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Sample records for avian species belonging

  1. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sophie Susanna Strindberg; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M

    2015-01-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species...... to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber...

  2. Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game reserve, Borno state, Nigeria. ... avian species diversity and abundance in Sambisa Game Reserve in Borno State, Sudano-Sahelian vegetation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Fusariotoxins in Avian Species: Toxicokinetics, Metabolism and Persistence in Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusariotoxins are mycotoxins produced by different species of the genus Fusarium whose occurrence and toxicity vary considerably. Despite the fact avian species are highly exposed to fusariotoxins, the avian species are considered as resistant to their toxic effects, partly because of low absorption and rapid elimination, thereby reducing the risk of persistence of residues in tissues destined for human consumption. This review focuses on the main fusariotoxins deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 and B2. The key parameters used in the toxicokinetic studies are presented along with the factors responsible for their variations. Then, each toxin is analyzed separately. Results of studies conducted with radiolabelled toxins are compared with the more recent data obtained with HPLC/MS-MS detection. The metabolic pathways of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone are described, with attention paid to the differences among the avian species. Although no metabolite of fumonisins has been reported in avian species, some differences in toxicokinetics have been observed. All the data reviewed suggest that the toxicokinetics of fusariotoxins in avian species differs from those in mammals, and that variations among the avian species themselves should be assessed.

  4. Mixed species flock, nest height, and elevation partially explain avian haemoparasite prevalence in Colombia.

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    Angie D González

    Full Text Available The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.

  5. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in minor gallinaceous species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can vary greatly among bird species. Chickens and turkeys are major avian species that, like ducks, have been extensively studied for avian influenza. To a lesser extent, minor avian species such as quail, partridges, and pheasants have also been investigated for avian influenza. Usually, such game fowl species are highly susceptible to highly pathogenic AIVs and may consistently spread both highly pathogenic AIVs and low-pathogenic AIVs. These findings, together with the fact that game birds are considered bridge species in the poultry-wildlife interface, highlight their interest from the transmission and biosecurity points of view. Here, the general pathobiological features of low-pathogenic AIV and highly pathogenic AIV infections in this group of avian species have been covered.

  6. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    at continental scales. We used a database of the geographic ranges of 2,869 species of birds breeding in South America (nearly a third of the world's living avian species) to explore the influence of climate, quadrat area, ecosystem diversity, and topography on species richness gradients at 10 spatial scales...... (quadrat area, approximately 12,300 to approximately 1,225,000 km(2)). Topography, precipitation, topography x latitude, ecosystem diversity, and cloud cover emerged as the most important predictors of regional variability of species richness in regression models incorporating 16 independent variables...... the hypothesis that terrestrial species richness from the equator to the poles is ultimately governed by a synergism between climate and coarse-scale topographic heterogeneity....

  7. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  8. Korean indigenous bacterial species with valid names belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung Sook; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Ji Hee; Kang, Joo Won; Kim, Dae In; Lee, Ji Hee; Seong, Chi Nam

    2016-12-01

    To understand the isolation and classification state of actinobacterial species with valid names for Korean indigenous isolates, isolation source, regional origin, and taxonomic affiliation of the isolates were studied. At the time of this writing, the phylum Actinobacteria consisted of only one class, Actinobacteria, including five subclasses, 10 orders, 56 families, and 330 genera. Moreover, new taxa of this phylum continue to be discovered. Korean actinobacterial species with a valid name has been reported from 1995 as Tsukamurella inchonensis isolated from a clinical specimen. In 1997, Streptomyces seoulensis was validated with the isolate from the natural Korean environment. Until Feb. 2016, 256 actinobacterial species with valid names originated from Korean territory were listed on LPSN. The species were affiliated with three subclasses (Acidimicrobidae, Actinobacteridae, and Rubrobacteridae), four orders (Acidimicrobiales, Actinomycetales, Bifidobacteriales, and Solirubrobacterales), 12 suborders, 36 families, and 93 genera. Most of the species belonged to the subclass Actinobacteridae, and almost of the members of this subclass were affiliated with the order Actinomycetales. A number of novel isolates belonged to the families Nocardioidaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Intrasporangiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae as well as the genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, and Microbacterium. Twenty-six novel genera and one novel family, Motilibacteraceae, were created first with Korean indigenous isolates. Most of the Korean indigenous actionobacterial species were isolated from natural environments such as soil, seawater, tidal flat sediment, and fresh-water. A considerable number of species were isolated from artificial resources such as fermented foods, wastewater, compost, biofilm, and water-cooling systems or clinical specimens. Korean indigenous actinobacterial species were isolated from whole territory of Korea, and especially a large number of species were from Jeju

  9. Tuber aztecorum sp. nov., a truffle species from Mexico belonging to the Maculatum clade (Tuberaceae, Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of truffle, T. aztecorum, is described from central Mexico. Tuber aztecorum can be distinguished from other related Tuber species synoptically by a combination of morphological features including ascospore size, pellis cells with irregular thickness, cystidia, ascoma colour and associated host (Abies religiosa an endemic Abies species from central Mexico; sequence variation on the ITS rDNA also distinguishes T. aztecorum from related species. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA demonstrates that T. aztecorum belongs to the Maculatum clade and is unique from other similar small, white-cream coloured Tuber species distributed in north-eastern Mexico such as T. castilloi and T. guevarai.

  10. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M

    2014-12-01

    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents.

  11. BOX-PCR-based identification of bacterial species belonging to Pseudomonas syringae: P. viridiflava group

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    Abi S.A. Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic characteristics and genetic fingerprints of a collection of 120 bacterial strains, belonging to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato group, P. viridiflava and reference bacteria were evaluated, with the aim of species identification. The numerical analysis of 119 nutritional characteristics did not show patterns that would help with identification. Regarding the genetic fingerprinting, the results of the present study supported the observation that BOX-PCR seems to be able to identify bacterial strains at species level. After numerical analyses of the bar-codes, all pathovars belonging to each one of the nine described genomospecies were clustered together at a distance of 0.72, and could be separated at genomic species level. Two P. syringae strains of unknown pathovars (CFBP 3650 and CFBP 3662 and the three P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were grouped in two extra clusters and might eventually constitute two new species. This genomic species clustering was particularly evident for genomospecies 4, which gathered P. syringae pvs. atropurpurea, coronafaciens, garçae, oryzae, porri, striafaciens, and zizaniae at a noticeably low distance.

  12. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  13. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

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    Bruno Rossaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  14. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  15. Modeling broad-scale patterns of avian species richness across the Midwestern United States with measures of satellite image texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff; Veronique St-Louis; Curtis H. Flather; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon

    2012-01-01

    Avian biodiversity is threatened, and in order to prioritize limited conservation resources and conduct effective conservation planning a better understanding of avian species richness patterns is needed. The use of image texture measures, as a proxy for the spatial structure of land cover and vegetation, has proven useful in explaining patterns of avian abundance and...

  16. Terrain and vegetation structural influences on local avian species richness in two mixed-conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody C. Vogeler; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Jeffrey Evans; Patricia Green; Kerri T. Vierling

    2014-01-01

    Using remotely-sensed metrics to identify regions containing high animal diversity and/or specific animal species or guilds can help prioritize forest management and conservation objectives across actively managed landscapes. We predicted avian species richness in two mixed conifer forests, Moscow Mountain and Slate Creek, containing different management contexts and...

  17. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  18. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela M.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Manley, Patricia N.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees) are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings: We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km2 area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions. Conclusions and Significance: Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across

  19. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M White

    Full Text Available As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown.We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km(2 area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions.Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across environmental gradients and minimizing urbanization may have a

  20. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Sheldon, Ben C; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents) outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents). The majority (90%) of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3%) than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%). Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  2. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents. The majority (90% of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3% than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%. Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  3. Effects of habitat structure and altitudinal gradients on avian species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect on bird species diversity. Bird species diversity increased with increase in tree height. A significant decline in bird species diversity with increased number of trees and canopy cover was noted. This result probably suggests an accumulation of forest edge species and generalist species in the less forested habitat.

  4. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  5. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey

    2014-01-01

    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  6. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  8. Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Allometric Scaling of Carboplatin in Different Avian Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Antonissen

    Full Text Available The use of chemotherapeutics as a possible treatment strategy in avian oncology is steadily increasing over the last years. Despite this, literature reports regarding dosing strategies and pharmacokinetic behaviour of chemotherapeutics in avian species are lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of carboplatin in a representative species of the order of Galliformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes and Psittaciformes. Eight chickens, ducks and pigeons and twenty-eight parakeets were administered carboplatin intravenously (5 mg/kg body weight. A specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of the free carboplatin in plasma of the four birds species (limit of quantification: 20 ng/mL for chicken and duck, 50 ng/mL for pigeon and 100 ng/mL for parakeets. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and allometric scaling demonstrated a significant correlation (R² = 0.9769 between body weight (BW and elimination half-life (T1/2el. T1/2el ranged from 0.41 h in parakeets (BW: 61 ± 8 g to 1.16 h chickens (BW: 1909 ± 619 g. T1/2el is a good parameter for dose optimization of carboplatin in other avian species, since also the previously reported T1/2el in cockatoos (average BW: 769 ± 68 g of 1.00 h corresponds to the results obtained in the present study.

  9. Morphology, nectar characteristics and avian pollinators in five Andean Puya species (Bromeliaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung-Leoni, C. T.; González-Gómez, P. L.; Troncoso, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Five Andean Puya species (Puya alpestris, Puya chilensis, Puya coerulea, Puya raimondii and Puya venusta) were studied to determine the relationship between their avian visitors, and plant morphology and nectar characteristics. Our results showed a significant relationship between nectar concentration, presence of sterile apex and avian pollinators's species. In contrast, nectar composition was not related to the frequency of avian visits. We found that Puya species were mainly visited by specialist nectarivorous birds such as hummingbirds (i.e., P. coerulea and P. venusta), lacked a sterile apex and produced high nectar concentration in low volumes. In contrast, species mainly visited by generalist passerines (i.e., P. chilensis and P. alpestris) were characterized by the presence of a sterile apex and production of highly diluted nectar in large volumes. In a mono-specific group we found that P. raimondii produces highly concentrated nectar in large volumes, and its flowers were visited by hummingbirds and passerine birds. We found no effect of nectar composition on bird's visits. Our study highlights the interplay between morphological traits, nectar characteristics and the ecological framework to explain specialized and generalized birds pollination systems.

  10. Transmission and immunopathology of the avian influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) human isolate in three commonly commercialized avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaña, B; Dolz, R; Busquets, N; Ramis, A; Sánchez, R; Rivas, R; Valle, R; Cordón, I; Solanes, D; Martínez, J; Majó, N

    2018-05-01

    H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10 5 embryo infectious dose (EID) 50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate. None of the avian species showed clinical signs or macroscopic lesions, and only mild microscopic lesions were observed in the upper respiratory tract of quail and chickens. Quail presented more severe histopathologic lesions and avian influenza virus (AIV) positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC), which correlated with higher IL-6 responses. In contrast, Muscovy ducks were resistant to disease and presented higher IFNα and TLR7 response. In all species, viral shedding was higher in the respiratory than in the digestive tract. Higher viral shedding was observed in quail, followed by chicken and ducks, which presented similar viral titres. Efficient transmission was observed in all contact quail and half of the Muscovy ducks, while no transmission was observed between chicken. All avian species showed viral shedding in drinking water throughout infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Species-specific deletion of the viral attachment glycoprotein of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Foster, Linda K; Foster, Douglas N

    2008-03-01

    The avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) genome encodes the fusion (F), small hydrophobic (SH), and attachment glycoprotein (G) as envelope glycoproteins. The F and G proteins mainly function to allow viral entry into host cells during the early steps of the virus life cycle. The highly variable AMPV G protein is a major determinant for distinguishing virus subtypes. Sequence analysis was used to determine if any differences between avian or mammalian cell propagated subtype C AMPV could be detected for the 1.8kb G gene. As a result, the complete 1.8kb G gene was found to be present when AMPV was propagated in our immortal turkey turbinate (TT-1) cell line regardless of passage number. Surprisingly, AMPV propagated for 15 or more passages in mammalian Vero cells revealed an essentially deleted G gene in the viral genome, resulting in no G gene mRNA expression. Although the Vero cell propagated AMPV genome contained a small 122 nucleotide fragment of the G gene, no other mRNA variants were detected from either mammalian or avian propagated AMPV. The G gene truncation might be caused by cellular molecular mechanisms that are species-specific. The lack of viral gene deletions suggests that avian cell propagated AMPV will provide a better alternative host for live recombinant vaccine development based on a reverse genetics system.

  12. Pathogenicity of the Korean H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial domestic poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N8 triggered outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the pathogenicity of the H5N8 HPAI virus, belonging to the clade 2.3.4.4, in different species of poultry. For this, we examined clinical signs and viral shedding levels following intranasal inoculation of the virus in 3-week-old commercial layer chickens and quails, 10-week-old Korean native chickens, and 8-week-old Muscovy ducks. Intranasal inoculation with 10(6.0) viruses at 50% egg-infective dose resulted in 100% mortality in the layer chickens (8/8) and quails (4/4), but 60% and 0% deaths in the Korean native chickens (3/5) and Muscovy ducks (0/4), respectively. In addition, transmission of the inoculated virus to contact-exposed birds was evident in all the species used in this study. Based on our results, we conclude that the H5N8 HPAI virus has lower pathogenicity and transmissibility in poultry species compared with previously reported H5N1 HPAI viruses.

  13. Avian pox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.

    1999-01-01

    Avian pox is the common name for a mild-to-severe, slowdeveloping disease of birds that is caused by a large virus belonging to the avipoxvirus group, a subgroup of poxviruses. This group contains several similar virus strains; some strains have the ability to infect several groups or species of birds but others appear to be species-specific. Mosquitoes are common mechanical vectors or transmitters of this disease. Avian pox is transmitted when a mosquito feeds on an infected bird that has viremia or pox virus circulating in its blood, or when a mosquito feeds on virus-laden secretions seeping from a pox lesion and then feeds on another bird that is susceptible to that strain of virus. Contact with surfaces or exposure to air-borne particles contaminated with poxvirus can also result in infections when virus enters the body through abraded skin or the conjunctiva or the mucous membrane lining that covers the front part of the eyeball and inner surfaces of the eyelids of the eye.

  14. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  15. Digestive efficiency of indigenous and invasive avian species fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) Turacos and invasive alien Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) met their energy demands when fed fruits of four fleshyfruited invasive alien plant species: Solanum mauritianum, Cinnamomum camphora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba.

  16. Seed size and photoblastism in species belonging to tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana; Mandujano, María C; Golubov, Jordan K

    2013-05-01

    The response of seed germination towards light and the relationship to seed traits has been studied particularly well in tropical forests. Several authors have shown a clear adaptive response of seed size and photoblastism, however, the evolutionary significance of this relationship for species inhabiting arid environments has not been fully understood and only some studies have considered the response in a phylogenetic context. We collected seeds from 54 cacti species spread throughout the tribe Cacteae to test whether there was correlated evolution of photoblastism, seed traits and germination using a reconstructed phylogeny of the tribe. For each species we determined the photoblastic response under controlled conditions, and seed traits, and analyzed the results using phylogenetically independent contrasts. All studied species were positive photoblastic contrasting with the basal Pereskia suggesting an early evolution of this trait. Seeds from basal species were mostly medium-sized, diverging into two groups. Seeds tend to get smaller and lighter suggesting an evolution to smaller sizes. No evidence exists of a relationship between seed size and photoblastic response suggesting that the photoblastic response within members of this tribe is not adaptive though it is phylogenetically fixed and that is coupled with environmental cues that fine tune the germination response.

  17. Long-term monitoring reveals an avian species credit in secondary forest patches of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Latta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded and secondary forests comprise approximately 50% of remaining tropical forest. Bird community characteristics and population trends in secondary forests are infrequently studied, but secondary forest may serve as a “safety net” for tropical biodiversity. Less understood is the occurrence of time-delayed, community-level dynamics such as an extinction debt of specialist species or a species credit resulting from the recolonization of forest patches by extirpated species. We sought to elucidate patterns and magnitudes of temporal change in avian communities in secondary forest patches in Southern Costa Rica biannually over a 10 year period during the late breeding season and mid-winter. We classified birds caught in mist nets or recorded in point counts by residency status, and further grouped them based on preferred habitat, sensitivity to disturbance, conservation priority, foraging guild, and foraging strata. Using hierarchical, mixed-effects models we tested for trends among species that share traits. We found that permanent-resident species increased over time relative to migrants. In both seasons, primary forest species generally increased while species typical of secondary forest, scrub, or edge declined. Species relatively sensitive to habitat disturbance increased significantly over time, whereas birds less sensitive to disturbance decreased. Similarly, generalists with higher habitat breadth scores declined. Because, we found very few changes in vegetation characteristics in secondary forest patches, shifts in the avian community toward primary forest species represent a species credit and are likely related to vegetation changes in the broader landscape. We suggest that natural regeneration and maturation of secondary forests should be recognized as a positive conservation development of potential benefit even to species typical of primary forest.

  18. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Beston

    Full Text Available Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future

  19. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Loss, Scott R; Johnson, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and management

  20. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus ) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris ) as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied) were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph) methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  1. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  2. Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfano, Alessandra S; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Duarte, Ana P M; Villegas, Luis M; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Pinto, Luciana C; Campos, Keillen M M; Pinilla, Yudi T; Chaves, Bárbara; Barbosa Guerra, Maria G V; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Smith, Ryan C; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Secundino, Nágila F C; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-08-02

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected mosquito delivers Plasmodium sporozoites into a vertebrate host. There are many species of Plasmodium and, in general, the infection is host-specific. For example, Plasmodium gallinaceum is an avian parasite, while Plasmodium berghei infects mice. These two parasites have been extensively used as experimental models of malaria transmission. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most important agents of human malaria, a life-threatening disease of global importance. To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must traverse the mosquito midgut and form an oocyst that will divide continuously. Mature oocysts release thousands of sporozoites into the mosquito haemolymph that must reach the salivary gland to infect a new vertebrate host. The current understanding of the biology of oocyst formation and sporozoite release is mostly based on experimental infections with P. berghei, and the conclusions are generalized to other Plasmodium species that infect humans without further morphological analyses. Here, it is described the microanatomy of sporozoite escape from oocysts of four Plasmodium species: the two laboratory models, P. gallinaceum and P. berghei, and the two main species that cause malaria in humans, P. vivax and P. falciparum. It was found that sporozoites have species-specific mechanisms of escape from the oocyst. The two model species of Plasmodium had a common mechanism, in which the oocyst wall breaks down before sporozoites emerge. In contrast, P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites show a dynamic escape mechanism from the oocyst via polarized propulsion. This study demonstrated that Plasmodium species do not share a common mechanism of sporozoite escape, as previously thought, but show complex and species-specific mechanisms. In addition, the knowledge of this phenomenon in human Plasmodium can facilitate transmission-blocking studies and not those ones only based on the murine and avian models.

  3. Prioritizing avian species for their risk of population-level consequences from wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Loss, Scott; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species’ distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species’ conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson’s hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and

  4. Redescriptions and reestablishments of some species belonging to the genus Prionospio (Polychaeta, Spionidae) and descriptions of three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Blas, V. H.

    2014-03-01

    Available type material of Prionospio heterobranchia Moore, 1907, P. ( Prionospio) texana Hartman, 1951, P. spongicola Wesenberg-Lund, 1958 and P. ( P.) newportensis Reish, 1959, as well as newly collected material from the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay in the Caribbean Sea, was examined. Several important differences were found between P. heterobranchia, P. ( Prionospio) texana, P. spongicola and P. ( P.) newportensis, and as a result, these three species are removed from synonymy with P. heterobranchia Moore, 1907, and redescribed and reinstated as valid species. In addition, three new species were identified and described: P. caribensis sp. nov., P. rosariae sp. nov. and P. jamaicensis sp. nov. A key to all species of Prionospio with five pairs of branchiae is provided.

  5. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  6. Serotypes of E. coli isolated from avian species in Lombardia and Emilia Romagna (North Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D'Incau

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of n.105 E. coli strains serotyping, isolated during the period 2000-2004 in Lombardia and Emilia Romagna (North Italy from avian species (poultry and turkeys, starting from cloacal swabs. The most frequently identified serogroup was O78 both in poultry and turkeys, with a large prevalence over the other detected serogroups. Remarkable was the non typeable percentage among the examined strains, datum which is in accordance with our and other authors’ previous studies.

  7. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A.; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudo-gene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  8. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  9. Rhinusa Stephens: a taxonomic revision of the species belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups (Coleoptera Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of Rhinusa Stephens, 1829 (Curculionidae, Curculioninae, Mecinini belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups are revised. Four of them from Middle East are new to science. The R. bipustulata group includes five species: R. bipustulata (Rossi, 1792; R. pelletieri sp. nov.; R. scrophulariae Caldara, 2009; R. algirica (Brisout de Barneville, 1862; R. emmrichi (Bajtenov, 1979, whereas the R. tetra group includes nine species: R. tetra (Fabricius, 1792; R. verbasci (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. ensifer sp. nov.; R. moroderi (Reitter, 1906; R. weilli sp. nov.; R. comosa (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. acifer sp. nov.; R asellus (Gravenhorst, 1807; R. tenuirostris (Stierlin, 1888. The following new synonym is proposed: Rhinusa bipustulata (Rossi, 1792 (= Gymnetron municipale Voss, 1960 syn. nov.. The neotype of Rhynchaenus asellus Gravenhorst, 1807 was designated. Moreover, the following lectotypes are designated: Cionus spilotus Germar, 1821; Gymnetron bipustulatum var. germari Faust, 1889; Gymnetron bodenheimeri Wagner, 1926; Gymnetron cylindrirostre Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron nasutum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron plagiatum Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron polonicum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron tenuirostre Stierlin, 1888. A key to the species, diagnoses of species groups, descriptions or redescriptions, notes on type specimens, synonymies, comparative notes, distribution, bionomics when available, photographs of habitus and drawings of rostra, terminalia and other useful characters for taxonomy are provided.

  10. A novel mechanism of myostatin regulation by its alternative splicing variant during myogenesis in avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangsu; Song, Yan; Ahn, Jinsoo; Kim, Eunsoo; Chen, Paula; Yang, Shujin; Suh, Yeunsu; Lee, Kichoon

    2015-11-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a key negative regulator of muscle growth and development, and an increase of muscle mass is achieved by inhibiting MSTN signaling. In the current study, five alternative splicing isoforms of MSTN mRNAs in avian species were identified in various tissues. Among these five, three truncated forms of myostatin, MSTN-B, -C, and -E created premature stop codons and produced partial MSTN prodomains encoded from exon 1. MSTN-B is the second dominant isoform following full-length MSTN-A, and their expression was dynamically regulated during muscle development of chicken, turkey, and quail in vivo and in vitro. To clarify the function of MSTN-B, two stable cell lines of quail myoblasts (QM7) were generated to overexpress MSTN-A or MSTN-B. Interestingly, MSTN-B promoted both cell proliferation and differentiation similar to the function of the MSTN prodomain to counteract the negative role of MSTN on myogenesis. The coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that MSTN-B binds to MSTN-A and reduces the generation of mature MSTN. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that the partial prodomain encoded from exon 1 is critical for binding of MSTN-B to MSTN-A. Altogether, these data imply that alternative splicing isoforms of MSTN could negatively regulate pro-myostatin processing in muscle cells and prevent MSTN-mediated inhibition of myogenesis in avian species. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Avian Rotaviruses Group A and D shed by different bird species in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Maude; Oni, Oluwole O; Sausy, Aurélie; Owoade, Ademola A; Adeyefa, Christopher A O; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M; Snoeck, Chantal J

    2017-06-12

    Avian rotaviruses (RVs) cause gastrointestinal diseases of birds worldwide. However, prevalence, diversity, epidemiology and phylogeny of RVs remain largely under-investigated in Africa. Fecal samples from 349 birds (158 symptomatic, 107 asymptomatic and 84 birds without recorded health status) were screened by reverse transcription PCR to detect RV groups A and D (RVA and RVD). Partial gene sequences of VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP4 for RVA, and of VP6 and VP7 for RVD were obtained and analyzed to infer phylogenetic relationship. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were applied to identify factors potentially influencing virus shedding in chickens. A high prevalence of RVA (36.1%; 126/349) and RVD (31.8%; 111/349) shedding was revealed in birds. In chickens, RV shedding was age-dependent and highest RVD shedding rates were found in commercial farms. No negative health effect could be shown, and RVA and RVD shedding was significantly more likely in asymptomatic chickens: RVA/RVD were detected in 51.9/48.1% of the asymptomatic chickens, compared to 18.9/29.7% of the symptomatic chickens (p epidemiology, diversity and classification of avian RVA and RVD in Nigeria. We show that cross-species transmission of host permissive RV strains occurs when different bird species are mixed.

  12. Nonconserved tryptophan 38 of the cell surface receptor for subgroup J avian leukosis virus discriminates sensitive from resistant avian species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Dana; Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Šenigl, Filip; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Geryk, Josef; Hejnar, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 15 (2013), s. 8399-8407 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1651 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : avian leukosis virus * ALV-J * NHE1 * host resistance * receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.648, year: 2013

  13. A new Eastern Central Atlantic skate Raja parva sp. nov. (Rajoidei: Rajidae) belonging to the Raja miraletus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Peter R; Séret, Bernard

    2016-08-05

    An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa). Two species occur off tropical West Africa, including Raja parva sp. nov. (Senegal, Liberia and Angola but is probably more widespread within the region), and another unidentified species needing further investigation. Raja cf. miraletus, confirmed from Mauritania and Senegal, appears to be a larger skate with a broader disc, more broadly pointed snout, larger spiracles, and a slightly longer and broader tail. Raja parva sp. nov. differs from nominal members of the complex in having an unusually long procaudal tail (exceeding 22% TL), as well as a combination of other external characters. Past investigators observed morphological and anatomical differences between these forms but these were thought to be due to intraspecific variability. They postulated that an upwelling at Cape Blanco (21°N) may have isolated the Mediterranean form (R. miraletus) from Mauritania-Senegal form (now known to be two species). Similarly, the Benguela Current and upwelling off Cape Frio (18°S) were thought to be responsible for separating the Angolan form (R. parva) and South African form (R. ocellifera).

  14. Coanatomical, developing and comparative analysis of 40 wood species belonging to two associations in colombian Andes highland forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco Tapia Cesar; Grande Pulido Diana Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we conducted a relationship of the timber found with ecological aspects arising from an earlier study of the characterization, structure and floral composition practiced in the Carpatos Forest Reserve, bordering the site from which wood samples were obtained. This comparison shows a strong link between the microscopic anatomical characteristics of vegetal species with the type of association to which they belong. For example, characters such as the grouping form, the type of perforated and intervessel pits, height, number of cells wide, stratification and type of cells that make up the radio and type fiber, show a greater degree of change in the exclusive species of Ocotea callophylla-Weinmannietum pinnatae (OW) association, while the same characters show minor changes in the exclusive species of Clusia multiflorae - Weinmannietum balbisianae(CW) association. The evolution of the timber was identified through an index that suggests the research based on references like Carlquist (2001) and Leon (2001), and its relationship with the plant associations found in the study area is argued.

  15. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Herreros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  16. Assessing the sensitivity of avian species abundance to land cover and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections for the Midwestern United States predict southerly climates to shift northward. These shifts in climate could alter distributions of species across North America through changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation), or through climate-induced changes on land cover. Our objective was to determine the relative impacts of land cover and climate on the abundance of five bird species in the Central United States that have habitat requirements ranging from grassland and shrubland to forest. We substituted space for time to examine potential impacts of a changing climate by assessing climate and land cover relationships over a broad latitudinal gradient. We found positive and negative relationships of climate and land cover factors with avian abundances. Habitat variables drove patterns of abundance in migratory and resident species, although climate was also influential in predicting abundance for some species occupying more open habitat (i.e., prairie warbler, blue-winged warbler, and northern bobwhite). Abundance of northern bobwhite increased with winter temperature and was the species exhibiting the most significant effect of climate. Models for birds primarily occupying early successional habitats performed better with a combination of habitat and climate variables whereas models of species found in contiguous forest performed best with land cover alone. These varied species-specific responses present unique challenges to land managers trying to balance species conservation over a variety of land covers. Management activities focused on increasing forest cover may play a role in mitigating effects of future climate by providing habitat refugia to species vulnerable to projected changes. Conservation efforts would be best served focusing on areas with high species abundances and an array of habitats. Future work managing forests for resilience and resistance to climate change could benefit species already susceptible to climate impacts.

  17. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still

  18. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  19. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  20. A Comparative Morphometrical Study of the Pecten Oculi in Different Avian Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Orhun Dayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was investigated the structure of pecten oculi in the ostrich, duck, pigeon, turkey, and starling. The pecten oculi of the ostrich was vaned type and made up primary, secondary, and few tertiary lamellae. However, duck, pigeon, turkey and starling had a pleated-type pecten oculi which displayed folded structure. The numbers of pleats of the pectens were 12, 13-14, 21-22, and 17 in duck, pigeon, turkey, and starling, respectively. Light microscopic investigation demonstrated that pecten oculi is basically composed of numerous capillaries, large blood vessels, and pigment cells in all investigating avian species. Capillaries were 20.23, 14.34, 11.78, 12.58, and 12.78 μm in diameter in ostrich, duck, pigeon, turkey, and starling, respectively. The capillaries are surrounded by thick basal membrane, and pigmented cells were observed around the capillaries.

  1. Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an

  2. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Al-Bakry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

  3. Emergence of a Novel Avian Pox Disease in British Tit Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M.; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M.; Toms, Mike P.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Br...

