced Wu Nianzu attends Asia Aviation Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Wu Nianzu, chairman and president of the Shanghai Airport (Group) Company, was invited by Huang Wenliang, director of Singapore Civil Aviation Administration, to attend 2004 Asia Aviation Exhibition held in Singapore on February 22 to 28. His party included Wang Guangdi, vice president of the company.They attended the opening ceremony, visited the

  2. Aviation Program Administrators' Perceptions of Specialized Aviation Accreditation under Public Law 111-216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Sherman (2006) and Prather (2007) studied why so few of the schools offering aviation-related curriculum leading to an associate's or bachelor's degree do not seek specialized accreditation. The goal of this study was to update the field of specialized aviation accreditation in the new environment of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation…

  3. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes... Concept Limited (Type Certificate previously held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited): Docket No....

  4. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  5. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  6. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  7. Aviation Demand and Economic Growth in the Czech Republic: Cointegration Estimation and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mehmood

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to empirically examine the aviation-led growth hypothesis for the Czech Republic by testing causality between aviation and economic growth. We resort to econometric tests such as unit root tests and test of cointegration purposed by Johansen (1988. Fully Modified OLS, Dynamic OLS and Conical Cointegration Regression are used to estimate the cointegration equation for time span of 42 years from 1970 to 2012. Empirical results reveal the existence of cointegration between aviation demand and economic growth. Graphic methods such as Cholesky impulse response function (both accumulated and non-accumulated and variance decomposition have also been applied to render the analysis rigorous. The positive contribution of aviation demand to economic growth is similar in all three estimation techniques of cointegration equation. Finally, Granger causality test is also applied to find the direction of causal relationship. Findings help in lime-lighting the importance of aviation industry in economic growth for a developing country like the Czech Republic.

  8. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  10. Marine Offshore Accidents in Nigeria, Causes and Necessary Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yinkepreye L. Bebeteidoh ,Robert Poku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the ground-breaking developments in the maritime industry and the implementation of safety-related regulations and the institution of International Safety Codes and Protocols, marine offshore accidents in Nigeria are still a serious concern for global maritime organizations as the rate of offshore accidents has not reduced to the expected level. Ensuring the consistency of offshore accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to plainly ascertain the core causes of offshore accidents. This research work though limited due to poor response on the part of the respondents as regards to releasing some data that would have been helpful, the researchers were still able to investigate the core causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria’s maritime industry. With emphasis on the scope of work essentially, data was collected through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire to selected seafarers connected with the offshore oil and gas industry in Nigeria, which included Captains, engineers, deckhands, oilers and Quartermasters. The data’s collected through the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire was analyzed using the concept of the statistical tool, Chi-Square, which was considered appropriate for testing the validity and reliability of each hypothesis established in this research. The aim of this research was to determine the causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria, which identified that human, environmental/natural, design, and technical factors comprises the major causes of marine offshore accidents. With the findings gotten, recommendations were made which if implemented by governments and maritime organizations and adhered to by maritime operators will go a long way to reduce marine offshore accidents.

  11. Psychophysiological Sensing and State Classification for Attention Management in Commercial Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Liles, Charles; Stephens, Chad L.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-related human performance limiting states (AHPLS) can cause pilots to lose airplane state awareness (ASA), and their detection is important to improving commercial aviation safety. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found that the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane state awareness, and that distraction of various forms was involved in all of them. Research on AHPLS, including channelized attention, diverted attention, startle / surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological states, a broad suite of sensors has been implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during high fidelity flight simulation human subject studies. Pilot participants were asked to perform benchmark tasks and experimental flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to distinguish the AHPLS induced by the benchmark tasks. Unimodal classification using pre-processed electroencephalography (EEG) signals as input features to extreme gradient boosting, random forest and deep neural network multiclass classifiers was implemented. Multi-modal classification using galvanic skin response (GSR) in addition to the same EEG signals and using the same types of classifiers produced increased accuracy with respect to the unimodal case (90 percent vs. 86 percent), although only via the deep neural network classifier. These initial results are a first step toward the goal of demonstrating simultaneous real time classification of multiple states using multiple sensing modalities in high-fidelity flight simulators. This detection is intended to support and inform training methods under development to mitigate the loss of ASA and thus reduce accidents and incidents.

  12. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  13. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents.

  14. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  15. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  16. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  17. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  18. Applying decision trial and evaluation laboratory as a decision tool for effective safety management system in aviation transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyichukwu Ebubechukwu Onyegiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in the aviation industry, the weak engineering controls and lapses associated with safety management systems (SMSs are responsible for the seemingly unprecedented disasters. A previous study has confirmed the difficulties experienced by safety managers with SMSs and the need to direct research to this area of investigation for more insights and progress in the evaluation and maintenance of SMSs in the aviation industry. The purpose of this work is to examine the application of Decision Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL to the aviation industry in developing countries with illustration using the Nigerian aviation survey data for the validation of the method. The advantage of the procedure over other decision making methods is in its ability to apply feedback in its decision making. It also affords us the opportunity of breaking down the complex aviation SMS components and elements which are multi-variate in nature through the analysis of the contributions of the diverse system criteria from the perspective of cause and effects, which in turn yields easier and yet more effective aviation transportation accident pre-corrective actions. In this work, six revised components of an SMS were identified and DEMATEL was applied to obtain their direct and indirect impacts and influences on the overall SMS performance. Data collection was by the survey questionnaire, which served as the initial direct-relation matrix, coded in Matlab software for establishing the impact relation map (IRM. The IRM was then plotted in MS Excel spread-sheet software. From our results, safety structure and regulation has the highest impact level on an SMS with a corresponding positive relation level value. In conclusion, the results agree with those of previous researchers that used grey relational analysis. Thus, DEMATEL serves as a great tool and resource for the safety manager.

  19. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  20. Serious work accidents and their causes - An analysis of data from Eurostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    in Europe each year. Despite the uncertainty of the data collected by Eurostat over two years stile provide a picture of the seriousness of the accidents, the sources of risk and the events taking place when the accidents occur. Data from Eurostat were analysed to find out which hazards and accidental...

  1. Investigating Prevalence of deaths from Traffic Accidents and Factors Associated with it in Yazd in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Soltani

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: This study findings provide useful information for setting priorities in order to prevent the traffic accidents injuries. In addition, appropriate intervention programs are necessary in order to prevent traffic accidents and their complications, as well as to minimize injuries in accordance with other relevant organizations.

  2. Epidemiology of Toxicological Factors in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    central nervous system (5−7). For example, fi rst-generation antihistaminics—brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, and doxylamine— cause...1 3 5 Quinidine 0 0 1 1 Ranitidine 2 3 9 17 Sertraline /Desmethylsertraline 0 6 11 19 Sildenafil/Metabolite(s) 0 1 3 4 Theophylline 1 3 2 6

  3. Drugs and Alcohol in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities from 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory/Manufacturing Description 1 Date Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication 2 Date of withdrawal of FDA approval of...Generic 2004 Fluoxetine/Norfluoxetine 3 0.2 18 1.1 21 1.3 17 1.3 FDA򒾅, Generic 2001 Gabapentin 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 4 0.3 FDA 1993 Gemfibrozil* 5 0.3

  4. Alcohol-Related Aviation Accidents Involving Pilots With Previous Alcohol Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Drug Abuse/Alcohol and Drug Related Offenses The pilot’s failure to maintain sufficient altitude above the surface of water during an intentional...vely.and.has.made.tremendous.strdes.n.develop- ng.programs.to.help.plots.wth.substance.abuse. ssues .. Per.“Alcohol.Rehabltaton.of.Arlne.Plots... ssues . rEfErENCEs 1 .. Natonal.Transportaton.Safety.Board,.Safety.Rec- ommendaton.A-07-41 ..(2007) . 2 .. Avaton.Safety.Research.Act.of.1988,.Publ

  5. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  6. Computer technology forecast study for general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.

    1976-01-01

    A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.

  7. Rating hydrogen as a potential aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene as future alternate fuels for transport aircraft is analyzed, and the results of a comparative assessment are given in terms of cost, energy resource utilization, areas of fuel production, transmission airport facilities, and ultimate use in the aircraft. Important safety (fires) and some environmental aspects (CO2 balance) are also described. It is concluded that fuel price estimates indicate the price of synthetic aviation kerosene (synjet) would be approximately half of the price calculated for liquid hydrogen and somewhat less than that of liquid methane, with synjet from oil shale reported to be the least expensive.

  8. Naval Aviation Costs: Targeting Operations and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    17 Defense AT&L: November–December 2013 Naval Aviation Costs Targeting Operations and Support Capt. Robert Farmer n Capt. Keith Nixon n Capt...ONR Maj. Gen. Murray, TECOM Brig. Gen. Jansson, DLA Aviation SES Gilpin , DASN (Air) SES Stiller, DASN (Ships) SES Zangardi, DASN (C4I) *NAE Air... Robert Brown Training/Training Supt 6.7.6 – Lorie Nace Support Equipment 6.7.7 – Bruce Wilhelm Industrial Business Ops 6.8D – Roy Harris Tech Dir

  9. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  10. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) Working Group of the Whole...

