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Sample records for avian magnetoreception elaborate

  1. Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Falkenberg

    Full Text Available The magnetic field sensors enabling birds to extract orientational information from the Earth's magnetic field have remained enigmatic. Our previously published results from homing pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system. Here we show that similar structures occur in two species of migratory birds (garden warbler, Sylvia borin and European robin, Erithacus rubecula and a non-migratory bird, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus. In all these bird species, histological data have revealed dendrites of similar shape and size, all containing iron minerals within distinct subcellular compartments of nervous terminals of the median branch of the Nervus ophthalmicus. We also used microscopic X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses to identify the involved iron minerals to be almost completely Fe III-oxides. Magnetite (Fe II/III may also occur in these structures, but not as a major Fe constituent. Our data suggest that this complex dendritic system in the beak is a common feature of birds, and that it may form an essential sensory basis for the evolution of at least certain types of magnetic field guided behavior.

  2. Quantum coherence and sensitivity of avian magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2012-01-01

    Migratory birds and other species have the ability to navigate by sensing the geomagnetic field. Recent experiments indicate that the essential process in the navigation takes place in bird's eye and uses chemical reaction involving molecular ions with unpaired electron spins (radical pair). Sensing is achieved via geomagnetic-dependent dynamics of the spins of the unpaired electrons. Here we utilize the results of all behavioral experiments conducted on European Robins to argue that the average life-time of the radical pair is of the order of a microsecond and therefore agrees with experimental estimations of this parameter for cryptochrome --- a pigment believed to form the radical pairs. We also found a reasonable parameter regime where sensitivity of the avian compass is enhanced by environmental noise, showing that long coherence time is not required for navigation and may even spoil it.

  3. Does avian magnetoreception rely on both magnetite and maghemite?

    CERN Document Server

    Winklhofer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a putative magnetoreceptor in the upper-beak skin of homing pigeons was chemically characterized using X-ray flourescence and absorbtion studies [Fleissner et al., 2007. A novel concept of Fe-mineral based magnetoreception: histological and physiochemical data from the upper beak of homing pigeons. Naturwissenschaften 94 (8), 631-642]. In this short communication we point out that the novel concept propagated is based on conclusions that are not supported by data and, in fact, stand in contradiction to previously published crystallographic and magnetic data.

  4. Quantum limit for avian magnetoreception: How sensitive can a chemical compass be?

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jianming; Plenio, Martin B

    2011-01-01

    The chemical compass model, based on radical pair reactions, is a fascinating idea to explain avian magnetoreception. At present, questions concerning the key ingredients responsible for the high sensitivity of a chemical compass and the possible role of quantum coherence and decoherence remain unsolved. Here, we investigate the optimized hyperfine coupling for a chemical compass in order to achieve the best magnetic field sensitivity. We demonstrate that its magnetic sensitivity limit can be further extended by simple quantum control and may benefit from additional decoherence. The present results also provide routes towards the design a biomimetic weak magnetic field sensor.

  5. Decoherence and Spin Transitions in Radical Pair Model of Avian Magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    The radical pair model for avian magnetoreception has been significantly efficacious in explaining the magnetosensitive behavior of chemical compass. In this model, we have a multi-spin system evolving under a specific Hamiltonian assisted by neurological spin-dependent recombination channels which give an elegant compass action that many species are belived to be using. In this study, we analyze the radical pair model form a microscopic spin transitional point of view and establish the role of nuclear and environmental decoherence in radical pair spin dynamics. We identify the spin interplay between singlet state and three triplet states of radical due to Zeeman and hyperfine and examine the distinctive roles of nuclear and environmental decoherence from this perspective. Additionally, we revisit some of the earlier results concerning radical pair model from this fresh outlook and provide more comprehensive explanation to those. The approach is aimed to equip us more for solid state emulation of avian compas...

  6. A model for avian magnetoreception by coupling magnetite-based mechanism with radical-pair-based mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many species of animals have been testified to use the geomagnetic field for their navigation, but the biophysical mechanism of magnetoreception has remained enigmatic. This paper presents a biophysical model consisting of magnetite-based mechanism and radical-pair-based mechanism for the avian magnetoreception. The amplitude of resultant magnetic field outside the magnetic particles correspond to the geomagnetic field direction and effect the yield of singlet/triplet state products in the radical pair reactions, therefore the yield of singlet/triplet state products can connect with the geomagnetic field information for orientational detection by the proposed model. The resultant magnetic fields corresponds to two materials with different magnetic properties were analysed under different directions of the geomagnetic field. The results shown that the ferromagnetic particles in organisms could provide more significant change of singlet state products than that of superparamagnetic particles, and the period of ...

  7. Spin relaxation of radicals in cryptochrome and its role in avian magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worster, Susannah; Kattnig, Daniel R.; Hore, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    Long-lived spin coherence and rotationally ordered radical pairs have previously been identified as key requirements for the radical pair mechanism of the avian magnetic compass sense. Both criteria are hard to meet in a biological environment, where thermal motion of the radicals creates dynamic disorder and drives efficient spin relaxation. This has long been cited as a major stumbling block of the radical pair hypothesis. Here we combine Redfield relaxation theory with analytical solutions to a rotational diffusion equation to assess the impact of restricted rotational motion of the radicals on the operation of the compass. The effects of such motions are first investigated generally in small, model systems and are then critically examined in the magnetically sensitive flavin-tryptophan radical pair that is formed photochemically in the proposed magnetoreceptor protein, cryptochrome. We conclude that relaxation is slowest when rotational motion of the radicals within the protein is fast and highly constrained; that in a regime of slow relaxation, the motional averaging of hyperfine interactions has the potential to improve the sensitivity of the compass; and that consideration of motional effects can significantly alter the design criteria for an optimal compass. In addition, we demonstrate that motion of the flavin radical is likely to be compatible with its role as a component of a functioning radical-pair compass, whereas the motion of the tryptophan radical is less ideal, unless it is particularly fast.

  8. On the magnetoreception mechanism in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses a mechanism of avian magnetoreception, which is based on the interaction of magnetite and maghemite micro particles, recently found in subcellular compartments within the sensory dendrites of the upper beak of several bird species. The analysis of forces acting between...... the iron particles shows that the orientation of the external geomagnetic field can significantly change the probability of the mechanosensitive ion channels opening and closing inducing a primary receptor potential via strain-sensitive membrane channels leading to a certain bird orientation effect...

  9. Magnetoreception mechanisms in birds - towards the discovery of the sixth sense

    OpenAIRE

    Solov'yov, Ilia

    2008-01-01

    This work is devoted to the description of mechanisms that might be responsible for avian magnetoreception. Two possible theoretical concepts underlying this phenomenon are formulated and their functionality is proven in realistic geomagnetic fields. It has been suggested that the "magnetic sense" in birds may be mediated by the blue light receptor protein- cryptochrome- which is known to be localized in the retinas of migratory birds. Cryptochromes are a class of photoreceptor signaling prot...

  10. Magnetic particle-mediated magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jeremy; Boyd, Alastair; House, Michael; Woodward, Robert; Mathes, Falko; Cowin, Gary; Saunders, Martin; Baer, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural studies underpin the weight of experimental evidence for the existence of a magnetic sense in animals. In contrast, studies aimed at understanding the mechanistic basis of magnetoreception by determining the anatomical location, structure and function of sensory cells have been inconclusive. In this review, studies attempting to demonstrate the existence of a magnetoreceptor based on the principles of the magnetite hypothesis are examined. Specific attention is given to the range of techniques, and main animal model systems that have been used in the search for magnetite particulates. Anatomical location/cell rarity and composition are identified as two key obstacles that must be addressed in order to make progress in locating and characterizing a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor cell. Avenues for further study are suggested, including the need for novel experimental, correlative, multimodal and multidisciplinary approaches. The aim of this review is to inspire new efforts towards understanding the cellular basis of magnetoreception in animals, which will in turn inform a new era of behavioural research based on first principles. PMID:26333810

  11. Magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, James L

    2010-05-25

    Few subjects in animal behavior have more exotic mystery than magnetic-field sensitivity. A force we cannot sense, generated by events no one completely understands, creates field lines that pass through our bodies without any evident effect on us or on them. It is an energy felt as much by migrating lobsters on the sea floor as by ocean-crossing birds thousands of meters overhead, transduced in generally poorly understood ways. Despite the blindness of humans, modern life depends on this invisible, ghostlike field. Aside from lights and heaters, nearly every electrical device we own makes use of electromagnetism, and that same magnetism is essential in generating the power these new-found necessities consume. But for many animals, the reliance is far older and more basic: their life-or-death ability to find their way around in the world depends on correctly interpreting the earth's magnetic field. PMID:20504748

  12. Magnetoreception through Cryptochrome may involve superoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been demonstrated that many animal species orient in the Earth magnetic field. One of the best-studied examples is the use of the geomagnetic field by migratory birds for orientation and navigation. However, the biophysical mechanism underlying animal magnetoreception ...