  4. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  5. Conceptualizing belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Alyson L; Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2013-06-01

    To develop a transdisciplinary conceptualization of social belonging that could be used to guide measurement approaches aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of community-based programs for people with disabilities. We conducted a narrative, scoping review of peer reviewed English language literature published between 1990 and July 2011 using multiple databases, with "sense of belonging" as a key search term. The search engine ranked articles for relevance to the search strategy. Articles were searched in order until theoretical saturation was reached. We augmented this search strategy by reviewing reference lists of relevant papers. Theoretical saturation was reached after 40 articles; 22 of which were qualitative accounts. We identified five intersecting themes: subjectivity; groundedness to an external referent; reciprocity; dynamism and self-determination. We define a sense of belonging as a subjective feeling of value and respect derived from a reciprocal relationship to an external referent that is built on a foundation of shared experiences, beliefs or personal characteristics. These feelings of external connectedness are grounded to the context or referent group, to whom one chooses, wants and feels permission to belong. This dynamic phenomenon may be either hindered or promoted by complex interactions between environmental and personal factors.

  6. Differential belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive...... and not only to the area itself. In addition, rather than seeing suburban residential areas as homogenous, greater attention should be paid to differences within such areas....

  7. Ambiguous Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    and work in the new place and at the same time shallowly enough for them to be able to move on. Not least do they secure that ‘the crown’, which may signify ‘the culture’ or ‘Indianness’, is not buried underneath the soil. Fragarian practices allow the Indians to live transnationally while at the same time...... of ethnographic fieldwork in Moshi, Tanzania, and in London, UK, I explore and analyze intersections of local and transnational belonging, purity, citizenship strategies, networks, and claims for recognition as ‘good citizens’. Arguing that the uncertainty, which has been a fundamental condition for the Indians...

  8. New species of haematozoa from the avian families Campephagidae and Apodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraclough R.K.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucocytozoon coracinae sp. nov. is described from the avian family Campephagidae and Hepatozoon apodis sp. nov. from the Apodidae. The distribution of these parasites within their respective families is discussed.

  9. species diversity of dry season avian fauna in kano, nigeria 418

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    encounter in the field changes as the dry season progresses. ... The general purpose of most avian field studies ... high diversity of exotic trees. There is ..... Field. Guide. ISBN. 9780691159201. Pyre A. R. (1995) Avifauna diversity and human.

  10. Guild-specific responses of avian species richness to LiDAR-derived habitat heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.; Becker, Miles E.; Young, Jock S.; Wong-Kone, Diane C.; Newton, Wesley E.; Ammon, Elisabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological niche theory implies that more heterogeneous habitats have the potential to support greater biodiversity. Positive heterogeneity-diversity relationships have been found for most studies investigating animal taxa, although negative relationships also occur and the scale dependence of heterogeneity-diversity relationships is little known. We investigated multi-scale, heterogeneity-diversity relationships for bird communities in a semi-arid riparian landscape, using airborne LiDAR data to derive key measures of structural habitat complexity. Habitat heterogeneity-diversity relationships were generally positive, although the overall strength of relationships varied across avian life history guilds (R2 range: 0.03–0.41). Best predicted were the species richness indices of cavity nesters, habitat generalists, woodland specialists, and foliage foragers. Heterogeneity-diversity relationships were also strongly scale-dependent, with strongest associations at the 200-m scale (4 ha) and weakest associations at the 50-m scale (0.25 ha). Our results underscore the value of LiDAR data for fine-grained quantification of habitat structure, as well as the need for biodiversity studies to incorporate variation among life-history guilds and to simultaneously consider multiple guild functional types (e.g. nesting, foraging, habitat). Results suggest that certain life-history guilds (foliage foragers, cavity nesters, woodland specialists) are more susceptible than others (ground foragers, ground nesters, low nesters) to experiencing declines in local species richness if functional elements of habitat heterogeneity are lost. Positive heterogeneity-diversity relationships imply that riparian conservation efforts need to not only provide high-quality riparian habitat locally, but also to provide habitat heterogeneity across multiple scales.

  11. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G J; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

    2012-10-07

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology.

  12. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  13. The Bacterial Species Campylobacter jejuni Induce Diverse Innate Immune Responses in Human and Avian Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. John

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter remain the major cause of human gastroenteritis in the Developed World causing a significant burden to health services. Campylobacter are pathogens in humans and chickens, although differences in mechanistic understanding are incomplete, in part because phenotypic strain diversity creates inconsistent findings. Here, we took Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 100 from multi-locus sequence typed collections to assess their pathogenic diversity, through their inflammatory, cytotoxicity, adhesion, invasion and signaling responses in a high-throughput model using avian and human intestinal epithelial cells. C. jejuni induced IL-8 and CXCLi1/2 in human and avian epithelial cells, respectively, in a MAP kinase-dependent manner. In contrast, IL-10 responses in both cell types were PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent. C. jejuni strains showed diverse levels of invasion with high invasion dependent on MAP kinase signaling in both cell lines. C. jejuni induced diverse cytotoxic responses in both cell lines with cdt-positive isolates showing significantly higher toxicity. Blockade of endocytic pathways suggested that invasion by C. jejuni was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent but caveolae- independent in both cells. In contrast, IL-8 (and CXCLi1/2 production was dependent on clathrin, dynamin, and caveolae. This study is important because of its scale, and the data produced, suggesting that avian and human epithelial cells use similar innate immune pathways where the magnitude of the response is determined by the phenotypic diversity of the Campylobacter species.

  14. Maternal hormones as a tool to adjust offspring phenotype in avian species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Muller, W; von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Eising, C; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal hormones and so provide an excellent model to study hormone-mediated maternal effects. We review this new and rapidly evolving field, taking an ecological and evolutionary approach and focusing on effects and function of maternal androgens in

  15. The species of Aplysia belonging to the subgenus Tullia Pruvot-Fol, 1933: On a generic character in statu nascendi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, H.; Eales, Nellie B.

    1957-01-01

    Mme PRUVOT-FOL, 1933, p. 400, established the subgenus Tullia for Aplysia juliana QUOY et GAIMARD, and 1934, p. 41 added other species of Aplysia with a distinct sucking disk at the end of the foot. Living animals have been figured and their variation has been described by BABA 1937a, p. 211, and

  16. Postembryonic development of hard jaws (trophi) in a species belonging to the Brachionus plicatilis complex (Rotifera, Monogononta): a morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaneto, Diego; Melone, Giulio

    2006-04-01

    The presence of hard jaws (trophi), with species-specific shape and size, is a taxonomic feature of Rotifera, a group of microscopic metazoans. Since trophi are used to discriminate among species, it is important to know whether these structures change in taxonomically important ways during postembryonic development. Using both SEM and optical images, we analyzed more than 100 individuals of a single clonal lineage of a monogonont rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, in order to describe body and trophi development after hatching. Body size, expressed as lorica width and length, was isometrically related to age of the animals only during preadult stages. Trophi size, expressed as length of the different parts, was unrelated to either age or body size. Therefore, trophi elements do not grow after hatching in B. plicatilis. Despite the dimensional invariance with age, some differences in trophi size among individuals of the same clone were recorded. No difference in left-right asymmetry of the trophi was shown; the asymmetric elements of the trophi named rami consistently had the right ramus longer than the left. This constancy is in contrast to the reported trophi asymmetries in bdelloid rotifers, in which left-right asymmetries are not constant within clonal lineages. In conclusion, we suggest that also trophi size, constant within the analyzed clone, may be used as an additional taxonomic feature to help in the discrimination of taxa within the B. plicatilis complex of cryptic species. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Metabolite fingerprinting, pathway analyses, and bioactivity correlations for plant species belonging to the Cornaceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Su Young; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Sunmin; Singh, Digar; Kim, Ga Ryun; Lee, Jong Seok; Yang, Hee-Sun; Yeo, Joohong; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-09-01

    A multi-parallel approach gauging the mass spectrometry-based metabolite fingerprinting coupled with bioactivity and pathway evaluations could serve as an efficacious tool for inferring plant taxonomic orders. Thirty-four species from three plant families, namely Cornaceae (7), Fabaceae (9), and Rosaceae (18) were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), followed by multivariate analyses to determine the metabolites characteristic of these families. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed the distinct clustering pattern of metabolites for each family. The pathway analysis further highlighted the relatively higher proportions of flavonols and ellagitannins in the Cornaceae family than in the other two families. Higher levels of phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were observed among species from the Rosaceae family, while amino acids, flavones, and isoflavones were more abundant among the Fabaceae family members. The antioxidant activities of plant extracts were measured using ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays, and indicated that extracts from the Rosaceae family had the highest activity, followed by those from Cornaceae and Fabaceae. The correlation map analysis positively links the proportional concentration of metabolites with their relative antioxidant activities, particularly in Cornaceae and Rosaceae. This work highlights the pre-eminence of the multi-parallel approach involving metabolite profiling and bioactivity evaluations coupled with metabolic pathways as an efficient methodology for the evaluation of plant phylogenies.

  18. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  19. High Prevalence of CTX-M-15-Type ESBL-Producing E. coli from Migratory Avian Species in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Raza, Shahbaz; Schaufler, Katharina; Roschanski, Nicole; Sarwar, Fatima; Semmler, Torsten; Schierack, Peter; Guenther, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The increased presence of clinically relevant multidrug resistant bacteria in natural environments is an emerging challenge for global health care. Little is known regarding the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL- E. coli ) from environmental sentinels in Pakistan. The goal of the current study was to gain insights into the prevalence and phylogenetic relationships of ESBL- E. coli recovered from wild birds in Pakistan during winter migration. After initial screening of fecal samples on selective chromogenic agar, ESBL- E.coli were analyzed phenotypically using the Vitek-2 automated system. Genotypic characterization was performed using whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by an in-depth in silico analysis. Of 150 birds screened, 26 (17.3%) were fecal carriers of ESBL- E. coli . Of these, 88.4% isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (CTX-CAZ-AM-DC-TE-SXT) represented the most common pattern of MDR (76.9%). WGS data analysis found bla CTX-M-15 as the predominant ESBL genotype (92.3%). Other genes encoding resistance to sulfonamides ( sul1/sul2/sul3 ), aminoglycosides ( strA, strB, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aac(3)-IId-like, aac(3)-IVa-like and aph(4)-Ia) , trimethoprim (dfrA14 or dfrA17) , tetracyclines [ tet(A)/tet(B) ], and fluoroquinolones ( qnr S1) were detected commonly, often encoded on IncF-type plasmids (76.9%). ESBL- E. coli were assigned to 17 different sequence types (STs) of which ST10 and ST7097 (4 isolates each) were the most abundant followed by ST4720, ST93, and ST1139 (2 isolates each). Core-genome phylogeny of the isolates found low numbers (0-29) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in isolates belonged to ST7097 originated from two different locations (Chashma barrage and Rasul barrage). Similar trends were found among isolates belong to ST1139. In addition, WGS

  20. Revision of fleas of the genus Plocopsylla belonging to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex in the Andean biogeographic region, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Beaucournu, J-C; Lareschi, M

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina, the Andean biogeographic region accommodates the most diverse population of fleas in the country. The Craneopsyllinae (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) represent one of the most commonly found subfamilies in this region and show some endemism and high diversity. Plocopsylla is the most diverse genus of Craneopsyllinae; it includes 10 species mainly distributed in the Patagonian subregion, which parasitize sigmodontine rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). We describe and illustrate the morphology of the aedeagus in species of Plocopsylla that belong to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex. This character is of diagnostic value in differentiating among species. A new species of this complex, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii sp. n., is described and identified by the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternite IX, as well as by the shape of the median dorsal lobe of the aedeagus. New host associations for this complex and range extensions for most of its species are reported. Plocopsylla (P.) silewi is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The southern limits of the distributions of Plocopsylla (P.) lewisi and Plocopsylla (P.) wilesi are extended to Santa Cruz Province. The angusticeps-lewisi complex is found for the first time in San Juan Province. The information may be useful in epidemiological studies of flea-borne diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Avian diversity in the Naliya Grassland, Abdasa Taluka, Kachchh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep B Munjpara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Naliya Grassland is one of the significant grasslands of Gujarat. In this study the importance of the Naliya Grassland has been explored with special reference to avian diversity. Field work for the study was carried out throughout the year of 2007 on a monthly basis covering three distinct seasons to explore avian diversity. A total of 177 species belonging to 54 families were recorded wherein most species belonged to the family Accipitridae (20 species followed by Alaudidae (11 species. Of the total families, five were represented by more than seven species, 18 families by 3-7 species and 31 families by one or two species respectively. Among the species observed, 16 species ware globally threatened (three Critically Endangered, four Endangered and nine Near Threatened. Most of the species were chiefly terrestrial (68.2%, about 23.9% species were freshwater dependant and 7.9% utilized mixed habitats. Maximum species richness was recorded in the monsoons and minimum in summer. Constant turnover and fluctuation in species richness occurred because of seasonal immigration and emigration. Maximum emigration took place during February and March and maximum immigration occurred during June and July. Many water dependant birds attracted to the flooded grassland during the monsoons explained the high species richness during this season. In winter, the area was inhabited by resident species as well as many migratory species.

  2. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds.

  3. Use of an extracapsular stabilization technique to repair cruciate ligament ruptures in two avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Spodnick, Gary; Degernes, Laurel; DeVoe, Ryan S; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2009-12-01

    An extracapsular stabilization technique was used to repair cruciate ligament ruptures in a trumpeter hornbill (Bycanistes bucinator) and an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The hornbill demonstrated cranial drawer motion and severe rotational instability of the stifle from ruptures of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments and stifle joint capsule. The luxation was reduced, and the fibula was cranially transposed, in relation to the tibiotarsus, and anchored with 2 positive profile threaded acrylic pins. A lateral extracapsular stabilization was then performed. The African grey parrot had a traumatic stifle luxation, and an open reduction and a lateral extracapsular stabilization were performed. Both birds regained function of the affected leg by 1 month after surgery. Extracapsular stabilization allows motion of the stifle joint to be maintained during the postoperative recovery period, an advantage over rigid stabilization. Maintaining motion in the stifle joint facilitates physical therapy and can aid in full recovery after avian stifle injuries.

  4. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Clement, Suzette; Peacock, Beth; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins. Six metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS) as acuminatopyrone (1), blumenol A (2), chlamydosporol (3), isochlamydosporol (4), ergosterol (5) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6). Upon testing against B. tectorum in a seedling bioassay, (6) the coleoptile and radicle length of cheatgrass seedlings were significantly reduced. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activity, while 3-5 were not significantly different from the control.

  5. A luciferase reporter gene assay and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 genotype predict the LD50 of polychlorinated biphenyls in avian species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Gillian E.; Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P.; Klein, Jeff; Konstantinov, Alex; Potter, Dave; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2012-01-01

    Birds differ in sensitivity to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which complicates environmental risk assessments for these chemicals. Recent research has shown that the identities of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain (LBD) are primarily responsible for differences in avian species sensitivity to selected dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was developed in our laboratory to measure AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 reporter gene in COS-7 cells transfected with different avian AHR1 constructs. In the present study, the LRG assay was used to measure the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs representative of 86 avian species in order to predict their sensitivity to PCB-induced embryolethality and the relative potency of PCBs in these species. The results of the LRG assay indicate that the identity of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the AHR1 LBD are the major determinants of avian species sensitivity to PCBs. The relative potency of PCBs did not differ greatly among AHR1 constructs. Luciferase activity was significantly correlated with embryolethality data obtained from the literature (R 2 ≥ 0.87, p < 0.0001). Thus, the LRG assay in combination with the knowledge of a species' AHR1 LBD sequence can be used to predict PCB-induced embryolethality in potentially any avian species of interest without the use of lethal methods on a large number of individuals. -- Highlights: ► PCB embryolethality in birds can be predicted from a species' AHR1 genotype. ► The reporter gene assay is useful for predicting species sensitivity to PCBs. ► The relative potency of PCBs does not appear to differ between AHR1 genotypes. ► Contamination of PCB 105 and PCB 118 did not affect their relative

  6. A luciferase reporter gene assay and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 genotype predict the LD{sub 50} of polychlorinated biphenyls in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Gillian E., E-mail: gmann017@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Farmahin, Reza, E-mail: mfarm070@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jones, Stephanie P., E-mail: stephanie.jones@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Klein, Jeff, E-mail: jeffery@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3M5 (Canada); Konstantinov, Alex, E-mail: alex@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3M5 (Canada); Potter, Dave, E-mail: dpotter@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3M5 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Birds differ in sensitivity to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which complicates environmental risk assessments for these chemicals. Recent research has shown that the identities of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain (LBD) are primarily responsible for differences in avian species sensitivity to selected dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was developed in our laboratory to measure AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 reporter gene in COS-7 cells transfected with different avian AHR1 constructs. In the present study, the LRG assay was used to measure the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs representative of 86 avian species in order to predict their sensitivity to PCB-induced embryolethality and the relative potency of PCBs in these species. The results of the LRG assay indicate that the identity of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the AHR1 LBD are the major determinants of avian species sensitivity to PCBs. The relative potency of PCBs did not differ greatly among AHR1 constructs. Luciferase activity was significantly correlated with embryolethality data obtained from the literature (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.87, p < 0.0001). Thus, the LRG assay in combination with the knowledge of a species' AHR1 LBD sequence can be used to predict PCB-induced embryolethality in potentially any avian species of interest without the use of lethal methods on a large number of individuals. -- Highlights: ► PCB embryolethality in birds can be predicted from a species' AHR1 genotype. ► The reporter gene assay is useful for predicting species sensitivity to PCBs. ► The relative potency of PCBs does not appear to differ between AHR1 genotypes. ► Contamination of PCB 105 and PCB 118 did not affect

  7. Clostridium difficile Infection in Production Animals and Avian Species: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moono, Peter; Foster, Niki F; Hampson, David J; Knight, Daniel R; Bloomfield, Lauren E; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized humans. Recently, C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of neonatal enteritis in food animals such as pigs, resulting in stunted growth, delays in weaning, and mortality, as well as colitis in large birds such as ostriches. C. difficile is a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, which produces two toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) as its main virulence factors. The majority of strains isolated from animals produce an additional binary toxin (C. difficile transferase) that is associated with increased virulence. C. difficile is ubiquitous in the environment and has a wide host range. This review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical presentations, risk factors, and laboratory diagnosis of CDI in animals. Increased awareness by veterinarians and animal owners of the significance of clinical disease caused by C. difficile in livestock and avians is needed. Finally, this review provides an overview on methods for controlling environmental contamination and potential therapeutics available.

  8. Babesia ugwidiensis, a new species of Avian piroplasm from Phalacrocoracidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirce M.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of haematozoa, Babesia ugwidiensis sp. nov. from a cormorant is described. This is the first species of piroplasm to be recorded from the Phalacrocoracidae and the relationship of this parasite to other Babesia spp. from marine hosts is discussed.

  9. Using avian focal species to inform rangeland management in California oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia D. Young; Breanna Owens; Melissa Odell; Corey Shake; Wendell Gilgert; Geoffrey R. Geupel

    2015-01-01

    Biological knowledge about bird focal species may be used to inform planning, habitat management, and restoration efforts, with the assumption that the implementation of these species-based recommendations will maintain and enhance healthy functioning habitats and the ecosystems services they provide. Point Blue Conservation Science in collaboration with the Natural...

  10. Population Viability of Avian Endangered Species: the PVAvES Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melton, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... The program is designed to assess the viability of endangered bird species populations on U.S. Army lands. It also facilitates the comparison of alternative ecological scenarios based on different assumptions about the effects of natural or human...

  11. Decadal changes and delayed avian species losses due to deforestation in the northern Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Shaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How avifauna respond to the long-term loss and fragmentation of tropical forests is a critical issue in biodiversity management. We use data from over 30 years to gain insights into such changes in the northernmost Neotropical rainforest in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas of southern Veracruz, Mexico. This region has been extensively deforested over the past half-century. The Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, protects a 640 ha tract of lowland forest. It became relatively isolated from other forested tracts between 1975 and 1985, but it retains a corridor of forest to more extensive forests at higher elevations on Volcán San Martín. Most deforestation in this area occurred during the 1970s and early 1980s. Forest birds were sampled on the station and surrounding areas using mist nets during eight non-breeding seasons from 1973 to 2004 (though in some seasons netting extended into the local breeding season for some species. Our data suggested extirpations or declines in 12 species of birds subject to capture in mist nets. Six of the eight species no longer present were captured in 1992–95, but not in 2003–2004. Presence/absence data from netting and observational data suggested that another four low-density species also disappeared since sampling began. This indicates a substantial time lag between the loss of habitat and the apparent extirpation of these species. Delayed species loss and the heterogeneous nature of the species affected will be important factors in tropical forest management and conservation.

  12. A unified model of avian species richness on islands and continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Attila; Currie, David J

    2007-05-01

    How many species in a given taxon should be found in a delimited area in a specified place in the world? Some recent literature suggests that the answer to this question depends strongly on the geographical, evolutionary, and ecological context. For example, current theory suggests that species accumulate as a function of area differently on continents and islands. Species richness-climate relationships have been examined separately on continents and on islands. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the functional relationship between richness and climate is the same on continents and islands; (2) the species-area slope depends on distance-based isolation; (3) species-area relationships differ among land bridge islands, oceanic islands, and continents; (4) richness differs among biogeographic regions independently of climate and isolation. We related bird species numbers in a worldwide sample of 240 continental parcels and 346 islands to several environmental variables. We found that breeding bird richness varies similarly on islands and on continents as a function of mean annual temperature, an area x precipitation interaction, and the distance separating insular samples from the nearest continent (R2 = 0.86). Most studies to date have postulated that the slope of the species-area relationship depends upon isolation. In contrast, we found no such interaction. A richness-environment relationship derived using Old World sites accurately predicts patterns of richness in the New World and vice versa (R2 = 0.85). Our results suggest that most of the global variation in richness is not strongly context-specific; rather, it reflects a small number of general environmental constraints operating on both continents and islands.

  13. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  14. The contribution of an avian top predator to selection in prey species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.

    Natural selection can vary in magnitude, form and direction, yet the causes of selection, and of variation in selection, are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of a key predator (Eurasian sparrowhawks) on selection on fledging body mass in two bird species (blue tits and great tits). By

  15. Managed forest landscape structure and avian species richness in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Loehle; T. Bently Wigley; Scott Rutzmoser; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Christopher J. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2005-01-01

    Forest structural features at the stand scale (e.g., snags, stem density, species composition) and habitat attributes at larger spatial scales (e.g., landscape pattern, road density) can influence biological diversity and have been proposed as indicators in sustainable forestry programs. This study investigated relationships between such factors and total richness of...

  16. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  17. Comparison of techniques of detecting immunoglobulin-binding protein reactivity to immunoglobulin produced by different avian and mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiz-Vaillant, A A; Akpaka, P E; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Smikle, M F

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of this study was to use several immunological assays to investigate the reactivity of immunoglobulin binding protein (IBP) to immunoglobulins from various avian and mammalian species. The IBP studied were Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), Streptococcal protein G (SpG), Peptostreptococcal protein L (SpL) and recombinant protein LA (SpLA). The various immunological techniques used were double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique) that tested positive high protein reactivities, direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that tested moderate and low positive protein binding capacities, respectively. In addition to sandwich ELISAs, immunoblot analyses and Ig-purification by SpA-affinity chromatography, which were sensitive tests and helpful in the screening and confirmatory tests were also used. The Ouchterlony technique showed that compared to the other proteins, SpLA had the highest range of reactivity with animal sera and purified immunoglobulins while SpL was least reactive. With the direct ELISA, SpL reacted with the raccoon sera, rabbit IgG and with IgY from bantam hens and pigeons. While with the direct ELISA, SpA reacted with sera from skunk, coyote, raccoon, mule, donkey and human. The sandwich ELISA revealed high reactivity of both SpG and SpLA with mammalian sera titres ranging from 1:32 (raccoon serum) to 1:1024 (mule and donkey sera). These results suggest that IBP can be used for the detection of immunoglobulin using various immunological assays and this is important for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animal and bird populations studied and in the purification of immunoglobulins.

  18. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  19. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Vinkler, M.; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), e0150589-e0150589 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1419; GA ČR GA13-30983S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : avian leukosis virus * NHE1 * Genetic Diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  20. The Influence of Ecological Factors on the Transmission and Stability of Avian Influenza Virus in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecology is a science studying the correlation among organisms and some environmental factors. Ecological factors play an important role to transmit Avian Influenza (AI virus and influence its stability in the environment. Avian Influenza virus is classified as type A virus and belong to Orthomyxoviridae family. The virus can infect various vertebrates, mainly birds and mammals, including human. Avian Influenza virus transmission can occur through bird migration. The bird migration patterns usually occur in the large continent covers a long distance area within a certain periode hence transmit the virus from infected birds to other birds and spread to the environment. The biotic (normal flora microbes and abiotic (physical and chemical factors play important role in transmitting the virus to susceptible avian species and influence its stability in the environment. Disinfectant can inactivate the AI virus in the environment but its effectivity is influenced by the concentration, contact time, pH, temperature and organic matter.

  1. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Franson, J Christian; Gill, Robert E; Meteyer, Carol U; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J; Ip, Hon S

    2011-09-01

    Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds. Wild dunlin were inoculated intranasally and intrachoanally various doses of HPAIV H5N1. The birds were monitored daily for virus excretion, disease signs, morbidity, and mortality. The infectious dose of HPAIV H5N1 in dunlin was determined to be 10(1.7) EID(50)/100 μl and that the lethal dose was 10(1.83) EID(50)/100 μl. Clinical signs were consistent with neurotropic disease, and histochemical analyses revealed that infection was systemic with viral antigen and RNA most consistently found in brain tissues. Infected birds excreted relatively large amounts of virus orally (10(4) EID(50)) and smaller amounts cloacally. Dunlin are highly susceptible to infection with HPAIV H5N1. They become infected after exposure to relatively small doses of the virus and if they become infected, they are most likely to suffer mortality within 3-5 days. These results have important implications regarding the risks of transport and transmission of HPAIV H5N1 to North America by this species and raises questions for further investigation. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  3. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  4. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in avian species: Utilization of stored samples in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Higaki, Yumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    The present study determined concentrations and patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in specimens of open sea, and Japanese coastal and inland avian species, which have been stored in the Environmental Specimen Bank of Ehime University (es-Bank), to examine the spatial trends. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all the muscle samples analyzed, suggesting that PBDE pollution has spread even to the remote open sea areas, as in the case of PCBs. Japanese coastal and inland birds accumulated higher concentrations of PBDEs than open sea birds. In addition, higher PBDE/PCB concentration ratios were observed in Japanese coastal and inland birds than in open sea birds, indicating the input of PBDEs into the Japanese terrestrial environment. Compositions of PBDEs varied among avian species with a predominance of BDE47 or BDE153. This could be due to differences in their habitat, food habit and/or biotransformation capacity of PBDEs. - Open sea birds have been exposed to PBDEs, but the accumulation levels were lower than those in Japanese coastal and inland birds

  5. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servais Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. Results The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  6. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Belouze, Maud; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Desplanches, Dominique; Sibille, Brigitte; Servais, Stéphane; Duchamp, Claude

    2010-04-28

    Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP) remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA) or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase). This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  7. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels

    Full Text Available Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28 of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18 of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9 of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28 penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to

  8. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  9. Low diversity, activity, and density of transposable elements in five avian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Wang, Saisai; Wang, Yali; Shen, Dan; Xue, Songlei; Chen, Cai; Cui, Hengmi; Song, Chengyi

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we conducted the activity, diversity, and density analysis of transposable elements (TEs) across five avian genomes (budgerigar, chicken, turkey, medium ground finch, and zebra finch) to explore the potential reason of small genome sizes of birds. We found that these avian genomes exhibited low density of TEs by about 10% of genome coverages and low diversity of TEs with the TE landscapes dominated by CR1 and ERV elements, and contrasting proliferation dynamics both between TE types and between species were observed across the five avian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CR1 clade was more diverse in the family structure compared with R2 clade in birds; avian ERVs were classified into four clades (alpha, beta, gamma, and ERV-L) and belonged to three classes of ERV with an uneven distributed in these lineages. The activities of DNA and SINE TEs were very low in the evolution history of avian genomes; most LINEs and LTRs were ancient copies with a substantial decrease of activity in recent, with only LTRs and LINEs in chicken and zebra finch exhibiting weak activity in very recent, and very few TEs were intact; however, the recent activity may be underestimated due to the sequencing/assembly technologies in some species. Overall, this study demonstrates low diversity, activity, and density of TEs in the five avian species; highlights the differences of TEs in these lineages; and suggests that the current and recent activity of TEs in avian genomes is very limited, which may be one of the reasons of small genome sizes in birds.

  10. Trypanosoma teixeirae: A new species belonging to the T. cruzi clade causing trypanosomosis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Mackie, John T; Stenner, Robyn; Gillett, Amber; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of trypanosomes in Australian bats. Recently a novel trypanosome species was identified in an adult female little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) with clinical and pathological evidence of trypanosomosis. The present study used morphology and molecular methods to demonstrate that this trypanosome is a distinct species and we propose the name Trypanosoma teixeirae sp. n. Morphological comparison showed that its circulating trypomastigotes were significantly different from those of Trypanosoma pteropi and Trypanosoma hipposideri, two species previously described from Australian bats. Genetic information was not available for T. pteropi and T. hipposideri but phylogenetic analyses at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) loci indicated that T. teixeirae sp. n. was genetically distinct and clustered with other bat-derived trypanosome species within the Trypanosoma cruzi clade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Challenge of a Peridomestic Avian Species, European Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), with Novel Influenza A H7N9 Virus from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Ip, Hon S; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    In 2013 a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus was isolated from several critically ill patients in China, and infection with this virus has since caused more than 200 human deaths. Live poultry markets are the likely locations of virus exposure to humans. Peridomestic avian species also may play important roles in the transmission and maintenance of H7N9 at live poultry markets. We experimentally challenged wild European Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) with the novel H7N9 virus and measured virus excretion, clinical signs, and infectious dose. We found that European Starlings can be infected with this virus when inoculated with relatively high doses, and we predict that infected birds excrete sufficient amounts of virus to transmit to other birds, including domestic chickens. Infected European Starlings showed no clinical signs or mortality after infection with H7N9. This abundant peridomestic bird may be a source of the novel H7N9 virus in live poultry markets and may have roles in virus transmission to poultry and humans.