  11. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  12. ICAO Assistance to Civil Aviation in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Describes the cost advantages of air transportation over road, rail, and river transportation in many circumstances which prevail today in developing countries. Presents accounts of International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) efforts supporting civil aviation programs in these countries. (DS)

  13. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  14. Challenges of Using Audio-Visual Aids as Warm-Up Activity in Teaching Aviation English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…

  15. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  16. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  17. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  18. Personnel of Civil Aviation as a Systematic Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation is considered in the article. During the research the author presents scientific views on the definition of «system», reveals the essence of the organization of personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation. Essential characteristics of the integral system of personnel of civil aviation and its systematic qualities are determined.English abstractThe personnel of civil aviation is a system organized formation of trained workers of c...

  19. Future Retention of the Marine Corps Top Performing Aviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    so that they can rise in their organizations to eventual executive leadership.”30 In essence, this talent management concept focuses on a select few...much more technologically oriented aviators to manage the systems and still fly the aircraft. The emerging gap and the weakest link is in selecting...balance, and Aviator Continuation Pay. 15. SUBJECT TERMS USMC Aviator Retention, USMC Aviation Manpower, Marine Corps Talent Management , Marine Corps

  20. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  1. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  2. 77 FR 53902 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... of the International Aviation Sub-committee, placed in the public docket. You may submit comments...

  3. 78 FR 3908 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... Administrator of TSA on matters affecting civil aviation security. This meeting is open to the public,...

  4. Suppression of chlorine activation on aviation-produced volatile particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Meilinger

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effect of nm-sized aircraft-induced aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SO4/H2O particles on atmospheric ozone as a function of temperature. Our calculations are based on a previously derived parameterization for the regional-scale perturbations of the sulfate surface area density due to air traffic in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC and a chemical box model. We confirm large scale model results that at temperatures T > 210 K additional ozone loss -- mainly caused by hydrolysis of BrONO2 and N2O5 -- scales in proportion with the aviation-produced increase of the background aerosol surface area. However, at lower temperatures (< 210 K we isolate two effects which efficiently reduce the aircraft-induced perturbation: (1 background particles growth due to H2O and HNO3 uptake enhance scavenging losses of aviation-produced liquid particles and (2 the Kelvin effect efficiently limits chlorine activation on the small aircraft-induced droplets by reducing the solubility of chemically reacting species. These two effects lead to a substantial reduction of heterogeneous chemistry on aircraft-induced volatile aerosols under cold conditions. In contrast we find contrail ice particles to be potentially important for heterogeneous chlorine activation and ozone depletion. These features have not been taken into consideration in previous global studies of the atmospheric impact of aviation. Therefore, to parameterize them in global chemistry and transport models, we propose the following parameterisation: scale the hydrolysis reactions by the aircraft-induced surface area increase, and neglect heterogeneous chlorine reactions on liquid plume particles but not on ice contrails and aircraft induced ice clouds.

  5. Suppression of chlorine activation on aviation-produced volatile particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Meilinger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effect of nanometer-sized aircraft-induced aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SO4/H2O particles on atmospheric ozone as a function of temperature. Our calculations are based on a previously derived parameterization for the regional-scale perturbations of the sulfate surface area density due to air traffic in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC and a chemical box model. We confirm large scale model results that at temperatures T>210 K additional ozone loss -- mainly caused by hydrolysis of BrONO2 and N2O5 -- scales in proportion with the aviation-produced increase of the background aerosol surface area. However, at lower temperatures (2O and HNO3 uptake enhance scavenging losses of aviation-produced liquid particles and (2 the Kelvin effect efficiently limits chlorine activation on the small aircraft-induced droplets by reducing the solubility of chemically reacting species. These two effects lead to a substantial reduction of heterogeneous chemistry on aircraft-induced volatile aerosols under cold conditions. In contrast we find contrail ice particles to be potentially important for heterogeneous chlorine activation and reductions in ozone levels. These features have not been taken into consideration in previous global studies of the atmospheric impact of aviation. Therefore, to parameterize them in global chemistry and transport models, we propose the following parameterisation: scale the hydrolysis reactions by the aircraft-induced surface area increase, and neglect heterogeneous chlorine reactions on liquid plume particles but not on ice contrails and aircraft induced ice clouds.

  6. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  7. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  8. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  9. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J

    1977-02-12

    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  10. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  11. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  12. [Psychological support for road accident participants: the program implementation outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuczewska-Wośko, Aleksandra; Biłyj, Dorota; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    Road accident belongs to one of the categories of traumatic events, and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The most common psychological consequences of road traffic accidents are the emotional disorders, cognitive deficits (disorders concentration of attention and memory function), impaired social relationships, troubles with performing work duties and physical symp-toms of stress. The article discusses the program of psychological support given to the participants of road accidents, conducted in Wroclaw, its theoretical assumptions and the mode of its implementation. Basic theoretical assumptions of the program are inter alia based on the theories of H. Selye and R. Lazarus. The authors of this article also refer to the so-called therapeutic process of education designed by Everly and Rosenfeld, who recommend that the process of developing self-responsibility be used for therapeutic purposes. This requires clarifying the exact nature of the problem, and then looking for possible remedies. The program is open to all road accident participants (victims, perpetrators, witnesses) and their families. Classes are designed to combine theory (lectures) and practice (exercises). Anxiety and cognitive processes, as well as relaxation training, interpersonal training (eg, assertiveness) and kinesiology are the major areas of activities. Psychological support provided for road accident participants is of intervention--and preventive nature; intervention, as it relates to the consequences ofa specific stressogenic event, namely a road accident; preventive, as it serves the overriding purpose--the improvement of road safety. This article presents the main findings of the program, the results of the survey evaluation, and proposals to develop psychological operations aimed at the road accidents participants.

  13. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J. [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  14. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  15. Formation of communication skills of aviation specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Коваленко, Ольга Олександрівна

    2013-01-01

    Culture of the professional communication is the basis of the professional activity. It is spoken about the process of formation of the professional communication culture, where communication, professionalism of the communication are foundation of it in personal oriented studying by means of creative technologies; examined about peculiarities, and defined conditions of formation of professional oral skills culture of future aviation specialists.

  16. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  17. 76 FR 31511 - Aviation Data Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... methodology for aviation data modernization. DATES: June 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard... to the Web site http://www.regulations.gov . Enter the docket number DOT-OST-1998-4043 in the search field. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On July 15, 1998, the Department published an...

  18. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Aviation Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in aviation maintenance. The report first provides the results of an interview with the program chairperson, which sought information on program objectives and goals and their determination, the extent…

  19. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  20. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  1. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types.

  2. 75 FR 67805 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the... the Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Aviation...

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Nebraska Aviation Education Association Conference (1st, Omaha, Nebraska, January 1994). The UNO Aviation Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crehan, James E., Ed.

    This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of…

  4. Estimation of traffic accident costs: a prompted model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Rokhshad; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Radam, Alias; Rahim, Khalid Abdul; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaitun; Yazdani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the reason for 25% of unnatural deaths in Iran. The main objective of this study is to find a simple model for the estimation of economic costs especially in Islamic countries (like Iran) in a straightforward manner. The model can show the magnitude of traffic accident costs with monetary equivalent. Data were collected from different sources that included traffic police records, insurance companies and hospitals. The conceptual framework, in our study, was based on the method of Ayati. He used this method for the estimation of economic costs in Iran. We promoted his method via minimum variables. Our final model has only three available variables which can be taken from insurance companies and police records. The running model showed that the traffic accident costs were US$2.2 million in 2007 for our case study route.

  5. Application of Gray Markov SCGM(1,1) c Model to Prediction of Accidents Deaths in Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jian-Yi; Zhou, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of mine accident is the basis of aviation safety assessment and decision making. Gray prediction is suitable for such kinds of system objects with few data, short time, and little fluctuation, and Markov chain theory is just suitable for forecasting stochastic fluctuating dynamic process. Analyzing the coal mine accident human error cause, combining the advantages of both Gray prediction and Markov theory, an amended Gray Markov SCGM(1,1) c model is proposed. The gray SCGM(1,1) c model is applied to imitate the development tendency of the mine safety accident, and adopt the amended model to improve prediction accuracy, while Markov prediction is used to predict the fluctuation along the tendency. Finally, the new model is applied to forecast the mine safety accident deaths from 1990 to 2010 in China, and, 2011-2014 coal accidents deaths were predicted. The results show that the new model not only discovers the trend of the mine human error accident death toll but also overcomes the random fluctuation of data affecting precision. It possesses stronger engineering application.