  13. Cryptochrome 2 mediates directional magnetoreception in cockroaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazalová, Olga; Kvíčalová, M.; Válková, T.; Slabý, P.; Bartoš, P.; Netušil, R.; Tomanová, K.; Braeunig, P.; Lee, H.-J.; Šauman, Ivo; Damulewicz, Milena; Provazník, Jan; Pokorný, R.; Doležel, David; Vácha, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 6 (2016), s. 1660-1665. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH14029; GA ČR(CZ) GC13-11908J; GA ČR(CZ) GC206/07/J041 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : magnetoreception * cryptochrome * light spectrum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  14. Magnetoreception system in honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera undergo iron biomineralization, providing the basis for magnetoreception. We showed earlier the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in iron granules formed in honeybees, and subscribed to the notion that external magnetic fields may cause expansion or contraction of the superparamagnetic particles in an orientation-specific manner, relaying the signal via cytoskeleton (Hsu and Li 1994. In this study, we established a size-density purification procedure, with which quantitative amount of iron granules was obtained from honey bee trophocytes and characterized; the density of iron granules was determined to be 1.25 g/cm(3. While we confirmed the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in the iron granules, we observed changes in the size of the magnetic granules in the trophycytes upon applying additional magnetic field to the cells. A concomitant release of calcium ion was observed by confocal microscope. This size fluctuation triggered the increase of intracellular Ca(+2 , which was inhibited by colchicines and latrunculin B, known to be blockers for microtubule and microfilament syntheses, respectively. The associated cytoskeleton may thus relay the magnetosignal, initiating a neural response. A model for the mechanism of magnetoreception in honeybees is proposed, which may be applicable to most, if not all, magnetotactic organisms.

  15. Chemical amplification of magnetic field effects relevant to avian magnetoreception

    OpenAIRE

    Kattnig, DR; Evans, EW; Déjean, V; Dodson, CA; Wallace, MI; Mackenzie, SR; Timmel, CR; Hore, PJ

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields as weak as the Earth's can change the yields of radical pair reactions even though the energies involved are orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal energy, kBT, at room temperature. Proposed as the source of the light-dependent magnetic compass in migratory birds, the radical pair mechanism is thought to operate in cryptochrome flavoproteins in the retina. Here we demonstrate that the primary magnetic field effect on flavin photoreactions can be amplified chemically by s...

  16. Chemical amplification of magnetic field effects relevant to avian magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Daniel R.; Evans, Emrys W.; Déjean, Victoire; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Wallace, Mark I.; MacKenzie, Stuart R.; Timmel, Christiane R.; Hore, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields as weak as the Earth's can change the yields of radical pair reactions even though the energies involved are orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal energy, kBT, at room temperature. Proposed as the source of the light-dependent magnetic compass in migratory birds, the radical pair mechanism is thought to operate in cryptochrome flavoproteins in the retina. Here we demonstrate that the primary magnetic field effect on flavin photoreactions can be amplified chemically by slow radical termination reactions under conditions of continuous photoexcitation. The nature and origin of the amplification are revealed by studies of the intermolecular flavin-tryptophan and flavin-ascorbic acid photocycles and the closely related intramolecular flavin-tryptophan radical pair in cryptochrome. Amplification factors of up to 5.6 were observed for magnetic fields weaker than 1 mT. Substantial chemical amplification could have a significant impact on the viability of a cryptochrome-based magnetic compass sensor.

  17. Functional quantum biology in photosynthesis and magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neill; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Is there a functional role for quantum mechanics or coherent quantum effects in biological processes? While this question is as old as quantum theory, only recently have measurements on biological systems on ultra-fast time-scales shed light on a possible answer. In this review we give an overview of the two main candidates for biological systems which may harness such functional quantum effects: photosynthesis and magnetoreception. We discuss some of the latest evidence both for and against room temperature quantum coherence, and consider whether there is truly a functional role for coherence in these biological mechanisms. Finally, we give a brief overview of some more speculative examples of functional quantum biology including the sense of smell, long-range quantum tunneling in proteins, biological photoreceptors, and the flow of ions across a cell membrane.

  18. Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Gegear, Robert J; Foley, Lauren E.; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the biophysical basis of animal magnetoreception has been one of the greatest challenges in sensory biology. Recently, it was discovered that the light-dependent magnetic sense of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the ultraviolet (UV)-A/blue light photoreceptor Cryptochrome (Cry)1. We now show using a transgenic approach that the photoreceptive, Drosophila-like Type 1 Cry and the transcriptionally repressive, vertebrate-like Type 2 Cry of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexi...

  19. Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegear, Robert J; Foley, Lauren E; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M

    2010-02-11

    Understanding the biophysical basis of animal magnetoreception has been one of the greatest challenges in sensory biology. Recently it was discovered that the light-dependent magnetic sense of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the ultraviolet (UV)-A/blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome (Cry). Here we show, using a transgenic approach, that the photoreceptive, Drosophila-like type 1 Cry and the transcriptionally repressive, vertebrate-like type 2 Cry of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) can both function in the magnetoreception system of Drosophila and require UV-A/blue light (wavelength below 420 nm) to do so. The lack of magnetic responses for both Cry types at wavelengths above 420 nm does not fit the widely held view that tryptophan triad-generated radical pairs mediate the ability of Cry to sense a magnetic field. We bolster this assessment by using a mutant form of Drosophila and monarch type 1 Cry and confirm that the tryptophan triad pathway is not crucial in magnetic transduction. Together, these results suggest that animal Crys mediate light-dependent magnetoreception through an unconventional photochemical mechanism. This work emphasizes the utility of Drosophila transgenesis for elucidating the precise mechanisms of Cry-mediated magnetosensitivity in insects and also in vertebrates such as migrating birds. PMID:20098414

  20. Magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V.; Davison, Michael; Martin Wild, J.; Walker, Michael M.

    2004-11-01

    Two conflicting hypotheses compete to explain how a homing pigeon can return to its loft over great distances. One proposes the use of atmospheric odours and the other the Earth's magnetic field in the `map' step of the `map and compass' hypothesis of pigeon homing. Although magnetic effects on pigeon orientation provide indirect evidence for a magnetic `map', numerous conditioning experiments have failed to demonstrate reproducible responses to magnetic fields by pigeons. This has led to suggestions that homing pigeons and other birds have no useful sensitivity to the Earth's magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that homing pigeons (Columba livia) can discriminate between the presence and absence of a magnetic anomaly in a conditioned choice experiment. This discrimination is impaired by attachment of a magnet to the cere, local anaesthesia of the upper beak area, and bilateral section of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, but not of the olfactory nerve. These results suggest that magnetoreception (probably magnetite-based) occurs in the upper beak area of the pigeon. Traditional methods of rendering pigeons anosmic might therefore cause simultaneous impairment of magnetoreception so that future orientation experiments will require independent evaluation of the pigeon's magnetic and olfactory systems.

  1. Acuity of a Cryptochrome and vision-based magnetoreception system in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mouritsen, Henrik; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space, and this assumpt......The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space...