  12. Experimental challenge of a peridomestic avian species, European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), with novel Influenza A H7N9 virus from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Ip, Hon S.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus was isolated from several critically ill patients in China, and infection with this virus has since caused more than 200 human deaths. Live poultry markets are the likely locations of virus exposure to humans. Peridomestic avian species also may play important roles in the transmission and maintenance of H7N9 at live poultry markets. We experimentally challenged wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with the novel H7N9 virus and measured virus excretion, clinical signs, and infectious dose. We found that European Starlings can be infected with this virus when inoculated with relatively high doses, and we predict that infected birds excrete sufficient amounts of virus to transmit to other birds, including domestic chickens. Infected European Starlings showed no clinical signs or mortality after infection with H7N9. This abundant peridomestic bird may be a source of the novel H7N9 virus in live poultry markets and may have roles in virus transmission to poultry and humans.

  13. Avian Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  14. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2009-01-01

    The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 533 species of birds, when examined with ANCOVA, principally correlates with body mass, most of the residual variation correlating with food habits, climate, habitat, a volant or flightless condition, use or not of torpor, and a highland or lowland distribution. Avian BMR also correlates with migratory habits, if climate and a montane distribution is excluded from the analysis, and with an occurrence on small islands if a flightless condition and migration are excluded. Residual variation correlates with membership in avian orders and families principally because these groups are behaviorally and ecologically distinctive. However, the distinction between passerines and other birds remains a significant correlate of avian BMR, even after six ecological factors are included, with other birds having BMRs that averaged 74% of the passerine mean. This combination of factors accounts for 97.7% of the variation in avian BMR. Yet, migratory species that belong to Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Procellariiformes and breed in temperate or polar environments have mass-independent basal rates equal to those found in passerines. In contrast, penguins belong to an order of polar, aquatic birds that have basal rates lower than passerines because their flightless condition depresses basal rate. Passerines dominate temperate, terrestrial environments and the four orders of aquatic birds dominate temperate and polar aquatic environments because their high BMRs facilitate reproduction and migration. The low BMRs of tropical passerines may reflect a sedentary lifestyle as much as a life in a tropical climate. Birds have BMRs that are 30-40% greater than mammals because of the commitment of birds to an expensive and expansive form of flight.

  15. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  16. Seasonality, distribution and taxonomic status of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of a new species is based upon morphology of gametocyte development in the peripheral blood of the avian host. This does not distinguish between morphologically identical gametocytes from different avian host families, nor is species or family level a valid taxonomic character. Thus, Haemoproteus and ...

  17. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  18. Molecular Typing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Species Belonging to Phlebotomus (Larroussius and Phlebotomus (Adlerius Subgenera (Diptera: Psychodidae from Two Locations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Parvizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haematophagous females of some phlebotomine sandflies are the only natural vectors of Leishmania species, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, including Iran.  We report the presence of Phlebotomus (Larroussius major and Phlebotomus (Adlerius halepensis in Tonekabon (Ma­zanderan Province and Phlebotomus (Larroussius tobbi in Pakdasht (Tehran Province. It is the first report of these species, known as potential vectors of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, are identified in these areas.Methods: In 2006-2007 individual wild-caught sandflies were characterized by both morphological features and sequence analysis of their mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b.  The analyses were based on a fragment of  494 bp at the 3´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 3´ fragment and a fragment of  382 bp CB3 at the 5´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 5´ fragment. We also analysed the Cyt b Long fragment, which is located on the last 717 bp of the Cyt b gene, followed by 20 bp of intergenic spacer and the transfer RNA ser(TCN gene.Results: Twenty-seven P. halepensis and four P. major from Dohezar, Tonekabon, Mazanderan province and 8 P. tobbi from Packdasht, Tehran Province were identified by morphological and molecular characters. Cyt b 5´ and Cyt b 3´ fragment sequences were obtained from 15 and 9 flies, respectively. Cyt b long fragment sequences were ob­tained from 8 out of 27 P. halepensis.Conclusion: Parsimony analyses (using heuristic searches of the DNA sequences of Cyt b always showed mono­phyletic clades of subgenera and each species did form a monophyletic group.

  19. Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of some species belonging to phlebotomus (larroussius) and phlebotomus (adlerius) subgenera (Diptera: psychodidae) from two locations in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, P; Naddaf, S R; Alaeenovin, E

    2010-01-01

    Haematophagous females of some phlebotomine sandflies are the only natural vectors of Leishmania species, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, including Iran. We report the presence of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) major and Phlebotomus (Adlerius) halepensis in Tonekabon (Mazanderan Province) and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) tobbi in Pakdasht (Tehran Province). It is the first report of these species, known as potential vectors of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, are identified in these areas. In 2006-2007 individual wild-caught sandflies were characterized by both morphological features and sequence analysis of their mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b). The analyses were based on a fragment of 494 bp at the 3' end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 3' fragment) and a fragment of 382 bp CB3 at the 5' end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 5' fragment). We also analysed the Cyt b Long fragment, which is located on the last 717 bp of the Cyt b gene, followed by 20 bp of intergenic spacer and the transfer RNA ser(TCN) gene. Twenty-seven P. halepensis and four P. major from Dohezar, Tonekabon, Mazanderan province and 8 P. tobbi from Packdasht, Tehran Province were identified by morphological and molecular characters. Cyt b 5' and Cyt b 3' fragment sequences were obtained from 15 and 9 flies, respectively. Cyt b long fragment sequences were obtained from 8 out of 27 P. halepensis. Parsimony analyses (using heuristic searches) of the DNA sequences of Cyt b always showed monophyletic clades of subgenera and each species did form a monophyletic group.

  20. Molecular Typing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Species Belonging to Phlebotomus (Larroussius and Phlebotomus (Adlerius Subgenera (Diptera: Psychodidae from Two Locations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E AlaeeNovin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract"nBackground: Haematophagous females of some phlebotomine sandflies are the only natural vectors of Leishmania species, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, including Iran.  We report the presence of Phlebotomus (Larroussius major and Phlebotomus (Adlerius halepensis in Tonekabon (Ma­zanderan Province and Phlebotomus (Larroussius tobbi in Pakdasht (Tehran Province. It is the first report of these species, known as potential vectors of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, are identified in these areas."nMethods: In 2006-2007 individual wild-caught sandflies were characterized by both morphological features and sequence analysis of their mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b.  The analyses were based on a fragment of  494 bp at the 3´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 3´ fragment and a fragment of  382 bp CB3 at the 5´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 5´ fragment. We also analysed the Cyt b Long fragment, which is located on the last 717 bp of the Cyt b gene, followed by 20 bp of intergenic spacer and the transfer RNA ser(TCN gene."nResults: Twenty-seven P. halepensis and four P. major from Dohezar, Tonekabon, Mazanderan province and 8 P. tobbi from Packdasht, Tehran Province were identified by morphological and molecular characters. Cyt b 5´ and Cyt b 3´ fragment sequences were obtained from 15 and 9 flies, respectively. Cyt b long fragment sequences were ob­tained from 8 out of 27 P. halepensis."nConclusion: Parsimony analyses (using heuristic searches of the DNA sequences of Cyt b always showed mono­phyletic clades of subgenera and each species did form a monophyletic group. "nKeywords: Mitochondrial Cytochrome b, Phlebotomus (Larroussius major, Phlebotomus (Larroussius tobbi, Phlebotomus (Adlerius halepensis, Iran

  1. Unraveling the diversification history of grasshoppers belonging to the “Trimerotropis pallidipennis” (Oedipodinae: Acrididae species group: a hotspot of biodiversity in the Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Verónica Guzmán

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Mountain range has been recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. The proposed mechanisms for such species diversification, among others, are due to the elevation processes occurring during the Miocene and the intensive glacial action during the Pleistocene. In this study we investigated the diversification history of the grasshopper Trimerotropis pallidipennis species complex which shows a particularly wide latitudinal and altitudinal distribution range across the northern, central and southern Andes in South America. Many genetic lineages of this complex have been so far discovered, making it an excellent model to investigate the role of the central Andes Mountains together with climatic fluctuations as drivers of speciation. Phylogenetics, biogeographic and molecular clock analyses using a multi-locus dataset revealed that in Peru there are at least two, and possibly four genetic lineages. Two different stocks originated from a common ancestor from North/Central America—would have dispersed toward southern latitudes favored by the closure of the Panama Isthmus giving rise to two lineages, the coastal and mountain lineages, which still coexist in Peru (i.e., T. pallidipennis and T. andeana. Subsequent vicariant and dispersal events continued the differentiation process, giving rise to three to six genetic lineages (i.e., clades detected in this study, which were geographically restricted to locations dispersed over the central Andes Mountains in South America. Our results provide another interesting example of “island diversification” motored by the topography plus unstable climatic conditions during the Pleistocene, pointing out the presence of a hotspot of diversification in the Andean region of Peru.

  2. Multi-locus sequence typing provides epidemiological insights for diseased sharks infected with fungi belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Debourgogne, Anne; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Zaffino, Marie; Sutton, Deanna; Burns, Rachel E; Frasca, Salvatore; Hyatt, Michael W; Cray, Carolyn

    2018-07-01

    Fusarium spp. are saprobic moulds that are responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. However, we need epidemiological tools to reliably trace the circulation of such fungal strains within medical or veterinary facilities, to recognize environmental contaminations that might lead to infection and to improve our understanding of factors responsible for the onset of outbreaks. In this study, we used molecular genotyping to investigate clustered cases of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) infection that occurred in eight Sphyrnidae sharks under managed care at a public aquarium. Genetic relationships between fungal strains were determined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on DNA sequencing at five loci, followed by comparison with sequences of 50 epidemiologically unrelated FSSC strains. Our genotyping approach revealed that F. keratoplasticum and F. solani haplotype 9x were most commonly isolated. In one case, the infection proved to be with another Hypocrealian rare opportunistic pathogen Metarhizium robertsii. Twice, sharks proved to be infected with FSSC strains with the same MLST sequence type, supporting the hypothesis the hypothesis that common environmental populations of fungi existed for these sharks and would suggest the longtime persistence of the two clonal strains within the environment, perhaps in holding pools and life support systems of the aquarium. This study highlights how molecular tools like MLST can be used to investigate outbreaks of microbiological disease. This work reinforces the need for regular controls of water quality to reduce microbiological contamination due to waterborne microorganisms.

  3. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  4. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  5. Avian dark cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  7. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  8. Performing Belonging, celebrating invisibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Serbian migrants living transnational lives consciously or unconsciously move between visibility and invisibility in their performance of migrant success stories. A case in point are public festivals, performed to make visible migrants’ successful inclusion in Danish society, i.e. celebrating...... invisibility. Meanwhile, other celebrations are consciously relegated to the invisible confines of the Serbian homeland. This article analyses celebrations in Denmark and in Serbia and shows how visible displays of ethnicity and difference tend to turn into easily palatable heritage versions of Serbian culture...... when performed in a Danish context. In turn, the visibility acquired through celebrations of migrants’ belonging in their homeland is inclined to render invisible those who did not take part in the migration experience....

  9. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady J Mattsson

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  10. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N.; Barker, F. Keith; Olsson, Urban; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although ...

  11. Avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is a contagious disease resulting from infection by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Several subspecies of bacteria have been proposed for P. multocida, and at least 16 different P. multocida serotypes or characteristics of antigens in bacterial cells that differentiate bacterial variants from each other have been recognized. The serotypes are further differentiated by other methods, including DNA fingerprinting. These evaluations are useful for studying the ecology of avian cholera (Fig. 7.1), because different serotypes are generally found in poultry and free-ranging migratory birds. These evaluations also show that different P. multocida serotypes are found in wild birds in the eastern United States than those that are found in the birds in the rest of the Nation (Fig. 7.2).

  12. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  13. The power of belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjøtterud Sigrid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coming from a Nordic environment, professionally working in teacher education, both authors engaged in developmental work and research in the Uluguru mountains in Tanzania. The research is carried out in a community-based organization for vulnerable youth, Mgeta Orphan Education Foundation (MOEF, which builds on principles of action learning and action research. We have followed and participated in the development of the organization since 2010, and this article builds on data gathered in 2016-17. We will show and discuss some of the transformations we have witnessed, mainly in the older members. The transformations seem to have an emergent character, and we examine further factors we have seen as crucial for transforming the lives of the young people in the orphan education project. Surprisingly, duty was a factor coming forth in the data. The youth perceived duty in a relational way, mainly caused by inner motivation nurtured by the example of their coordinator, Solomon, and by facing the continuous, emergent need for assistance in their local communities. Less surprisingly, belonging transpired as a fundamental factor. Previously, we have analyzed the transformational learning among the youngsters, and identified a set of transformational tools (Gjotterud, Krogh, Dyngeland, & Mwakasumba, 2015. Building on the transformational tools, we have derived a model for Relational Transformation. Transformative action research is the approach we follow, and one aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of the reciprocity of transformative processes in transformative research.

  14. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  15. A test of the nest sanitation hypothesis for the evolution of foreign egg rejection in an avian brood parasite rejecter host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luro, Alec B; Hauber, Mark E

    2017-04-01

    Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved diverse defenses to avoid the costs associated with raising brood parasite nestlings. In egg ejection, the host recognizes and removes foreign eggs laid in its nest. Nest sanitation, a behavior similar in motor pattern to egg ejection, has been proposed repeatedly as a potential pre-adaptation to egg ejection. Here, we separately placed blue 3D-printed, brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs known to elicit interindividual variation in ejection responses and semi-natural leaves into American robins' (Turdus migratorius) nests to test proximate predictions that (1) rejecter hosts should sanitize debris from nests more frequently and consistently than accepter hosts and (2) hosts that sanitize their nests of debris prior to the presentation of a foreign egg will be more likely to eject the foreign egg. Egg ejection responses were highly repeatable within individuals yet variable between them, but were not influenced by prior exposure to debris, nor related to sanitation tendencies as a whole, because nearly all individuals sanitized their nests. Additionally, we collected published data for eight different host species to test for a potential positive correlation between sanitation and egg ejection. We found no significant correlation between nest sanitation and egg ejection rates; however, our comparative analysis was limited to a sample size of 8, and we advise that more data from additional species are necessary to properly address interspecific tests of the pre-adaptation hypothesis. In lack of support for the nest sanitation hypothesis, our study suggests that, within individuals, foreign egg ejection is distinct from nest sanitation tendencies, and sanitation and foreign egg ejection may not correlate across species.

  16. Composition and Dynamics of Migratory and Resident Avian Population in Wintering Wetlands from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve wetlands occurring in four different ecozones in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, were selected for studying the winter composition and dynamics of avian populations. Wetland information was collected from office records of the UP Forest department. Bird populations were estimated by transect method and block-in-flock-in-sector method for woodland and aquatic birds, respectively. Across the twelve selected wetlands a total of 486,182 individuals belonging to 161 species of birds on 15,592 ha were recorded during the winter of 2010-11. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between wetland characteristics and avian populations. Aquatic vegetation, surrounding vegetation, water availability and climate were found as important factors related to avian populations. January was found to be the peak of bird assemblage, while winter times before and after January were the waxing and waning period, respectively. Species richness and species diversity of aquatic birds varied between 18-58 and 1.90-3.20, respectively, and of all bird species between 23-109, and 1.73-3.81, respectively. The density of aquatic birds ranged between 17-384 ha-1. The most common migratory birds in wetlands were Northern Pintail, Common Teal and Greylag Goose. Common resident birds included Asian Openbill, Darter, Little Egret, Common Coot, Little Cormorant, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Indian Pond Heron, Common Moorhen, Purple Swamphen, Cattle Egret, Indian Sarus Crane and White-throated Kingfisher. For improved conservation of aquatic avian fauna, management prescriptions are suggested for wetlands under current management which could also be extended to other wetlands, whereas conservation of avian fauna to be the emphasis.

  17. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  18. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species

  19. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  20. The Relationship of Avian Influenza and Waterbirds in Creating Genetic Diversity and the Role of Waterbirds as Reservoir for Avian Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Avian Influenza (AI has enormous implications for poultry and human health.These outbreaks are caused by influenza A virus that belongS to the family of Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are RNA viruses, negative polarity, and the envelope has segmented genom. Generally, Avian Influenza is a disease which originally occurred in birds with complex ecology including reassortment and transmission among different species of birds and mammals. The gene of AI virus can be transmitted among human and avian species as shown by the virus reasortantment that caused pandemic human influenza in 1957 and 1968. Pandemi in 1957 and 1968 were different from previously human viruses because the substitution of several genes are derived from avian viruses. Wild waterfowls especially Anseriformes (duck, muscovy duck and geese and Charadriiformes (gulls, seabirds, wild birds are the natural reservoirs for influenza type A viruses and play important role on the ecology and propagation of the virus. From this reservoir, influenza type A virus usually can be transmitted to other birds, mammals (including human and caused outbreak of lethal diseases. Waterfowl that is infected with influenza A virus usually does not show any clinical symptoms. However, several reports stated that HPAI viruses can cause severe disease with neurogical disorders led to death in waterfowl. Migration of birds including waterfowls have active role in transmitting and spreading the disease. Movement of wild birds and inappropriate poultry trade transportation play a greater role as vector in spreading HPAI to humans. Ecological change of environment has also a great effect in spreading AI viruses. The spreading pattern of AI viruses is usually influenced by seasons, where the prevalence of AI was reported to be in the fall, winter and rainy seasons. Finally, the effective control strategies against the spreading of AI viruses is required. Programs of monitoring, surveilence and

  1. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  2. The adaptive value of habitat preferences from a multi-scale spatial perspective: insights from marsh-nesting avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jedlikowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Habitat selection and its adaptive outcomes are crucial features for animal life-history strategies. Nevertheless, congruence between habitat preferences and breeding success has been rarely demonstrated, which may result from the single-scale evaluation of animal choices. As habitat selection is a complex multi-scale process in many groups of animal species, investigating adaptiveness of habitat selection in a multi-scale framework is crucial. In this study, we explore whether habitat preferences acting at different spatial scales enhance the fitness of bird species, and check the appropriateness of single vs. multi-scale models. We expected that variables found to be more important for habitat selection at individual scale(s, would coherently play a major role in affecting nest survival at the same scale(s. Methods We considered habitat preferences of two Rallidae species, little crake (Zapornia parva and water rail (Rallus aquaticus, at three spatial scales (landscape, territory, and nest-site and related them to nest survival. Single-scale versus multi-scale models (GLS and glmmPQL were compared to check which model better described adaptiveness of habitat preferences. Consistency between the effect of variables on habitat selection and on nest survival was checked to investigate their adaptive value. Results In both species, multi-scale models for nest survival were more supported than single-scale ones. In little crake, the multi-scale model indicated vegetation density and water depth at the territory scale, as well as vegetation height at nest-site scale, as the most important variables. The first two variables were among the most important for nest survival and habitat selection, and the coherent effects suggested the adaptive value of habitat preferences. In water rail, the multi-scale model of nest survival showed vegetation density at territory scale and extent of emergent vegetation within landscape scale as the most

  3. Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array of avian and mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Samuel K; Azkarate, Jurgi Cristòbal; Booth, Rebecca K; Hayward, Lisa; Hunt, Kathleen; Ayres, Katherine; Vynne, Carly; Gobush, Kathleen; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    We developed and validated a non-invasive thyroid hormone measure in feces of a diverse array of birds and mammals. An I(131) radiolabel ingestion study in domestic dogs coupled with High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, showed that peak excretion in feces occurred at 24-48h post-ingestion, with I(131)-labelled thyroid hormone metabolites excreted primarily as triiodothyronine (T3) and relatively little thyroxine (T4), at all excretion times examined. The immunoreactive T3 profile across these same HPLC fractions closely corresponded with the I(131) radioactive profile. By contrast, the T4 immunoreactive profile was disproportionately high, suggesting that T4 excretion included a high percentage of T4 stores. We optimized and validated T3 and T4 extraction and assay methods in feces of wild northern spotted owls, African elephants, howler monkeys, caribou, moose, wolf, maned wolf, killer whales and Steller sea lions. We explained 99% of the variance in high and low T3 concentrations derived from species-specific sample pools, after controlling for species and the various extraction methods tested. Fecal T3 reflected nutritional deficits in two male and three female howler monkeys held in captivity for translocation from a highly degraded habitat. Results suggest that thyroid hormone can be accurately and reliably measured in feces, providing important indices for environmental physiology across a diverse array of birds and mammals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytochrome P450-mediated warfarin metabolic ability is not a critical determinant of warfarin sensitivity in avian species: In vitro assays in several birds and in vivo assays in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kensuke P; Kawata, Minami; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishii, Chihiro; Darwish, Wageh Sobhi; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-10-01

    Coumarin-derivative anticoagulant rodenticides used for rodent control are posing a serious risk to wild bird populations. For warfarin, a classic coumarin derivative, chickens have a high median lethal dose (LD50), whereas mammalian species generally have much lower LD50. Large interspecies differences in sensitivity to warfarin are to be expected. The authors previously reported substantial differences in warfarin metabolism among avian species; however, the actual in vivo pharmacokinetics have yet to be elucidated, even in the chicken. In the present study, the authors sought to provide an in-depth characterization of warfarin metabolism in birds using in vivo and in vitro approaches. A kinetic analysis of warfarin metabolism was performed using liver microsomes of 4 avian species, and the metabolic abilities of the chicken and crow were much higher in comparison with those of the mallard and ostrich. Analysis of in vivo metabolites from chickens showed that excretions predominantly consisted of 4'-hydroxywarfarin, which was consistent with the in vitro results. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggested that chickens have an unexpectedly long half-life despite showing high metabolic ability in vitro. The results suggest that the half-life of warfarin in other bird species could be longer than that in the chicken and that warfarin metabolism may not be a critical determinant of species differences with respect to warfarin sensitivity. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Dioxin activation of CYP1A5 promoter/enhancer regions from two avian species, common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and chicken (Gallus gallus): Association with aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 and 2 isoforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the molecular mechanism and interspecies differences in susceptibility of avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) signaling pathway. By the cloning of 5'-flanking regions of CYP1A5 gene from common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and chicken (Gallus gallus), seven putative xenobiotic response elements (XREs) were identified within 2.7 kb upstream region of common cormorant CYP1A5 (ccCYP1A5), and six XREs were found within 0.9 kb of chicken CYP1A5 (ckCYP1A5). Analysis of sequential deletion and mutagenesis of the binding sites in avian CYP1A5 genes by in vitro reporter gene assays revealed that two XREs at -613 bp and -1585 bp in ccCYP1A5, and one XRE at -262 bp in ckCYP1A5 conferred TCDD-responsiveness. The binding of AHR1 with AHR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) to the functional XRE in a TCDD-dependent manner was verified with gel shift assays, suggesting that avian CYP1A5 is induced by TCDD through AHR1/ARNT1 signaling pathway as well as mammalian CYP1A1 but through a distinct pathway from mammalian CYP1A2, an ortholog of the CYP1A5. TCDD-EC 50 for the transcriptional activity in both cormorant AHR1- and AHR2-ccCYP1A5 reporter construct was 10-fold higher than that in chicken AHR1-ckCYP1A5 reporter construct. In contrast, chicken AHR2 showed no TCDD-dependent response. The TCDD-EC 50 for CYP1A5 transactivation was altered by switching AHR1 between the two avian species, irrespective of the species from which the regulatory region of CYP1A5 gene originates. Therefore, the structural difference in AHR, not the CYP1A5 regulatory region may be a major factor to account for the dioxin susceptibility in avian species

  6. West Nile Virus Infection in American Singer Canaries: An Experimental Model in a Highly Susceptible Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Lund, Melissa; Shearn Bochsler, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 10 5 , 10 2 , and 10 1 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 10 5 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 10 1 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 10 10 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 10 5 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >10 7 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 10 2 and 10 1 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  7. Captive-bred neotropical birds diagnosed with Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Novaes, Ricardo; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Bergamo do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  9. Modeling the Association of Space, Time, and Host Species with Variation of the HA, NA, and NS Genes of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Birds in Romania in 2005–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Perez, Andres; Batey, Nicole; Howard, Wendy; Baillie, Greg; Watson, Simon; Franz, Stephanie; Focosi-Snyman, Raffaella; Onita, Iuliana; Cioranu, Raluca; Turcitu, Mihai; Kellam, Paul; Brown, Ian H.; Breed, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Molecular characterization studies of a diverse collection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have demonstrated that AIVs’ greatest genetic variability lies in the HA, NA, and NS genes. The objective here was to quantify the association between geographical locations, periods of time, and host species and pairwise nucleotide variation in the HA, NA, and NS genes of 70 isolates of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) collected from October 2005 to December 2007 from birds in Romania. A mixed-binomial Bayesian regression model was used to quantify the probability of nucleotide variation between isolates and its association with space, time, and host species. As expected for the three target genes, a higher probability of nucleotide differences (odds ratios [ORs] > 1) was found between viruses sampled from places at greater geographical distances from each other, viruses sampled over greater periods of time, and viruses derived from different species. The modeling approach in the present study maybe useful in further understanding the molecular epidemiology of H5N1 HPAI virus in bird populations. The methodology presented here will be useful in predicting the most likely genetic distance for any of the three gene segments of viruses that have not yet been isolated or sequenced based on space, time, and host species during the course of an epidemic. PMID:24283126

  10. West Nile virus infection in American singer canaries: An experimental model in a highly susceptible avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries (Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105, 102, and 101plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >107 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 102 and 101 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  11. How to Understand Custodial Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Game

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Debates about ecological responsibility are interested in different forms of belonging. This article develops an understanding of a custodial form of belonging based on the logic of relation, which we distinguish from a proprietorial form of belonging based on the logic of identity. Theorists working on questions of belonging use a language of custodianship when describing a sense of responsibility and care that arises through connection or relation. We argue, however, that the full significance of custodial belonging cannot be appreciated when understandings of connection are derived from within the terms of identity logic. In other words, when belonging is understood in terms of identity and identification, custodianship is inadvertently reduced to a proprietorial form of responsibility and care. We develop this argument by addressing Australian research on custodial belonging. Focusing on the influential work of Deborah Bird Rose, we argue that there are tensions between, on the one hand, her attempts to recognise connected forms of belonging, and, on the other, her conceptual reliance on the assumptions of identity logic. Our primary concern here is to indicate relational possibilities in her work precluded by the language of identity. In particular, we suggest that the concept of ecological being allows for a specificity and inclusiveness that are not recognised by Rose’s concept of the ‘ecologically emplaced self’.

  12. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  14. On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.

  15. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  16. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  17. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices, such as ......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  18. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  19. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  20. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  1. Paul D. Sturkie: Avian cardiac physiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Nicholas T; Cohick, Wendie S; McKeever, Kenneth H; Malinowski, Karyn

    2018-06-01

    Sturkie's Avian Physiology is a highly regarded textbook for the study of comparative poultry physiology. Less well known, however, is the contribution of Paul D. Sturkie (1909-2002) as a pioneer in the experimental physiology of avian species. His seminal research on the cardiovascular and hemodynamic controls of chickens and egg-laying hens had a notable impact on the poultry industry and breeding practices of farmers. The purpose of this article is to highlight the contributions and practical insights of Paul D. Sturkie to the field of poultry science.

  2. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a Reliable Tool to Identify Species of Catalase-negative Gram-positive Cocci not Belonging to the Streptococcus Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Velázquez, Viviana Rojas; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Famiglietti, Angela; Vay, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using 190 Catalase-negative Gram-Positive Cocci (GPC) clinical isolates. All isolates were identified by conventional phenotypic tests following the proposed scheme by Ruoff and Christensen and MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, BD, Bremen, Germany). Two different extraction methods (direct transfer formic acid method on spot and ethanol formic acid extraction method) and different cut-offs for genus/specie level identification were used. The score cut-offs recommended by the manufacturer (≥ 2.000 for species-level, 1.700 to 1.999 for genus level and genus level, ≥ 1.700 for species-level and score genus or species. MALDI-TOF MS identification was considered correct when the result obtained from MS database agreed with the phenotypic identification result. When both methods gave discordant results, the 16S rDNA or sodA genes sequencing was considered as the gold standard identification method. The results obtained by MS concordant with genes sequencing, although discordant with conventional phenotyping, were considered correct. MS results discordant with 16S or sod A identification were considered incorrect. Using the score cut-offs recommended by the manufacturer, 97.37% and 81.05% were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. On the other hand, using lower cut-off scores for identification, 97.89% and 94.21% isolates were correctly identified to genus and species level respectively by MALDI-TOF MS and no significant differences between the results obtained with two extraction methods were obtained. The results obtained suggest that MALDI-TOF MS has the potential of being an accurate tool for Catalase-negative GPC identification even for those species with difficult diagnosis as Helcococcus , Abiotrophia , Granulicatella , among others. Nevertheless, expansion of the library, especially including more strains with

  3. Density dependence of avian clutch size in resident and migrant species: is there a constraint on the predictability of competitor density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of density dependence of clutch size is tested in 57 long-term population studies of 10 passerine bird species. In about half of the studies of tit species Parus spp. density dependence of clutch size was found, while none was found in studies of two flycatcher species Ficedula spp. One

  4. Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N

    2007-02-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.

  5. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service . Surveillance for Avian Influenza CDC, ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  6. Avian Mobbing of the Puerto Rican Boa (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAVIER E. MERCADO; ESTEBAN TERRANOVA; JR. WUNDERLE

    2002-01-01

    Mobbing, defined as an intense collective behavior in which birds of one or more species scold or even physically attack a predator, is known from a variety of bird species (Campbell and Lack, 1985; Gill, 1995). Targets commonly include hawks, owls, and snakes. In the West Indies, observations have documented avian mobbing towards various hawk species (e.g., Jeffrey-...