  6. Keselamatan Penerbangan: Teori dan Problematika (Aviation Safety: Theory and Problematic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhy Riadhy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available “Keselamatan Penerbangan: Teori dan Problematika (Aviation Safety: Theory and Problematic” is written by aviation practioner in Indonesia. The writer explores the aviation problematic based on his experience in more than three decades. Many issues out of box in aviation arise in this book, such as “Kebenaran Dalam Penerbangan (The Truth in Aviation” which is focus on international aviation policy and regulations made by ICAO through research and development (scientific truth and written on 18 Annexes and relevant documents, as living guidances of standards and recommended practices that must be implemented by states.

  7. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  8. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  9. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  10. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  11. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  13. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  14. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  15. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  16. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  17. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  18. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  19. Aviation-attributable ozone as a driver for changes in mortality related to air quality and skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2016-11-01

    Aviation is a significant source of tropospheric ozone, which is a critical UV blocking agent, an indirect precursor to the formation of particulate matter, and a respiratory health hazard. To date, investigations of human health impacts related to aviation emissions have focused on particulate matter, and no global estimate yet exists of the combined health impact of aviation due to ozone, particulate matter and UV exposure changes. We use a coupled tropospheric-stratospheric chemical-transport model with a global aviation emissions inventory to estimate the total impact of aviation on all three risk factors. We find that surface ozone due to aviation emissions is maximized during hemispheric winter due to the greater wintertime chemical lifetime of ozone, but that a smaller enhancement of 0.5 ppbv occurs during summertime. This summertime increase results in an estimated 6,800 premature mortalities per year due to ozone exposure, over three times greater than previous estimates. During the winter maximum, interaction with high background NOx concentrations results in enhanced production of nitrate aerosol and increased annual average exposure to particulate matter. This ozone perturbation is shown to be the driving mechanism behind an additional 9,200 premature mortalities due to exposure to particulate matter. However, the increase in tropospheric ozone is also found to result in 400 fewer mortalities due to melanoma skin cancer in 2006. This is the first estimate of global melanoma mortality due to aviation, and the first estimate of skin cancer mortality impacts due to aviation using a global chemical transport model.

  20. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    photovoltaic , thermal, wind, and drilled geothermal); biomass for aviation; International Journal of Rotating Machinery 3 and hybrid-electric-compressed air... ecological water results from climatic anthropogenic changes [16]. Many watersheds are running low, as is occurring in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, because...Grows in nutrient poor soil Pennycress (i) 0.25 tonne/ha oil seed with 36% oil/seed (ii) potential to produce 920 L-biodiesel/ha Weed-to-Crop (iii

  1. Aviation turbine fuel properties and their trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel property values and their trends were studied through a review of a recognized, wide ranging sample population from actual fuel inspection data. A total of 676 fuel samples of Jet A aviation turbine fuel were compiled over an eleven year period. Results indicate that most fuel samples have one to three near-specification properties, the most common being aromatics, smoke point, and freezing point.

  2. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    communication in the aircraft logs , pi- during the visit? lots would sometimes verbally describe the per- formance of the plane to a lead mechanic’ or...however, handwritten input may eventually be usefl for implemeinting technology in aviation maintenance and spcf Ic maneac’ ctiiis. other applications...functions. When the auto is referred for service of a int ermittent or other problem, the data recorder may be hooked up by modem to enable e data log to

  3. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  4. The study of core melting phenomena in reactor severe accident of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Shane; Park, Seong Yong; Kim, Jin Man; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Song, Myung Jin [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    TMI-2 accident is more valuable than the related experiments in the point of view that it is a real accident offering huge information about the late phase of severe accident. Therefore it gives out good standards for evaluation of code performance and inputs suitableness by comparing the accident data and simulated outputs. In this study SCDAP/REALAP5/MOD3.4 was selected for accident simulation. And sensitivity analysis was performed on varied cases to find out the most proper input variable about the late phase of core meting phenomena. Other plants and experimental facilities input deck were collected and analyzed for the sensitivity study and the shortcomings proposed by SCDAP/RELAP5 peer review were considered to the simulation. As a result gamma heating fraction in the input affect the progress of core melting phenomena. About this a study on the related model itself will be carried out.

  5. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  6. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  7. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remain the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do—at least the ones we are studying—massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  8. Global civil aviation black carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-09-17

    Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions.

  9. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  10. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  11. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  12. The influence of human factor to aviation maintenance safety%解析人为因素对航空维修安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹

    2015-01-01

    In the entire transportation system, air transport with more and more prominent.The progress of scientific and technological strength,to ensure that the aviation industry has powerful hardware equipment, which can withstand general accident impact, but all crash prone to improve the vigilance of the people of aviation,improve the quality of aviation maintenance,increase the inspection,supervision,promptly eliminate all kinds of potential safety problems,to reduce the frequency of accidents,which suggests that human factors in aviation maintenance occupies a pivotal position,to promote aviation employee security awareness,the level of science and technology and emergency handling ability.This paper will be explored in detail.%在整个运输体系中,航空运输的贡献越来越突出,科技力量的进步,保证了航空业具备强大的硬件设备,其能够承受一般性意外事故的打击,但各类空难频发提高了人们对航空的警惕性,提高航空维修质量,加大检查、监督力度,及时排除各类安全隐患,以减少意外事故发生的频率,这表明人为因素在航空维修中占据举足轻重的地位,提升航空员工的安全意识,科技水平与应急处理能力等,对此本文将进行详细探究。

  13. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test

  14. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  15. Logit Model of Motorcycle Accidents in the Philippines Considering Personal and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary R. Seva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine significant personal and environmental variables in predicting motorcycle accidents in the Philippines, compare the results with findings in other countries, and propose possible government interventions. Data were gathered from 177 participants through the use of a survey in a licensing center in the largest city in Metro Manila. Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of an accident from variables considered in the model. Three variables were found to be significant predictors of motorcycle accidents: age, driving behavior, and junction type. Younger drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The significance of age was unexpected because similar models found this to be insignificant. Driving behavior, specifically, committing violation predicts accident likelihood. Driving at t- and y-junctions also predicts motorcycle accidents. In the Philippines, a unique set of variables were found to predict motorcycle accidents. Although previous studies have established the effect of these variables to accident likelihood, the combination was unforeseen. Government agencies can focus on interventions directed at these three variables.

  16. General-aviation's view of progress in the aviation weather system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Douglas J.

    1988-01-01

    For all its activity statistics, general-aviation is the most vulnerable to hazardous weather. Of concern to the general aviation industry are: (1) the slow pace of getting units of the Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) to the field; (2) the efforts of the National Weather Service to withdraw from both the observation and dissemination roles of the aviation weather system; (3) the need for more observation points to improve the accuracy of terminal and area forecasts; (4) the need for improvements in all area forecasts, terminal forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts; (5) slow progress in cockpit weather displays; (6) the erosion of transcribed weather broadcasts (TWEB) and other deficiencies in weather information dissemination; (7) the need to push to make the Direct User Access Terminal (DUAT) a reality; and (7) the need to improve severe weather (thunderstorm) warning systems.

  17. Aviation Fuel Tracer Simulation: Model Intercomparison and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Fahey, D. W.; Schumann, U.; Prather, M. J.; Penner, J. E.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Jackman, C. H.; Pitari, G.; Koehler, I.; Sausen, R.; Weaver, C. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Dentener, F. J.; Fleming, E. L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit for aircraft-produced perturbations to aerosols and gaseous exhaust products in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is derived using the 1992 aviation fuel tracer simulation performed by eleven global atmospheric models. Key findings are that subsonic aircraft emissions: (1) have not been responsible for the observed water vapor trends at 40degN; (2) could be a significant source of soot mass near 12 km, but not at 20 km; (3) might cause a noticeable increase in the background sulfate aerosol surface area and number densities (but not mass density) near the northern mid-latitude tropopause; and (4) could provide a global, annual mean top of the atmosphere radiative forcing up to +0.006 W/sq m and -0.013 W/sq m due to emitted soot and sulfur, respectively.

  18. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  19. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  20. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  1. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  2. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often

  3. Prevention of accidents in SME’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    we developed a method to observe and document the activities and risks in small enterprises, on the basis of the Dutch study. The co-operation between the Dutch and Danish projects has resulted in a very useful web-based risk assessment tool, which towards June 2009 will be accessible in Dutch...... in a series of small enterprises covering observations of about 120 man-days. These observations demonstrated that maintaining barriers against accidents can only partly be managed by the employer. Especially in enterprises with employees normally working outside the establishment, the daily safety assessment....... The results of the Danish project is an application of the Dutch findings to describe what risks and safety barriers are most important for small enterprises in some industry sectors and jobs. Based on this knowledge, we can formulate requirements for, 1) what can and should the employer take care of; 2) what...

  4. Aviation graduates' competencies, 2000--2007: Perceptions of aviation educators and industry representatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridewell, John B.