  2. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...

  3. Micromagnetic Aspects of Magnetoreception of Homing Pigeons Based on Iron Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Branko; Fleissner, Gerta; Fleissner, Günther; Holub-Krappe, Elisabeth

    2007-02-01

    The identification of ferrimagnetic iron minerals in the skin of the upper beak of homing pigeons poses fundamental questions on the principles at work in magnetoreception. Aspects concerning the type of mineral, the size, shape and arrangement of the particles are discussed on grounds of micromagnetic simulations.

  4. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  5. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  6. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  7. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation. PMID:25267469

  8. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-05-14

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have a significant effect on the coherent spin dynamics of the radicals. It is generally assumed that evolutionary pressure has led to protection of the electron spins from irreversible loss of coherence in order that the underlying quantum dynamics can survive in a noisy biological environment. Here, we address this question for a structurally characterized model cryptochrome expected to share many properties with the putative avian receptor protein. To this end we combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, Bloch-Redfield relaxation theory and spin dynamics calculations to assess the effects of spin relaxation on the performance of the protein as a compass sensor. Both flavin-tryptophan and flavin-Z˙ radical pairs are studied (Z˙ is a radical with no hyperfine interactions). Relaxation is considered to arise from modulation of hyperfine interactions by librational motions of the radicals and fluctuations in certain dihedral angles. For Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 1 (AtCry1) we find that spin relaxation implies optimal radical pair lifetimes of the order of microseconds, and that flavin-Z˙ pairs are less affected by relaxation than flavin-tryptophan pairs. Our results also demonstrate that spin relaxation in isolated AtCry1 is incompatible with the long coherence times that have been postulated to explain the disruption of the avian magnetic compass sense by weak radiofrequency magnetic fields. We conclude that a cryptochrome sensor in vivo would have to differ dynamically, if not structurally, from isolated AtCry1. Our results clearly mark the limits of the current hypothesis and lead to a better understanding of the operation of radical pair magnetic sensors

  9. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  10. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  11. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  12. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  13. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiteng [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kais, Sabre [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on 1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and 2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the quantum avian compass can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.

  14. Magnetoreception in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus): influence of weak frequency-modulated radio frequency fields

    OpenAIRE

    Malkemper, E. Pascal; Eder, Stephan H.K.; Begall, Sabine; John B Phillips; Winklhofer, Michael; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian magnetic sense is predominantly studied in species with reduced vision such as mole-rats and bats. Far less is known about surface-dwelling (epigeic) rodents with well-developed eyes. Here, we tested the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus for magnetoreception using a simple behavioural assay in which mice are allowed to build nests overnight in a visually symmetrical, circular arena. The tests were performed in the ambient magnetic field or in a field rotated by 90°. When plotted wi...

  15. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  16. Magnetoreception in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus): influence of weak frequency-modulated radio frequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkemper, E Pascal; Eder, Stephan H K; Begall, Sabine; Phillips, John B; Winklhofer, Michael; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian magnetic sense is predominantly studied in species with reduced vision such as mole-rats and bats. Far less is known about surface-dwelling (epigeic) rodents with well-developed eyes. Here, we tested the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus for magnetoreception using a simple behavioural assay in which mice are allowed to build nests overnight in a visually symmetrical, circular arena. The tests were performed in the ambient magnetic field or in a field rotated by 90°. When plotted with respect to magnetic north, the nests were bimodally clustered in the northern and southern sectors, clearly indicating that the animals used magnetic cues. Additionally, mice were tested in the ambient magnetic field with a superimposed radio frequency magnetic field of the order of 100 nT. Wood mice exposed to a 0.9 to 5 MHz frequency sweep changed their preference from north-south to east-west. In contrast to birds, however, a constant frequency field tuned to the Larmor frequency (1.33 MHz) had no effect on mouse orientation. In sum, we demonstrated magnetoreception in wood mice and provide first evidence for a radical-pair mechanism in a mammal. PMID:25923312

  17. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  18. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  19. Orientational behavior of animals with the geomagnetic field and mechanisms of magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Osipova, E. A.; Izyumov, Yu. G.

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary data on the orientation and navigation of animals from different taxa with the geomagnetic field are considered in the review. The mechanisms of magnetoreception in animals are described. In this regard, several taxa of fishes are able to perceive the magnetic field via electroreceptors. Some animals can sense changes in the magnetic field polarity via sensory cells containing iron compounds. In addition, animals from different taxa are able to perceive the inclination of the magnetic field via a change in singlet and triplet yields of radical-pair reactions under the influence of the magnetic field. In the latter case, the molecules of cryptochrome can play a crucial role. It is considered that the cryptochrome excited by shortwave light can produce long-living radical pairs affected by the geomagnetic field.

  20. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. PMID:27045095

  1. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  2. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  3. Physical constraints for the Stoneham model for light-dependent magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Espigulé-Pons, Jofre; Vaziri, Alipasha; Arndt, Markus

    2014-01-01

    A new biophysical model for magnetoreception in migratory birds has recently been proposed by Stoneham et al. In this photo-induced radical pair (RP) model the signal transduction mechanism was physical rather than chemical in nature, as otherwise generally assumed in the literature. The proposal contains a magnetosensor and a signal transduction mechanism. The sensor would be an electric dipole related to a long lived triplet state of an RP. This makes it sensitive to the geomagnetic field via the Zeeman interaction. The field of the electric dipole moment would then promote isomerization from cis-to-trans in the retinal of a nearby rhodopsin. This would trigger the neuronal signal. Here we gather several observations from different works that constrain the feasibility of this physical model. In particular we argue that the perturbation of rhodopsin by a local electric field from a nearby electric dipole (10^6 V/m) cannot modify the field in the binding pocket of rhodopsin (10^9 V/m) sufficiently to trigger ...

  4. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  5. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  6. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  7. Magnetite-based Magnetoreception in Animals: 25+ Years of Theory & Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Walker, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Living organisms ranging from bacteria through higher vertebrates rely on orientation, navigation, and homing to survive. Any sensory cue that enhances these behaviors will be subject to intense natural selection over geological time. Reproducible behavioral responses to earth-strength magnetic fields(1) have been documented in Bacteria, Protoctists, and in nearly every major group of animals, and are possibly also present in the Archaea. Several groups of animals, including birds and cetaceans, respond behaviorally to magnetic anomalies below 100 nT in magnitude, implying that their magnetoreception ability approaches the thermal noise limit. This approach to thermal noise is commonly observed in other sensory systems, including hearing, olfaction, and electroreception. The hypothesis of magnetite-based magnetoreception(2) is the only theory proposed so far that is capable of explaining all of the magnetic behavioral data. Tiny crystals of single-domain magnetite (or in some bacteria, greigite) rotate the cells of microorganisms passively like a simple compass needle. The initial detection of biogenic magnetite with rock magnetic techniques in birds and bees over 25 years ago has led progressively to the identification of a group of specialized cells in fish and birds which contain organized magnetite-containing structures. In these animals (and presumably all vertebrates) magnetic signals are transmitted to the brain via the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve(3, 4). Experiments with pulse-remagnetization, like those that convert North-seeking bacteria into South-seekers, have dramatic effects on animal behavior, confirming the role of magnetite in the sensory system. This is therefore a general mechanism for a highly sensitive magnetic sense, the origin of which probably dates to the ancestral metazoan, and perhaps earlier. The largest debate presently occurring in the field concerns the interpretation of magnetic compass responses that vary with intensity

  8. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  9. The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Márton BALOGH

    2003-01-01

    This article - “The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies” - aims to present a topic of current interest for Romanian local public administrations. The author presents a possible way of elaborating local and micro-regional strategies, with emphasis on the characteristics of these documents and the stages of their application.

  10. The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton BALOGH

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article - “The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies” - aims to present a topic of current interest for Romanian local public administrations. The author presents a possible way of elaborating local and micro-regional strategies, with emphasis on the characteristics of these documents and the stages of their application.

  11. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bolte

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins, we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula, migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe and pigeons (Columba livia. In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.