  7. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  8. [Highly pathogenic avian influenza--monitoring of migratory waterfowl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Since 1979, the group belonging to Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary Public Health and the Avian Zoonoses Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University is continuing isolation of avian influenza virus from such migratory waterfowls as whistling swan, pintail and tufted dugs flying from Siberia and/or northern China. They have already isolated many interesting influenza viruses. Serotype of the isolates is various; some H5 and H7 and human types of viruses were also isolated; and its pathogenicity for chickens is not high. It was interested that low pathogenic H5N3 virus isolated from whistling swan acquired severe pathogenicity during passage in chicks.

  9. Avian Conservation Practices Strengthen Ecosystem Services in California Vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Jedlicka, Julie A.; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without...

  10. Investigating avian influenza infection hotspots in old-world shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gaidet

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May. This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered.

  11. Identifikasi Flu Burung H5N1 pada Unggas di Sekitar Kasus Flu Burung pada Manusia Tahun 2011 di Bekasi (AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 IDENTIFICATION IN AVIAN SPECIES SURROUNDING AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 HUMAN CASES IN BEKASI, WEST JAVA, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available H5N1 subtype Avian Influenza (AI virus is the causal agent  of AI disease in humans. In Indonesia,the first human AI occurred in Tangerang 2005.  Human AI in Indonesia has now spread into 12 provinces,including West Java, Jakarta, Banten, North Sumatra, East Java, Central Java, Lampung, South Sulawesi,West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Riau, and Bali. Until 2011, the total human AI cases were 182 cases  with150 deaths. This study was conducted to identify of H5N1 AI virus in birds in area surrounding a humanAI human case  in Bekasi city  in March 2011 and to investigate its role in the spread of AI to humans usingmethods of Hemaglutination Inhibition (HI , and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR. The result showed that 80% of birds in the area surrounding AI  surrounding H5N1 AI humancase in Bekasi 2011 were antibody negative  against  H5N1-AI virus. Antibody against H5N1-AI viruswith the titer less than 4 log 2 was detected in 4.4%  of birds and  with antibody titer 04 4-7 log 2 in 15%of birds. By RT-PCR, H5N1 AI virus was not detected in 47.6% of bird samples. H5 positive and N1negative  AI virus was detected in  30.2% samples.  Only 11.2% samples showed positive for H5N1 AI virus.The results suggest that H5N1-AI virus affecting birds may have a positive role in transmitting to thevirus to human in Bekasi 2011.

  12. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  13. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  14. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  15. Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar

    Full Text Available Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9% and high (7.1% pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds.

  16. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  17. A duetting perspective on avian song learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Cáceres, Karla D; Templeton, Christopher N

    2017-12-25

    Avian song learning has a rich history of study and has become the preeminent system for understanding the ontogeny of vocal communication in animals. Song learning in birds has many parallels with human language learning, ranging from the neural mechanisms involved to the importance of social factors in shaping signal acquisition. While much has been learned about the process of song learning, virtually all of the research done to date has focused on temperate species, where often only one sex (the male) sings. Duetting species, in which both males and females learn to sing and learn to combine their songs into temporally coordinated joint displays, could provide many insights into the processes by which vocal learning takes place. Here we highlight three key features of song learning-neuroendocrine control mechanisms, timing and life history stages of song acquisition, and the role of social factors in song selection and use-that have been elucidated from species where only males sing, and compare these with duetting species. We summarize what is known about song learning in duetting species and then provide several suggestions for fruitful directions for future research. We suggest that focusing research efforts on duetting species could significantly advance our understanding of vocal learning in birds and further cement the importance of avian species as models for understanding human conversations and the processes of vocal learning more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is

  19. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes.

  20. The Belonging to the University Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Omer; Cirak, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a belonging to the university scale (BUS) in order to determine the level of fulfillment of the need to belong among university students at the higher education institutions they attend. The population of the investigation includes university students studying at the campus of Ordu University. A 5 point…

  1. Avian influenza: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer K; Noppenberger, Jennifer

    2007-01-15

    A review of the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, including human cases, viral transmission, clinical features, vaccines and antivirals, surveillance plans, infection control, and emergency response plans, is presented. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential. The next human influenza pandemic, if caused by the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, is estimated to have a potential mortality rate of more than a hundred million. Outbreaks in poultry have been associated with human transmission. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate greater than 50%. Bird-to-human transmission of the avian influenza virus is likely by the oral-fecal route. The most effective defense against an influenza pandemic would be a directed vaccine to elicit a specific immune response toward the strain or strains of the influenza virus. However, until there is an influenza pandemic, there is no evidence that vaccines or antivirals used in the treatment or prevention of such an outbreak would decrease morbidity or mortality. Surveillance of the bird and human populations for the highly pathogenic H5N1 is being conducted. Infection-control measures and an emergency response plan are discussed. Avian influenza virus A/H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in humans. Understanding its pathology, transmission, clinical features, and pharmacologic treatments and preparing for the prevention and management of its outbreak will help avoid its potentially devastating consequences.

  2. Adaptation of the Aesop's Fable paradigm for use with raccoons (Procyon lotor): considerations for future application in non-avian and non-primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Lauren; Davis, Emily; Johnson, Shylo; Gilbert, Amy; Benson-Amram, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the evolution of animal cognition, it is necessary to test and compare the cognitive abilities of a broad array of taxa. Meaningful inter-species comparisons are best achieved by employing universal paradigms that standardize testing among species. Many cognitive paradigms, however, have been tested in only a few taxa, mostly birds and primates. One such example, known as the Aesop's Fable paradigm, is designed to assess causal understanding in animals using water displacement. To evaluate the universal effectiveness of the Aesop's Fable paradigm, we applied this paradigm to a previously untested taxon, the raccoon (Procyon lotor). We first trained captive raccoons to drop stones into a tube of water to retrieve a floating food reward. Next, we presented successful raccoons with objects that differed in the amount of water they displaced to determine whether raccoons could select the most functional option. Raccoons performed differently than corvids and human children did in previous studies of Aesop's Fable, and we found raccoons to be innovative in many aspects of this task. We suggest that raccoon performance in this paradigm reflected differences in tangential factors, such as behavior, morphology, and testing procedures, rather than cognitive deficiencies. We also present insight into previously undocumented challenges that should better inform future Aesop's Fable studies incorporating more diverse taxa.

  3. Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.

  4. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  5. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  6. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  7. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. PMID:17986432

  8. Potential effects of arboreal and terrestrial avian dispersers on seed dormancy, seed germination and seedling establishment in Ormosia (Papilionoideae) species in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of arboreal or terrestrial birds at dispersing seeds of Ormosia macrocalyx and O. bopiensis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) were studied in south-eastern Peru. Seeds of both species were either scarified, to represent seed condition after dispersal by terrestrial birds, or left intact, to represent seed condition after dispersal by arboreal birds. Seeds were distributed along forest transects, and germination, seedling development and mortality were monitored to determine the successes of the two groups at producing seedlings. Scarified seeds germinated with the early rains of the dry-to-wet-season transition, when erratic rainfall was interspersed with long dry spells. Intact seeds germinated 30 d later when the rain was more plentiful and regular. Intact seeds of O. macrocalyx gave rise to significantly more seedlings (41.1% vs. 25.5%) than did scarified seeds, in part, because significantly more seedlings from scarified seeds (n = 20) than from intact seeds (n = 3) died from desiccation when their radicles failed to enter the dry ground present during the dry-to-wet-season transition. Also, seedlings from scarified seeds were neither larger nor more robust than those from intact seeds despite their longer growing period. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that dispersal effectiveness of arboreal birds, at least for O. macrocalyx, is greater than that of terrestrial birds. Screen-house experiments in which seedlings developed under different watering regimes supported this result. Numbers of seedlings developing from intact and scarified seeds of O. bopiensis did not differ significantly.

  9. A global phylogenetic analysis in order to determine the host species and geography dependent features present in the evolution of avian H9N2 influenza hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete phylogenetic analysis of all of the H9N2 hemagglutinin sequences that were collected between 1966 and 2012 was carried out in order to build a picture of the geographical and host specific evolution of the hemagglutinin protein. To improve the quality and applicability of the output data the sequences were divided into subsets based upon location and host species.The phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin reveals that the protein has distinct lineages between China and the Middle East, and that wild birds in both regions retain a distinct form of the H9 molecule, from the same lineage as the ancestral hemagglutinin. The results add further evidence to the hypothesis that the current predominant H9N2 hemagglutinin lineage might have originated in Southern China. The study also shows that there are sampling problems that affect the reliability of this and any similar analysis. This raises questions about the surveillance of H9N2 and the need for wider sampling of the virus in the environment.The results of this analysis are also consistent with a model where hemagglutinin has predominantly evolved by neutral drift punctuated by occasional selection events. These selective events have produced the current pattern of distinct lineages in the Middle East, Korea and China. This interpretation is in agreement with existing studies that have shown that there is widespread intra-country sequence evolution.

  10. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  11. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  12. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  13. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  14. The Pathology of Avian Influenza in Birds and Animals: An Analytical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikova, E. I.; Getmanova, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza virus remains enigmatic despite of long extensive studies. Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is able to infect a large spectrum of animal and bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus represents a serious problem both for a human and birds, particularly for chicks. Many studies have been performed in order to show differences between highly and low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, and examine their biological properties. Many separate pathological and microscopic descriptions are interspersed in numerous published articles. The aim of our study was to analyze data published in international scientific journals, and to attempt a generalized view of avian influenza pathology in various animal and bird hosts. We summarized and systematized data describing pathological changes caused by both highly and low pathogenic types of avian influenza virus (H5N1) in animals and birds, and developed generalized descriptions with accent at the type of virus. We also tried to show up species specific features of pathological changes in birds and animals infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). The results of this analytical work may be useful for pathological studies of a new avian influenza virus isolates, and for understanding of avian influenza pathogenesis in birds and animals. (author)

  15. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  16. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Polaszek, A.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the parasites (parasitoids) of the African cereal stem borers (including introduced species) belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera); 38 species belonging to 19 genera are keyed and treated. Three new species are described: Macrocentrus sesamivorus spec. nov. from

  17. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  18. Avian Pox in Native Captive Psittacines, Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Felipe C B; Marín, Sandra Y; Resende, Maurício; Silva, Aila S G; Coelho, Hannah L G; Barbosa, Mayara B; D'Aparecida, Natália S; de Resende, José S; Torres, Ana C D; Martins, Nelson R S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate an outbreak of avian pox in psittacines in a conservation facility, we examined 94 birds of 10 psittacine species, including sick and healthy birds. We found psittacine pox virus in 23 of 27 sick birds and 4 of 67 healthy birds. Further characterization is needed for these isolates.

  19. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outbreaks may only occur after transmission from migratory species to domestic flocks through local amplification and secondary spread through the movement of poultry or people, as well as equipment or vehicles contaminated by sick birds. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together ...

  20. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mammalian genomes commonly harbor endogenous viral elements. Due to a lack of comparable genome-scale sequence data, far less is known about endogenous viral elements in avian species, even though their small genomes may enable important insights into the patterns and processes of end...

  1. Avian Influenza Risk : Characterization and Dynamics of Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Public health authorities are concerned that this strain may mutate to became contagious between people. Throughout Southeast Asia and China, farmers raise poultry ...

  2. Development of colour-producing β-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Quinn, Tim; Waters, Karla

    2009-01-01

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of β-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. ‘Channel’ nanostructures consist of β-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. ‘Spherical’ nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin β-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary β-keratin in feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of β-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary β-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the hollow

  3. Development of colour-producing beta-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O; Dufresne, Eric R; Quinn, Tim; Waters, Karla

    2009-04-06

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of beta-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. 'Channel' nanostructures consist of beta-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. 'Spherical' nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin beta-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary beta-keratin in feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of beta-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary beta-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the

  4. Recent progress in understanding host immune response to Avian Coccidiosis: Th1 and Th17 responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-pathogen interaction leading to protection against coccidiosis is complex, involving many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity to intracellular parasites. The etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis is Eimeria, a genus of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Apico...

  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) isolated from whooper swans, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Saito, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

  6. Clinical avian nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  8. (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Globig, Anja; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-27

    Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Belonging and Unbelonging from an Intersectional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    2009-01-01

    lives and local communities. The three levels are explained and illustrated with empirical examples from a Nordic context, all based on the perspective of intersectionality between gender, class, race, and ethnicity. Finally, the article discusses some challenges for further research on belonging...

  10. Refugee youth, belonging and community sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the

  11. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  12. Phylogenomic analyses data of the avian phylogenomics project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvis, Erich D; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Determining the evolutionary relationships among the major lineages of extant birds has been one of the biggest challenges in systematic biology. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae...... and two of the five Palaeognathae orders. We used these genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomic analyses. FINDINGS: Here we present the datasets associated with the phylogenomic analyses, which include sequence alignment files consisting of nucleotides......ML algorithm or when using statistical binning with the coalescence-based MP-EST algorithm (which we refer to as MP-EST*). Other data sets, such as the coding sequence of some exons, revealed other properties of genome evolution, namely convergence. CONCLUSIONS: The Avian Phylogenomics Project is the largest...

  13. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  14. Avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in Majorca Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Negre, Nieves; Castellanos, Elena; de Juan, Lucía; Mateos, Ana; Parpal, Lluis; Aranaz, Alicia

    2010-02-01

    Avian mycobacteriosis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by different species of mycobacteria, usually belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. From 2004 to 2007, 589 raptors brought dead or sick to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) were necropsied. The birds belonged to 12 different species, chiefly common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n=297), scops owl (Otus scops) (n=109), barn owl (Tyto alba) (n=75), long-eared owl (Asio otus) (n=58), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n=27), and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) (n=13). Gross lesions compatible with mycobacteriosis were observed in 14 birds (2.4%) found in several locations in Majorca. They were 12 kestrels (prevalence in this species, 4.0%), one long-eared owl (1.7%) and one scops owl (0.9%), all the birds presenting white-yellowish nodules from pinpoint size to 1 cm in diameter in diverse organs, mainly in the liver, spleen and intestine. Affected organs were subjected to bacteriology and molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction and, in all cases, infection with M. avium subspecies avium was confirmed. The observed prevalences are similar to those previously observed in Holland, although the actual prevalence detected in this study is likely to be higher than reported because only birds with gross lesions were subjected to culture. Further molecular characterization with a set of six mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat loci was used to sub-type the isolates in order to show the existence of possible epidemiological links. Six different genotypes were found, which points to infection from multiple foci. No temporal or geographical aggregation of the cases was observed to be associated with the presence of positive birds or with the different variable number tandem repeat allelic profiles. The most feasible origin might be water or food sources, although the reservoir of mycobacteria remains unknown.

  15. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jarvis, Erich D; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships of modern birds are among the most challenging to understand in systematic biology and have been debated for centuries. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders, and used the genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomics analyses (Jarvis et al. in press; Zhang et al. in press). Here we release assemblies and datasets associated with the comparative genome analyses, which include 38 newly sequenced avian genomes plus previously released or simultaneously released genomes of Chicken, Zebra finch, Turkey, Pigeon, Peregrine falcon, Duck, Budgerigar, Adelie penguin, Emperor penguin and the Medium Ground Finch. We hope that this resource will serve future efforts in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The 38 bird genomes were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled using a whole genome shotgun strategy. The 48 genomes were categorized into two groups according to the N50 scaffold size of the assemblies: a high depth group comprising 23 species sequenced at high coverage (>50X) with multiple insert size libraries resulting in N50 scaffold sizes greater than 1 Mb (except the White-throated Tinamou and Bald Eagle); and a low depth group comprising 25 species sequenced at a low coverage (~30X) with two insert size libraries resulting in an average N50 scaffold size of about 50 kb. Repetitive elements comprised 4%-22% of the bird genomes. The assembled scaffolds allowed the homology-based annotation of 13,000 ~ 17000 protein coding genes in each avian genome relative to chicken, zebra finch and human, as well as comparative and sequence conservation analyses. Here we release full genome assemblies of 38 newly sequenced avian species, link genome assembly downloads for the 7 of the remaining 10 species, and provide a guideline of

  16. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  17. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  18. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  19. Dispersal and Transmission of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 4 among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4 is found sporadically in wild birds worldwide, and it is an economically important poultry pathogen. Despite the existence of several published strains, very little is known about the distribution, host species, and transmission of APMV-4 strains. To better understand the relationships among these factors, we conducted an APMV-4 surveillance of wild birds and domestic poultry in six provinces of China suspected of being intercontinental flyways and sites of interspecies transmission. APMV-4 surveillance was conducted in 9,160 wild birds representing seven species, and 1,461 domestic poultry in live bird markets (LMBs from December 2013 to June 2016. The rate of APMV-4 isolation was 0.10% (11/10,621, and viruses were isolated from swan geese, bean geese, cormorants, mallards, and chickens. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolated viruses indicated that all the isolates belonging to genotype I were epidemiologically connected with wild bird-origin viruses from the Ukraine and Italy. Moreover, chicken-origin APMV-4 strains isolated from the LBMs were highly similar to wild bird-origin viruses from nearby lakes with free-living wild birds. In additional, a hemagglutination-negative APMV-4 virus was identified. These findings, together with recent APMV-4 studies, suggest potential virus interspecies transmission between wild birds and domestic poultry, and reveal possible epidemiological intercontinental connections between APMV-4 transmission by wild birds.

  20. A Conceptual Shift in Studies of Belonging and the Politics of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Youkhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of belonging, its underlying notions, and the politics of belonging shows that social, political, and territorial demarcations are still based on essentialist conceptions of the collective. These are often applied and reproduced in the social sciences as a result of methodological nationalism. Space-sensitive studies of migration and globalization and a return to the material have recently challenged social constructivist lines of argumentation and have provoked a conceptual shift from analytical categories with inherent spatiality, territoriality, and boundary marking to concepts based on movement and flow. In this paper the analysis of belonging and the related politics of belonging in migration studies incorporates space as an analytical category that cross-cuts established categorizations such as race, class, gender, and stage in the life cycle, and integrates a material semiotic perspective more systematically into the study of social relations at the intersection of the social categories mentioned. A new concept of belonging is defined which reflects the complex relations that individuals have with other people, circulating objects, artefacts, and changing social, political, and cultural landscapes, thus mirroring both the material conditions and the underlying power relations. Such an understanding of belonging proceeds from social naturalizations and fixations to the multiplicity and situatedness of individual attachments, which entangle social, imagined, and sensual-material relations that are constantly re-articulated and re-negotiated by actors in their day-to-day practices. In such a reading, belonging comes into being as a result of individual life stories, versatile contexts, and situated experiences and acts. In times of constant exchange through travel, mass media, and communication technologies, the conceptualization of belonging questions established sociocultural and political demarcations, indicates the

  1. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; M?skens, Gerard J. D. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose...

  2. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1): a Threat to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. Therefore, H5N1 virus has rightly received attention as a potential pandemic threat. However, it is noted that the pandemics of 1957 and 1968 did not arise from highly pathogenic influenza viruses, ...

  3. Characterising the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences and potential function

    OpenAIRE

    David eWaite; Mike eTaylor

    2014-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbour diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfil important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-ba...

  4. Characterizing the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences, and potential function

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-ba...

  5. Early Avian Research at the Savannah River Site: Historical Highlights and Possibilities for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, J.M.; Odum, E.P.

    2000-10-01

    Avian biology was a major component of early research and baseline surveys. The focus of research shifted and the SRS evolved from open fields to forest cover. In the early years avian species richness and abundance increased with successional age of the vegetation from old-field to forest. During the early years resident game birds increased. More recent studies will help to understand the role of habitat in local and regional extinctions. A variety of survey techniques is needed.

  6. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  7. Carcass Management During Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page on Avian Influenza (AI) describes carcass management during Avian Flu outbreaks, including who oversees carcass management, how they're managed, environmental concerns from carcass management, and disinfection. The page also describes what AI is.

  8. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  9. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  10. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  11. Health and nomadism: territory and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hillesheim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how territory and linking notions articulate with the health field in Brazil, in view of the relations that are established between health staff and certain social groups who see in the movement a logic of life, survival and resistance: the nomads. The concept of territory is an important organizer of Brazilian’s public policies, and is closely related to inclusion. The data were collected through participant observation of the daily work of two teams of Family Health Strategy, in a medium-sized city located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For these services, nomadism is seen as a nuisance. On the other hand, include not only acquires a sense of attachment and population control, but the demarcation of belonging territories, from the investment of the relation of users with health services.

  12. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  13. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Food plant diversity as broad-Scale Determinant of Avian Frugivore Richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    from niche assembly mechanisms (e.g. coevolutionary adaptations to fruit size, fruit colour or vertical stratification of fruit presentation) or, alternatively, from stochastic speciation-extinction processes. In any case, the close relationship between species richness of Ficus and avian frugivores......The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa....... Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, whereas the influences of variables related to water-energy and habitat heterogeneity are mainly...

  15. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    populations to serve as reservoirs for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. There are still uncertainties regarding the epidemiological and ecological mechanisms that regulate "spill-over" and "spill-back" transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between poultry and wild bird populations, and the interspecies transmission of avian influenza from infected birds to humans and other species of mammals. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry vaccination programs for the control and eradication of avian influenza in poultry populations at the national and regional level, and the effect of long term poultry vaccination programs on human public health risks from avian influenza viruses. There is a need to determine risk factors associated with the extent of direct human involvement in the spread and proliferation of avian influenza viruses through commercial supply chain and transportation networks, and specific risk factors associated with domestic and international trade in live poultry, captive wild birds, poultry food products, (meat, eggs, poultry by-products (feathers, poultry meal, poultry manure, and poultry litter. Addressing these issues will greatly enhance our ability to implement economically and ecologically sustainable programs for the control of avian influenza outbreaks in wild and domesticated birds, increase our capability for promoting the protection of wild bird populations from disease and disruption, and help improve food security and public health in countries worldwide.

  17. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Elliott, John E.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle = 36 cm, Osprey = 30 cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon = 15 cm, Western and Clark's Grebe = 6 cm, and Belted Kingfisher = 5 cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background ( 3 μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1 degree-by-1 degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk.

  18. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Pearce, John M; Ely, Craig R; Guy, Lisa M Sheffield; Irons, David B; Derksen, Dirk V; Ip, Hon S

    2010-10-25

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian-North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl in North America and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Jesper; Thomsen, Anders F.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    The first avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 by researchers investigating the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds 3,4. A distinctly separate genotype (ABV-CG) was discovered in 2009 in association with neurological disease in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta...... canadensis) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) in Ontario, Canada 1. Since then this genotype, now identified as ABBV-1, has been identified from a variety of wild avian species 5, predominantly waterfowl, in North America at prevalences ranging from 10 to 50%, and in 2014 an additional genotype...... was identified in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) 2. In order to determine whether avian bornavirus was present in European waterfowl, the brains of 333 hunter killed geese in Denmark were examined by real time RT-PCR for the presence of avian bornavirus; seven birds (2.1%) were positive. Sequences were 98...

  20. Characterizing the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences, and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, David W; Taylor, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-based studies to examine the factors that shape the avian gut microbiota as a whole. In this study, we present the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available clone-library and amplicon pyrosequencing data. We investigate community membership and structure, as well as probe the roles of some of the key biological factors that influence the gut microbiota of other vertebrates, such as host phylogeny, location within the gut, diet, and association with humans. Our results indicate that, across avian studies, the microbiota demonstrates a similar phylum-level composition to that of mammals. Host bird species is the most important factor in determining community composition, although sampling site, diet, and captivity status also contribute. These analyses provide a first integrated look at the composition of the avian microbiota, and serve as a foundation for future studies in this area.

  1. Characterising the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences and potential function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWaite

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbour diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfil important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-based studies to examine the factors that shape the avian gut microbiota as a whole. In this study, we present the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available clone-library and amplicon pyrosequencing data. We investigate community membership and structure, as well as probe the roles of some of the key biological factors that influence the gut microbiota of other vertebrates, such as host phylogeny, location within the gut, diet and association with humans. Our results indicate that, across avian studies, the microbiota demonstrates a similar phylum-level composition to that of mammals. Host bird species is the most important factor in determining community composition, although sampling site, diet and captivity status also contribute. These analyses provide a first integrated look at the composition of the avian microbiota, and serve as a foundation for future studies in this area.

  2. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Špakaitė, Ina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania. The detailed research of freshwater and terrestrial Nostoc and Desmonostoc species provided new data on taxonomy, biology and ecology of these cyanobacteria and the overall diversity of algae in Lithuania. 20 Nostoc species and two intraspecific taxa, and 18 taxa to the Nostoc genus level were identified. Twelve Nostoc species and intraspecifi...

  3. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  4. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Jedlicka

    Full Text Available Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  5. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Lanlan; Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  6. Important bird areas of the Madrean Archipelago: A conservation strategy for avian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashti (Tice) Supplee; Jennie MacFarland

    2013-01-01

    The Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is a worldwide program through BirdLife International that identifies sites considered to provide important habitats for avian species. Criteria for designation are species abundance, diversity, and range restriction. As the United States Partner of BirdLife International, the National Audubon Society administers the IBA Program...

  7. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  8. Spatial patterns, ecological niches, and interspecific competition of avian brood parasites: inferring from a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Noh, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yunkyoung; Kwon, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Hoe; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2014-09-01

    Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So far, however, few studies have demonstrated whether the interspecific competition really occurs in the system of avian brood parasitism and how the nature of brood parasitism is related to their niche evolution. Using the occurrence data of five avian brood parasites from two sources of nationwide bird surveys in South Korea and publically available environmental/climatic data, we identified their distribution patterns and ecological niches, and applied species distribution modeling to infer the effect of interspecific competition on their spatial distribution. We found that the distribution patterns of five avian brood parasites could be characterized by altitude and climatic conditions, but overall their spatial ranges and ecological niches extensively overlapped with each other. We also found that the predicted distribution areas of each species were generally comparable to the realized distribution areas, and the numbers of individuals in areas where multiple species were predicted to coexist showed positive relationships among species. In conclusion, despite following different coevolutionary trajectories to adapt to their respect host species, five species of avian brood parasites breeding in South Korea occupied broadly similar ecological niches, implying that they tend to conserve ancestral preferences for ecological conditions. Furthermore, our results indicated that contrary to expectation interspecific competition for host availability between avian brood parasites seemed to be trivial, and thus, play little role in shaping their spatial distributions and ecological niches. Future studies, including the complete ranges of avian brood

  9. Evaluation of NDVI to assess avian abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, T.M.; van Riper, Charles; Johnson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices. Here we investigated the use of NDVI, coupled with vegetation, to model the avian community structure along the San Pedro River, Arizona. We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. We suggest additional studies in other watersheds to increase our understanding of these bird/NDVI relationships.

  10. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  11. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  12. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  13. A novel estrogen-regulated avian apolipoprotein☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolay, Birgit; Plieschnig, Julia A.; Šubik, Desiree; Schneider, Jeannine D.; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Hermann, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In search for yet uncharacterized proteins involved in lipid metabolism of the chicken, we have isolated a hitherto unknown protein from the serum lipoprotein fraction with a buoyant density of ≤1.063 g/ml. Data obtained by protein microsequencing and molecular cloning of cDNA defined a 537 bp cDNA encoding a precursor molecule of 178 residues. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the major circulating form of the protein, which we designate apolipoprotein-VLDL-IV (Apo-IV), has an apparent Mr of approximately 17 kDa. Northern Blot analysis of different tissues of laying hens revealed Apo-IV expression mainly in the liver and small intestine, compatible with an involvement of the protein in lipoprotein metabolism. To further investigate the biology of Apo-IV, we raised an antibody against a GST-Apo-IV fusion protein, which allowed the detection of the 17-kDa protein in rooster plasma, whereas in laying hens it was detectable only in the isolated ≤1.063 g/ml density lipoprotein fraction. Interestingly, estrogen treatment of roosters caused a reduction of Apo-IV in the liver and in the circulation to levels similar to those in mature hens. Furthermore, the antibody crossreacted with a 17-kDa protein in quail plasma, indicating conservation of Apo-IV in avian species. In search for mammalian counterparts of Apo-IV, alignment of the sequence of the novel chicken protein with those of different mammalian apolipoproteins revealed stretches with limited similarity to regions of ApoC-IV and possibly with ApoE from various mammalian species. These data suggest that Apo-IV is a newly identified avian apolipoprotein. PMID:24047540

  14. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Exo-erythrocytic development of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana A

    2017-03-03

    Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and related haemosporidians (Haemosporida) are responsible for diseases which can be severe and even lethal in avian hosts. These parasites cause not only blood pathology, but also damage various organs due to extensive exo-erythrocytic development all over the body, which is not the case during Plasmodium infections in mammals. However, exo-erythrocytic development (tissue merogony or schizogony) remains the most poorly investigated part of life cycle in all groups of wildlife haemosporidian parasites. In spite of remarkable progress in studies of genetic diversity, ecology and evolutionary biology of avian haemosporidians during the past 20 years, there is not much progress in understanding patterns of exo-erythrocytic development in these parasites. The purpose of this review is to overview the main information on exo-erythrocytic development of avian Plasmodium species and related haemosporidian parasites as a baseline for assisting academic and veterinary medicine researchers in morphological identification of these parasites using tissue stages, and to define future research priorities in this field of avian malariology. The data were considered from peer-reviewed articles and histological material that was accessed in zoological collections in museums of Australia, Europe and the USA. Articles describing tissue stages of avian haemosporidians were included from 1908 to the present. Histological preparations of various organs infected with the exo-erythrocytic stages of different haemosporidian parasites were examined. In all, 229 published articles were included in this review. Exo-erythrocytic stages of avian Plasmodium, Fallisia, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Akiba species were analysed, compared and illustrated. Morphological characters of tissue stages that can be used for diagnostic purposes were specified. Recent molecular studies combined with histological research show that avian haemosporidians are more

  16. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: Pattern consistency and implications for seed removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, T.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, Martha J.