    This study surveyed the perceptions of collegiate aviation educators, collegiate aviation institution representatives, and aviation industry stakeholders who were members of the University Aviation Association as of February 5, 2007. Survey forms were sent to 353 prospective participants and there was an overall response rate of 47.6%. The survey consisted of a list of 16 knowledge and skill competencies with Likert-type responses for each participant to indicate the level of importance each placed upon those competencies for collegiate aviation graduates and of the level of satisfaction each had that collegiate aviation graduates actually possessed those competencies upon graduation. Two open-ended questions pertained to the strengths and weaknesses of collegiate aviation programs or their graduates. Another allowed for general comments. The statistical analyses indicated that all three groups were most satisfied with graduates' technical skills and least satisfied with communications skills. Analyses indicated that a balance of technical skills and a liberal education was essential for program success. All knowledge and skill competencies were shown to have high to very high importance levels, but only medium to high satisfaction levels. Results indicated that graduates were perceived to possess all stated competencies, but to a lesser degree than desired. Successful collegiate aviation programs existed, but there was room for improvement. Success was program or graduate speck, with no ubiquitous definition of what constituted a successful collegiate aviation program. Aviation industry needs must be addressed by academia for any collegiate aviation program to be successful, but results indicated that the aviation industry needs to take a larger role in the development and refinement of collegiate aviation programs. Finances for institutions, programs, and students were a major concern for the foreseeable future. Administrators should consider how their actions

  5. Petri net-based modelling of human-automation conflicts in aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizziol, Sergio; Tessier, Catherine; Dehais, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of aviation safety reports reveal that human-machine conflicts induced by poor automation design are remarkable precursors of accidents. A review of different crew-automation conflicting scenarios shows that they have a common denominator: the autopilot behaviour interferes with the pilot's goal regarding the flight guidance via 'hidden' mode transitions. Considering both the human operator and the machine (i.e. the autopilot or the decision functions) as agents, we propose a Petri net model of those conflicting interactions, which allows them to be detected as deadlocks in the Petri net. In order to test our Petri net model, we designed an autoflight system that was formally analysed to detect conflicting situations. We identified three conflicting situations that were integrated in an experimental scenario in a flight simulator with 10 general aviation pilots. The results showed that the conflicts that we had a-priori identified as critical had impacted the pilots' performance. Indeed, the first conflict remained unnoticed by eight participants and led to a potential collision with another aircraft. The second conflict was detected by all the participants but three of them did not manage the situation correctly. The last conflict was also detected by all the participants but provoked typical automation surprise situation as only one declared that he had understood the autopilot behaviour. These behavioural results are discussed in terms of workload and number of fired 'hidden' transitions. Eventually, this study reveals that both formal and experimental approaches are complementary to identify and assess the criticality of human-automation conflicts. Practitioner Summary: We propose a Petri net model of human-automation conflicts. An experiment was conducted with general aviation pilots performing a scenario involving three conflicting situations to test the soundness of our formal approach. This study reveals that both formal and experimental approaches

  6. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  7. Trends in the Development of China’s Aviation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese leadership has identified the aviation industry as a strategic priority. This policy brief assesses progress in China’s aviation industry, with a focus on 2009–2010. A review of major developments in China’s civilian and military aircraft programs reveals a trend in China’s approach to advancing its aviation industry: dependence on foreign partnerships alongside investment in indigenous research and development. It remains to be seen if this hybrid techno-globalist and techno-nati...

  8. Sensors and Systems to Enhance Aviation Safety Against Weather Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Weather-related factors are among major causes of aviation hazards, passenger discomfort, poor airline schedule-keeping, and poor operating economy. A variety of new high-technology electronic sensors and systems for aviation weather are being developed and installed across the US. The aviation weather monitoring system of the future will be centered around Doppler weather radars which offer the best combination of coverage, resolution, and agility for this purpose, and are able to detect and...

  9. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  10. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  11. Radiocarbon Releases from the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Kinch, Helen R.; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C. W.; Tripney, Brian G.

    2016-11-01

    Radiocarbon activities were measured in annual tree rings for the years 2009 to 2015 from Japanese cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica) collected at six sites ranging from 2.5–38 km northwest and north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The 14C specific activity varied from 280.4 Bq kg‑1 C in 2010 to 226.0 Bq kg‑1 C in 2015. The elevated 14C activities in the 2009 and 2010 rings confirmed 14C discharges during routine reactor operations, whereas those activities that were indistinguishable from background in 2012–2015 coincided with the permanent shutdown of the reactors after the accident in 2011. High-resolution 14C analysis of the 2011 ring indicated 14C releases during the Fukushima accident. The resulted 14C activity decreased with increasing distance from the plant. The maximum 14C activity released during the period of the accident was measured 42.4 Bq kg‑1 C above the natural ambient 14C background. Our findings indicate that, unlike other Fukushima-derived radionuclides, the 14C released during the accident is indistinguishable from ambient background beyond the local environment (~30 km from the plant). Furthermore, the resulting dose to the local population from the excess 14C activities is negligible compared to the dose from natural/nuclear weapons sources.

  12. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system.

  13. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  14. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramachandran,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  15. Cerebral vascular accident: some characteristics of occupational therapy evaluation forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, K

    1980-04-01

    To determine areas most commonly evaluated by occupational therapists and to ascertain methods in which evaluative information is gathered, 35 evaluation forms currently employed by occupational therapists to assess dysfunction in patients with cerebral vascular accident were collected. Five general areas including motor function, sensory deficit, hadn function, activities of daily living, and visual perception were found to be most frequently listed on the forms. These areas were divided into sub areas to operationally define the information collected. Analysis revealed that the level of measurement most frequently employed by therapists to record evaluate findings was the descriptive level. There was a tendency to collect data at "higher" or more sophisticated levels of measurement in those areas evaluated most frequently. The findings are discussed in relation to professional competency concerns and the need to develop unique occupational therapy evaluative instruments for areas of practice such as cerebral vascular accident.

  16. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  17. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  18. Aviation security x-ray detection challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a review of the background and some drivers are provided for X-ray screening for aviation security. Some of the key considerations are highlighted along with impacts of the image-based approaches and signature approaches. The role of information theory is discussed along with some recent work that may influence the technical direction by posing the question: "what measurements, parameters and metrics should be considered in future system design?" A path forward should be based on information theory, however electronic machines will likely interface with humans and be dollar-cost driven, so ultimately solutions must consider additional parameters other than only technical performance factors.

  19. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.

  20. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    Institute) model estimates the fuel use per flight for all flights leaving Danish airports in 1998, while the annual Danish CORINAIR inventories are based on improved LTO/aircraft type statistics. A time series of fuel use from 1985 to 2000 is also shown for flights between Denmark and Greenland/the Faroe...... Islands, obtained with the NERI model. In addition a complete overview of the aviation fuel use from the two latter areas is given, based on fuel sale information from Statistics Greenland and Statistics Faroe Islands, and fuel use data from airline companies. The fuel use figures are presented on a level...

  1. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after re...

  2. Recent trends in aviation turbine fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plots and tables, compiled from Department of Energy (and predecessor agency) inspection reports from 1969 to 1980, present ranges, averages, extremes, and trends for most of the 22 properties of Jet A aviation turbine fuel. In recent years, average values of aromatics content, mercaptan sulfur content, distillation temperature of 10 percent recovered, smoke point, and freezing point show small but recognizable trends toward their specification limits. About 80 percent of the fuel samples had at least one property near specification, defined as within a standard band about the specification limit. By far the most common near-specification properties were aromatics content, smoke point, and freezing point.

  3. [Cryogenic fuels in aviation: pollution reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2004-01-01

    Cryogenic fuels are viewed as an alternative to the commonly used hydrocarbonic fuels. The existing national and international guidelines set limits to the emission of unburned carbohydrates (CnHm), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and soot (SN); there is also prohibition against premeditated fuel discharge in atmosphere of airports. Whereas the international regulations are constantly revised toward toughening, more than 80% of the plane engines in the Russian civil aviation do not meet both national and international harmful emission limits. One of the ways to resolve the problem is substitution of the liquid carbohydrate fuel (kerosene) by natural gas.

  4. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  5. Lightning hazards overview: Aviation requirements and interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    A ten-year history of USAF lightning incidents is presented along with a discussion of the problems posed by lightning to current aircraft, and the hazards it constitutes to the electrical and electronic subsystems of new technology aircraft. Lightning technical protection technical needs, both engineering and operational, include: (1) in-flight data on lightning electrical parameters; (2) tech base and guidelines for protection of advanced systems and structures; (3) improved laboratory test techniques; (4) analysis techniques for predicting induced effects; (5) lightning strike incident data from general aviation; (6) lightning detection systems; (7) pilot reports on lightning strikes; and (8) better training in lightning awareness.