  12. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Petra; Bleibaum, Florian; Einwich, Angelika; Günther, Anja; Liedvogel, Miriam; Heyers, Dominik; Depping, Anne; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b) exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins), we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula), migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and pigeons (Columba livia). In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism. PMID:26953791

  13. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Petra; Bleibaum, Florian; Einwich, Angelika; Günther, Anja; Liedvogel, Miriam; Heyers, Dominik; Depping, Anne; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Janssen‐Bienhold, Ulrike; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b) exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins), we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula), migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and pigeons (Columba livia). In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism. PMID:26953791

  14. High resolution micro-XRF maps of iron oxides inside sensory dendrites of putative avian magnetoreceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenberg, G; Fleissner, G E; Fleissner, G U E; Schuchardt, K [Institute of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Goethe-University Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); Kuehbacher, M [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Chalmin, E [ID21 ESRF, Grenoble (France); Janssens, K, E-mail: gerald.falkenberg@desy.d [Department of Chemistry, University Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-09-01

    Iron mineral containing sensory dendrites in the inner lining of the upper beak of homing pigeons and various bird species are the first candidate structures for an avian magnetic field receptor. A new concept of magnetoreception is based on detailed ultra-structural optical and electron microscopy analyses in combination with synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis (micro-XRF) and microscopic X-ray absorption near edge structures (micro-XANES). Several behavioral experiments and first mathematical simulations affirm our avian magnetoreceptor model. The iron minerals inside the dendrites are housed in three different subcellular compartments (bullets, platelets, vesicles), which could be clearly resolved and identified by electron microscopy on ultrathin sections. Micro-XRF and micro-XANES data obtained at HASYLAB beamline L added information about the elemental distribution and Fe speciation, but are averaged over the complete dendrite due to limited spatial resolution. Here we present recently performed micro-XRF maps with sub-micrometer resolution (ESRF ID21), which reveal for the first time subcellular structural information from almost bulk-like dendrite sample material. Due to the thickness of 30 {mu}m the microarchitecture of the dendrites can be considered as undisturbed and artefacts introduced by sectioning might be widely reduced.

  15. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  16. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  17. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected

  18. Magnetoreception: activated cryptochrome 1a concurs with magnetic orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Stapput, Katrin; Ahmad, Margaret; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2013-01-01

    The radical pair model proposes that the avian magnetic compass is based on radical pair processes in the eye, with cryptochrome, a flavoprotein, suggested as receptor molecule. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is localized at the discs of the outer segments of the UV/violet cones of European robins and chickens. Here, we show the activation characteristics of a bird cryptochrome in vivo under natural conditions. We exposed chickens for 30 min to different light regimes and analysed the amount of Cry1a labelled with an antiserum against an epitope at the C-terminus of this protein. The staining after exposure to sunlight and to darkness indicated that the antiserum labels only an illuminated, activated form of Cry1a. Exposure to narrow-bandwidth lights of various wavelengths revealed activated Cry1a at UV, blue and turquoise light. With green and yellow, the amount of activated Cry1a was reduced, and with red, as in the dark, no activated Cry1a was labelled. Activated Cry1a is thus found at all those wavelengths at which birds can orient using their magnetic inclination compass, supporting the role of Cry1a as receptor molecule. The observation that activated Cry1a and well-oriented behaviour occur at 565 nm green light, a wavelength not absorbed by the fully oxidized form of cryptochrome, suggests that a state other than the previously suggested Trp•/FAD• radical pair formed during photoreduction is crucial for detecting magnetic directions. PMID:23966619

  19. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  20. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  1. Avian pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwright, D M; Burger, W P; Geyer, A; Wessles, J

    1994-03-01

    Nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions, resembling avian pox were observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. Typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a pox virus was isolated from the lesions. A commercial fowl pox vaccine was used to protect young ostriches in the field. PMID:7745588

  2. Avian dark cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  3. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  4. A novel concept of Fe-mineral-based magnetoreception: histological and physicochemical data from the upper beak of homing pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissner, Gerta; Stahl, Branko; Thalau, Peter; Falkenberg, Gerald; Fleissner, Günther

    2007-08-01

    Animals make use of the Earth’s magnetic field for navigation and regulation of vegetative functions; however, the anatomical and physiological basis for the magnetic sense has not been elucidated yet. Our recent results from histology and X-ray analyses support the hypothesis that delicate iron-containing structures in the skin of the upper beak of homing pigeons might serve as a biological magnetometer. Histology has revealed various iron sites within dendrites of the trigeminal nerve, their arrangement along strands of axons, the existence of three dendritic fields in each side of the beak with specific 3D-orientations, and the bilateral symmetry of the whole system. Element mapping by micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis has shown the distribution of iron and its quantities. Micro-synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge-structure spectroscopy has allowed us to unambiguously identify maghemite as the predominating iron mineral (90 vs 10% magnetite). In this paper, we show that iron-based magnetoreception needs the presence of both of these iron minerals, their specific dimensions, shapes, and arrangements in three different subcellular compartments. We suggest that an inherent magnetic enhancement process via an iron-crusted vesicle and the attached chains of iron platelets might be sufficient to account for the sensitivity and specificity required by such a magnetoreceptor. The appropriate alignment between the Earth’s magnetic field and the maghemite bands would induce a multiple attraction of the magnetite bullets perpendicular to the membrane, thus, triggering strain-sensitive membrane channels and a primary receptor potential. Due to its 3D architecture and physicochemical nature, the dendritic system should be able to separately sense the three vector components of the Earth’s local field, simultaneously—allowing birds to detect their geographic position by the magnetic vector, i.e., amplitude and direction of the local magnetic field

  5. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  6. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  7. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  8. Elaboration of fiber-reinforced metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic study on the elaboration of fiber reinforced metallic materials is presented in three parts: the theory of fiber reinforcement of metals in summarized, with emphasis on the mechanical and geometric factors which govern the behaviour and the performances to be expected from a given composite material; a second part is devoted to the study of the physical and chemical factors related to the structural stability of the material. Finally, the various processes of fabrication of such composites are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  10. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Ali; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  11. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  12. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    OpenAIRE

    ER Nascimento; VLA Pereira; MGF Nascimento; ML Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI) is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorga...

  13. Applications of avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Benjamin B; Velho, Tarciso A; Sim, Shuyin; Lois, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability to introduce foreign DNA into the genome of an organism has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Methods for the manipulation of the animal genome have been developed at an impressive pace for 3 decades, but only in the past 5 years have useful tools for avian transgenesis emerged. The most efficient technique involves the use of replication-deficient lentiviral vectors to deliver foreign DNA into the avian germline. Although lentiviral-mediated transgenesis presents some constraints, progress in this area has garnered interest in both industry and academia for its potential applications in biological research, biotechnology, and agriculture. In this review we evaluate methods for the production of transgenic birds, focusing on the advantages and limitations of lentiviral-mediated transgenesis. We also provide an overview of future applications of this technology. The most exciting of these include disease-resistant transgenic poultry, genetically modified hens that produce therapeutic proteins in their eggs, and transgenic songbirds that serve as a model to study communication disorders. Finally, we discuss technological advances that will be necessary to make avian transgenesis a more versatile tool. PMID:21131712

  14. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  15. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Ex...

  16. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  17. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  18. Sacrifice:Elaboration on A Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Parkin

    2014-01-01

    Through examining cases in Africa and Indonesia , the author notes that “Sacri-fice” covers a very wide range of alleged causes , aims and consequences , and it is the process of making offerings to deities or spirits that generates this diversity .The concept covers a field of possibilities which can be elaborated almost indefinitely , but only within the understanding of a distinction between humanity and divinity , however variable its cultural expression .Despite be-ing essentialized in Abrahamic theodicy , notions of sacrifice subsume the contentious concept of belief in studying religiosity .Sacrifice, along with prayer, can therefore be used instead of belief to provide the entry point into how humanity reaches out to something beyond itself .