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (plants at some locations than species exhibiting constancy in their patterns of preference. Only two frugivores, Euphonia musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  17. The avian egg exhibits general allometric invariances in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Chen, Pin-Yi; Yang, Da-Chang; Wu, Shang-Ping; Yen, An; Hsieh, Hsin-I

    2017-10-27

    The avian egg exhibits extraordinary diversity in size, shape and color, and has a key role in avian adaptive radiations. Despite extensive work, our understanding of the underlying principles that guide the "design" of the egg as a load-bearing structure remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we define a dimensionless number C, a function of egg weight, stiffness and dimensions, to quantify how stiff an egg is with respect to its weight after removing geometry-induced rigidity. We analyze eggs of 463 bird species in 36 orders across five orders of magnitude in body mass, and find that C number is nearly invariant for most species, including tiny hummingbirds and giant elephant birds. This invariance or "design guideline" dictates that evolutionary changes in shell thickness and Young's modulus, both contributing to shell stiffness, are constrained by changes in egg weight. Our analysis illuminates unique reproductive strategies of brood parasites, kiwis, and megapodes, and quantifies the loss of safety margin for contact incubation due to artificial selection and environmental toxins. Our approach provides a mechanistic framework for a better understanding of the mechanical design of the avian egg, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origin of contact incubation of amniote eggs.

  18. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  20. Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated on the Izumi plain in Japan: possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroko; Okuya, Kosuke; Kawabata, Toshiko; Matsuu, Aya; Takase, Kozo; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Toda, Shigehisa; Ozawa, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    The Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is an overwintering site of endangered cranes (hooded cranes and white-naped cranes) and of many other migratory birds (including wild ducks) that are considered carriers of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To assess the risks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the crane populations, we tested various environmental samples for AIVs in this area. In the 2014-2015 winter season, we isolated one AIV of the H6N2 subtype from the cranes' roost water and two AIVs of the H11N9 subtype from a crane fecal sample and a cloacal swab of a dead spot-billed duck. Genetic analysis of these AIV isolates indicated that our H6N2 isolate is genetically close to AIVs isolated from wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, except that the PB1 and NS genes belong to the North American virus lineage. All genes of the two H11N9 isolates are related to AIVs belonging to the Eurasian virus lineage. Notably, in our phylogenetic trees, H11 HA and N9 NA genes showing high sequence similarity to the corresponding genes of isolates from wild birds in South Africa and Spain, respectively, did not cluster in the major groups with recent wild-bird isolates from East Asia. These results suggest that AIVs with viral gene segments derived from various locations and bird species have been brought to the Izumi plain. These findings imply a possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

  1. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable.

  2. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: pattern consistency and implications for seed removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Tomás A; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  3. Avian personalities: characterization and epigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Ton G G; Carere, Claudio

    2005-02-01

    The work presented here aims at understanding the nature, epigenesis and function of personality types (here called behavioral profiles) in birds, focusing on a wild bird species, the great tit (Parus major). Lines bidirectionally selected for exploration show a wide array of social and non-social behavioral differences, and also some differences in physiological parameters. Line differences in these characteristics and their relationships show significant temporal consistency. The results show a surprising similarity between the great tit and a rodent model, suggesting a fundamental principle in the organization of behavioral profiles. The nature of this principle and whether or not it is multi-dimensional is discussed. However, the similarity with a chicken model is less clear, which points to some caution for generalization. The epigenesis of great tit behavioral profiles is discussed. Selection experiments with replication and backcrosses reveal a strong genetic basis, and suggest an influence of maternal effects. Ontogenetic manipulations indicate strong developmental plasticity, suggesting adaptive adjustment to prevailing environmental circumstances. They also show that behavioral characteristics belonging to the same profile can become uncoupled. Finally, field data on several fitness parameters of the different personalities in wild great tits are summarized. These data suggest that variation in selection pressure in time and space and assortative mating are plausible mechanisms accounting for the maintenance of different behavioral profiles within the same population.

  4. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-09-01

    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  7. Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage-specific evolution in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Otto, Thomas D.; Cotton, James A.; Steinbiss, Sascha; Sanders, Mandy; Oyola, Samuel O.; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Patra, Kailash P.; Herd, Colin; Bushell, Ellen; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K.; Billker, Oliver; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Rivero, Ana; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of high-quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species, and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian- and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the species with the greatest impact on human health. From these orthologs, we explore differential diversifying selection across the genus and show that the avian lineage is remarkable in the extent to which invasion-related genes are evolving. The subtelomeres of the P. relictum and P. gallinaceum genomes contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum, and within these proteins, we detect distinct regions that are specific to nonhuman primate, humans, rodent, and avian hosts. For the first time in the Plasmodium lineage, we find evidence of transposable elements, including several hundred fragments of LTR-retrotransposons in both species and an apparently complete LTR-retrotransposon in the genome of P. gallinaceum. PMID:29500236

  8. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  9. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  10. Mercury exposure in a large subantarctic avian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carravieri, Alice; Cherel, Yves; Blévin, Pierre; Brault-Favrou, Maud; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination poses potential threats to ecosystems worldwide. In order to study Hg bioavailability in the poorly documented southern Indian Ocean, Hg exposure was investigated in the large avian community of Kerguelen Islands. Adults of 27 species (480 individuals) showed a wide range of feather Hg concentrations, from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 16.6 ± 3.8 μg g −1 dry weight in Wilson's storm petrels and wandering albatrosses, respectively. Hg concentrations increased roughly in the order crustacean- < fish- ≤ squid- ≤ carrion-consumers, confirming that diet, rather than taxonomy, is an important driver of avian Hg exposure. Adults presented higher Hg concentrations than chicks, due to a longer duration of exposure, with the only exception being the subantarctic skua, likely because of feeding habits' differences of the two age-classes in this species. High Hg concentrations were reported for three species of the poorly known gadfly petrels, which merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Feather Hg concentrations were measured in 27 sympatric subantarctic bird species. • Inter-specific variation in Hg exposure depends on feeding habits, not taxonomy. • Hg concentrations were higher in adults than chicks due to longer exposure duration. • Hg is highly bioavailable in the Southern Ocean, which merits further investigation. - Mercury concentrations in feathers of sympatric subantarctic birds (27 species) are driven mainly by feeding habits and exposure duration

  11. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  12. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  14. The Completeness of the Fossil Record of Mesozoic Birds: Implications for Early Avian Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Upchurch, Paul; Mannion, Philip D.; O'Connor, Jingmai

    2012-01-01

    Many palaeobiological analyses have concluded that modern birds (Neornithes) radiated no earlier than the Maastrichtian, whereas molecular clock studies have argued for a much earlier origination. Here, we assess the quality of the fossil record of Mesozoic avian species, using a recently proposed character completeness metric which calculates the percentage of phylogenetic characters that can be scored for each taxon. Estimates of fossil record quality are plotted against geological time and compared to estimates of species level diversity, sea level, and depositional environment. Geographical controls on the avian fossil record are investigated by comparing the completeness scores of species in different continental regions and latitudinal bins. Avian fossil record quality varies greatly with peaks during the Tithonian-early Berriasian, Aptian, and Coniacian–Santonian, and troughs during the Albian-Turonian and the Maastrichtian. The completeness metric correlates more strongly with a ‘sampling corrected’ residual diversity curve of avian species than with the raw taxic diversity curve, suggesting that the abundance and diversity of birds might influence the probability of high quality specimens being preserved. There is no correlation between avian completeness and sea level, the number of fluviolacustrine localities or a recently constructed character completeness metric of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Comparisons between the completeness of Mesozoic birds and sauropodomorphs suggest that small delicate vertebrate skeletons are more easily destroyed by taphonomic processes, but more easily preserved whole. Lagerstätten deposits might therefore have a stronger impact on reconstructions of diversity of smaller organisms relative to more robust forms. The relatively poor quality of the avian fossil record in the Late Cretaceous combined with very patchy regional sampling means that it is possible neornithine lineages were present throughout this interval but

  15. Structure versus time in the evolutionary diversification of avian carotenoid metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin S; Badyaev, Alexander V

    2018-05-01

    Historical associations of genes and proteins are thought to delineate pathways available to subsequent evolution; however, the effects of past functional involvements on contemporary evolution are rarely quantified. Here, we examined the extent to which the structure of a carotenoid enzymatic network persists in avian evolution. Specifically, we tested whether the evolution of carotenoid networks was most concordant with phylogenetically structured expansion from core reactions of common ancestors or with subsampling of biochemical pathway modules from an ancestral network. We compared structural and historical associations in 467 carotenoid networks of extant and ancestral species and uncovered the overwhelming effect of pre-existing metabolic network structure on carotenoid diversification over the last 50 million years of avian evolution. Over evolutionary time, birds repeatedly subsampled and recombined conserved biochemical modules, which likely maintained the overall structure of the carotenoid metabolic network during avian evolution. These findings explain the recurrent convergence of evolutionary distant species in carotenoid metabolism and weak phylogenetic signal in avian carotenoid evolution. Remarkable retention of an ancient metabolic structure throughout extensive and prolonged ecological diversification in avian carotenoid metabolism illustrates a fundamental requirement of organismal evolution - historical continuity of a deterministic network that links past and present functional associations of its components. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Avian and human influenza virus compatible sialic acid receptors in little brown bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Shubhada K; Bhushan, Gitanjali; Nissly, Ruth H; Yeh, Yin-Ting; Brown, Justin; Turner, Gregory; Fisher, Jenny; Sewall, Brent J; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Terrones, Mauricio; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2017-04-06

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to threaten animal and human health globally. Bats are asymptomatic reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses. Recent reports of two novel IAVs in fruit bats and serological evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 infection in frugivorous bats raise questions about the role of bats in IAV epidemiology. IAVs bind to sialic acid (SA) receptors on host cells, and it is widely believed that hosts expressing both SA α2,3-Gal and SA α2,6-Gal receptors could facilitate genetic reassortment of avian and human IAVs. We found abundant co-expression of both avian (SA α2,3-Gal) and human (SA α2,6-Gal) type SA receptors in little brown bats (LBBs) that were compatible with avian and human IAV binding. This first ever study of IAV receptors in a bat species suggest that LBBs, a widely-distributed bat species in North America, could potentially be co-infected with avian and human IAVs, facilitating the emergence of zoonotic strains.

  17. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, Hon S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  18. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  19. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  20. Mallard or chicken? Comparing the isolation of avian influenza A viruses in embryonated Mallard and chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef D. Järhult

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, the most efficient and robust method for isolating avian influenza A viruses (IAVs is using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs. It is known that low-pathogenic avian IAVs undergo rapid genetic changes when introduced to poultry holdings, but the factors driving mutagenesis are not well understood. Despite this, there is limited data on the effects of the standard method of virus isolation of avian-derived viruses, that is, whether isolation in ECEs causes adaptive changes in avian IAVs. Eggs from a homologous species could potentially offer an isolation vessel less prone to induce adaptive changes. Methods: We performed eight serial passages of two avian IAVs isolated from fecal samples of wild Mallards in both ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs, and hemagglutination assay titers and hemagglutinin sequences were compared. Results: There was no obvious difference in titers between ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs. Sequence analyses of the isolates showed no apparent difference in the rate of introduction of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin gene (three substitutions in total in embryonated Mallard eggs and two substitutions in ECEs. Conclusion: Embryonated Mallard eggs seem to be good isolation vessels for avian IAVs but carry some practical problems such as limited availability and short egg-laying season of Mallards. Our study finds isolation of Mallard-derived avian IAVs in ECEs non-inferior to isolation in embryonated Mallard eggs, but more research in the area may be warranted as this is a small-scale study.

  1. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  2. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  3. Global spread and control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5 and H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge from the mutation of H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAI) after circulation in terrestrial poultry for a few weeks to years. There have been 42 distinct HPAI epizootics since 1959. The largest being the H5N1 A/G...

  4. Avian Influenza: A growing threat to Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is probably the most widespread avian influenza subtype in poultry around the world being endemic in a large part of Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and in Germany. Currently, there is no standardized clade system to describe the antigenic vari...

  5. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  6. The second immunoglobulin class is commonly present in cartilaginous fish belonging to the order Rajiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Tomonaga, S

    1988-02-01

    Six species of cartilaginous fish distributed into four orders, Rajiformes (skates and guitarfishes), Myliobatiformes (rays), Heterodontiformes (sharks) and Carcharhiniformes (sharks), were investigated for the possible presence of a second class of immunoglobulin (Ig) other than IgM. Among those orders, fish belonging to the order Rajiformes were found to have a second Ig (IgR) with a non-covalently associated dimeric structure in which the H chain was different from that of IgM in mol. wt and antigenicity. Cartilaginous fish belonging to the other orders investigated had only one class of IgM.

  7. EROD induction by environmental contaminants in avian embryo livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Halldin, K. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A SE-752 36, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    The CYP1A (EROD)-inducing potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3minutes or feet,4,4minutes or feet,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F) were studied in avian embryo livers. TCDD and PCB126 proved to be much more potent as inducers in the chicken than in the other species examined. This finding is consistent with a considerably higher sensitivity of the chicken compared with a number of other avian species to the embryotoxic effects of these compounds. Furthermore, the relative potencies of the tested Ah receptor agonists as CYP1A inducers differed substantially between species. B(k)F and PCB126 showed similar induction potencies in domestic duck embryos, whereas PCB126 is much more potent than B(k)F in the chicken. Also, the potency of PCB126,relative to that of TCDD, was much lower in quail embryo liver in vitro than in chicken embryo liver. Thus, there are large interspecific differences in birds in the sensitivity to CYP1A inducers and furthermore, the relative potencies of these compounds may differ substantially between species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. EROD induction by environmental contaminants in avian embryo livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunstroem, B.; Halldin, K.

    1998-01-01

    The CYP1A (EROD)-inducing potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3minutes or feet,4,4minutes or feet,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F) were studied in avian embryo livers. TCDD and PCB126 proved to be much more potent as inducers in the chicken than in the other species examined. This finding is consistent with a considerably higher sensitivity of the chicken compared with a number of other avian species to the embryotoxic effects of these compounds. Furthermore, the relative potencies of the tested Ah receptor agonists as CYP1A inducers differed substantially between species. B(k)F and PCB126 showed similar induction potencies in domestic duck embryos, whereas PCB126 is much more potent than B(k)F in the chicken. Also, the potency of PCB126, relative to that of TCDD, was much lower in quail embryo liver in vitro than in chicken embryo liver. Thus, there are large interspecific differences in birds in the sensitivity to CYP1A inducers and furthermore, the relative potencies of these compounds may differ substantially between species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Unexpected Diversity and Expression of Avian Endogenous Retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Mohan; Blomberg, Jonas; Benachenhou, Farid; Sperber, Göran; Beemon, Karen

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) were identified and characterized in three avian genomes to gain insight into early retroviral evolution. Using the computer program RetroTector to detect relatively intact ERVs, we identified 500 ERVs in the chicken genome, 150 in the turkey genome, and 1,200 in the zebra finch genome. Previous studies suggested that endogenous alpharetroviruses were present in chicken genomes. In this analysis, a small number of alpharetroviruses were seen in the chicken and turkey genomes; however, these were greatly outnumbered by beta-like, gamma-like, and alphabeta proviruses. While the avian ERVs belonged to the same major groups as mammalian ERVs, they were more heterogeneous. In particular, the beta-like viruses revealed an evolutionary continuum with the gradual acquisition and loss of betaretroviral markers and a transition from beta to alphabeta and then to alpharetroviruses. Thus, it appears that birds may resemble a melting pot for early ERV evolution. Many of the ERVs were integrated in clusters on chromosomes, often near centromeres. About 25% of the chicken ERVs were in or near cellular transcription units; this is nearly random. The majority of these integrations were in the sense orientation in introns. A higher-than-random number of integrations were >100 kb from the nearest gene. Deep-sequencing studies of chicken embryo fibroblasts revealed that about 20% of the 500 ERVs were transcribed and translated. A subset of these were also transcribed in vivo in chickens, showing tissue-specific patterns of expression. PMID:23073767

  10. Direct measurement of thermal effusivity of avian eggs and theur constituents: A photopyroelectric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafner, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kovacsne, K.; Doka, O.

    2012-01-01

    The front configuration photopyroelectric method has been used to determine, in a nondestructive fashion, thermal effusivity of the yolk and the white of eggs of several bird species as well as of the blends of a single egg yolk and egg white (also called liquid eggs) of different avian eggs.

  11. Hepatozoon ellisgreineri n. sp. (Hepatozoidae): description of the first avian apicomplexan blood parasite inhabiting granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Mobley, Kristin; Iezhova, Tatjana A

    2016-02-01

    Blood parasites of the genus Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) infect all groups of terrestrial vertebrates, and particularly high prevalence and species diversity have been reported in reptiles and mammals. A few morphologically similar species, in which gamonts inhabit mononuclear leukocytes and red blood cells, have been described in birds. Here, we report a new Hepatozoon species, which was found in wild-caught secretary birds Sagittarius serpentarius, from Tanzania. Hepatozoon ellisgreineri n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all described species of avian Hepatozoon because its gamonts develop only in granulocytes, predominantly in heterophils, a unique characteristic among bird parasites of this genus. Additionally, this is the first reported avian apicomplexan blood parasite, which inhabits and matures in granulocytes. We describe H. ellisgreineri based on morphological characteristics of blood stages and their host cells. This finding broadens knowledge about host cells of avian Hepatozoon spp. and other avian apicomplexan blood parasites, contributing to the better understanding of the diversity of haematozoa. This is the first report of hepatozoonosis in endangered African birds of the Sagittariidae.

  12. Avian life history profiles for use in the Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov Chain nest productivity model, or MCnest, quantitatively estimates the effects of pesticides or other toxic chemicals on annual reproductive success of avian species (Bennett and Etterson 2013, Etterson and Bennett 2013). The Basic Version of MCnest was developed as a...

  13. Expression of avian beta-defensins in the intestine of Eimeria-challenged chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific; for example, E. acervulina mainly affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa reduce feed efficiency a...

  14. Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for domestic and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian influenza (AI) virus strains vary in their ability to infect, transmit and cause disease and death in different bird species. Low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapted to pass to domestic poultry, where they replicate in respiratory and in...

  15. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration: evolutionary versus plastic changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charmantier, A.; Gienapp, P.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple observations around the globe showing that in many avian species, both the timing of migration and breeding have advanced, due to warmer springs. Here, we review the literature to disentangle the actions of evolutionary changes in response to selection induced by climate change

  16. Paired serologic and polymerase chain reaction analyses of avian influenza prevalence in Alaskan shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance has revealed low prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in shorebirds except Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the North American Atlantic coast. Similarly, of five species of shorebirds surveyed in Alaska in 2010, Ruddy Turnstones had the highest AIV antibody prevalence; prevalence of AIV RNA was low or zero.

  17. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends...

  18. Avian mothers create different phenotypes by hormone deposition in their eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Corine M.; Muller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in a variety of taxa demonstrate the role of maternal sex steroids on offspring development. In avian species, mothers deposit substantial amounts of androgens in their eggs, and experimental evidence indicates that these maternal androgens influence the chick's early

  19. Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Kinga; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic agents, capable of crossing the species barriers. Nowadays, they still constitute a great challenge worldwide. The natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds, despite the fact they have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species, including humans. Even when influenza A viruses are able to get into another than waterfowl population, they are often unable to efficiently adapt and transmit between individuals. Only in rare cases, these viruses are capable of establishing a new lineage. To succeed a complete adaptation and further transmission between species, influenza A virus must overcome a species barrier, including adaptation to the receptors of a new host, which would allow the virus-cell binding, virus replication and, then, animal-to-animal transmission. For many years, pigs were thought to be intermediate host for adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans, because of their susceptibility to infection with both, avian and human influenza viruses, which supported hypothesis of pigs as a 'mixing vessel'. In this review, the molecular factors necessary for interspecies transmission are described, with special emphasis on adaptation of avian influenza viruses to the pig population. In addition, this review gives the information about swine influenza viruses circulating around the world with special emphasis on Polish strains.

  20. Avian relationships with wildfire at two dry forest locations with different historical fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh Latif; Jamie Sanderlin; Vicki Saab; William Block; Jonathan Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is a key factor influencing bird community composition in western North American forests. We need to understand species and community responses to wildfire and how responses vary regionally to effectively manage dry conifer forests for maintaining biodiversity. We compared avian relationships with wildfire burn severity between two dry forest...

  1. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-01

    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  2. Migrant Rap in the Periphery: Performing Politics of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Sirpa; Westinen, Elina

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on a YouTube performance by an emergent Finnish Somali rapper and the audience responses it has generated, this paper looks at ways in which rap music engages with the issue of belonging. Drawing on recent theorizations of belonging as a multi-dimensional, contingent and fluid process, along with sociolinguistic work on globalization and…

  3. Belonging as a Guiding Principle in the Education of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly A.; Bowles, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Belonging has been shown to have a significant impact on a range of factors associated with wellbeing. These areas include life satisfaction, general wellbeing, clinical depression, cognitive performance, academic outcomes, and physical health. Belonging is an important aspect of psychological functioning. Schools offer unique opportunities for…

  4. Multiple Religious Belonging: Hermeneutical Challenges for Theology of Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostveen Daan F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these central notions in academic enquiry about religion. In this article, I present the different perspectives on multiple religious belonging in theology of religions and show how the understanding of some central scholarly notions is different. In Christian theology, the debate on multiple religious belonging is conducted between particularists, who focus on the uniqueness of religious traditions, and pluralists, who focus on the shared religious core of religious traditions. Both positions are criticized by feminist and post-colonial theologians. They believe that both particularists and pluralists focus too strongly on religious traditions and the boundaries between them. I argue that the hermeneutic study of multiple religious belonging could benefit from a more open understanding of religious traditions and religious boundaries, as proposed by these feminist and post-colonial scholars. In order to achieve this goal we could also benefit from a more intercultural approach to multiple religious belonging in order to understand religious belonging in a nonexclusive way.

  5. Social inhibition sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, E.L.; Denollet, J.; Laceulle, O.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a conceptual test of how social inhibition, sense of belonging and internalizing problems are related, and whether sense of belonging moderates or mediates the relation between social inhibition and internalizing problems. Methods Data were used from

  6. How the Host Nation's Boundary Drawing Affects Immigrants' Belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    Across Western democracies, the place for newcomers in the host society is debated, involving often a questioning of immigrants’ belonging to their new nation. This article argues that immigrants’ feeling of host national belonging depends on how the host nation imagines its community and its...

  7. Social Class and Belonging: Implications for Graduate Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…

  8. Hybrid Citizenship: Latina Youth and the Politics of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from interview data collected from high school students in Broward County, Florida, this article explores how eight adolescent Latinas understand citizenship and belonging vis-à-vis circulating images and discourses on Latina/o immigration, immigrant, and Latina. The author examines Latina youths' citizenship identities and belonging using…

  9. Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E

    2008-06-01

    Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.

  10. Population dynamics and rates of molecular evolution of a recently emerged paramyxovirus, avian metapneumovirus subtype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary

    2009-02-01

    We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 x 10(-3) to 7 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes examined show a concordant demographic pattern which is characterized by a rapid increase in population size followed by stable population grown until the present.

  11. The pathogenesis of H7N8 low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the United States 2016 outbreak in chickens, turkeys and mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J Pantin-Jackwood

    Full Text Available In January 2016, a combined outbreak of highly pathogenic (HP avian influenza virus (AIV and low pathogenicity (LP AIV occurred in commercial turkeys in the state of Indiana, United States. Genetically, the viruses were highly similar, belonged to the North American wild bird lineage, and had not been previously detected in poultry. In order to understand the pathobiology of the H7N8 LPAIV and HPAIV, infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity studies were conducted in chickens, turkeys, and mallards. Among the three species the lowest mean infectious dose for both the LP and HP phenotype was for turkeys, and also disease from the LPAIV was only observed with turkeys. Furthermore, although the HPAIV was lethal for both chickens and turkeys, clinical signs caused by the HPAIV isolate differed between the two species; neurological signs were only observed in turkeys. Mallards could be infected with and transmit both viruses to contacts, but neither caused clinical disease. Interestingly, with all three species, the mean infectious dose of the HP isolate was at least ten times lower than that of the LP isolate. This study corroborates the high susceptibility of turkeys to AIV as well as a pathobiology that is different from chickens. Further, this study demonstrates that mallards can be asymptomatically infected with HP and LP AIV from gallinaceous poultry and may not just be involved in transmitting AIV to them.

  12. The pathogenesis of H7N8 low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the United States 2016 outbreak in chickens, turkeys and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Stephens, Christopher B.; Bertran, Kateri; Swayne, David E.

    2017-01-01

    In January 2016, a combined outbreak of highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) and low pathogenicity (LP) AIV occurred in commercial turkeys in the state of Indiana, United States. Genetically, the viruses were highly similar, belonged to the North American wild bird lineage, and had not been previously detected in poultry. In order to understand the pathobiology of the H7N8 LPAIV and HPAIV, infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity studies were conducted in chickens, turkeys, and mallards. Among the three species the lowest mean infectious dose for both the LP and HP phenotype was for turkeys, and also disease from the LPAIV was only observed with turkeys. Furthermore, although the HPAIV was lethal for both chickens and turkeys, clinical signs caused by the HPAIV isolate differed between the two species; neurological signs were only observed in turkeys. Mallards could be infected with and transmit both viruses to contacts, but neither caused clinical disease. Interestingly, with all three species, the mean infectious dose of the HP isolate was at least ten times lower than that of the LP isolate. This study corroborates the high susceptibility of turkeys to AIV as well as a pathobiology that is different from chickens. Further, this study demonstrates that mallards can be asymptomatically infected with HP and LP AIV from gallinaceous poultry and may not just be involved in transmitting AIV to them. PMID:28481948

  13. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  14. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of 131 I and 137 Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods

  15. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  16. Lethal infection by a novel reassortant H5N1 avian influenza A virus in a zoo-housed tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shang; Shi, Jianzhong; Qi, Xian; Huang, Guoqing; Chen, Hualan; Lu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) in a zoo died of respiratory distress. All specimens from the tiger were positive for HPAI H5N1, which were detected by real-time PCR, including nose swab, throat swab, tracheal swab, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, aquae pericardii and cerebrospinal fluid. One stain of virus, A/Tiger/JS/1/2013, was isolated from the lung sample. Pathogenicity experiments showed that the isolate was able to replicate and cause death in mice. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HA and NA of A/Tiger/JS/1/2013 clustered with A/duck/Vietnam/OIE-2202/2012 (H5N1), which belongs to clade 2.3.2.1. Interestingly, the gene segment PB2 shared 98% homology with A/wild duck/Korea/CSM-28/20/2010 (H4N6), which suggested that A/Tiger/JS/1/2013 is a novel reassortant H5N1 subtype virus. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed that the tiger was infected by this new reassortant HPAI H5N1 virus. Overall, our results showed that this Bengal tiger was infected by a novel reassortant H5N1, suggesting that the H5N1 virus can successfully cross species barriers from avian to mammal through reassortment. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in wildlife: diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keawcharoen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in Southeast Asia causing high mortality in poultry and have also been found to cross the species barrier infecting human and other mammalian species. Thailand is one of the countries severely affected by

  18. Fatal embryo chondral damage associated with fluoroquinolones in eggs of threatened avian scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemus, J.A.; Blanco, G.; Arroyo, B.; Martinez, F.; Grande, J.

    2009-01-01

    Stabled livestock reared in housed conditions are often subjected to intensive treatments with veterinary drug, which residues may be present in livestock meat ingested by scavengers, but nothing is known about their presence in eggs of wild birds and their potential detrimental effects on breeding success. We searched for residues of veterinary drugs and other toxicants in infertile and embryonated unhatched eggs of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) and red kites (Milvus milvus), two threatened avian scavengers. Quinolones (ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) were found in most unhatched eggs of both scavenger species clearly associated with severe alterations in the development of embryo cartilage and bones that could preclude embryo movements and subsequently normal development, pre-hatch position and successful hatching. The detrimental effects on developing eggs of veterinary drugs from livestock operations may help to explain reduced breeding success of avian scavengers. - Fluoroquinolones used in livestock farming and found in eggs of avian scavenger caused severe alterations in embryo cartilage and bone development.

  19. Fatal embryo chondral damage associated with fluoroquinolones in eggs of threatened avian scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, J.A. [Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, G., E-mail: gublanco2@yahoo.e [Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Arroyo, B.; Martinez, F.; Grande, J. [Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Stabled livestock reared in housed conditions are often subjected to intensive treatments with veterinary drug, which residues may be present in livestock meat ingested by scavengers, but nothing is known about their presence in eggs of wild birds and their potential detrimental effects on breeding success. We searched for residues of veterinary drugs and other toxicants in infertile and embryonated unhatched eggs of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) and red kites (Milvus milvus), two threatened avian scavengers. Quinolones (ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) were found in most unhatched eggs of both scavenger species clearly associated with severe alterations in the development of embryo cartilage and bones that could preclude embryo movements and subsequently normal development, pre-hatch position and successful hatching. The detrimental effects on developing eggs of veterinary drugs from livestock operations may help to explain reduced breeding success of avian scavengers. - Fluoroquinolones used in livestock farming and found in eggs of avian scavenger caused severe alterations in embryo cartilage and bone development.