  6. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  7. ICAO AVIATION OCCURRENCE CATEGORIES SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTING AVIATION SAFETY IN POLAND FROM 2008 TO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł GŁOWACKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, as a member of the EU, is represented within the ICAO, by the European Aviation Safety Agency. However, this does not relieve our country from the responsibility of developing a state safety programme (SSP. The need to set up such a programme, which has to be specific to every country involved in aviation operation, was introduced by the ICAO’s Annex 19. One of the important points in Annex 19 is: “5.2.1 Each State shall establish and maintain a safety database to facilitate the effective analysis of information on actual or potential safety deficiencies obtained, including that from its incident reporting systems, and to determine any actions required for the enhancement of safety”. The Polish Civil Aviation Authority, along with other databases, manages the European Coordination Centre for Aviation Incident Reporting Systems (ECCAIRS. The authors (who are specialists dealing with exploitation processes in aviation have conducted a laborious processing of the data contained in the ECCAIRS database, analysing them based on various criteria: aviation occurrence categories (as defined by the ICAO, phases of flight for different airports in Poland etc. Aircraft with an maximum take-off mass (MTOM 5,700 kg (commercial aviation were considered separately. It was found that the most events are those that relate to power plant (SCF-PP airframes and related system (SCF-NP failures, followed by collisions with birds (BIRD, events related to airports (ADRM and events related to the required separation of aircraft (MAC. For lighter aircraft, the dominant categories are ARC, CTOL, GTOW and LOC-I events. The article presents a proposed method for predicting the number of events, determining the alert levels for the next years and assuming a normal distribution (Gaussian. It is one of the first attempts to use actual data contained in the database of events on airports in Poland. The results of this analysis may support the decisions of

  8. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  9. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  10. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  11. Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Aviation plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with aviation noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, aviation climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport demand unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 aviation climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future aviation capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of aviation emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/aviation_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize aviation climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief

  12. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  13. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  14. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  15. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  16. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  17. 78 FR 46594 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement...; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey. TSA, with OMB's...

  18. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) 24th Panel Meeting. The agenda for the Working Group is...

  19. 78 FR 44619 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group (ATSTWG) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 78 FR 35043 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and Request for Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and... (TSA) announces the renewal of the charter for the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC). The... the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal section below. Comments, identified by...

  1. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Draft Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C199 Establishing the Minimum... Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  2. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  3. Sociological study on the course of the traffic system and the traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Erjem

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this research is the operation of the traffic system and traffic accidents from a sociological perspective. In the research , the traffic system is taken as a sub-system of the social system. In this context the effects of the social, cultural and demographic factors on traffic accidents are examined . The data were collected from 681 people of whom 300 are drivers 300 pedestrians, 4 directors and 20 instructors of driving courses in Konya in Turkey. The research findings showe...

  4. Nuclear accidents and policy. Notes on public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Felix; Steenbeck, Malte; Wilhelm, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik

    2013-07-01

    Major nuclear accidents as recently in Fukushima set nuclear power plant security at the top of the public agenda. Using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel we analyze the effects of the Fukushima accident and a subsequent government decision on nuclear power phase-out on several measures of subjective perception in Germany. In the light of current political debates about the strategic orientation of this energy turnaround, such an analysis is of particular interest since non-pecuniary gains in measures of subjective perception might provide further aspects to be taken into consideration when evaluating the economic costs of the policy. We find that the Fukushima accident increases the probability to report greater worries about the environment. Furthermore, we find evidence for a decrease in the probability to be very worried about the security of nuclear power plants as well as for an increase in reported levels of subjective well-being following the government's resolution on nuclear phase-out. Finally we find that the probabilities of reporting very high concerns are related to the distance between the respondents' place of residence and the nearest nuclear power station.

  5. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  6. Private Airlines to Appear in Civil Aviation Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Exposed by North China Aviation Bureau, Dazhong and Aokai, two airlines based on private capitals, have handed in their establishment applications to the North China Aviation Bureau, along with the reports on feasibility study.At present, they have passed the preliminary examination of the Bureau and are waiting for the reply from CAAC. Private airlines with low operation costs are expected

  7. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... date, countries have not been removed from the category listing for inactivity, even though the safety... country can be rated in the IASA program and before a carrier subject to that country's aviation safety... found that the country meets ICAO Standards for safety oversight of civil aviation. Category 2...

  8. Avionics: The main contributor to innovation in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Avionics refers to Electronic systems used in Aviation, and the word itself is a blend of Aviation and Electronics. Avionics are not only essential for today’s commercial and military aircraft to fly, but also enable their integration into the overall traffic management system. For safety critical a

  9. [The domestic aviation and space medicine reflected in phaleristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdan'ko, I M; Ryzhenko, S P; Khomenko, M N; Golosov, S Iu; Sobolenko, D A

    2013-04-01

    The article is devoted to the connection between the badges of medical institutions that are material evidence of formation and development of domestic aviation and space medicine and the history of Armed forces. The authors describe development of aviation and space medicine phaleristics, which is an important factor for patriotic education of modem scientific and military medical personnel.

  10. Aviation Disaster Intervention: A Mental Health Volunteer's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…

  11. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section... AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel and..., Air Force Stock Fund and DPSC Assigned Item Procedures, 5 purchase of Air Force fuel and oil may...

  12. 77 FR 19074 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... fire hazard. To address this unsafe condition, Dassault Aviation have developed an improved fuel... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1164; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-084-AD; Amendment 39-17002; AD 2012-06-21] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT...

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 3, Mar 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    410601, Saratov, 1). Ufa Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots (450016, Ufa , 16, Bashkir Oblast). Voroshilovgrad Higher Military Aviation...and engages in underwater hunting, but far from everyone knows what a superb boat he cut out and glued together himself. The Ufa and Yaroslavl

  14. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrák, E

    1984-01-01

    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  15. Predictive model for motorcycle accidents at three-legged priority junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnen, S; Umar, R S Radin; Wong, S V; Wan Hashim, W I

    2003-12-01

    In conjunction with a nationwide motorcycle safety program, the provision of exclusive motorcycle lanes has been implemented to overcome link-motorcycle accidents along trunk roads in Malaysia. However, not much work has been done to address accidents at junctions involving motorcycles. This article presents the development of predictive model for motorcycle accidents at three-legged major-minor priority junctions of urban roads in Malaysia. The generalized linear modeling technique was used to develop the model. The final model reveals that motorcycle accidents are proportional to the power of traffic flow. An increase in nonmotorcycle and motorcycle flows entering the junctions is associated with an increase in motorcycle accidents. Nonmotorcycle flow on major roads had the highest effect on the probability of motorcycle accidents. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width, and land use were found to be significant in explaining motorcycle accidents at the three-legged major-minor priority junctions. These findings should enable traffic engineers to specifically design appropriate junction treatment criteria for nonexclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  16. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  17. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  18. Cockpit Technology for Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the four-year period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.

  19. Midair collisions - The accidents, the systems, and the Realpolitik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two midair collisions occurring in 1978 are described, and the air traffic control system and procedures in use at the time, human factors implications and political consequences of the accidents are examined. The first collision occurred in Memphis and involved a Falcon jet and a Cessna 150 in a situation in which the controllers handling each aircraft were not aware of the presence of the other aircraft until it was too late. The second occurred in San Diego four months later, when a Boeing 727 on a visual approach struck a Cessna 172 from the rear. Following the San Diego collision there arose a great deal of investigative activity, resulting in suggestions for tighter control on visual flight rules aircraft and the expansion of positive control airspace. These issues then led to a political battle involving general aviation, the FAA and the Congress. It is argued, however, that the collisions were in fact system-induced errors resulting from an air traffic control system which emphasizes airspace allocation and politics rather than the various human factors problems facing pilots and controllers.

  20. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  1. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  2. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  3. 75 FR 32508 - Harris Stratex Networks Corporation, Currently Known As Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Green Resources and Volt Technical Resources, San Antonio, TX; Amended Certification Regarding...-site leased workers from Manpower, Green Resources, and Volt Technical Resources, San Antonio, Texas... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc....

  4. Collegiate Aviation Maintenance Training Programs Certified under 14CFR Part 147 that Are Members of the Aviation Technician Education Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry Lile

    2010-01-01

    Scope and method of study: The purpose of this study was to construct a descriptive analysis of aviation maintenance training programs that confer the Bachelor of Science degree and who are members of the Aviation Technician Education Council. The sample was comprised of the 11 educational programs within the population that met these criteria.…

  5. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in

  6. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  7. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  8. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  9. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  10. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-01-01

    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  11. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  12. Interactions of severe accident research and regulatory positions (ISARRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. (comp.) [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Nuclear Power Safety

    2001-12-01

    in assessment of plant safety. This work package was also designed to distinguish the differences between the attitudes and approaches followed by the various regulatory organisations in Europe, Eastern Europe, USA and Japan. Work Package 5: Relevance of example PSA results to SA research. The objective of their work package was to employ the results of some recent PSAs (preferably for a PWR and a BWR) and relate their findings to the results obtained in SA research, and to the effectiveness of the SAM measures already taken or contemplated. Work Package 6: The state of resolution of the SA issues with respect to the needs. The objective of this work package is to have another look at the state of the resolution of the severe accident issues which have been identified over the years, and relate that to what the needs of the regulatory organizations are in terms of their functions. Work Package 7: Regulatory use of the results of severe accident research. The objective is to identify the results of the SA research which the regulatory organizations, over the years, have used in either defining specific regulatory actions or in not taking specific actions. Work Package 8: Remaining issues and concerns. The objective of the work here is to review the work in the previous work package and identify what are the remaining unresolved safety issues and concerns for which sufficient results of the SA research are not available. Work Package 9: Recommendations on future directions of severe accident research. The purpose of this work package is to provide recommendations to E.U. (and to the readers) by the authors of this report on the directions that should be followed, in the future for the conduct of severe accident research. These recommendations are in essence the conclusions of this study.