  19. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview gives the true measure of his/her professionalism. Elaborated based on the taxonomy of the sales steps and depending on customer objections, questions may constitute a basic premise in the development of sales strategies and techniques

  20. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  1. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  2. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  3. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  4. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  5. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  6. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  7. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  8. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  9. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  10. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  11. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  12. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  13. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  14. Elaboration of Statistics Learning Objects for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Tapia Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) allows a person to study using a mobile computer device anywhere and anytime. In this work we report the elaboration of learning objects for the teaching of introductory statistics using cellular phones.

  15. Elaboration of Statistics Learning Objects for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tapia Moreno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning (m-learning allows a person to study using a mobile computer device anywhere and anytime. In this work we report the elaboration of learning objects for the teaching of introductory statistics using cellular phones.

  16. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred. PMID:9463930

  17. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  18. Elaborating the conceptual difference between conventions and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Bone, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    "The article elaborates the conceptual difference between two core concepts of the French approach of economics of convention (EC), namely convention and institution. It is argued that modern institutionalisms and neoinstitutionalisms need to delimit the meaning of the notion institution as EC does. Then it is possible to work out the relations of institutions and other forms of cultural or structural resources. A proposal for such an elaboration is done by differing four perceived situations...

  19. Choice, Rejection, and Elaboration on Preference-Inconsistent Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Laran; Keith Wilcox

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that rejecting product alternatives (i.e., choosing which alternatives to give up) may cause preference reversals compared to choosing alternatives. We provide an investigation into the psychological processes underlying this phenomenon. These preference reversals can be caused by increased elaboration on the features of preference-inconsistent alternatives when people reject alternatives. When these features are appealing, increased elaboration increases pr...

  20. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  1. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  2. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M;

    2015-01-01

    . Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest...

  3. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  4. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  5. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  6. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  7. Chymotrypsin and trypsin sensitivities of avian reoviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Drastini, Y; McKenna, P K; Kibenge, F S; Lopez, A

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to examine the chymotrypsin sensitivity and trypsin sensitivity of 13 avian reoviruses, and to determine if there was any correlation with pathogenicity of some chicken reoviruses. A wide variation in the degree of sensitivity of avian reoviruses to chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed. Overall, the infectivity of the 13 avian reoviruses for Vero cells was markedly reduced by treatment with 0.01% chymotrypsin (the lowest concentration tested) while 0.5% trypsin si...

  8. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  9. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 πβ-γ coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of β particles (∼ 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  10. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  11. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  12. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  13. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  14. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  15. Avian zoonoses – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozdruń Wojciech; Czekaj Hanna; Styś Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other h...

  16. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  17. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  18. Dyad composition effects on cognitive elaboration and student achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Veenman, S.A.M.; Dobbelsteen, J.M.H.; Schilt, J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follo

  19. The Impact of an Elaborated Assessee's Role in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an elaborated assessee's role on metacognitive awareness, performance and attitude in peer assessment. Two intact groups (a total of 82 students) were randomly assigned to a treatment condition (having back-feedback activity) or a control condition (not having back-feedback activity). The…

  20. Imagery and Semantic Elaboration in Hypermnesia for Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the contribution of imagery and semantic factors to the hypermnesia effect (increases in retention over successive recall attempts). Results showed that hypermnesia accompanies meaningful processing regardless of whether verbal or imagery encoding is emphasized. Semantic elaboration increases reminiscence…

  1. Simple versus Elaborate Feedback in a Nursing Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Betty L.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Feedback techniques, including computer-assisted feedback, have had mixed results in improving student learning outcomes. This project addresses the effect of type of feedback, simple or elaborate, for both short-term comprehension and long-term outcomes. A sample of 75 graduate nursing students was given a total of ten examinations. Four…

  2. Formative Research on Sequencing Instruction with the Elaboration Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    The Elaboration Theory of Instruction offers guidelines for several patterns of simple-to-complex sequencing that were developed primarily from cognitive theory, especially schema theory, although there has been relatively little empirical research on the theory. This study helps fill this void by conducting "formative research" to identify…

  3. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  4. Counseling Pretreatment and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Results of the application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to a counseling context revealed that more favorable attitudes toward counseling occurred as subjects' ego involvement increased and as intervention quality improved. Counselor credibility affected the degree to which subjects' attitudes reflected argument quality differences.…

  5. Elaborating teaching materials for Baure: When teachers are learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Admiraal

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of teaching materials in Baure, a language on the verge of extinction, spoken in Bolivian Amazonia. The Baure speakers are all elderly people and fully bilingual in the dominant language Spanish. In Bolivia, indigenous language teaching in schoo

  6. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  7. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  8. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  9. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  10. The global nature of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  11. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  12. Cryoconservation of avian gonads in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-10-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century as the cost of maintaining populations has exceeded the perceived benefit of keeping them. Despite the early importance of poultry in the development of cryopreservation techniques, very little avian germplasm has been conserved. Cryopreservation and recovery of avian gonads preserve the W chromosome and overcome problems of freezing and recovering semen or conserving and manipulating embryonic cells, and the use of vitrification procedures for preserving gonads minimizes cellular damage. On the basis of research demonstrating the biological possibility of cryopreserving and transplanting avian gonads, 5,125 testicles and 2,667 ovaries from 10 populations of Japanese quail, 9 populations of chickens, and 1 population of Chilean tinamou were cryopreserved and sent to the Canadian Animal Genetic Resources program for long-term storage. These gonads represent 20 of the 33 distinct avian populations currently maintained at Canadian public institutions of agricultural research. PMID:24046407

  13. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new......As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... insights into cross-cultural similarities and differences, into elaboration likelihood differences among consumer segments, and show how the involvement construct may be used as basis for communication development....

  14. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  15. Aspects Regarding the Elaborating and Approval of IPSASs Improvements 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Nistor Cristina Silvia; Cirstea Andreea; Cozma Ighian Diana

    2010-01-01

    The elaboration of international referentials IPSAS (International Public Sector Accounting Standards) by competent bodies (IPSASB – International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board) involves a continuous junction between the specific needs of national accounting systems in the context of the harmonization process and their convergence and the identification of the needs of economic, political, social systems, whose interdependency is evident. This process determines the continuous upda...

  16. PPR: a database for radiologic protection plan elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plan of Radiation Protection is a document demanded for Licensing of the Radioactive Installations. It establishes the system of Radioprotection to be implemented by the Service of Radiation Protection. Its main objective is to achieve the requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety constants in the regulations CNEN-NE-3.01 - Basic Guidelines of Radiation Protection and CNEN-NE-3.06 - Requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety for Services of Radiotherapy. The proposal presented here has the aim to easy the development and the uniformity of the elaboration of the Plan of Radiation Protection. Considering the difficulties found by the physicists responsible for the services in developing a Plan of Radiation Protection that contemplate all the necessary requirements, as well as the final analysis accomplished by CNEN, the present project was elaborated. This consists of a software of easy use, developed according to the most modern patterns of programming, allowing to the user to elaborate the Plan of Radiation Protection in agreement with to basic needs of the Installation. Soon the software will be available in the page web of CNEN for download. (author)

  17. Calibration and Data Elaboration Procedure for Sky Irradiance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Paolo; Tonna, Glauco; Dalu, Giuseppe; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Olivieri, Bruno; Pompei, Alberto; Campanelli, Monica; Rao, R.

    1999-02-01

    The problems encountered in the elaboration of measurements of direct and sky diffuse solar irradiance are the following: (1) to carry out the calibration for the direct irradiance, which consists in determining the direct irradiance at the upper limit of the atmosphere; (2) to carry out the calibration for the diffuse irradiance, which consists in determining the solid viewing angle of the sky radiometer; (3) to determine the input parameters, namely, ground albedo, real and imaginary parts of the aerosol refractive index, and aerosol radius range; and (4) to determine from the optical data the columnar aerosol optical depth and volume radius distribution. With experimental data and numerical simulations a procedure is shown that enables one to carry out the two calibrations needed for the sky radiometer, to determine a best estimate of the input parameters, and, finally, to obtain the average features of the atmospheric aerosols. An interesting finding is that inversion of only data of diffuse irradiance yields the same accuracy of result as data of both diffuse and direct irradiance; in this case, only calibration of the solid viewing angle of the sky radiometer is needed, thus shortening the elaboration procedure. Measurements were carried out in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Italy), in Tokyo (Japan), and in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina); data were elaborated with a new software package, the Skyrad code, based on an efficient radiative transfer scheme.