  20. Avian and human influenza A virus receptors in trachea and lung of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongratsakul, Sukanya; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sakpuaram, Thavajchai; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Moonjit, Pattra; Yodsheewan, Rungrueang; Songserm, Thaweesak

    2010-12-01

    Influenza A viruses are capable of crossing the specific barrier between human beings and animals resulting in interspecies transmission. The important factor of potential infectivity of influenza A viruses is the suitability of the receptor binding site of the host and viruses. The affinities of avian and human influenza virus to bind with the receptors and the distributions of receptors in animals are different. This study aims to investigate the anatomical distribution of avian and human influenza virus receptors using the double staining lectin histochemistry method. Double staining of lectin histochemistry was performed to identify both SA alpha2,3 Gal and SA alpha2,6 Gal receptors in trachea and lung tissue of dogs, cats, tigers, ferret, pigs, ducks and chickens. We have demonstrated that avian and human influenza virus receptors were abundantly present in trachea, bronchus and bronchiole, but in alveoli of dogs, cats and tigers showed SA alpha2,6 Gal only. Furthermore, endothelial cells in lung tissues showed presence of SA alpha2,3 Gal. The positive sites of both receptors in respiratory tract, especially in the trachea, suggest that all mammalian species studied can be infected with avian influenza virus. These findings suggested that dogs and cats in close contact with humans should be of greater concern as an intermediate host for avian influenza A in which there is the potential for viral adaptation and reassortment.

  1. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  2. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, Susan J; Olsen, Glenn H

    2013-05-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  4. Nature's Palette: Characterization of Shared Pigments in Colorful Avian and Mollusk Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes, Aida; Cho, Wooyoung; Hossain, Marouf; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Hauber, Mark E; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Pigment-based coloration is a common trait found in a variety of organisms across the tree of life. For example, calcareous avian eggs are natural structures that vary greatly in color, yet just a handful of tetrapyrrole pigment compounds are responsible for generating this myriad of colors. To fully understand the diversity and constraints shaping nature's palette, it is imperative to characterize the similarities and differences in the types of compounds involved in color production across diverse lineages. Pigment composition was investigated in eggshells of eleven paleognath bird taxa, covering several extinct and extant lineages, and shells of four extant species of mollusks. Birds and mollusks are two distantly related, calcareous shell-building groups, thus characterization of pigments in their calcareous structures would provide insights to whether similar compounds are found in different phyla (Chordata and Mollusca). An ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction protocol was used to analyze the presence and concentration of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, two known and ubiquitous tetrapyrrole avian eggshell pigments, in all avian and molluscan samples. Biliverdin was solely detected in birds, including the colorful eggshells of four tinamou species. In contrast, protoporphyrin was detected in both the eggshells of several avian species and in the shells of all mollusks. These findings support previous hypotheses about the ubiquitous deposition of tetrapyrroles in the eggshells of various bird lineages and provide evidence for its presence also across distantly related animal taxa.

  5. Nature's Palette: Characterization of Shared Pigments in Colorful Avian and Mollusk Shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Verdes

    Full Text Available Pigment-based coloration is a common trait found in a variety of organisms across the tree of life. For example, calcareous avian eggs are natural structures that vary greatly in color, yet just a handful of tetrapyrrole pigment compounds are responsible for generating this myriad of colors. To fully understand the diversity and constraints shaping nature's palette, it is imperative to characterize the similarities and differences in the types of compounds involved in color production across diverse lineages. Pigment composition was investigated in eggshells of eleven paleognath bird taxa, covering several extinct and extant lineages, and shells of four extant species of mollusks. Birds and mollusks are two distantly related, calcareous shell-building groups, thus characterization of pigments in their calcareous structures would provide insights to whether similar compounds are found in different phyla (Chordata and Mollusca. An ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA extraction protocol was used to analyze the presence and concentration of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, two known and ubiquitous tetrapyrrole avian eggshell pigments, in all avian and molluscan samples. Biliverdin was solely detected in birds, including the colorful eggshells of four tinamou species. In contrast, protoporphyrin was detected in both the eggshells of several avian species and in the shells of all mollusks. These findings support previous hypotheses about the ubiquitous deposition of tetrapyrroles in the eggshells of various bird lineages and provide evidence for its presence also across distantly related animal taxa.

  6. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives...... belonging to a specific social or racial group. (Be)longing to a specific gendered and radicalised body constitutes in the analysis of these stories an excellent “location,” from which to analyse how socio/cultural and socio/economic categories like class, nationality and age intersect with one another...... to produce insights and consciousness about the socio-cultural impact of sense making processes....

  7. Widespread avian bornavirus infection in mute swans in the Northeast United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne SL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianhua Guo,1 Lina Covaleda,1 J Jill Heatley,1 John A Baroch,2 Ian Tizard1, Susan L Payne,11Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services, Fort Collins, CO, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV matrix (M genes were detected by RT-PCR on brain tissue obtained from 192 mute swans harvested from several Northeastern states. A RT-PCR product was detected in 45 samples. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of ABV belonging to the ‘goose’ genotype. The prevalence of positive samples ranged from 28% in Michigan to 0% in northern New York State. Two Rhode Island isolates were cultured. Their M, N, and X-P gene sequences closely matched recently published sequences from Canada geese.Keywords: avian bornavirus, proventricular dilatation disease, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, mute swans

  8. Mercury exposure in a large subantarctic avian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Cherel, Yves; Blévin, Pierre; Brault-Favrou, Maud; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination poses potential threats to ecosystems worldwide. In order to study Hg bioavailability in the poorly documented southern Indian Ocean, Hg exposure was investigated in the large avian community of Kerguelen Islands. Adults of 27 species (480 individuals) showed a wide range of feather Hg concentrations, from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 16.6 ± 3.8 μg g(-1) dry weight in Wilson's storm petrels and wandering albatrosses, respectively. Hg concentrations increased roughly in the order crustacean- feeding habits' differences of the two age-classes in this species. High Hg concentrations were reported for three species of the poorly known gadfly petrels, which merit further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergence of the virulence-associated PB2 E627K substitution in a fatal human case of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A(H7N7) infection as determined by Illumina ultra-deep sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, Marcel; Welkers, Matthijs R. A.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Meijer, Adam; Schneeberger, Peter; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Koopmans, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are capable of crossing the species barrier and infecting humans. Although evidence of human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses to date is limited, evolution of variants toward more-efficient human-to-human transmission could result in a new influenza virus

  10. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends on the virus strain and species of bird, and varies from a subclinical to a highly pathogenic form with up to 100 % mortality within 48 hours. AI is of high economic importance for the poultry production wo...

  11. Identification of Recent Bats belonging to the Rhinolophidae by the Humeral Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Myung Hee; Uchida, Teruaki; 内田, 照章

    1983-01-01

    Humeral characters of eleven recent species and one subspecies belonging to three genera of the Rhinolophidae including two subfamilies were described. A key provides for their identification as well as the identification of the fossil bats found on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau. Further, we discussed differences in the adaptability for flight of the bats not only within each taxon of the family but also between the phylogenetically less advanced Rhinolophidae and the more advanced Vespertilionida...

  12. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Garg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  13. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to the loss of tens of millions of birds, either to disease or preventive culling. ... is to stimulate regional collaboration on avian influenza prevention and control. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  14. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  15. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  16. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Four Species of Parrots in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Wei-Peng Tian, Ying-Tian Xu and Xing-Quan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibodies against avian Hepatitis E Virus (avian HEV were detected in 6.43% of examined serum samples (n=311 from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, lovebirds (Agapornis sp., cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria by indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in different parrot species varied from 0 to 7.92%. Statistical analysis of the origins of parrots demonstrated that parrots from Weifang city had a higher avian HEV seropositivity (7.84% compared with parrots from Beijing city (5.06%. The seroprevalence in parrots of different age groups varied from 4 to 7.62%. The avian HEV seroprevalence in parrots examined in spring and summer was 7.19 and 5.81%, respectively. This is the first report of avian HEV seroprevalence in four species of parrots in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of HEV infection in parrots in China.

  17. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  18. Avian cytochrome P450 (CYP 1-3 family genes: isoforms, evolutionary relationships, and mRNA expression in chicken liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke P Watanabe

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP of chicken and other avian species have been studied primarily with microsomes or characterized by cloning and protein expression. However, the overall existing isoforms in avian CYP1-3 families or dominant isoforms in avian xenobiotic metabolism have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify and classify all of the existing isoforms of CYP1-3 in avian species using available genome assemblies for chicken, zebra finch, and turkey. Furthermore, we performed qRT-PCR assay to identify dominant CYP genes in chicken liver. Our results suggested that avian xenobiotic-metabolizing CYP genes have undergone unique evolution such as CYP2C and CYP3A genes, which have undergone avian-specific gene duplications. qRT-PCR experiments showed that CYP2C45 was the most highly expressed isoform in chicken liver, while CYP2C23b was the most highly induced gene by phenobarbital. Considering together with the result of further enzymatic characterization, CYP2C45 may have a dominant role in chicken xenobiotic metabolism due to the constitutive high expression levels, while CYP2C23a and CYP2C23b can be greatly induced by chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR activators. These findings will provide not only novel insights into avian xenobiotic metabolism, but also a basis for the further characterization of each CYP gene.

  19. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tony; Nielsen, Erik; Auberle, William; Solop, Frederic I.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: ► We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality

  20. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu [Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States); Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu [Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States); Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northern Arizona University, 2112 S Huffer Ln P.O. Box 15600, Flagstaff, AZ, 860011 (United States); Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu [Political Science Program, Department of Politics and International Affairs, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15036, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review

  1. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  2. Assessment of contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 in wild birds sampled in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Hicks, Joseph T.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundAvian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread of APMV-1 viruses are relevant to avian health.MethodsIn this study we sequenced the fusion gene from 58 APMV-1 isolates recovered from thirteen species of wild birds sampled throughout the USA during 2007–2014. We analyzed sequence information with previously reported data in order to assess contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of APMV-1 in wild birds sampled in North America.ResultsOur results suggest that wild birds maintain previously undescribed genetic diversity of APMV-1; however, such diversity is unlikely to be pathogenic to domestic poultry. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that APMV-1 diversity detected in wild birds of North America has been found in birds belonging to numerous taxonomic host orders and within hosts inhabiting multiple geographic regions suggesting some level of viral exchange. However, our results also provide statistical support for associations between phylogenetic tree topology and host taxonomic order/region of sample origin which supports restricted exchange among taxa and geographical regions of North America for some APMV-1 sub-genotypes.ConclusionsWe identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity of APMV-1 in wild birds in North America which is likely a function of continued viral evolution in reservoir hosts. We did not, however, find support for the emergence or maintenance of APMV-1 strains predicted to be pathogenic to poultry in wild birds of North America outside of the order Suliformes (i.e., cormorants). Furthermore, genetic evidence suggests that ecological drivers or other mechanisms may restrict viral exchange among taxa and regions of North America. Additional and more systematic sampling for APMV-1 in North America would likely provide further inference on viral

  3. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  4. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayue; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits—in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior—and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Forage ratios of the mosquito species were unrelated to the phylogenetic relationships among bird species. Culex pipiens fed preferably on birds with lighter-colored plumage and longer tarsi; furthermore, solitary roosting avian species were both bitten by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans more often than expected. These associations may be explained by greater mosquito attraction towards larger birds with a greater color contrast against the background. Although communally roosting birds may release more cues and attract more mosquitoes, individuals may in fact receive fewer bites due to the encounter-dilution effect. Mosquito feeding behavior is a highly complex phenomenon, and our results may improve understanding of the non-random interaction between birds and mosquitoes in natural communities.

  5. Heterogeneity in avian richness-environment relationships along the Pacific Crest Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. McGrann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of the responses of montane bird communities to climate change generally presuppose that species and assemblages hold constant relationships to temperature across large study regions. However, comparative studies of avian communities exploring the factors that currently shape species richness patterns rarely analyze relationships across neighboring ecological regions of the same mountain chain. Evaluations of the intrinsic regional differences in species-environment relationships are needed to better inform expectations of how bird communities may be affected by future climate change. In this study, we evaluated the relative importance of three environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, and net primary productivity in structuring avian richness patterns along a continuous mega-transect. We followed the route of the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT (32.58° N to 42.00° N, ranging in elevation from 365 to 4020 m on the California cordillera and completed avian point counts on 3578 systematically established survey plots. We divided this mega-transect into five sections, which corresponded to distinct ecological regions along the mountain chain. Regions differed both for elevation-richness patterns, exhibiting linear and unimodal trends, and for model-supported environmental drivers of patterns, with some richness-environment correlations changing sign across adjacent regions. These results were robust to sampling bias, regional species availability, and spatial autocorrelation. Although seasonal variation in avian movements may have limited influence on our results, we conclude that intrinsic regional environments affect bird species richness differently in each of these sections on the PCT, thus creating region-specific species-environment relationships. Appreciation of regional environmental heterogeneity will only increase in light of forecasted climate change, where regional predictions often diverge greatly from global trends

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  7. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  8. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Homegrown religious radicalization and the quest for belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    this seemingly religious radicalization, from the point of view of the youngsters, by drawing on a study of young Muslims in religious communities in Copenhagen and combining it with existing blogs, twitter profiles etc. of youngsters sympathizing with Islamic radicalized movements. What are the youngsters...... framework based on a focus on belonging, self-construction and the sense of community will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging...

  10. Estimates of Avian Mortality Attributed to Vehicle Collisions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bishop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mortality of birds from collisions with vehicles is estimated to be in the millions in the USA, Europe, and the UK, to date, no estimates exist for Canada. To address this, we calculated an estimate of annual avian mortality attributed to vehicular collisions during the breeding and fledging season, in Canadian ecozones, by applying North American literature values for avian mortality to Canadian road networks. Because owls are particularly susceptible to collisions with vehicles, we also estimated the number of roadkilled Barn owls (Tyto alba in its last remaining range within Canada. (This species is on the IUCN red list and is also listed federally as threatened; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 2010, International Union for the Conservation of Nature 2012. Through seven Canadian studies in existence, 80 species and 2,834 specimens have been found dead on roads representing species from 14 orders of birds. On Canadian 1 and 2-lane paved roads outside of major urban centers, the unadjusted number of bird mortalities/yr during an estimated 4-mo (122-d breeding and fledging season for most birds in Canada was 4,650,137 on roads traversing through deciduous, coniferous, cropland, wetlands and nonagricultural landscapes with less than 10% treed area. On average, this represents 1,167 birds killed/100 km in Canada. Adjusted for scavenging, this estimate was 13,810,906 (3,462 dead birds/100 km. For barn owls, the unadjusted number of birds killed annually on 4-lane roads during the breeding and fledging season, within the species geographic range in southern British Columbia, was estimated as 244 owls and, when adjusted for scavenging and observer bias (3.6 factor, the total was 851 owls.

  11. Viral and Host Factors Required for Avian H5N1 Influenza A Virus Replication in Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the initial and sporadic emergence into humans of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses in Hong Kong in 1997, we have come to realize the potential for avian influenza A viruses to be transmitted directly from birds to humans. Understanding the basic viral and cellular mechanisms that contribute to infection of mammalian species with avian influenza viruses is essential for developing prevention and control measures against possible future human pandemics. Multiple physical and functional cellular barriers can restrict influenza A virus infection in a new host species, including the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope, the nuclear environment, and innate antiviral responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on viral and host factors required for avian H5N1 influenza A viruses to successfully establish infections in mammalian cells. We focus on the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian host restrictions, as well as the adaptive mutations that are necessary for an avian influenza virus to overcome them. It is likely that many more viral and host determinants remain to be discovered, and future research in this area should provide novel and translational insights into the biology of influenza virus-host interactions.

  12. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  13. Diversity, abundance, and host relationships of avian malaria and related haemosporidians in New Mexico pine forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario A. Marroquin-Flores

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon affect bird demography, species range limits, and community structure, yet they remain unsurveyed in most bird communities and populations. We conducted a community-level survey of these vector-transmitted parasites in New Mexico, USA, to describe their diversity, abundance, and host associations. We focused on the breeding-bird community in the transition zone between piñon-juniper woodland and ponderosa pine forests (elevational range: 2,150–2,460 m. We screened 186 birds representing 49 species using both standard PCR and microscopy techniques to detect infections of all three avian haemosporidian genera. We detected infections in 68 out of 186 birds (36.6%, the highest proportion of which were infected with Haemoproteus (20.9%, followed by Leucocytozoon (13.4%, then Plasmodium (8.0%. We sequenced mtDNA for 77 infections representing 43 haplotypes (25 Haemoproteus, 12 Leucocytozoon, 6 Plasmodium. When compared to all previously known haplotypes in the MalAvi and GenBank databases, 63% (27 of the haplotypes we recovered were novel. We found evidence for host specificity at the avian clade and species level, but this specificity was variable among parasite genera, in that Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon were each restricted to three avian groups (out of six, while Plasmodium occurred in all groups except non-passerines. We found striking variation in infection rate among host species, with nearly universal infection among vireos and no infection among nuthatches. Using rarefaction and extrapolation, we estimated the total avian haemosporidian diversity to be 70 haplotypes (95% CI [43–98]; thus, we may have already sampled ∼60% of the diversity of avian haemosporidians in New Mexico pine forests. It is possible that future studies will find higher diversity in microhabitats or host species that are under-sampled or unsampled in the

  14. Multiculturalism, Mauritian Style : Cultural Diversity, Belonging, and a Secular State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2015-01-01

    Multiculturalism is on the retreat in many Western countries. As an ideology, it is criticized for failing to engender national belonging and social cohesion and thereby to encourage groups of citizens to have parallel lives. In this article, we present the case of Mauritius that is often viewed as

  15. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  16. Relentless Verity: Education for Being-Becoming-Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, James Robbins

    The dynamic relationship of the concepts of being, becoming, and belonging is and must be the heart and central goal of adult education. The concept can be understood most readily by examination of the writings of humanist psychologists such as Carl Rogers, Fritz Perls, Gordon Allport, and Abraham Maslow. Some characteristics or dimensions of an…

  17. Discrimination and Sleep: The Protective Role of School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority adolescents experience certain sleep problems, yet factors that affect their sleep are poorly understood. This study examined the association between ethnic discrimination and sleep during adolescence and the extent to which perceived stress mediated these associations. This study also examined whether school belonging can protect…

  18. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  19. Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and masculinities in transnational space among foreign African male students at the University of ... finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration.

  20. The politics of identity, belonging and the integration of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will be looking at the political and institutional structures in place, which either facilitate or constrain a sense of belonging and integration of professional migrants of African origin into the new democratic state of South Africa. Discussions in this article are based on a qualitative in-depth study conducted among ...

  1. Using Inuit traditional ecological knowledge for detecting and monitoring avian cholera among Common Eiders in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A. Henri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has played an increasing role in wildlife management and biodiversity conservation in Canada and elsewhere. This study examined the potential contribution that Inuit TEK (which is one aspect of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit or Inuit traditional knowledge could offer to detect and monitor avian cholera and other disease-related mortality among Northern Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Avian cholera is an infectious disease (Pasteurella multocida that has been a major conservation issue because of its potential to cause high rates of disease and mortality in several bird species in repeating epizootics; it has spread geographically in North America since the 1940s. In 2004, Inuit hunters from Ivujivik, Nunavik, Québec, were the first to detect avian disease outbreaks among Northern Common Eiders nesting in northeastern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. Laboratory analysis of bird tissues confirmed avian cholera in that region. From 2007 to 2009, we collected Inuit TEK about mortality among Common Eiders and other bird species north and west of where the outbreaks were first detected. During interviews in the communities of Kimmirut, Cape Dorset, Coral Harbour, and Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada (n = 40, Inuit participants reported seeing a total of 8 Common Eiders and 41 specimens of other bird species either sick or dead in northern Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Foxe Basin. Most of the observed disease and mortality events were at sea, on sea ice, or on small nesting islands. Such events probably would have gone undetected by biologists, who were mainly monitoring avian cholera outbreaks on large nesting islands in that region. Inuit participants readily recalled details about the timing, location, and numbers of sick and dead birds that they observed. Some reported signs of disease that were consistent with avian cholera. Inuit also revealed

  2. Missed, Not Missing: Phylogenomic Evidence for the Existence of Avian FoxP3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Denyer

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box transcription factor FoxP3 is pivotal to the development and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs, which make a major contribution to peripheral tolerance. FoxP3 is believed to perform a regulatory role in all the vertebrate species in which it has been detected. The prevailing view is that FoxP3 is absent in birds and that avian Tregs rely on alternative developmental and suppressive pathways. Prompted by the automated annotation of foxp3 in the ground tit (Parus humilis genome, we have questioned this assumption. Our analysis of all available avian genomes has revealed that the foxp3 locus is missing, incomplete or of poor quality in the relevant genomic assemblies for nearly all avian species. Nevertheless, in two species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and the saker falcon (F. cherrug, there is compelling evidence for the existence of exons showing synteny with foxp3 in the ground tit. A broader phylogenomic analysis has shown that FoxP3 sequences from these three species are similar to crocodilian sequences, the closest living relatives of birds. In both birds and crocodilians, we have also identified a highly proline-enriched region at the N terminus of FoxP3, a region previously identified only in mammals.

  3. Contribution of Avian Salmonella enterica Isolates to Human Salmonellosis Cases in Constantine (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Elgroud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological investigation was carried out on one hundred Salmonella isolates from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and human patients in the Constantine region of Algeria, in order to explore the contribution of avian strains to human salmonellosis cases in this region over the same period of time. The isolates were characterized by phenotypic as well as genotypic methods. A large variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles was found among human isolates, while only seven profiles were found among avian isolates. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR, Insertion Sequence 200-PCR (IS200-PCR, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE resulted in the allocation of the isolates to 16, 20, and 34 different profiles, respectively. The 3 genotyping methods led to complementary results by underlining the clonality of some serovars with the diffusion and persistence of a single clone in the Constantine area as well as stressing the polymorphism present in isolates belonging to other serovars, indicating the diversity of potential reservoirs of nontyphoidal Salmonella. Altogether, our results seem to indicate that nontyphoidal avian Salmonella may play an important role in human salmonellosis in the Constantine region.

  4. Rethinking avian response to Tamarix on the lower Colorado River: A threshold hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Paxton, K.L.; O'brien, C.; Shafroth, P.B.; McGrath, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many of the world's large river systems have been greatly altered in the past century due to river regulation, agriculture, and invasion of introduced Tamarix spp. (saltcedar, tamarisk). These riverine ecosystems are known to provide important habitat for avian communities, but information on responses of birds to differing levels of Tamarix is not known. Past research on birds along the Colorado River has shown that avian abundance in general is greater in native than in non-native habitat. In this article, we address habitat restoration on the lower Colorado River by comparing abundance and diversity of avian communities at a matrix of different amounts of native and non-native habitats at National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona. Two major patterns emerged from this study: (1) Not all bird species responded to Tamarix in a similar fashion, and for many bird species, abundance was highest at intermediate Tamarix levels (40-60%), suggesting a response threshold. (2) In Tamarix-dominated habitats, the greatest increase in bird abundance occurred when small amounts of native vegetation were present as a component of that habitat. In fact, Tamarix was the best vegetation predictor of avian abundance when compared to vegetation density and canopy cover. Our results suggest that to positively benefit avian abundance and diversity, one cost-effective way to rehabilitate larger monoculture Tamarix stands would be to add relatively low levels of native vegetation (???20-40%) within homogenous Tamarix habitat. In addition, this could be much more cost effective and feasible than attempting to replace all Tamarix with native vegetation. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  5. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  7. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  8. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  9. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  10. The diversity of polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to Rosaceae and Cornaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M; Chojnacki, T; Swiezewska, E

    1998-01-01

    The polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to the Rosaceae (genera: Prunus, Malus) and Cornaceae (genus: Cornus) families is presented. The content of polyprenyl acetates varied within plant species between 10-50 mg per gram of dry weight. In genus Prunus, Cornus and in representatives of species Malus domestica, a mixture of polyprenols composed of 18, 19, 20, 21 isoprene units was found. In six species of genus Prunus (sour-cherry): P. serrulata-spontanea, P. yedoensis, P. fruticosa. P. kurilensis, P. subhirtella and P. incisa the presence of a second polyprenol family, i.e. the group of prenologues consisting of prenol -35, -36, -37, etc. up to -42 was detected.

  11. H9N2 avian influenza virus antibody titers in human population in fars province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the avian influenza A virus subtypes, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have the potential to cause an influenza pandemic because they are widely prevalent in avian species in Asia and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans. This study was carried out to determined the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza virus in different human populations in Fars province, which is situated in the south of Iran. Antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus were measured using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test in sera from 300 individuals in five different population in Fars province, including poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, veterinarians, patients with clinical signs of respiratory disease, and clinically normal individuals, who were not or rarely in contact with poultry. Mean antibody titers of 7.3, 6.8, 6.1, 4.5, and 2.9 and seroprevalences of 87%, 76.2%, 72.5%, 35.6%, and 23% were determined in those groups, respectively. Higher prevalences were detected in poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, and veterinarians, possibly due to their close and frequent contact with poultry.

  12. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  13. Small-scale response in an avian community to a large-scale thinning project in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    Avian populations were monitored using point counts from 2002 to 2007, two years before and four years after a 2800 ha fuel reduction project. The study area was within a ponderosa pine forest near Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Adjacent unthinned areas were also monitored as a reference for population variation related to other factors. For individual bird species...

  14. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractViral attachment to the host cell is critical for tissue and species specificity of virus infections. Recently, pattern of viral attachment (PVA) in human respiratory tract was determined for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1. However, PVA of human influenza viruses

  15. A human-infecting H10N8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Heng; de Vries, Robert P; Tzarum, Netanel; Zhu, Xueyong; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Recent avian-origin H10N8 influenza A viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. Alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), typically are required for influenza A viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether H10N8

  16. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Greer, Colleen D; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Refined risk assessments for birds exposed to flowable and granular formulations ofCPY were conducted for a range of current use patterns in the United States. Overall,the collective evidence from the modeling and field study lines of evidence indicate that flowable and granular CPY do not pose significant risks to the bird communities foraging in agro-ecosystems in the United States. The available information indicates that avian incidents resulting from the legal, registered uses of CPY have been very infrequent since 2002 (see SI Appendix 3). The small number of recent incidents suggests that the current labels for CPY are generally protective of birds.However, incident data are uncertain because of the difficulties associated with finding dead birds in the field and linking any mortality observed to CPY.Plowable CPY is registered for a variety of crops in the United States including alfalfa, brassica vegetables, citrus, corn, cotton, grape, mint, onion, peanut, pome and stone fruits, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet potato, tree nuts, and wheat under the trade name Lorsban Advanced. The major routes of exposure for birds to flowable CPY were consumption of treated dietary items and drinking water. The Liquid Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (Liquid PARAM) was used to simulate avian ingestion of CPY by these routes of exposure. For acute exposure,Liquid PARAM estimated the maximum retained dose in each of 20 birds on each of1,000 fields that were treated with CPY over the 60-d period following initial application.The model used a 1-h time step. For species lacking acceptable acute oral toxicity data (all focal species except northern bobwhite (C. virginianus) and redwinged blackbird (A. phoeniceus)), a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach was used to generate hypothetical dose-response curves assuming high, median and low sensitivity to CPY. For acute risk, risk curves were generated for each use pattern and exposure scenario. The risk

  17. Impact of Management on Avian Communities in the Scottish Highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Newey

    Full Text Available The protection of biodiversity is a key national and international policy objective. While protected areas provide one approach, a major challenge lies in understanding how the conservation of biodiversity can be achieved in the context of multiple land management objectives in the wider countryside. Here we analyse metrics of bird diversity in the Scottish uplands in relation to land management types and explore how bird species composition varies in relation to land managed for grazing, hunting and conservation. Birds were surveyed on the heather moorland areas of 26 different landholdings in Scotland. The results indicate that, in relation to dominant management type, the composition of bird species varies but measures of diversity and species richness do not. Intensive management for grouse shooting affects the occurrence, absolute and relative abundance of bird species. While less intensive forms of land management appear to only affect the relative abundance of species, though extensive sheep grazing appears to have little effect on avian community composition. Therefore enhanced biodiversity at the landscape level is likely to be achieved by maintaining heterogeneity in land management among land management units. This result should be taken into account when developing policies that consider how to achieve enhanced biodiversity outside protected areas, in the context of other legitimate land-uses.

  18. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  19. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  20. Creating a hybrid sense of belonging in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    to local products and culturally by enacting the competition (Coupland 2014). Yet, I argue that the participants do not create a copy of the activity as it is played out in its original setting, rather it is ascribed a certain urban coolness, which might be a way of demonstrating hybrid senses of belonging...... the first event, a Facebook-community was set up to organize and promote succeeding events. By analyzing empirical data from Facebook I point to how the participants draw on a range of ‘languagecultural practices’ (Cornips & de Rooij in press) to re-contextualize the rural tradition to an urban setting. I...... discuss whether and how the two dimensions of ‘belonging’ (Antonsich 2010), i.e. place-belongingness and politics of belonging, are made relevant by the participants. The connection to Southern Jutland is pointed to in several ways: linguistically by using dialect orthography, materially by pointing...

  1. Population Dynamics and Rates of Molecular Evolution of a Recently Emerged Paramyxovirus, Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype C▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary

    2008-01-01

    We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 × 10−3 to 7 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes exam...

  2. Population Dynamics and Rates of Molecular Evolution of a Recently Emerged Paramyxovirus, Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype C▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary

    2009-01-01

    We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 × 10−3 to 7 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes examined show a concordant demographic pattern which is characterized by a rapid increase in population size followed by stable population grown until the present. PMID:19052092

  3. HABITAT USE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR AVIAN SPECIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agidi

    Department of Ecology, Cross River National Park Akamkpa, P. M. B. 1028 Calabar, Nigeria. ... probably played the most important role in the pattern of bird diversity and abundance in the ... anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. logging) on.