  13. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Discovering her birth parents was an exciting adventure for a 15-year-old girl It took 14 years-and just two minutes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family.July 21 this year marked the first

  14. Sensitivity of Some Tests for Alcohol Abuse: Findings in Nonalcoholics Recovering from Intoxication,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Aviation Medicine LJ Washington, D.C. 20591 83 03 28 094 oS !OTICI This document Is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation...City, Oklaho a 73125 13. Type of Report and Period Covered 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Office of Aviation Medicine OAM Report Federal...Comparison of Findings During Withdrawal in 12 Nonalcoholics (This Study) With Findings in Chronic Alcoholics (Other Studies). Acession 0or NTIS GRA&I

  15. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  16. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  17. Microbursts as an aviation wind shear hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The downburst-related accidents or near-misses of jet aircraft have been occurring at the rate of once or twice a year since 1975. A microburst with its field comparable to the length of runways can induce a wind shear which endangers landing or liftoff aircraft; the latest near miss landing of a 727 aircraft at Atlanta, Ga. in 1979 indicated that some microbursts are too small to trigger the warning device of the anemometer network at major U.S. airports. The nature of microbursts and their possible detection by Doppler radar are discussed, along with proposed studies of small-scale microbursts.

  18. [Accident risk perception in high-voltage electrical maintenance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, M; Zanaletti, W; Giorgi, I; Argentero, P; Candura, S M

    2006-01-01

    Promoting safety at work represents a fundamental task for achieving improvement in the quality of working life and preventing accidental injuries at work. Nevertheless, over the last few decades injuries at work have continued to constitute a significant problem. The aim of this study was to examine accident risk perception in a sample of 45 subjects employed in the electricity sector and to relate their risk perception to personality characteristics, cognitive functioning, and personal and professional history. The instruments used were: "Cognitive Behavioral Assessment 2.0", the "Workplace safety questionnaire" (an Italian questionnaire on safety at work), and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Findings show that electricity (current variability) was perceived as the most serious risk factor, while the most frequent perceived risk factors for accidents were accidental falls, cuts and bruises. The subjects of our sample showed a good awareness of risk perception, and good mood response and augmented psychophysiological activation during accidental injuries.

  19. SOLAR POWER THE FUTURE OF AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Vashishtha,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar powered aircraft capable of continuous flight was a dream some years ago, but this great challenge has become feasible today. Quite a few manned and unmanned solar powered aircraft have been developed and flown in the last 30 years. The research activities carried out till now have been mainly focused on flying wings or conventional aircraft configurations, with a great emphasis on the technological aspects. Solar powered aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part forthe night flight. The paper deals with the current state of art of empower the aviation industry with solar power and the shortcoming and the future aspect.

  20. Potential global jamming transition in aviation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear transport model for an aviation network. The takeoff rate from an airport is characterized by the degree of ground congestion. Due to the effect of "surface congestion," the performance of an airport deteriorates because of inefficient configurations of waiting aircraft on the ground. Using a simple transport model, we performed simulations on a U. S. airport network and found a global jamming transition induced by local surface congestion. From a physical perspective, the mechanism of the transition is studied analytically and the resulting aircraft distribution is discussed considering system dynamics. This study shows that the knowledge of the relationship between a takeoff rate and a congestion level on the ground is vital for efficient air traffic operations.

  1. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2011-01-01

    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. History of Aviation from 1918 to 1950

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce zpracovává stručnou historii civilního letectví v období let 1918 – 1950. Pozornost je věnována všem hlavním událostem, které přímo ovlivnily vývoj nejen letadel, ale i létajících člunů a vzducholodí. Okrajově je pak popisován i technický pokrok a směr ve vývoji létajících zařízení. This bachelor thesis compiles of a brief history of civil aviation in the period 1918 - 1950. Attention is paid to all the major events that directly influenced the development of, not onl...

  3. Skin in aviation and space environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerospace environment is a dynamic interaction between man, machine and the environment. Skin diseases are not particularly significant aeromedically, yet they could permanently affect an aviator′s status for continued flying duty. A number of dermatological conditions lend themselves to flying restrictions for the aviator. Aircrew and ground crew are exposed to a myriad of elements that could also adversely impact their flying status. Inflight stresses during flights as well as space travel could impact certain behaviors from a dermatological standpoint. With the advent of space tourism, dermatological issues would form an integral part of medical clearances. With limited literature available on this subject, the review article aims to sensitize the readers to the diverse interactions of dermatology with the aerospace environment.

  4. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  5. Locomotor problems of supersonic aviation and astronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, P

    1989-04-01

    Modern high-speed aviation and space flight are fraught with many problems and require a high standard of health and fitness. Those responsible for the health of pilots must appreciate the importance of early diagnosis even before symptoms appear. This is particularly true in terms of preventing spinal injuries where even a single Schmorl's node may make a pilot unfit for high-speed flying. Spinal fractures are frequent during emergency ejection and landing. Helicopter crews are particularly prone to spinal disc degeneration due to vibration. By effective lowering of vibration by changes in the seats, a reduction in such lesions is possible. The osteoporosis and muscle atrophy occurring among astronauts subjected to prolonged weightlessness can be prevented by regular physical exercises.

  6. Job Satisfaction among Turkish Business Aviation Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Uyar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most applicable models in safety management put the human factors, employers’ attitudes and behaviors at the center. This study reports an investigation of job satisfaction among business aviation technicians. A demographic information form and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS were used to collect data from 44 individuals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Our results show that there is significant difference in total job satisfaction levels with regard to marital status while other personal factors are not related to the total job satisfaction levels. However several sub dimensions of job satisfaction are affected by the workers’ military or civilian origin, their training background, types of companies they work in or their license category. No difference is found in age and position groups. Secondly, study shows that technicians are the most satisfied from the nature of their work, while they are the least satisfied by operational procedures.

  7. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF AFFECT OF THE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS ENDING DEATH TO THE LIFE EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya KOC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We make observations for year 1999, backward on the traffic accidents and deaths in the registrations and countries, based on the age and sex classifications by analyzing using life table techniques. In conclusion we observed that in tables that are prepared by excluded traffic accidents, effects seen in all ranges of sex and totally life losing from the age of zero. Life expectancy for year 1999 in Turkey, our observations pointed out the number 74.43 on the life table including all the deaths, 74.61 on the life table excluding accidents. When we make observations on the sex stage, for men we finded out 72.00 on the life table including deaths 74.24 on the life table excluding accidents. For women we observed the numbers 76.99 and 77.10 on the life tables. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 32-40

  9. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  10. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly lower in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx while for CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  11. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  12. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  13. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  14. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  15. The Participation of Ukrainian Companies in Building the Mechanisms for Naval Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Kharuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main program for the development and production of equipment for naval aviation, carried out in Ukraine in 1910 - 1980. The author comes to the conclusion that naval aviation has never been a priority area for the Ukrainian aviation industry. However, throughout its history, the aircrafts intended for naval aviation, developed and in some cases introduced into serial production.

  16. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  17. Audiological profile in cases with cerebrovascular accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlapudi Venkata Subbarao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades there has been increase demand of audiological complaints coinciding with neurological impairments due to cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs. Most of the cases represent inconsistent responses to acoustic stimuli or total lack of response to sound, documented as auditory agnosia. Aim: The present investigation aims at understanding of potential anatomical co-relates to the involvement of the cortical structure and the processing of auditory stimuli. Materials and Methods: A case series with convenient sampling method included eight cases (six male and two female with age range 45-55 years with CVA, were taken for this study. Of them two cases were found with lesion in right middle cerebral artery, four cases with left middle cerebral artery and two cases with left posterior cerebral artery lesion confirmed from magnetic resonance imaging scan. Audiological test battery including otoscopy, tuning fork test, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance audiometry, dichotic-diotic listening test, auditory brainstem responses, otoacoustic emissions and gap detection tests were carried out including routine ENT evaluation. Results and Conclusion: Result suggests; there is a significant difference in hearing threshold and speech perception in all the eight subjects. The findings and compromised vascular anatomy in all these cases were discussed in this article.