  18. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  19. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  20. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  1. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease. PMID:20095158

  2. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  3. An IT Service Taxonomy for Elaborating IT Service Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbi, Md Forhad

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, I, as the author, have tried to propose a methodology for establishing IT service taxonomy in order to elaborate IT service portfolio and IT service catalog. As a core part of my thesis, IT service taxonomy has been discussed to manage IT services in an efficient way in the small and medium sized enterprises The small and medium sized enterprises can use the categories and sub categories of this taxonomy to define their service catalog and portfolio. In that regards, a list of...

  4. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  5. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  6. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  7. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  8. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  9. Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act sy...

  10. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  11. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  12. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to...

  13. A review of avian probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  14. Self-corrected elaboration effects on incidental memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Subjects performed an orienting task involving 3 conditions followed by an unexpected free recall test. The conditions were designed to force 3 types of corrected elaborations: Generated Correction, Chosen Correction, and No Correction. In the Generated Correction condition the subjects were presented with a target word (e.g., Baby) and a bizarre sentence frame (e.g., "____drinks beer.") and asked to correct the target to a congruous word (e.g., Uncle) to make a common sentence. In the Chosen Correction condition, the subjects were presented with a target and its bizarre sentence frame and asked to choose one of the alternative congruous words (e.g., Uncle, Aunt) to make a common sentence. In the No Correction condition, the subjects were presented with a target and its bizarre sentence frame and asked to rate the congruity of each target to its sentence frame. Generated Correction led to a better performance than Chosen Correction and No Correction, but a difference between the last two correction types was not found. These results were interpreted as showing that, by generating correct information, self-corrected elaboration led to facilitation of incidental memory. PMID:15560341

  15. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  16. Deep-Elaborative Learning of Introductory Management Accounting for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Freddie; Tan, Kim B.

    2005-01-01

    Research by Choo and Tan (1990; 1995) suggests that accounting students, who engage in deep-elaborative learning, have a better understanding of the course materials. The purposes of this paper are: (1) to describe a deep-elaborative instructional approach (hereafter DEIA) that promotes deep-elaborative learning of introductory management…

  17. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions ('Texas cattle rancher' vs. 'rancher') leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., 'The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president'). The final sentence (e.g., 'The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…') contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with 'Republican') or the One-Cue referent (with 'Democrat'). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region ('had voted for'), where readers could understand that 'The senator' is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the predicted interaction between ART

  18. Elaboration of a chemical decontamination technology: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the VVER-type pressurized water reactors, various versions of the so-called AP-CITROX method (AP: alkaline permanganate, CITROX: citric and oxalic acids) have been widely used for the chemical decontamination of the austenitic stainless steel piping of steam generators (SGs). During the period of 1993-2001 chemical decontaminations of 24 SGs in the blocks 1-3 of the Paks NPP were carried out by a non-regenerative version of AP-CITROX technology, even in 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Based on the above decontamination procedures a database of characteristic parameters was compiled. The analysis of these data and the explanation of the corrosion effects of the technology reveal that fundamental issues of analytical chemistry and corrosion science were not taken into consideration during the elaboration of AP-CITROX procedure, suggested in steam generator manual, and utilized at Paks NPP. The non-regenerative version of the AP-CITROX technology is not an adequate method for the chemical decontamination of any reactor equipment having large steel surfaces (e.g. SGs). As a consequence of the lack of the appropriate decontamination method, a R and D project focused on the elaboration of the required technology has been initiated in 2005. The fundamental demands, which must be realized in the course of above R and D project, are as follows: (i) The decontamination method has to be suitable simultaneously for the effective removal of radionuclides (dose reduction) and for the conditioning of steel surfaces. (ii) The procedure has to provide optimal technological parameters for the homogeneous dissolution of oxide layers formed on the steel surfaces originating from both SGs never decontaminated (block 4) and SGs decontaminated earlier (blocks 1-3). The inner surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes of the latter SGs are covered by a special oxide layer ('hybrid' structure with a thickness of several micrometers). (iii) The method has to be able to utilize the technological

  19. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’) leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’). The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…’) contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’) or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’), where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the

  20. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  1. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  2. Elaboration of groundwater quality maps using Kriging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different geostatistical approaches for the elaboration of groundwater quality maps are presented. Firstly, the main theoretical aspects concerning to the two estimation methods used, ordinary kriging and indicator kriging, are described. They share a common theoretical basis but focus their estimations in different terms. The former gives the most probable value of a groundwater quality parameter in the aquifer, e. g. nitrate contents, so that is applied to map it spatial distribution. Whereas the latter estimates is applied to estimate the spatial probability distribution function of surpassing a given threshold or alert value for the experimental parameter. A case study regarding the Vega of Granada aquifer is also presented. The comparative advantages offered by each of these methods are discussed, taking into account the random behaviour shown by the studied variable. It is concluded that maps created by both methods provide value information of great interest for decision-making with regards to water quality control. (Author) 10 refs

  3. Elaboration of titanium nitride coatings by activated reactive evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As titanium nitride is a very interesting and promising material for the protection against wear and corrosion of metals and alloys with a low fusion point, and notably steels, this research thesis reports the study of the elaboration of a TiN coating by activated reactive evaporation. In a first part, the author describes deposition processes based on evaporation and their characteristics. He explains the choice of the studied process. He discusses published data and results related to the titanium-nitrogen system. He describes the apparatus and reports the operation mode adjustment, and reports the study of the influence of operating conditions (substrate temperature, nitrogen pressure, evaporation rate, possible use of a discharge) on growth kinetics and on coating properties. A reaction mechanism is then proposed to describe and explain the obtained results

  4. Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Gabriel V; Tavares, Raquel; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Demeneix, Barbara A; Baker, Michael E; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-07-21

    Steroid hormones regulate many physiological processes in vertebrates, nematodes, and arthropods through binding to nuclear receptors (NR), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The main steps controlling the diversification of this family are now well-understood. In contrast, the origin and evolution of steroid ligands remain mysterious, although this is crucial for understanding the emergence of modern endocrine systems. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed complete metazoan genomes to provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of major enzymatic players implicated in steroidogenesis at the whole metazoan scale. Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages, and that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes descended from those that detoxify xenobiotics. PMID:19571007

  5. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  6. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  7. Diverse modes of axon elaboration in the developing neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of axonal arbors is a critical step in the establishment of precise neural circuits, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms of axonal elaboration in the neocortex. We used in vivo two-photon time-lapse microscopy to image axons in the neocortex of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice over the first 3 wk of postnatal development. This period spans the elaboration of thalamocortical (TC and Cajal-Retzius (CR axons and cortical synaptogenesis. Layer 1 collaterals of TC and CR axons were imaged repeatedly over time scales ranging from minutes up to days, and their growth and pruning were analyzed. The structure and dynamics of TC and CR axons differed profoundly. Branches of TC axons terminated in small, bulbous growth cones, while CR axon branch tips had large growth cones with numerous long filopodia. TC axons grew rapidly in straight paths, with frequent interstitial branch additions, while CR axons grew more slowly along tortuous paths. For both types of axon, new branches appeared at interstitial sites along the axon shaft and did not involve growth cone splitting. Pruning occurred via retraction of small axon branches (tens of microns, at both CR and TC axons or degeneration of large portions of the arbor (hundreds of microns, for TC axons only. The balance between growth and retraction favored overall growth, but only by a slight margin. Given the identical layer 1 territory upon which CR and TC axons grow, the differences in their structure and dynamics likely reflect distinct intrinsic growth programs for axons of long projection neurons versus local interneurons.