  4. Vocal signals in a tropical avian species, the redvented bulbul ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ing their nests (Armstrong 1973; Bengtsson and Ryden. 1981; Clemmons 1995a, b). Some of these signals are common in early nestling stages and enhance begging behaviour of nestlings (Bengtsson and Ryden 1981;. Robertson et al 1992; Clemmons 1995b). In the present study efforts have been made to charac-.

  5. Potential for Low-Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses To Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Mark; Koçer, Zeynep A.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Friedman, Kimberly; Seiler, Jon; Danner, Angela; Kercher, Lisa; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Wentworth, David E.; Krauss, Scott; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low-pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease-causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the United States and Canada using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice. Of these, 17 (56.7%) caused 100% mortality and 24 were of pathogenicity similar to that of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), which is highly pathogenic in mice. Viruses of duck origin were more pathogenic than those of shorebird origin, as 13 of 18 (72.2%) duck origin viruses caused 100% mortality while 4 of 12 (33.3%) shorebird origin viruses caused 100% mortality, despite there being no difference in mean lung viral titers between the groups. Replication beyond the respiratory tract was also evident, particularly in the heart and brain. Of the 16 viruses studied for fecal shedding, 11 were detected in fecal samples. These viruses exhibited a strong preference for avian-type α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, binding to mammalian-type α2,6-linked sialic acids was also detected. These findings indicate that LP avian H7 influenza A viruses are able to infect and cause disease in mammals without prior adaptation and therefore pose a potential public health risk. IMPORTANCE Low-pathogenic (LP) avian H7 influenza A viruses are widely distributed in the avian reservoir and are the precursors of numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in commercial poultry farms. However, unlike highly pathogenic H7 viruses, the disease-causing potential of LP H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. To address this, we studied 30 LP avian H7 viruses isolated from wild

  6. When the mosque goes Beethoven: Expressing religious belongings through music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Salzbrunn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?

  7. Phyto-therapeutic claims about euphorbeaceous plants belonging to pakistan; an ethnomedicinal review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.T.; Shinwari, ZK.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotany has attracted many researchers in the modern era in order to find novel and cheaper approaches to alleviate the human sufferings. Since ancient times, plants are used traditionally for cure. In the last few years herbal practices have attained global relevance. Among the different important plant families, the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is well known for its therapeutic potential. Different plants are used in folk medicinal practices in different forms to treat several diseases. Plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae are common in Pakistan and used for different purposes. The present communication deals with the different ethnomedicinal uses reported in the peer reviewed articles of the various species present in Pakistan. (author)

  8. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  9. Molecular Markers for Interspecies Transmission of Avian Influenza Viruses in Mammalian Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehyung

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, a wide range of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have infected various mammalian hosts and continuously threaten both human and animal health. It is a result of overcoming the inter-species barrier which is mostly associated with gene reassortment and accumulation of mutations in their gene segments. Several recent studies have shed insights into the phenotypic and genetic changes that are involved in the interspecies transmission of AIVs. These studies have a major focus on transmission from avian to mammalian species due to the high zoonotic potential of the viruses. As more mammalian species have been infected with these viruses, there is higher risk of genetic evolution of these viruses that may lead to the next human pandemic which represents and raises public health concern. Thus, understanding the mechanism of interspecies transmission and molecular determinants through which the emerging AIVs can acquire the ability to transmit to humans and other mammals is an important key in evaluating the potential risk caused by AIVs among humans. Here, we summarize previous and recent studies on molecular markers that are specifically involved in the transmission of avian-derived influenza viruses to various mammalian hosts including humans, pigs, horses, dogs, and marine mammals. PMID:29236050

  10. Description of the first cryptic avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp., with experimental data on its virulence and development in avian hosts and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Žiegytė, Rita; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Bernotienė, Rasa; Bolshakov, Casimir; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years studies on avian haemosporidian parasite species have relied on similarities in their morphology to establish a species concept. Some exceptional cases have also included information about the life cycle and sporogonic development. More than 50 avian Plasmodium spp. have now been described. However, PCR-based studies show a much broader diversity of haemosporidian parasites, indicating the possible existence of a diverse group of cryptic species. In the present study, using both similarity and phylogenetic species definition concepts, we believe that we report the first characterised cryptic speciation case of an avian Plasmodium parasite. We used sequence information on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and constructed phylogenies of identified Plasmodium spp. to define their position in the phylogenetic tree. After analysis of blood stages, the morphology of the parasite was shown to be identical to Plasmodium circumflexum. However, the geographic distribution of the new parasite, the phylogenetic information, as well as patterns of development of infection, indicate that this parasite differs from P. circumflexum. Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp. was described based on information about genetic differences from described lineages, phylogenetic position and biological characters. This parasite develops parasitemia in experimentally infected birds - the domestic canary Serinus canaria domestica, siskin Carduelis spinus and crossbill Loxia curvirostra. Anaemia caused by high parasitemia, as well as cerebral paralysis caused by exoerythrocytic stages in the brain, are the main reasons for mortality. Exoerythrocytic stages also form in other organs (heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, intestines and pectoral muscles). DNA amplification was unsuccessful from faecal samples of heavily infected birds. The sporogonic development initiates, but is abortive, at the oocyst stage in two common European mosquito species, Culex pipiens pipiens (forms

  11. Complete genome sequence of a velogenic neurotropic avian paramyxovirus 1 isolated from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Z; Yaqub, Tahir; Shabbir, Muhammad A B; Mukhtar, Nadia; Khan, Muhammad R; Berg, Mikael

    2012-12-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) was isolated from an acute and highly contagious outbreak in peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan. A velogenic neurotropic form of APMV-1 caused a 100% case fatality rate and killed 190 peacocks within a week. Biological and serological characterizations showed features of a velogenic strain of APMV-1, and these results were further confirmed by sequence analysis of the cleavage site in the fusion protein. The complete genome of one of the isolates was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. The analysis showed that this isolate belonged to genotype VII, specifically, to subgenotype VIIa, and clustered closely with isolates characterized from Indonesia in the 1990s. Interestingly, the isolate showed significant differences from previously characterized APMV-1 isolates from commercial and rural chickens in Pakistan. The work presented here is the first complete genome sequence of any APMV-1 isolate from wild birds in the region and therefore highlights the need for increased awareness and surveillance in such bird species.

  12. Avian cooperative breeding: Old hypotheses and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, R G; Cockburn, A; Mulder, R A

    1990-12-01

    In cooperatively breeding birds, individuals that appear capable of reproducing on their own may instead assist others with their breeding efforts. Research into avian cooperative breeding has attempted to reconcile the apparent altruism of this behaviour with maximization of inclusive fitness. Most explanations of cooperative breeding have suggested that philopatry is enforced by ecological constraints, such as a shortage of resources critical to breeding. Non-dispersers may then benefit both directly and indirectly from contributing at the nest. Recent research has shown that such benefits may be sufficient to promote philopatry, without the need for ecological constraints, and emphasizes that consideration of both costs and benefits of philopatry is essential for a comprehensive approach to the problem. The growing body of data from long-term studies of different species should combine with an improved phylogenetic perspective on cooperative breeding, to provide a useful base for future comparative analyses and experimentation. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory avian research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.C.; Morrison, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    As wind energy use continues to expand, concern over the possible impacts of wind farms on birds continues to be an issue. The concern includes two primary areas: the effect of avian mortality on bird populations, and possible litigation over the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act or the Endangered Species Act or both. In order to address these concerns, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working collaboratively with all stakeholders including utilities, environmental groups, consumer advocates, utility regulators, government officials, and the wind industry, has an active avian-wind power research program. DOE/NREL is conducting and sponsoring research with the expectation of developing solutions to educe or avoid avian mortality due to wind energy development throughout the US. This paper outlines the DOE/NREL approach and summarizes completed, current, and planned projects

  14. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory avian research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1997-06-01

    As wind energy use continues to expand, concern over the possible impacts of wind farms on birds continues to be an issue. The concern includes two primary areas: the effect of avian mortality on bird populations, and possible litigation over the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act or the Endangered Species Act or both. In order to address these concerns, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working collaboratively with all stakeholders including utilities, environmental groups, consumer advocates, utility regulators, government officials, and the wind industry, has an active avian-wind power research program. DOE/NREL is conducting and sponsoring research with the expectation of developing solutions to educe or avoid avian mortality due to wind energy development throughout the US. This paper outlines the DOE/NREL approach and summarizes completed, current, and planned projects.

  15. Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K. C.

    1999-06-21

    As wind energy development expands, concern over possible negative impacts of wind farms on birds remains an issue to be addressed. The concerns are twofold: (1) possible litigation over the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and/or the Endangered Species Act, and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working collaboratively with stakeholders including utilities, environmental groups, consumer advocates, regulators, government officials, and the wind industry, supports an avian-wind interaction research program. The objectives of the program are to conduct and sponsor scientifically based research that will ultimately lead to the reduction of avian fatality due to wind energy development throughout the United States. The approach for this program involves cooperating with the various stakeholders to study the impacts of current wind plants on avian populations, developing approaches to siting wind plants that avoid avian problems in the future, and investigating methods for reducing or eliminating impacts on birds due to the development of wind energy. This paper summarizes the research projects currently supported by NREL.

  16. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Charles; Lauck, M; Yú, SQ; Caì, Y; Hensley, LE; Chiu, CY; O'Connor, DH; Kuhn, JH

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm vi

  17. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Yú, Shu Qìng; Caì, Yíngyún; Hensley, Lisa E; Chiu, Charles Y; O'Connor, David H; Kuhn, Jens H

    2015-03-19

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. Copyright © 2015 Lauck et al.

  18. Diversity in Production of Xylan-Degrading Enzymes Among Species Belonging to the Trichoderma Section Longibrachiatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, K.; Gool, van M.P.; Schols, H.A.; Samuels, G.J.; Gruppen, H.; Szakacs, G.

    2013-01-01

    Xylan is an important part of plant biomass and represents a renewable raw material for biorefineries. Contrary to cellulose, the structure of hemicellulose is quite complex. Therefore, the biodegradation of xylan needs the cooperation of many enzymes. For industrial production of xylanase

  19. On a new Longicorn genus and species, belonging to the Agniidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.

    1886-01-01

    Caput mediocre, supra angustius; tuberibus antenniferis validis, breviusculis; oculorum lobi inferiores magni, subconvexi. — Frons trapeziformis, subconvexa; mandibulae robustae oblique prominentes. — Antennae ♂ longissimae, scapo, cylindrico, elongato, cicatricoso, articulo tertio longiore,

  20. Diversity in production of xyaln-degrading enzymes among species belonging to the Trichoderma section Longibrachiatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylan is an important part of plant biomass and represents a renewable raw material for biorefineries. Contrary to cellulose, the structure of hemicellulose is quite complex. Therefore, the biodegradation of xylan needs the cooperation of many enzymes. For industrial production of xylanase multienzy...

  1. Spore germination of fungi belonging to Aspergillus species under deep-sea conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Nagarajan, M.; Raghukumar, C.

    Culture Collection (Chandigarh, India) were used. 2.2. Media Sediment extract (SE) was prepared using sediments collected from the Central Indian Basin. Sediment (30% (w/v)) was suspended in sterile seawater containing antibiotics (penicillin— 40,000U... extract was used as one of the growth media. Malt extract broth (MEB, HiMedia Laboratories, India) prepared in seawater was used for the comparative studies. 2.3. Fungal spore suspension The cultures were inoculated onto malt extract agar (MEA) plates...

  2. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature.

  3. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  4. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  5. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  6. the Avian Park Service Learning Centre story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health (UCRH) opened in 2001, followed 10 years later by the establishment of the Ukwanda Rural Clinical School in one of the rural health districts of the Western Cape. This paper relates the journey of the Faculty with the underserviced community of Avian Park through the provision of ...

  7. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  8. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  9. Effects of drought on avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Brian D. Wardlow; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioural traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most...

  10. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf R. Koford; John B. Dunning; Christine A. Ribic; Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary....

  11. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  12. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  13. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  14. Avian cone photoreceptors tile the retina as five independent, self-organizing mosaics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph A Kram

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The avian retina possesses one of the most sophisticated cone photoreceptor systems among vertebrates. Birds have five types of cones including four single cones, which support tetrachromatic color vision and a double cone, which is thought to mediate achromatic motion perception. Despite this richness, very little is known about the spatial organization of avian cones and its adaptive significance. Here we show that the five cone types of the chicken independently tile the retina as highly ordered mosaics with a characteristic spacing between cones of the same type. Measures of topological order indicate that double cones are more highly ordered than single cones, possibly reflecting their posited role in motion detection. Although cones show spacing interactions that are cell type-specific, all cone types use the same density-dependent yardstick to measure intercone distance. We propose a simple developmental model that can account for these observations. We also show that a single parameter, the global regularity index, defines the regularity of all five cone mosaics. Lastly, we demonstrate similar cone distributions in three additional avian species, suggesting that these patterning principles are universal among birds. Since regular photoreceptor spacing is critical for uniform sampling of visual space, the cone mosaics of the avian retina represent an elegant example of the emergence of adaptive global patterning secondary to simple local interactions between individual photoreceptors. Our results indicate that the evolutionary pressures that gave rise to the avian retina's various adaptations for enhanced color discrimination also acted to fine-tune its spatial sampling of color and luminance.

  15. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C; Clayton, Murray K; Locke, Brian A; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management.

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Ming, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Avian Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Bartlam, Mark, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  17. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.

  18. Queer families: valuing stories of adversity, diversity and belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christy E

    2018-05-31

    The 2017 Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey provided an unwelcome reminder that the concepts of queer sexuality and family life continue to be viewed as incompatible by many. However, campaigns in support of marriage equality also provide opportunities to document and disseminate stories of queer belonging within families. This commentary proposes three new ways of understanding and valuing accounts of what family means to LGBTQ communities, based on emerging findings from social research studies. It argues that in post-marriage equality contexts, it is time to learn to accept and to celebrate the differences that exist within every community, including within the diverse forms of families that are made.

  19. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  20. Description, molecular characterisation, diagnostics and life cycle of Plasmodium elongatum (lineage pERIRUB01), the virulent avian malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Žiegytė, Rita; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Bernotienė, Rasa; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-10-01

    Plasmodium elongatum causes severe avian malaria and is distributed worldwide. This parasite is of particular importance due to its ability to develop and cause lethal malaria not only in natural hosts, but also in non-adapted endemic birds such as the brown kiwi and different species of penguins. Information on vectors of this infection is available but is contradictory. PCR-based analysis indicated the possible existence of a cluster of closely related P. elongatum lineages which might differ in their ability to develop in certain mosquitoes and birds. This experimental study provides information about molecular and morphological characterisation of a virulent P. elongatum strain (lineage pERIRUB01) isolated from a naturally infected European robin, Erithacus rubecula. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial cytochrome b gene sequences showed that this parasite lineage is closely related to P. elongatum (lineage pGRW6). Blood stages of both parasite lineages are indistinguishable, indicating that they belong to the same species. Both pathogens develop in experimentally infected canaries, Serinus canaria, causing death of the hosts. In both these lineages, trophozoites and erythrocytic meronts develop in polychromatic erythrocytes and erythroblasts, gametocytes parasitize mature erythrocytes, exoerythrocytic stages develop in cells of the erythrocytic series in bone marrow and are occasionally reported in spleen and liver. Massive infestation of bone marrow cells is the main reason for bird mortality. We report here on syncytium-like remnants of tissue meronts, which slip out of the bone marrow into the peripheral circulation, providing evidence that the syncytia can be a template for PCR amplification. This finding contributes to better understanding positive PCR amplifications in birds when parasitemia is invisible and improved diagnostics of abortive haemosporidian infections. Sporogony of P. elongatum (pERIRUB01) completes the cycle and sporozoites develop in

  1. Reverse spillover of avian viral vaccine strains from domesticated poultry to wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaim, M A; El Naggar, R F; Helal, A M; Hussein, H A; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-06-16

    Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of recovered viruses revealed a close association with the most widely utilized vaccine strains in the country. These results highlight the potential spillover of vaccine-viruses probably due to extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines in the commercial poultry, and close interaction between domesticated and wild bird populations. Further exploring the full spectrum of vaccine-derived viral vaccine strains in wild birds might help to assess the emergence of future wild-birds origin viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies for Avian Metapneumovirus (SHS-BR-121) isolated in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Coswig,LT; Stach-Machado,DR; Arns,CW

    2007-01-01

    Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV), also called Turkey Rhinotracheitis Virus (TRTV), is an upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, chickens and other avian species. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were created against the Brazilian isolate (SHS-BR-121) of aMPV, MAbs 1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 of IgG1 and MAb 1C1F8 of IgG2a. Four Mabs (1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3) showed neutralizing activity and three (1A5B8; 1C1C4 and 2A4C3) inhibited cellular fusion in vitro. These MAbs were used to ...

  4. Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2007-08-01

    Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

  5. Advanced spring arrival of avian migrants on Tipperne, western Denmark, during 1929-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Troels Leuenhagen; Meltofte, Hans; Tøttrup, Anders Peter Them

    2012-01-01

    to specific species groups. In the present study, we analysed temporal patterns in spring arrival of 43 taxonomically diverse Fennoscandian bird species based on a long-term data series covering 80 years (1929-2008) from the Tipperne reserve in westernmost Denmark. Furthermore, we assessed how spring arrival......During the last decade, phenological studies have increased our knowledge on climate-induced changes in timing of avian migration. Much work has been done using long-term, standardised data. However, the vast majority of previous studies have focused on data covering 3-4 decades and limited...

  6. Avian personalities : characterization and epigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Carere, C; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    The work presented here aims at understanding the nature, epigenesis and function of personality types (here called behavioral profiles) in birds, focusing on a wild bird species, the great tit (Parus major). Lines bidirectionally selected for exploration show a wide array of social and non-social

  7. Urgent request on avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    HPAI H5N8 is currently causing an epizootic in Europe, infecting many poultry holdings as well as captive and wild bird species in more than ten countries. Given the clear clinical manifestation, passive surveillance is considered the most effective means of detecting infected wild and domestic b...

  8. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the avian adenovirus CELO long fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardado Calvo, Pablo [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L. [Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Langlois, Patrick [Agence Francaise de Securité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Génétique Virale et Biosecurité, Site Les Croix, BP 53, F-22440 Ploufragan (France); Raaij, Mark J. van, E-mail: vanraaij@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-01

    Avian adenovirus long-fibre head trimers were expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group C2 (unit-cell parameters a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°). A complete highly redundant data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution at 100 K using a rotating-anode X-ray source. Avian adenovirus CELO contains two different fibres: fibre 1, the long fibre, and fibre 2, the short fibre. The short fibre is responsible for binding to an unknown avian receptor and is essential for infection of birds. The long fibre is not essential, but is known to bind the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor protein. Both trimeric fibres are attached to the same penton base, of which each icosahedral virus contains 12 copies. The short fibre extends straight outwards, while the long fibre emerges at an angle. The carboxy-terminal amino acids 579–793 of the avian adenovirus long fibre have been expressed with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag and the expressed trimeric protein has been purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and crystallized. Crystals were grown at low pH using PEG 10 000 as precipitant and belonged to space group C2. The crystals diffracted rotating-anode Cu Kα radiation to at least 1.9 Å resolution and a complete data set was collected from a single crystal to 2.2 Å resolution. Unit-cell parameters were a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°, suggesting one trimer per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 46%. The long fibre head does not have significant sequence homology to any other protein of known structure and molecular-replacement attempts with known fibre-head structures were unsuccessful. However, a map calculated using SIRAS phasing shows a clear trimer with a shape similar to known adenovirus fibre-head structures. Structure solution is in progress.

  9. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  10. The consequences of climate change at an avian influenza 'hotspot'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V L; Rohani, Pejman

    2012-12-23

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) pose significant danger to human health. A key step in managing this threat is understanding the maintenance of AIVs in wild birds, their natural reservoir. Ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) are an atypical bird species in this regard, annually experiencing high AIV prevalence in only one location-Delaware Bay, USA, during their spring migration. While there, they congregate on beaches, attracted by the super-abundance of horseshoe crab eggs. A relationship between ruddy turnstone and horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) population sizes has been established, with a declining horseshoe crab population linked to a corresponding drop in ruddy turnstone population sizes. The effect of this interaction on AIV prevalence in ruddy turnstones has also been addressed. Here, we employ a transmission model to investigate how the interaction between these two species is likely to be altered by climate change. We explore the consequences of this modified interaction on both ruddy turnstone population size and AIV prevalence and show that, if climate change leads to a large enough mismatch in species phenology, AIV prevalence in ruddy turnstones will increase even as their population size decreases.

  11. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  12. Landscape matrix mediates occupancy dynamics of Neotropical avian insectivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Neel, Maile C.; Fagan, William F.; Marpa, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to patch-level attributes (i.e., area and isolation), the nature of land cover between habitat patches (the matrix) may drive colonization and extinction dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Despite a long-standing recognition of matrix effects in fragmented systems, an understanding of the relative impacts of different types of land cover on patterns and dynamics of species occurrence remains limited. We employed multi-season occupancy models to determine the relative influence of patch area, patch isolation, within-patch vegetation structure, and landscape matrix on occupancy dynamics of nine Neotropical nsectivorous birds in 99 forest patches embedded in four matrix types (agriculture, suburban evelopment, bauxite mining, and forest) in central Jamaica. We found that within-patch vegetation structure and the matrix type between patches were more important than patch area and patch isolation in determining local colonization and local extinction probabilities, and that the effects of patch area, isolation, and vegetation structure on occupancy dynamics tended to be matrix and species dependent. Across the avian community, the landscape matrix influenced local extinction more than local colonization, indicating that extinction processes, rather than movement, likely drive interspecific differences in occupancy dynamics. These findings lend crucial empirical support to the hypothesis that species occupancy dynamics in fragmented systems may depend greatly upon the landscape context.

  13. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  14. Femoral strength and posture in terrestrial birds and non-avian theropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Alicea, Justy

    2009-09-01

    Osteological and experimental evidence suggest a change in femoral posture between non-avian dinosaurs (in which the femur presumably was carried in a subvertical position) and birds (in which the femur is held nearly horizontal during most phases of terrestrial locomotion). In this study, we used a broad comparative sample to test the hypothesis that cross-sectional properties of the femur records evidence of this presumed change in posture. I(max) and I(min) (second moment of area, related to resistance to bending) and cross-sectional area (indicating resistance to compression) were measured from computed tomography scans of the femora of 30 species of flightless or primarily terrestrial birds, one probable non-dinosaur dinosauromorph, and at least four species of non-avian theropods. It was predicted that birds should have more eccentrically shaped femoral midshafts as measured by I(max)/II(min) (reflecting greater bending) and comparatively smaller cross-sectional areas than non-avians. Results show that no significant differences occur between non-avian dinosaurs and birds for any parameter, and the samples overlapped broadly in many cases. Thus, cross-sectional properties cannot be used to infer differences in femoral posture between the two groups. This surprising finding might be explained by the fact that femoral postures were not drastically different or that a gradation of postures occurred in each sample. It is also possible that bone loading during life was not closely correlated with cross-sectional morphology. We conclude that cross-sectional properties should be used with caution in determining the posture and behaviors of extinct animals, and only in conjunction with other morphological information. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. New species of Pseudagrion ( Odonata: Zygoptera) with descriptions of the larvae of five other species belonging to the genus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chutter, FM

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available certaiaes conversions et sur Ia dimension de l?erreur de copie chez I?Ascobolus immersus. e outros trabalhos prometidos, mas que ainda n?o entraram para publica?ao. EDITORES C. CHAGAS A. DE B. MACHADO INSTITUT() BE BlO-EISICA MUSEU DO DUNDO AVENIDA...

  16. Using step width to compare locomotor biomechanics between extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs and modern obligate bipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P J; Clemente, C J; Weems, R E; Graham, D F; Lamas, L P; Hutchinson, J R; Rubenson, J; Wilson, R S; Hocknull, S A; Barrett, R S; Lloyd, D G

    2017-07-01

    How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs locomoted is a subject of considerable interest, as is the manner in which it evolved on the line leading to birds. Fossil footprints provide the most direct evidence for answering these questions. In this study, step width-the mediolateral (transverse) distance between successive footfalls-was investigated with respect to speed (stride length) in non-avian theropod trackways of Late Triassic age. Comparable kinematic data were also collected for humans and 11 species of ground-dwelling birds. Permutation tests of the slope on a plot of step width against stride length showed that step width decreased continuously with increasing speed in the extinct theropods ( p < 0.001), as well as the five tallest bird species studied ( p < 0.01). Humans, by contrast, showed an abrupt decrease in step width at the walk-run transition. In the modern bipeds, these patterns reflect the use of either a discontinuous locomotor repertoire, characterized by distinct gaits (humans), or a continuous locomotor repertoire, where walking smoothly transitions into running (birds). The non-avian theropods are consequently inferred to have had a continuous locomotor repertoire, possibly including grounded running. Thus, features that characterize avian terrestrial locomotion had begun to evolve early in theropod history. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Identity and Belonging as Positionality. An Approach from Intersectionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arce-Cuadros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article terms we may use to refer to identities and the meanings of belonging in a multicultural context are considered. For this purpose, we study Stuart Hall’s concept of vernacular cosmopolitism, which recognizes identities as points of suture between discourses and practices; that is, alignments between two scopes: a constitutive outside, and interiority produced by the self. On the other hand, we study the intersectionality approach, which considers that axes of social stratification are mutually organized and interconnected; therefore, identities are not built in relation to fixed groups such as class, ethnic group, nation, but as social positionalities letting the representation of multiple identities to operate simultaneously as possible.

  18. The need to belong can motivate belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2012-04-01

    The need to belong can motivate belief in God. In Study 1, 40 undergraduates read bogus astrophysics articles "proving" God's existence or not offering proof. Participants in the proof-for-God condition reported higher belief in God (compared to control) when they chronically imagined God as accepting but lower belief in God when they imagined God as rejecting. Additionally, in Study 2 (72 undergraduates), these effects did not occur when participants' belongingness need was satisfied by priming close others. Study 3 manipulated 79 Internet participants' image of God. Chronic believers in the God-is-rejecting condition reported lower religious behavioral intentions than chronic believers in the God-is-accepting condition, and this effect was mediated by lower desires for closeness with God. In Study 4 (106 Internet participants), chronic believers with an accepting image of God reported that their belief in God is motivated by belongingness needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Androgens regulate gene expression in avian skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Fuxjager

    Full Text Available Circulating androgens in adult reproductively active male vertebrates influence a diversity of organ systems and thus are considered costly. Recently, we obtained evidence that androgen receptors (AR are expressed in several skeletal muscles of three passeriform birds, the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus, zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata, and ochre-bellied flycatcher (Mionectes oleagieus. Because skeletal muscles that control wing movement make up the bulk of a bird's body mass, evidence for widespread effects of androgen action on these muscles would greatly expand the functional impact of androgens beyond their well-characterized effects on relatively discrete targets throughout the avian body. To investigate this issue, we use quantitative PCR (qPCR to determine if androgens alter gene mRNA expression patterns in wing musculature of wild golden-collared manakins and captive zebra finches. In manakins, the androgen testosterone (T up-regulated expression of parvalbumin (PV and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, two genes whose products enhance cellular Ca(2+ cycling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. In T-treated zebra finches, the anti-androgen flutamide blunted PV and IGF-I expression. These results suggest that certain transcriptional effects of androgen action via AR are conserved in passerine skeletal muscle tissue. When we examined wing muscles of manakins, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers, we found that expression of PV and IGF-I varied across species and in a manner consistent with a function for AR-dependent gene regulation. Together, these findings imply that androgens have the potential to act on avian muscle in a way that may enhance the physicality required for successful reproduction.

  20. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lizio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE in combination with single-molecule sequencing technology allows precision mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs and genome-wide capture of promoter activities in differentiated and steady state cell populations. Much less is known about whether TSS profiling can characterize diverse and non-steady state cell populations, such as the approximately 400 transitory and heterogeneous cell types that arise during ontogeny of vertebrate animals. To gain such insight, we used the chick model and performed CAGE-based TSS analysis on embryonic samples covering the full 3-week developmental period. In total, 31,863 robust TSS peaks (>1 tag per million [TPM] were mapped to the latest chicken genome assembly, of which 34% to 46% were active in any given developmental stage. ZENBU, a web-based, open-source platform, was used for interactive data exploration. TSSs of genes critical for lineage differentiation could be precisely mapped and their activities tracked throughout development, suggesting that non-steady state and heterogeneous cell populations are amenable to CAGE-based transcriptional analysis. Our study also uncovered a large set of extremely stable housekeeping TSSs and many novel stage-specific ones. We furthermore demonstrated that TSS mapping could expedite motif-based promoter analysis for regulatory modules associated with stage-specific and housekeeping genes. Finally, using Brachyury as an example, we provide evidence that precise TSS mapping in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR-on technology enables us, for the first time, to efficiently target endogenous avian genes for transcriptional activation. Taken together, our results represent the first report of genome-wide TSS mapping in birds and the first systematic developmental TSS analysis in any amniote species (birds and mammals. By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic

  1. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Infrasound and the avian navigational map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J T

    2000-04-01

    Birds can navigate accurately over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and this ability of homing pigeons is the basis for a worldwide sport. Compass senses orient avian flight, but how birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains a mystery. Also mysterious are rare disruptions of pigeon races in which most birds are substantially delayed and large numbers are lost. Here, it is shown that in four recent pigeon races in Europe and the northeastern USA the birds encountered infrasonic (low-frequency acoustic) shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. An acoustic avian map is proposed that consists of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features; the source of these signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting these infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases.

  3. A bibliography of references to avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jack E.; Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography, first compiled in 1970 in response to many requests for information on avian botulism, has been updated to include the literature published through 1975.In general, only articles dealing primarily with the avian disease are included, as opposed to those concerned with various aspects of the biology of Clostridium botulinum, either type C or type E. A few exceptions, such as Bengton’s report of the first isolation and description of the type C organism, are included for their historical interest. Progress reports and other administrative documents not available for distribution or request are excluded, as are textbook accounts, which are generally summaries of work published elsewhere.Although Mr. Allen and Mrs. Wilson have attempted to list every important reference, they make no claim to complete coverage of the published literature. The authors will be grateful to users of the bibliography who call attention to errors or omissions.