  18. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  19. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  20. Application of diffusion maps to identify human factors of self-reported anomalies in aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Mikusinski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A study investigating what factors are present leading to pilots submitting voluntary anomaly reports regarding their flight performance was conducted. Diffusion Maps (DM) were selected as the method of choice for performing dimensionality reduction on text records for this study. Diffusion Maps have seen successful use in other domains such as image classification and pattern recognition. High-dimensionality data in the form of narrative text reports from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) were clustered and categorized by way of dimensionality reduction. Supervised analyses were performed to create a baseline document clustering system. Dimensionality reduction techniques identified concepts or keywords within records, and allowed the creation of a framework for an unsupervised document classification system. Results from the unsupervised clustering algorithm performed similarly to the supervised methods outlined in the study. The dimensionality reduction was performed on 100 of the most commonly occurring words within 126,000 text records describing commercial aviation incidents. This study demonstrates that unsupervised machine clustering and organization of incident reports is possible based on unbiased inputs. Findings from this study reinforced traditional views on what factors contribute to civil aviation anomalies, however, new associations between previously unrelated factors and conditions were also found.

  1. Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:It is the mission of the Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory to provide a means by which to virtually duplicate products...

  2. Multi-function Fiber Laser Kinetic Aviation Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes a multi-function, high energy, eye-safe 1550 nm band pulsed fiber-laser lidar system for airborne sensing of various kinetic aviation hazards. The...

  3. Discovering Anomalous Aviation Safety Events Using Scalable Data Mining Algorithms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The worldwide civilian aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems created. Most modern commercial aircraft have onboard flight data recorders that...

  4. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  5. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.

    2013-07-15

    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.

  6. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Aviation Safety Team (CAST) methodology. In 1998, the FAA founded the CAST to develop an integrated, data... chair. The Secretary of Transportation determined the formation and use of ARAC is necessary and in...

  7. Establishing the fair allocation of international aviation carbon emission rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially unfair use of international aviation carbon emission rights in different countries, this paper presents a carbon Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, constructed on the basis of historical cumulative international aviation CO2 emissions per capita. The study follows a methodology adapted from the research into fair income allocation. The results of these calculations show that there has been vast unfairness surrounding international aviation carbon emissions in the past, and that this unfairness has been partially hidden by a delay in accumulative start dates. A solution to this problem, allowing fair allocation of carbon emissions, is the key to building a mechanism for the reduction of global international aviation emissions. This study proposes a fair method for allocating emission rights, based on a responsibility-capacity index. Taking a goal of carbon-neutral growth by 2020 as an example, the degree of carbon emission reduction expected from different countries by 2021 is calculated using the proposed method.

  8. Greener Aviation with Virtual Sensors: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental impact of aviation is enormous given the fact that in the US alone there are nearly 6 million flights per year of commercial aircraft. This...

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  11. Aviation Impacts on Property Values and Management: The Case of Suvarnabhumi International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharin Limlomwongse Suksmith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have developed policies and measures to deal with the external impact of aviation on the wider community. There is, however, often controversy and lack of acceptance of some measures, such as compensation, in the communities affected by aviation. Such measures are often felt to be ineffective and perceived as unfair. A clear and objective model for determining compensation would be helpful to reduce controversy. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the relationship between aviation impacts and property values in the case of Thailand's Suvarnabhumi Airport for application to the possible improvement of compensation packages. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between five common impacts of aviation (safety, noise, scenery, air pollution, and traffic and property value change, with data from a survey of sample communities around the airport. The results, both for the overall neighborhood and for separate land used types, show that only noise and air pollution demonstrate significant negative relations with property value. The effect of noise drives a higher impact on property price than the effect of air pollution. The main contribution of this research is to improve developing country compensation models by applied measurement from regression analysis to identify factors with significant impacts, using property value change as proxy to measure the impact of the airport. For example, in the case of Thailand, a compensation model should consider noise and air pollution as the main factors rather than consider only noise contour area. The higher weight on noise should be designed to reflect land use types. Furthermore the market value of property loss should be taken into account when designing a compensation package. The survey and regression method used in this study can be adapted for finding relevant factors and suggesting appropriate compensation for other environmental and

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  13. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  14. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  15. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  16. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  17. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  18. Analysis of Lean Initiatives in the Production of Naval Aviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    correlate to waste in aviation training:  Overproduction .– Overproduction of pilots between phases of training.  Unnecessary stocks. –Student...apparent in several areas: Overproduction —The overproduction of Naval Aviators is usually not an issue with NAPP. The original purpose of NAPP was...to help fix gross underproduction issues. However, with the possibility of rapid defense budget cuts an overproduction event could occur

  19. Sustainable development – the key for green aviation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aviation industry has always been seeking the technological progress that will optimise the economic, operational and environmental way of flying. In the first part of this study the author describes the impact of the CO2 emissions on the climate change. Also, the author emphasises the fact that once again the aviation environment is asking for new breakthroughs to face the challenge of the aviation’s sustainable growth. Airbus and its approach with the least possible impact on environmen...

  20. The Potential of Turboprops to Reduce Aviation Fuel Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aviation system planning, particularly fleet selection and adoption, is challenged by fuel price uncertainty. Fuel price uncertainty is due fuel and energy price fluctuations and a growing awareness of the environmental externalities related to transportation activities, particularly as they relate to climate change. To assist in aviation systems planning under such fuel price uncertainty and environmental regulation, this study takes a total logistic cost approach and evaluates three represe...

  1. Perception of ethics in the Icelandic Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This Master’s thesis deals with perception of ethics in the Icelandic aviation sector. It offers a qualitative study to answer the following central research questions: what is the perception of the ethical environment in the aviation sector of Iceland by its top-managers? To introduce the study, a literature review presents an overview of the concepts of ethics, corruption and bribery as well as culture and corporate social responsibility. A special focus is proposed on the different school ...

  2. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  3. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  5. The Chornobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J. [ed.; Poyarkov, V.; Bar`yakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.; Kholosha, V.; Shestopalov, V.

    1999-10-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chornobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chornobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chornobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  6. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  7. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  8. Benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the associated risk of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriols, L; Philip, P; Moore, N; Castot, A; Gadegbeku, B; Delorme, B; Mallaret, M; Lagarde, E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the risk of road traffic accidents. Data from three French national databases were matched: the health-care insurance database, police reports, and the police database of injury-related traffic accidents. A total of 72,685 drivers involved in injury-related road traffic accidents in France, from 2005 to 2008, were included in the study. The risk of being responsible for a traffic accident was higher in users of benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio (OR) = 1.39 (1.08-1.79)) and in the 155 drivers to whom a dosage of more than one pill of zolpidem a day had been dispensed during the 5 months before the collision (OR = 2.46 (1.70-3.56)). No association was found between the use of zopiclone and risk of traffic accidents. Although this study did not find any association between the use of zolpidem as recommended and causation of traffic accidents, the potential risk related to possible abuse of the drug and risky driving behaviors should be further investigated. The results related to benzodiazepine hypnotics are consistent with those of previous studies.

  9. On the divergences in assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P; Sundell-Bergman, S; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M

    2017-01-21

    The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment. This article provides an overview of the work conducted in relation to the environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, critically comparing and contrasting methodologies and results with a view towards finding reasons for discrepancies, should they indeed exist. Based on the outcomes of studies conducted to date, it would appear that in order to avoid the fractured and disparate conclusions drawn in the aftermath of previous accidents, radioactive contaminants and their effects can no longer simply be viewed in isolation with respect to the ecosystems these effects may impact. A combination of laboratory based and field studies with a focus on ecosystem functioning and effects could offer the best opportunities for coherence in the interpretation of the results of studies into the environmental impacts of ionising radiation.

  10. Review of Maritime Accidents Involving Chemicals – Special Focus on the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Häkkinen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and handling of hazardous chemicals and chemical products around the world’s waters and ports have considerably increased over the last 20 years. Thus, the risk of major pollution accidents has also increased. Past incidents/accidents are, when reported in detail, first hand sources of information on what may happen again. This paper provides an overview of the past tanker accidents in the Baltic Sea and chemical related accidents in seas worldwide. The aim is to find out what can be learned from past accidents, especially from the environmental point of view. The study is carried out as a literature review and as a statistical review. The study revealed that the risk of a chemical accident is highest in seas where the highest tonnes of chemicals are transported, the density of maritime traffic is highest and, of course, in the ship-shore interface where unloading/loading takes place. Incidents involving chemical spills are statistically much less likely to occur than oil spills. However, chemical cargoes can be more dangerous to humans and property because chemicals can be more combustible, poisonous, irritating and reactive. The most important difference between a chemical and an oil spill may be related to response actions. In case of a chemical accident, the air quality or the risk of explosion should be more carefully evaluated before any response actions are taken. In case of chemical spills, the response is more limited in comparison to oil. Actually, very little is known about the actual marine pollution effect of most of highly transported substances. From the environmental point of view, the previous studies have highlighted accidents in which pesticides were released to water, but also substances considered as non-pollutants (vegetable oils seem to have a negative effect on biota in the water environment.

  11. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Personality characteristics of the child accident repeater

    OpenAIRE

    Manheimer, Dean I.; Mellinger, Glen D

    1997-01-01

    From 8874 boys and girls aged 4 to 18 in Berkeley-Oakland, California, 684 were selected to represent high-, intermediateor low-accident-liability children, based on records of medically attended injuries. Using data from intensive interviews with mothers supplemented with school records, we found a statistically significant relation between accident liability and indexes of extraversion, daring, roughhousing, and other traits tending to expose children to hazards. Similar relations held for ...