  8. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illicit clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 - 47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. Radioimmunological comparison of the DNA polymerases of avian retroviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, G.; Temin, H M

    1980-01-01

    125I-labeled DNA polymerases of avian myeloblastosis virus and spleen necrosis virus were used in a radioimmunological characterization of avian retrovirus DNA polymerases. It was shown that avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus DNA polymerases do not cross-react in radioimmunoassays. Within the avian leukosis virus species, species-specific and type-specific antigenic determinants of the DNA polymerase were defined. The previous finding of genus-specific antigenic determinants...

  10. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  11. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  12. Immunology of avian influenza virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, D L; Schultz-Cherry, S

    2000-01-01

    Avian influenza virus can cause serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals, but its natural host range is in wild ducks, gulls, and shorebirds. Infections in poultry can be inapparent or cause respiratory disease, decreases in production, or a rapidly fatal systemic disease known as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). For the protection of poultry, neutralizing antibody to the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins provide the primary protection against disease. A variety of vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody, including killed whole virus vaccines and fowl-pox recombinant vaccines. Antigenic drift of influenza viruses appears to be less important in causing vaccine failures in poultry as compared to humans. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response can reduce viral shedding in mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, but provides questionable protection against HPAI. Influenza viruses can directly affect the immune response of infected birds, and the role of the Mx gene, interferons, and other cytokines in protection from disease remains unknown. PMID:10717293

  13. The quantum needle of the avian magnetic compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Hamish G; Worster, Susannah; Kattnig, Daniel R; Steers, Charlotte; Jin, Ye; Manolopoulos, David E; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hore, P J

    2016-04-26

    Migratory birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass, the mechanism of which is thought to involve radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. Theoretical descriptions of this compass have thus far been unable to account for the high precision with which birds are able to detect the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Here we use coherent spin dynamics simulations to explore the behavior of realistic models of cryptochrome-based radical pairs. We show that when the spin coherence persists for longer than a few microseconds, the output of the sensor contains a sharp feature, referred to as a spike. The spike arises from avoided crossings of the quantum mechanical spin energy-levels of radicals formed in cryptochromes. Such a feature could deliver a heading precision sufficient to explain the navigational behavior of migratory birds in the wild. Our results (i) afford new insights into radical pair magnetoreception, (ii) suggest ways in which the performance of the compass could have been optimized by evolution, (iii) may provide the beginnings of an explanation for the magnetic disorientation of migratory birds exposed to anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, and (iv) suggest that radical pair magnetoreception may be more of a quantum biology phenomenon than previously realized. PMID:27044102

  14. [Progress in microRNAs associated with major avian viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Chaolai; Mu, Weitao; Zhao, Dongxue; Chang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, avian viral diseases have become one of the main models to study mechanisms of viral infections and pathogenesis. The study of regulatory relationships and mechanisms between viruses and microRNAs has also become the focus. In this review, we briefly summarize the general situations of microRNAs encoded by avian herpesviruses. Also, we analyze the regulatory relationships between tumorigenicity of avian herpesviruses and microRNAs. Additionally, the possible applications for prevention and treatment of viral diseases (such as infectious bursal disease, avian influenza and avian leucosis) using the regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs are also discussed. PMID:26955707

  15. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  16. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while b...

  17. Avian Influenza: Should China Be Alarmed?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhaoliang; Xu, Huaxi; Chen, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Influenza strain H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have been transmitted from poultry to humans (by direct or indirect contact with infected birds) in several provinces of Mainland China, which has resulted in 22 cases of human infection and has created repercussions for the Chinese ec...

  18. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    OpenAIRE

    Lüschow Dörte; Lierz Peter; Jansen Andreas; Harder Timm; Hafez Hafez; Kohls Andrea; Schweiger Brunhilde; Lierz Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their ...

  19. Elaboration, activity and stability of silica-based nitroaromatic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Dimitri; Pereira, Franck; Méthivier, Christophe; Montméat, Pierre; Hairault, Lionel; Pradier, Claire-Marie

    2013-08-21

    Functionalized silica-based thin films, modified with hydrophobic groups, were synthesized and used as sensors for nitroaromatic compound (NAC) specific detection. Their performance and behavior, in terms of stability, ageing and regeneration, have been fully characterized by combining chemical characterization techniques and electron microscopy. NAC was efficiently and specifically detected using these silica-based sensors, but showed a great degradation in the presence of humidity. Moreover, the sensor sensitivity seriously decreases with storage time. Methyl- and phenyl-functionalization helped to overcome this humidity sensitivity. Surface characterization enabled us to establish a direct correlation between the appearance, and increasing amount, of adsorbed carbonyl-containing species, and sensor efficiency. This contamination, appearing after only one month, was particularly important when sensors were stored in plastic containers. Rinsing with cyclohexane enables us to recover part of the sensor performance but does not yield a complete regeneration of the sensors. This work led us to the definition of optimized elaboration and storage conditions for nitroaromatic sensors. PMID:23812282

  20. Elaboration of uranium ore concentrate by direct precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of a uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake) is an essential stage in the preparation of fuels used in the nuclear power reactor. In this work, we have studied the elaboration of a uranium ore concentrate from the ore of Tahaggart by testing the direct precipitation process. This choice was justified not only by the physicochemical characteristics of the ore, but also by other important factors such as: capacity of the deposit, geographical situation (desert), availability of water and lowest investment. Samples of uranium ore from Tahaggart, were crushed and leached by percolation with a diluted sulphuric acid solution to solubilize uranium. A rate of 95% was reached. The experiments were carried out with sample extracted from different locations in the deposit. The results indicate that the classical direct precipitation process is still valid only for 5 % of the samples. For the majority of samples treated, we noticed that by precipitation of uranium at very low pH, one precipitation step was sufficient to obtain a concentrate of 65% of U3O8. The concentrate obtained is easily soluble in nitric acid. The chemical characteristics of the ore allow us to produce a concentrate using a process simpler than the classical double precipitation process. (author)

  1. Elaboration of uranium ore concentrate by direct precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production of a uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake) is an essential stage in the preparation of fuels used in the nuclear power reactor. In this work, we have studied the elaboration of a uranium ore concentrate from the ore of Tahaggart, testing the direct precipitation process. This choice was justified not only by the physicochemical characteristics of the ore, but also by others important factors such as: capacity of the deposit, his geographical situation (desert), the availability of water and the lowest investment. Samples of uranium Ore of Tahaggart, were crushed and leached by percolation with a diluted sulphuric acid solution to solubilise uranium. A rate of 95% was reached.The experiments were conducted with sample extracted at different location in the deposit. The result obtained showed that the classical direct precipitation process worked only with 5% of the sample. For the majority of sample treated, we noticed a precipitation of uranium at very low pH, only one precipitation step was sufficient to obtain a concentrate of 65% of U3O8. The concentrate obtained is easily soluble in nitric acid. The chemical characteristics of the ore allow us to produce a concentrate using a process simpler than the classical double precipitation process. (author)

  2. Elaboration of optical glass-ceramic for frequency doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High power laser development required the need of materials with nonlinear properties. Glass materials can be considered as ideal materials as they can be transparent and elaborated in very large dimension. Precipitation of non-centro symmetric crystalline particles in bulk glass leads to a material with bulk nonlinear properties. This glass-ceramic should be then easily integrated in such laser facilities. In this thesis, the results concerning the precipitation of the phase LiNbO3 in the glassy-matrix 35 Li2O - 25 Nb2O5 - 40 SiO2 are detailed. The crystallization mechanism of this phase is studied through thermal analysis, optical and electronic microscopy as well as in-situ analyses. These studies reveal glass-ceramics are obtained through a precipitation of the lithium niobate crystalline phase in spherulite shape. The nonlinear optical properties are investigated on this materials and an original, isotropic Second Harmonic Generation Signal (SHG) is registered in the bulk glass-ceramic. A complete study using a multi-scale approach allows the correlation between the spherulite structure and the nonlinear optical properties. A mechanism at the origin of the SHG signal is proposed. This leads to a new approach for transparent inorganic materials development for isotropic SHG conversion. (author)