  4. Contact variables for exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, P; Perdue, M; Mumford, E

    2010-06-01

    Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to cause infections in both avian and human populations, the specific zoonotic risk factors remain poorly understood. This review summarizes available evidence regarding types of contact associated with transmission of H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface. A systematic search of the published literature revealed five analytical studies and 15 case reports describing avian influenza transmission from animals to humans for further review. Risk factors identified in analytical studies were compared, and World Health Organization-confirmed cases, identified in case reports, were classified according to type of contact reported using a standardized algorithm. Although cases were primarily associated with direct contact with sick/unexpectedly dead birds, some cases reported only indirect contact with birds or contaminated environments or contact with apparently healthy birds. Specific types of contacts or activities leading to exposure could not be determined from data available in the publications reviewed. These results support previous reports that direct contact with sick birds is not the only means of human exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus. To target public health measures and disease awareness messaging for reducing the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza H5N1 virus, the specific types of contacts and activities leading to transmission need to be further understood. The role of environmental virus persistence, shedding of virus by asymptomatic poultry and disease pathophysiology in different avian species relative to human zoonotic risk, as well as specific modes of zoonotic transmission, should be determined.

  5. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types.

  6. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  7. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan D S Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue' has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  8. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functionally heterogenous ryanodine receptors in avian cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, J; Fill, M; Suárez-Isla, B A

    1996-07-19

    The functional heterogeneity of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels in avian cerebellum was defined. Heavy endoplasmic reticulum microsomes had significant levels of ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding. Scatchard analysis and kinetic studies indicated the existence of at least two distinct ryanodine binding sites. Ryanodine binding was calcium-dependent but was not significantly enhanced by caffeine. Incorporation of microsomes into planar lipid bilayers revealed ion channels with pharmacological features (calcium, magnesium, ATP, and caffeine sensitivity) similar to the RyR channels found in mammalian striated muscle. Despite a wide range of unitary conductances (220-500 picosiemens, symmetrical cesium methanesulfonate), ryanodine locked both channels into a characteristic slow gating subconductance state, positively identifying them as RyR channels. Two populations of avian RyR channels were functionally distinguished by single channel calcium sensitivity. One population was defined by a bell-shaped calcium sensitivity analogous to the skeletal muscle RyR isoform (type I). The calcium sensitivity of the second RyR population was sigmoidal and analogous to the cardiac muscle RyR isoform (type II). These data show that there are at least two functionally distinct RyR channel populations in avian cerebellum. This leads to the possibility that these functionally distinct RyR channels are involved in different intracellular calcium signaling pathways.

  10. Avian influenza overview September–November 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian; Kuiken, Thijs; Mulatti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Between 1 September and 15 November 2017, 48 A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry holdings and 9 H5 HPAI wild bird events were reported within Europe. A second epidemic HPAI A(H5N8) wave started in Italy on the third week of July and is still ongoing on 15November...... to focus in order to achieve the most effective testing of dead birds for detection of H5 HPAI viruses. Monitoring the avian influenza situation in other continents revealed the same risks as in the previous report (October 2016-August 2017): the recent human case of HPAI A(H5N6) in China underlines...... the continuing threat of this avian influenza virus to human health and possible introduction via migratory wild birds into Europe. Close monitoring is required of the situation in Africa with regards to HPAI of the subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H5N8), given the rapidity of the evolution and the uncertainty...

  11. Low Impact of Avian Pox on Captive-Bred Houbara Bustard Breeding Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Souley, Mam-Noury Amadou; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Paul, Mathilde C

    2017-01-01

    Avian pox, a disease caused by avipoxviruses, is a major cause of decline of some endangered bird species. While its impact has been assessed in several species in the wild, effects of the disease in conservation breeding have never been studied. Houbara bustard species ( Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii ), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive bred for conservation purposes for more than 20 years. While mortality and morbidity induced by avipoxviruses can be controlled by appropriate management, the disease might still affect bird breeding performance and jeopardize the production objectives of conservation programs. Impacts of the disease was studied during two outbreaks in captive-bred juvenile Houbara bustards in Morocco in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, by modeling the effect of the disease on individual breeding performance (male display and female egg production) of 2,797 birds during their first breeding season. Results showed that the impact of avian pox on the ability of birds to reproduce and on the count of displays or eggs is low and mainly non-significant. The absence of strong impact compared to what could be observed in other species in the wild may be explained by the controlled conditions provided by captivity, especially the close veterinary monitoring of each bird. Those results emphasize the importance of individual management to prevent major disease emergence and their effects in captive breeding of endangered species.

  12. Could Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of Northeastern China Have Influenced the Long-Distance Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5Nx Viruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several reassortant subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI H5Nx have emerged in East Asia. These new viruses, mostly of subtype H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 belonging to clade 2.3.4.4, have been found in several Asian countries and have caused outbreaks in poultry in China, South Korea, and Vietnam. HPAI H5Nx also have spread over considerable distances with the introduction of viruses belonging to the same 2.3.4.4 clade in the U.S. (2014–2015 and in Europe (2014–2015 and 2016–2017. In this paper, we examine the emergence and spread of these new viruses in Asia in relation to published datasets on HPAI H5Nx distribution, movement of migratory waterfowl, avian influenza risk models, and land-use change analyses. More specifically, we show that between 2000 and 2015, vast areas of northeast China have been newly planted with rice paddy fields (3.21 million ha in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning in areas connected to other parts of Asia through migratory pathways of wild waterfowl. We hypothesize that recent land use changes in northeast China have affected the spatial distribution of wild waterfowl, their stopover areas, and the wild-domestic interface, thereby altering transmission dynamics of avian influenza viruses across flyways. Detailed studies of the habitat use by wild migratory birds, of the extent of the wild–domestic interface, and of the circulation of avian influenza viruses in those new planted areas may help to shed more light on this hypothesis, and on the possible impact of those changes on the long-distance patterns of avian influenza transmission.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanayda M.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  14. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  15. Science for avian conservation: Priorities for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Petit, D.R.; Sauer, J.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Fornwall, M.D.; Korschgen, C.E.; Bennett, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, bird conservation activities have become the preeminent natural resource conservation effort in North America. Maturation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), establishment of Partners in Flight (PIF), and creation of comprehensive colonial waterbird and shorebird conservation plans have stimulated unprecedented interest in, and funding for, bird conservation in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other countries in the western hemisphere. Key to that success in the United States has been active collaboration among federal, state and local governments, conservation organizations, academia, and industry. The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), which has primary statutory responsibility for migratory bird conservation and management, has been a key partner.Despite the great strides that have been made in bird conservation science, historical approaches to research and monitoring have often failed to provide sufficient information and understanding to effectively manage bird populations at large spatial scales. That shortcoming, and the lack of an integrated strategy and comprehensive set of research priorities, is more evident in light of the goals established by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). The NABCI is a trinational, coalition-driven effort to provide an organizational umbrella for existing conservation initiatives. The expanded focus of NABCI and individual bird conservation initiatives is to work together in an integrated, holistic fashion to keep common birds common and to increase populations of declining, threatened, and endangered species.To assist bird conservation initiatives in defining goals and developing new approaches to effective research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the research agency of DOI, convened a workshop, “Science for Avian Conservation: Understanding, Modeling, and Applying Ecological Relationships,” on 31 October–2 November 2000, which brought together

  16. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  17. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed pathogenic potential in Penicillium capsulatum as a novel fungal pathogen belonging to Eurotiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium capsulatum is a rare Penicillium species used in paper manufacturing, but recently it has been reported to cause invasive infection. To research the pathogenicity of the clinical Penicillium strain, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptome of the clinical and environmental strains of P. capsulatum. Comparative analyses of these two P. capsulatum strains and close related strains belonging to Eurotiales were performed. The assembled genome sizes of P. capsulatum are approximately 34.4 Mbp in length and encode 11,080 predicted genes. The different isolates of P. capsulatum are highly similar, with the exception of several unique genes, INDELs or SNP in the genes coding for glycosyl hydrolases, amino acid transporters and circumsporozoite protein. A phylogenomic analysis was performed based on the whole genome data of 38 strains belonging to Eurotiales. By comparing the whole genome sequences and the virulence-related genes from 20 important related species, including fungal pathogens and non-human pathogens belonging to Eurotiales, we found meaningful pathogenicity characteristics between P. capsulatum and its closely related species. Our research indicated that P. capsulatum may be a neglected opportunistic pathogen. This study is beneficial for mycologists, geneticists and epidemiologists to achieve a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of the role of P. capsulatum as a newly reported fungal pathogen.

  18. A review on mesopelagic fishes belonging to family Myctophidae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Catul, V.; Gauns, M.; Karuppasamy, P.K.

    Jr (1991) Life histories of three species of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. II- Age and growth patterns. Mar Biol 111:21-27 Gjөsæter J (1984) Mesopelagic fish, a large potential resource in the Arabian Sea. Deep...

  19. On an undescribed Cetoniid belonging to the genus Chalcothea, Burm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1882-01-01

    Amongst the specimens of Chalcothea smaragdina G. & P. ¹) of the Leyden Museum, I lately found a female specimen from Sumatra of a distinct although nearly allied species, which, as I am informed by Mr. van Lansberge, bears in several, especially french collections the name of Chalcothea affinis

  20. Urban foraging and the relational ecologies of belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Poe; Joyce LeCompte; Rebecca McLain; Patrick T. Hurley

    2014-01-01

    Through a discussion of urban foraging in Seattle, Washington, USA, we examine how people’s plant and mushroom harvesting practices in cities are linked to relationships with species, spaces, and ecologies. Bringing a relational approach to political ecology, we discuss the ways that these particular nature–society relationships are formed, legitimated, and mobilized...

  1. Biogeography of thermophilic phototrophic bacteria belonging to Roseiflexus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Grouzdev, Denis S; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B

    2016-03-01

    Isolated environments such as hot springs are particularly interesting for studying the microbial biogeography. These environments create an 'island effect' leading to genetic divergence. We studied the phylogeographic pattern of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, belonging to the Roseiflexus genus. The main characteristic of the observed pattern was geographic and geochronologic fidelity to the hot springs within Circum-Pacific and Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian orogenic belts. Mantel test revealed a correlation between genetic divergence and geographic distance among the phylotypes. Cluster analysis revealed a regional differentiation of the global phylogenetic pattern. The phylogeographic pattern is in correlation with geochronologic events during the break up of Pangaea that led to the modern configuration of continents. To our knowledge this is the first geochronological scenario of intercontinental prokaryotic taxon divergence. The existence of the modern phylogeographic pattern contradicts with the existence of the ancient evolutionary history of the Roseiflexus group proposed on the basis of its deep-branching phylogenetic position. These facts indicate that evolutionary rates in Roseiflexus varied over a wide range. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Origin of evolutionary change in avian clutch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Sacha

    2013-11-01

    Why different bird species lay different numbers of eggs is a question that has long been associated with factors external to the organism, that is, factors which operate on inherited variation in clutch size through the action of natural selection. Yet, while external factors are important, the extent of what is evolutionarily possible rests with the mechanisms developed by birds for clutch-size control. Hitherto neglected, these mechanisms generate factors internal to the organism that are central to the origin of evolutionary change. They are related to the fact that a species-specific range of clutch size arises from the differential survival of pre-ovulatory follicles undergoing growth when the signal causing egg laying to end reaches the ovary. Herein, I examine three internal factors that, together with external factors, could impact the evolution of avian clutch size. Each factor acts by changing either the number of pre-ovulatory follicles present in the ovary at the time of follicular disruption or the timing of this event. These changes to clutch size can be explained by the concept of heterochrony. In light of this, the role of phenotypic plasticity and genes determining clutch size is discussed. Finally, to account for the origin of evolutionary change in clutch size, I detail an hypothesis involving a process similar to Waddington's theory of genetic assimilation. © 2013 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Avian magnetic compass: Its functional properties and physical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha WILTSCHKO, Wolfgang WILTSCHKO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The avian magnetic compass was analyzed in bird species of three different orders – Passeriforms, Columbiforms and Galliforms – and in three different behavioral contexts, namely migratory orientation, homing and directional conditioning. The respective findings indicate similar functional properties: it is an inclination compass that works only within a functional window around the ambient magnetic field intensity; it tends to be lateralized in favor of the right eye, and it is wavelength-dependent, requiring light from the short-wavelength range of the spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms have been identified as radical pair processes, spin-chemical reactions in specialized photopigments. The iron-based receptors in the upper beak do not seem to be involved. The existence of the same type of magnetic compass in only very distantly related bird species suggests that it may have been present already in the common ancestors of all modern birds, where it evolved as an all-purpose compass mechanism for orientation within the home range [Current Zoology 56 (3: 265–276, 2010].

  4. Pyrodiversity promotes avian diversity over the decade following forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Morgan W; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Wilkerson, Robert L; Howell, Christine A; Siegel, Rodney B

    2016-10-12

    An emerging hypothesis in fire ecology is that pyrodiversity increases species diversity. We test whether pyrodiversity-defined as the standard deviation of fire severity-increases avian biodiversity at two spatial scales, and whether and how this relationship may change in the decade following fire. We use a dynamic Bayesian community model applied to a multi-year dataset of bird surveys at 1106 points sampled across 97 fires in montane California. Our results provide strong support for a positive relationship between pyrodiversity and bird diversity. This relationship interacts with time since fire, with pyrodiversity having a greater effect on biodiversity at 10 years post-fire than at 1 year post-fire. Immediately after fires, patches of differing burn severities hold similar bird communities, but over the ensuing decade, bird assemblages within patches of contrasting severities differentiate. When evaluated at the scale of individual fires, fires with a greater heterogeneity of burn severities hold substantially more species. High spatial heterogeneity in severity, sometimes called 'mixed-severity fire', is a natural part of wildfire regimes in western North America, but may be jeopardized by climate change and a legacy of fire suppression. Forest management that encourages mixed-severity fire may be critical for sustaining biodiversity across fire-prone landscapes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The smallest avian genomes are found in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, T Ryan; Andrews, Chandler B; McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C

    2009-11-07

    It has often been suggested that the genome sizes of birds are constrained relative to other tetrapods owing to the high metabolic demands of powered flight and the link between nuclear DNA content and red blood cell size. This hypothesis predicts that hummingbirds, which engage in energy-intensive hovering flight, will display especially constrained genomes even relative to other birds. We report genome size measurements for 37 species of hummingbirds that confirm this prediction. Our results suggest that genome size was reduced before the divergence of extant hummingbird lineages, and that only minimal additional reduction occurred during hummingbird diversification. Unlike in some other avian taxa, the small amount of variation observed within hummingbirds is not explained by variation in respiratory and flight-related parameters. Unexpectedly, genome size appears to have increased in four unrelated hummingbird species whose distributions are centred on humid forests of the upper-tropical elevational zone on the eastern slope of the Andes. This suggests that the secondary expansion of the genome may have been mediated by biogeographical and demographic effects.

  6. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  7. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time.

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies for Avian Metapneumovirus (SHS-BR-121 isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LT Coswig

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV, also called Turkey Rhinotracheitis Virus (TRTV, is an upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, chickens and other avian species. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were created against the Brazilian isolate (SHS-BR-121 of aMPV, MAbs 1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 of IgG1 and MAb 1C1F8 of IgG2a. Four Mabs (1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 showed neutralizing activity and three (1A5B8; 1C1C4 and 2A4C3 inhibited cellular fusion in vitro. These MAbs were used to investigate antigenic relationship among three strains (SHS-BR-121, STG 854/88 and TRT 1439/91 of aMPV subtypes A and B using cross-neutralization test. The results confirm that the monoclonal antibodies described can be used as a valuable tool in the epizootiological and serological studies, and also for the specific diagnosis of the subtypes in the infection for Avian Metapneumovirus.

  10. Epidemiology of avian influenza H5N1 virus in Egypt and its zoonotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Hamed Ghoneim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of avian influenza H5N1 virus in domestic poultry and its zoonotic potential in Egypt. Methods: Tracheal swabs were collected from two hundred and forty three domestic poultry (chickens, ducks and geese from commercial farms and backyards, and thirty two blood samples from unvaccinated chickens. Fifty two throat swabs and twenty blood samples were collected from persons who are in contact with diseased and/or infected birds. Tracheal and throat swabs were examined for the presence of avian influenza virus H5N1 genome by real-time RT-PCR whereas blood samples were tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of avian influenza virus H5 antibodies. Results: The overall prevalence of H5N1 in the examined birds was 5.3% while the prevalence rates among different poultry species were 9%, 4.7% and 0% for ducks, chicken and geese respectively. Moreover, we detected H5 antibodies in 12.5% of the examined backyard chickens. All examined humans were negative for both viral RNA and antibodies. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the broad circulation of H5N1 virus among poultry in Egypt whereas it still has a limited zoonotic potential so far.

  11. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Pox Vaccine. 113.326 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... established as follows: (1) Fowl pox susceptible birds all of the same age and from the same source, shall be...

  12. Avian influenza, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on avian influenza and Newcastle disease focus on waterfowls, considered natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study surveyed avian influenza (AI), Gumboro and Newcastle disease antibodies and antigens in birds in live wild bird markets (LWBMs), live poultry markets (LPMs) and free flying in Kaduna State ...

  13. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  14. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  15. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  16. Avian research in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice Van Horne

    2005-01-01

    Avian research in the Federal Government is in a crisis. Yes, there is a strong interest in avian research, as evidenced by the size and level of interest in this conference. But political parties increasingly see wildlife research as expendable. At the same time, the reaction to environment-friendly legislation of the 1970s and 1980s has been strong from both sides....

  17. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  18. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  19. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow APAIR to assess the socioeconomic impact of avian ... control measure to mitigate the negative effects of avian influenza and its control on ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  20. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, M. van; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore,

  1. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van R.M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry Beest Holle, van M.; Meijer, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore,

  2. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  3. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Meixell, Brandt; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99% identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0–10 km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0–9 days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America.

  4. Maternal androgens in avian brood parasites and their hosts: responses to parasitism and competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Wingfield, John C.; Fox, David M.; Walker, Brian G.; Thomley, Jill E

    2017-01-01

    In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring. We hypothesized that elevated maternal androgens in host eggs are a defense against brood parasitism. Our second hypothesis was that elevated maternal androgens in cowbird eggs are a defense against intra-specific competition. For host species, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with parasitized nests of small species, those whose nest success is most reduced by cowbird parasitism. For cowbirds, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with eggs in multiply-parasitized nests, which indicate intra-specific competition for nests due to high cowbird density. We propose experimental work to further examine the use of maternal effects by cowbirds and their hosts.

  5. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  6. A Reverse Genetics Approach for the Design of Methyltransferase-Defective Live Attenuated Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. aMPV belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae which includes many important human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3). The family also includes highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus, as well as agriculturally important viruses such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). For many of these viruses, there is no effective vaccine. Here, we describe a reverse genetics approach to develop live attenuated aMPV vaccines by inhibiting the viral mRNA cap methyltransferase. The viral mRNA cap methyltransferase is an excellent target for the attenuation of paramyxoviruses because it plays essential roles in mRNA stability, efficient viral protein translation and innate immunity. We have described in detail the materials and methods used to generate recombinant aMPVs that lack viral mRNA cap methyltransferase activity. We have also provided methods to evaluate the genetic stability, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity of live aMPV vaccine candidates in turkeys.

  7. papA gene of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Nolan, Lisa K

    2011-12-01

    P fimbrial adhesins may be associated with the virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). However, most APECs are unable to express P fimbriae even when they are grown under conditions that favor P fimbrial expression. This failure can be explained by the complete absence of the pap operon or the presence of an incomplete pap operon in Pap-negative APEC strains. In the present study, we analyzed the pap operon, specifically the papA gene that encodes the major fimbrial shaft, to better understand the pap gene cluster at the genetic level. First, by PCR, we examined a collection of 500 APEC strains for the presence of 11 genes comprising the pap operon. Except for papA, all the other genes of the operon were present in 38% to 41.2% of APEC, whereas the papA was present only in 10.4% of the APEC tested. Using multiplex PCR to probe for allelic variants of papA, we sought to determine if the low prevalence of papA among APEC was related to genetic heterogeneity of the gene itself. It was determined that the papA of APEC always belongs to the F11 allelic variant. Finally, we sequenced the 'papA region' from two papA-negative strains, both of which contain all the other genes of the pap operon. Interestingly, both strains had an 11,104-bp contig interruptingpapA at the 281-bp position. This contig harbored a streptomycin resistance gene and a classic Tn10 transposon containing the genes that confer tetracycline resistance. However, we noted that the papA gene of every papA-negative APEC strain was not interrupted by an 11,104-bp contig. It is likely that transposons bearing antibiotic resistance genes have inserted within pap gene cluster of some APEC strains, and such genetic events may have been selected for by antibiotic use.

  8. Pathobiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmai, Nimród; Erdélyi, Károly; Bálint, Adám; Márton, Lázár; Dán, Adám; Deim, Zoltán; Ursu, Krisztina; Löndt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Glávits, Róbert

    2007-06-01

    The results of pathological, virological and polymerase chain reaction examinations carried out on 35 mute swans (Cygnus olor) that succumbed to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection during an outbreak in Southern Hungary are reported. The most frequently observed macroscopic lesions included: haemorrhages under the epicardium, in the proventricular and duodenal mucosa and pancreas; focal necrosis in the pancreas; myocardial degeneration; acute mucous enteritis; congestion of the spleen and lung, and the accumulation of sero-mucinous exudate in the body cavity. Histopathological lesions comprised: lymphocytic meningo-encephalomyelitis accompanied by gliosis and occasional perivascular haemorrhages; multi-focal myocardial necrosis with lympho-histiocytic infiltration; pancreatitis with focal necrosis; acute desquamative mucous enteritis; lung congestion and oedema; oedema of the tracheal mucosa and, in young birds, the atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius as a result of lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis. The observed lesions and the moderate to good body conditions were compatible with findings in acute highly pathogenic avian influenza infections of other bird species reported in the literature. Skin lesions and lesions typical for infections caused by strains of lower pathogenicity (low pathogenic avian influenza virus) such as emaciation or fibrinous changes in the reproductive and respiratory organs, sinuses and airsacs were not observed. The H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus was isolated in embryonated fowl eggs from all cases and it was identified by classical and molecular virological methods.

  9. Avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in native Hawaiian forest birds: epizootiology and demographic impacts on ‵apapane Himatione sanguinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The role of introduced avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian forest birds has become a classic example of the potential effect of invasive diseases on biological diversity of naïve populations. However, empirical evidence describing the impact of avian malaria on fitness of Hawai‵i's endemic forest birds is limited, making it difficult to determine the importance of disease among the suite of potential limiting factors affecting the distribution and abundance of this threatened avifauna. We combined epidemiological force-of-infection with multistate capture––recapture models to evaluate a 7-year longitudinal study of avian malaria in ‵apapane, a relatively common native honeycreeper within mid-elevation Hawaiian forests. We found that malaria transmission was seasonal in this mid-elevation forest; transmission peaked during fall and during some years produced epizootic mortality events. Estimated annual mortality of hatch-year birds typically exceeded 50% and mortality of adults exceeded 25% during epizootics. The substantial impact of avian malaria on this relatively common native species demonstrates the key role this disease has played in the decline and extinction of Hawaiian forest birds.

  10. The public health impact of avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J M; Veguilla, V; Belser, J A; Maines, T R; Van Hoeven, N; Pappas, C; Hancock, K; Tumpey, T M

    2009-04-01

    Influenza viruses with novel hemagglutinin and 1 or more accompanying genes derived from avian influenza viruses sporadically emerge in humans and have the potential to result in a pandemic if the virus causes disease and spreads efficiently in a population that lacks immunity to the novel hemagglutinin. Since 1997, multiple avian influenza virus subtypes have been transmitted directly from domestic poultry to humans and have caused a spectrum of human disease, from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. To assess the pandemic risk that avian influenza viruses pose, we have used multiple strategies to better understand the capacity of avian viruses to infect, cause disease, and transmit among mammals, including humans. Seroepidemiologic studies that evaluate the frequency and risk of human infection with avian influenza viruses in populations with exposure to domestic or wild birds can provide a better understanding of the pandemic potential of avian influenza subtypes. Investigations conducted in Hong Kong following the first H5N1 outbreak in humans in 1997 determined that exposure to poultry in live bird markets was a key risk factor for human disease. Among poultry workers, butchering and exposure to sick poultry were risk factors for antibody to H5 virus, which provided evidence for infection. A second risk assessment tool, the ferret, can be used to evaluate the level of virulence and potential for host-to-host transmission of avian influenza viruses in this naturally susceptible host. Avian viruses isolated from humans exhibit a level of virulence and transmissibility in ferrets that generally reflects that seen in humans. The ferret model thus provides a means to monitor emerging avian influenza viruses for pandemic risk, as well as to evaluate laboratory-generated reassortants and mutants to better understand the molecular basis of influenza virus transmissibility. Taken together, such studies provide valuable information with which we can assess the public

  11. 2014-2016 Avian Point Count and Migration Surveys at Site 300 for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The primary goals of the surveys were to: 1) collect minutes of bird activity within Site 300, 2) consider relative abundance of the different bird species occurring within the Site, 3) collect behavioral information, and 4) provide compelling evidence to determine the status of the Site as a migration corridor or migration stopover site. To this end, two survey types were conducted: avian point counts were conducted on a monthly basis from February 2014 through January 2016 and migration surveys were conducted over two three-month periods from September 2014 through November 2014, and September 2015 through November 2015. These two surveys types provided the opportunity to observe avian species in a variety of conditions across a two year period. Whenever possible or relevant, the observations of either survey were used to inform and complement the observations of the other survey in pursuit of the above goals. Both survey types are described below.

  12. Evaluation of a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtype H5 antibodies in zoo birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Andersen, Jannie Holmegaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is the current gold standard for detecting antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been explored for use in poultry and certain wild bird species because of high efficiency and lower cost. This study com...

  13. The threshold of a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  14. [Epidemiological perspectives on SARS and avian influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    SARS is a respiratory infection caused by Coronavirus (Nidoviruses, RNA) from which 3 groups are known. Group 1 affects dogs, cats, pigs, and the human agent is 229 E. Group 2 affects bovines or rodents, and the human agent is OC43. And group 3 corresponds to the avian pathology.... The epidemics emerged on February 2003 in Guangdong, South China, due to consumption of exotic animals (Civeta, etc.), and it spread through interperson contagion to other regions in Asia, America and Europe. Incubation period is about 2-7 days. Transmission Of the virus is person-to person, but also by excretions and residual water. Basic reproductive rate is 2 to 4, and it is considered that 2.7 persons are infected from the initial case. In June 2003, SARS affected over 8,000 people and 774 were killed. Mortality approaches to 10%, and it is higher among older people rising up to 50% in those aged over 65 years. It is important to quickly establish action protocols regarding clinical, epidemiological and prevention aspects. Avian influenza is an infection caused by type A Influenza Orthomixovirus, in which migration birds and wild ducks are the main reservoir. Avian viruses correspond to H5, H7, H9. In 1997 it was observed that type AH5N1 jumped interspecies barrier and affected 18 humans, and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and in 2004 this type of poultry flu was described in Asia. FAO has emphasized that sacrifice of chicken in affected farms is the most effective measure to fight against the disease. It has also been established suppression of imports from these countries. There is no evidence on interperson contagion from chicken contagion, nor on food-borne contagion to humans.

  15. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  16. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Derek D.; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W.; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Marks, David R.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human ...

  17. Adaptations of an avian supertramp: distribution, ecology, and life history of the pearly-eyed thrasher (Margarops fuscatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2006-01-01

    Part B The pearly-eyed thrasher is a major nest predator and competitor for nest sites of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot. In all aspects of its distribution and ecology, Margarops fuscatus is a classic example of an avian “supertramp.” It is a pugnacious, highly vagile species, i.e., a good disperser, with a propensity to fill vacant or underexploited niches at all...

  18. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  19. X-ray structure of the hemagglutinin of a potential H3 avian progenitor of the 1968 Hong Kong pandemic influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Ya; Stevens, David J.; Skehel, John J.; Wiley, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the structure of the HA of an avian influenza virus, A/duck/Ukraine/63, a member of the same antigenic subtype, H3, as the virus that caused the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic, and a possible progenitor of the pandemic virus. We find that structurally significant differences between the avian and the human HAs are restricted to the receptor-binding site particularly the substitutions Q226L and G228S that cause the site to open and residues within it to rearrange, including the conserved residues Y98, W153, and H183. We have also analyzed complexes formed by the HA with sialopentasaccharides in which the terminal sialic acid is in either α2,3- or α2,6-linkage to galactose. Comparing the structures of complexes in which an α2,3-linked receptor analog is bound to the H3 avian HA or to an H5 avian HA leads to the suggestion that all avian influenza HAs bind to their preferred α2,3-linked receptors similarly, with the analog in a trans conformation about the glycosidic linkage. We find that α2,6-linked analogs are bound by both human and avian HAs in a cis conformation, and that the incompatibility of an α2,6-linked receptor with the α2,3-linkage-specific H3 avian HA-binding site is partially resolved by a small change in the position and orientation of the sialic acid. We discuss our results in relation to the mechanism of transfer of influenza viruses between species

  20. Do I Belong? Factors Contributing to the Development of Social Belonging of Children Who Are Homeless in Southeastern United States Shelters: A Multi-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Corilyn Mae

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study explored the factors that contribute to the development of social belonging in the classroom for children who are homeless age's five to seven. Previous empirical research has shown the importance of children who are homeless developing belonging in the classroom and other research has shown the negative…