  13. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  14. Flight plan: taking responsibility for aviation emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimber, Hugo

    2007-07-01

    Aviation emissions make up less than 2 per cent of the world total, but are rising fast. These environmental costs must be balanced with development gains, however: air travel can hugely benefit poor countries' economies. The good news is that much can be done to curb emissions while keeping those benefits on board. Workable tools and guidelines for passengers, travel providers, government and airlines are waiting in the wings. A vital area for improvement is the way emissions are reported and calculated. Airlines, travel providers and carbon companies currently report emissions using a hotchpotch of methods, all producing varying results. Basing reports on fuel usage will make standardised ecolabelling possible. With an informed choice, passengers can buy tickets strategically and so encourage airlines to use more efficient technology. Airports can integrate ways of limiting emissions into their daily operations, while governments can invest in better air traffic control. Collective responsibility — and action — could make flying a much more sustainable means of travel.

  15. Sustainability Reporting in the Aviation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Miles Hill [Global Reporting Initiative (Netherlands)

    2008-09-30

    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines are the de-facto standard for sustainability reporting. Thousands of organizations around the world base their annual sustainability report on the GRI G3 Guidelines, including many within the aviation sector, including leading airports, aerospace manufacturers and airlines. The Guidelines are principles based and contain Disclosures on Management Approach and Performance Indicators. To report on the performance indicators a company needs to measure and manage its entities. By doing so targets can be set to improve performance over the years, on sustainability topics ranging from community investment to CO{sub 2} emissions. Each company is different and therefore each company needs to conduct a materiality test to assess which indicators to use, based on Stakeholder Assessments and Decisions and Significance of Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts. Using the Guidelines means that you have a tool for clear and comparable communication with your stakeholders and measuring your performance on sustainability topics like CO{sub 2} emissions. By measuring CO{sub 2} emissions overtime in a uniform way and publishing the emissions in your sustainability report, your stakeholders will appreciate your honesty and better understand when you experience difficulties in meeting your targets to limit the emissions. Additionally it will allow you to be able to benchmark your company against other companies in your sector.

  16. Failure Analysis of Aviation Torsional Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Weiguo; ZHANG Weifang; LIU Xiao; WANG Zongren; DING Meili

    2011-01-01

    Cracks and fractures occur during the assembly process to a type of torsional springs used in the aviation mechanism.Besides visual examination,other experimental techniques used for the investigation are:1) fracture characteristics,damage morphology and ffactography by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),2) spectrum analysis of covering,3) metallographic observation of cracks and 4) hydrogen content testing.The results are obtained through the analysis of manufacture process and experimental data.Since no changes of microstructure are found,failures are irrelevant to the material.The cracks and fractures initiate on the inner surface,cracks initiate before the cadmium plating and after the winding.No obvious stress corrosion cracks are found near the crack source region.The opening direction of cracks is consistent with the residual tensile stress of the spring inner surface,and the springs are easy to contact hydrogen media between the spring winding and the cadmium plating.The cracks are caused by hydrogen-induced delayed cracking under the action of the residual tensile stress and hydrogen.

  17. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  18. Severe accident risks from external events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  19. FUNDING OF ACCIDENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gamankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.

  20. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMINMAN SOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

     

  1. Aviation and programmatic analyses; Volume 1, Task 1: Aviation data base development and application. [for NASA OAST programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A method was developed for using the NASA aviation data base and computer programs in conjunction with the GE management analysis and projection service to perform simple and complex economic analysis for planning, forecasting, and evaluating OAST programs. Capabilities of the system are discussed along with procedures for making basic data tabulations, updates and entries. The system is applied in an agricultural aviation study in order to assess its value for actual utility in the OAST working environment.

  2. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  3. Influence of main variables modifications on accident transient based on AP1000-like MELCOR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, M.; Pieńkowski, L.

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of Severe Accidents (SA) is one of the most important parts of nuclear safety researches. MELCOR is a validated system code for severe accident analysis and as such it was used to obtain presented results. Analysed AP1000 model is based on publicly available data only. Sensitivity analysis was done for the main variables of primary reactor coolant system to find their influence on accident transient. This kind of analysis helps to find weak points of reactor design and the model itself. Performed analysis is a base for creation of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) generic model which will be the next step of the investigation aiming to estimate safety level of different reactors. Results clearly help to establish a range of boundary conditions for main the variables in future SMR model.

  4. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Civilian Aviation Alternative Support Study: Report of Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-30

    team initiated and developed Cutter Manpower Documents for all cutters from the 82’ Point Class to the 378’ Hamilton Class. In the acquisition arena...activities such that, beyond that point , they amount to participating actively and directly in hostilities. In a rear area, the Navy and DoD would likely...Littoral and Mine Warfare (PMS 420) 614 Sicard St SE (Stop 7003) Washington Navy Yard 47. Washington, DC 20376-7003Philip Marshall – MarshallHP

  5. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...

  6. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing from contrails and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation-induced cloudiness is investigated by using the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) in the present (2006) and the future (through 2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing in 2050 can reach 87 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 7 from 2006, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. This is due to non-uniform regional increase in air traffic and different sensitivities for contrail radiative forcing in different regions. CAM5 simulations indicate that negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds in 2050 can be as large as -160 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 4 from 2006. As a result, the net 2050 radiative forcing of contrail cirrus and aviation aerosols may have a cooling effect on the planet. Aviation sulfate aerosols emitted at cruise altitude can be transported down to the lower troposphere, increasing the aerosol concentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistence of low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible net forcing globally in 2006 and 2050 in this model study. Uncertainties in the methodology and the modeling are significant and discussed in detail. Nevertheless, the projected percentage increase in contrail radiative forcing is important for future aviation impacts. In addition, the role of aviation aerosols in the cloud nucleation processes can greatly influence on the simulated radiative forcing from aircraft-induced cloudiness and even change its sign. Future research to confirm these results is necessary.

  7. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  8. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  9. Economic consequences of aviation system disruptions: A reduced-form computable general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Rose, Adam Z.; Prager, Fynnwin; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2017-01-01

    The state of the art approach to economic consequence analysis (ECA) is computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. However, such models contain thousands of equations and cannot readily be incorporated into computerized systems used by policy analysts to yield estimates of economic impacts of various types of transportation system failures due to natural hazards, human related attacks or technological accidents. This paper presents a reduced-form approach to simplify the analytical content of CGE models to make them more transparent and enhance their utilization potential. The reduced-form CGE analysis is conducted by first running simulations one hundred times, varying key parameters, such as magnitude of the initial shock, duration, location, remediation, and resilience, according to a Latin Hypercube sampling procedure. Statistical analysis is then applied to the “synthetic data” results in the form of both ordinary least squares and quantile regression. The analysis yields linear equations that are incorporated into a computerized system and utilized along with Monte Carlo simulation methods for propagating uncertainties in economic consequences. Although our demonstration and discussion focuses on aviation system disruptions caused by terrorist attacks, the approach can be applied to a broad range of threat scenarios.

  10. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  11. First-Generation H1 Antihistamines Found in Pilot Fatalities of Civil Aviation Accidents, 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    their pharmaceutical formulations and preparations, they are also marketed as prescription drugs . These FGH 1 AIs are available in various tablet...pain reduction, and/or surgical procedures. Whereas, other drugs —for example, antidepressants , cardiovascular agents, sympathomimetics, and even...while other drug (s) and/or ethanol were also present in an additional 235 fatalities. Thirty-five of the 338 fatalities had more than 1 antihistamine

  12. Drug Usage in Pilots Involved in Aviation Accidents Compared With Drug Usage in the General Population: From 1990 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    previous years. Diazepam Diazepam , commonly prescribed as Valium®, is used to relieve anxiety , muscle spasms, and seizures and to control agitation caused...by alcohol withdrawal. A Schedule IV benzodiazepine, it works by enhancing the effects of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA).3 Diazepam was detected...in at least one male pilot every year, with the exception of 2003, in which it was not detected. In 1996, diazepam was detected in 6 male pilots

  13. Blaming Leaders for Organizational Accidents: Proxy Logic in Collective- versus Individual-Agency Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Yuriko; Young, Maia J.; Morris, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The current research investigates whether observers blame leaders for organizational accidents even when these managers are known to be causally uninvolved. Past research finds that the public blames managers for organizational harm if the managers are perceived to have personally played a causal role. The present research argues that East Asian…

  14. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  15. Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Can Improve its Processes to Obtain Restitution From Contractors That Provide Defective Spare Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    identify inventory items in the DoD supply system. 8 The $12.3 million represents the projected value of the defective parts that were not replaced or...the contractor incorrectly manufactured all 100 parts and the contractor agreed to replace them if returned. To properly account for all 100... value for each part. Finding DODIG-2016-052 │ 11 Process to Return Defective Parts to Contractors for Replacement Was Not Effective DLA Aviation

  16. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  17. Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

  18. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  19. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  20. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.