  3. Race of source effects in the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P H; Harkins, S G

    1994-11-01

    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of race of source on persuasive communications in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, 1986). In Experiment 1, we found no evidence that White participants responded to a Black source as a simple negative cue. Experiment 2 suggested the possibility that exposure to a Black source led to low-involvement message processing. In Experiments 3 and 4, a distraction paradigm was used to test this possibility, and it was found that participants under low involvement were highly motivated to process a message presented by a Black source. In Experiment 5, we found that attitudes toward the source's ethnic group, rather than violations of expectancies, accounted for this processing effect. Taken together, the results of these experiments are consistent with S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio's (1986) theory of aversive racism, which suggests that Whites, because of a combination of egalitarian values and underlying negative racial attitudes, are very concerned about not appearing unfavorable toward Blacks, leading them to be highly motivated to process messages presented by a source from this group. PMID:7983579

  4. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. PMID:27033033

  5. 逻辑AI中的容变能力的研究%Elaboration Tolerance in Logical AI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建中; 戈也挺; 骆斌; 陈世福

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a survey of elaboration tolerance in logical AI is provided. John McCarthy views elaboration tolerance as the key property of any formalism that can represent information in the common sense informatic situa-tion. The goal of studying elaboration tolerance is finding a formalism for describing problems logically that is as elab-oration tolerant as natural language and the associated background knowledge. In the beginning, we introduce the missionaries and cannibals problem and its elaboration problems provided by John McCarthy as the test examples of studying elaboration tolerance. Then we introduce the study of elaboration tolerance from three aspects. First of all,the study of elaboration tolerance of the existing systems is introduced such as Causal Calculator and ABSFOL. Sec-ond the study of special elaboration is presented such as elaboration of actions. Last but not least a formal definition of elaboration toleration and evaluation tools is nrmvided.

  6. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption. PMID:27323046

  7. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  8. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  9. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Europe and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Elam, Gillian; Aro, Arja R; Abraham, Thomas; Bishop, George D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    During autumn 2005, we conducted 3,436 interviews in European and Asian countries. We found risk perceptions of avian influenza to be at an intermediate level and beliefs of efficacy to be slightly lower. Risk perceptions were higher in Asia than Europe; efficacy beliefs were lower in Europe than Asia.

  10. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  11. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  12. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  13. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... poultry caused by a paramyxovirus. END is one of most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death... avian influenza (HPAI) is an extremely infectious and potentially fatal form of the disease in birds and... birds' or poultry's freedom from END, HPAI subtype H5N1, and other communicable diseases,...

  14. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  15. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  16. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Increases Low-Income Children's Narrative Skills Relative to Dialogic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Grolnick, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the unique effects of training low-income mothers in dialogic reading versus elaborative reminiscing on children's oral language and emergent literacy. Thirty-three low-income parents of 4-year-old children attending Head Start were randomly assigned to either dialogic reading, elaborative reminiscing, or a…

  17. Socialization of Past Event Talk: Cultural Differences in Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines mother-child reminiscing conversations with respect to variation in use and function of mothers' elaborations, the nature of children's memory elaborations, and the connections between the two, in three Western middle-class cultures where autonomy is valued over relatedness. Mothers participated with their 4-year-old children…

  18. The arison data acquisition and elaboration software package running on Hewlett-Packard minicomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a data acquisition and elaboration system is described consisting in a PCM data acquisition and a spectrum analyser system and their data elaboration package for reactor safety or other general purposes. Measurements on temperature, noise fluctuations of temperature or other noise analysis dynamics, pressure, etc. Time series and their conversion in engineering units and their statistical and frequency analysis is provided

  19. Improving the quality of reporting Chinese herbal medicine trials: an elaborated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping LIU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to improve the quality of reporting Chinese herbal medicine (CHM trials, an elaborated checklist was developed according to the basic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and on the basis of the Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials of Herbal Interventions: An Elaborated CONSORT Statement. This checklist adopted the 22 items of the Herbal CONSORT Statement with some necessary elaboration and modification in the detailed contents of 11 items, among which, the items of Participants, Intervention, Control group and Outcomes were elaborated and modified accordingly to adapt TCM characteristics. Since the design and reporting of trials on Chinese proprietary medicine and herbal decoctions are different in some aspects, the checklist provided two sets of elaborated item 4 (interventions. We hope that authors, journal editors and peer reviewers find this checklist instructive

  20. Morphometric Analysis of the Sternum in Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    DÜZLER, Ayhan; Özgel, Özcan; DURSUN, Nejdet

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the sternum in avian species differs according to their movement and particularly flight capability, as well as species and habitat. Various studies aimed at the examination and measurement of the sternum in avian species have been carried out. However, to the authors' knowledge, no study on the correlation between sternal measurements and movement style has been published previously. In this study, the sternums of certain avian species including the red falcon (Buteo rufi...

  1. Multiple Control Strategies for Prevention of Avian Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Ullah; Gul Zaman; Saeed Islam

    2014-01-01

    We present the prevention of avian influenza pandemic by adjusting multiple control functions in the human-to-human transmittable avian influenza model. First we show the existence of the optimal control problem; then by using both analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the cost-effective control effects for the prevention of transmission of disease. To do this, we use three control functions, the effort to reduce the number of contacts with human infected with mutant avian influ...

  2. Avian influenza infections in birds – a moving target

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a complex infection of birds, of which the ecology and epidemiology have undergone substantial changes over the last decade. Avian influenza viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two groups. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), with flock mortality as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all H5 and H7 viruses cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a milder, primarily respiratory, ...

  3. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    V Demircan; Yilmaz, H.; Z Dernek; T Bal; Gül, M; H Koknaroglu

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to pre...

  4. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  5. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Avian sebokeratocytes and marine mammal lipokeratinocytes: structural, lipid biochemical, and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P M; Menon, G K; Grayson, S; Brown, B E; Rehfeld, S J

    1987-10-01

    In terrestrial mammals, stratum corneum lipids derive from two sources: deposition of lamellar body lipids in stratum corneum interstices and excretion of sebaceous lipids onto the skin surface, resulting in a two-compartment ("bricks and mortar") system of lipid-depleted cells surrounded by lipid-enriched intercellular spaces. In contrast, intracellular lipid droplets, normally not present in the epidermis of terrestrial mammals, are prominent in avian and marine mammal epidermis (cetaceans, manatees). We compared the transepidermal water loss, ultrastructure, and lipid biochemistry of the viable epidermis and stratum corneum of pigeon apterium, fledgling (featherless) zebra finches, painted storks, cetaceans, and manatees to those of humans and mice. Marine mammals possess an even more extensive lamellar-body secretory system than do terrestrial mammals; and lamellar-body contents, as in terrestrials, are secreted into the stratum corneum interstices. In cetaceans, however, glycolipids, but not ceramides, persist into the stratum corneum; whereas in manatees, glycolipids are replaced by ceramides, as in terrestrial mammals. Acylglucosylceramides, thought to be critical for lamellar-body deposition and barrier function in terrestrial mammals, are present in manatees but virtually absent in cetaceans, a finding that indicates that they are not obligate constituents of lamellar-body-derived membrane structures. Moreover, cetaceans do not elaborate the very long-chain, saturated N-acyl fatty acids that abound in terrestrial mammalian acylglucosylceramides. Furthermore, cold-water marine mammals generate large, intracellular neutral lipid droplets not found in terrestrial and warm-water marine mammals; these lipid droplets persist into the stratum corneum, suggesting thermogenesis, flotation, and/or cryoprotectant functions. Avians generate distinctive multigranular bodies that may be secreted into the intercellular spaces under xerotic conditions, as in zebra

  7. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  8. Avian influenza and poultry workers, Peru, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Ernesto J.; Tadeusz J Kochel; Capuano, Ana W; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2007-01-01

    Background  Currently numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe are encountering highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) infections in poultry and humans. In the Americas, home of the world’s largest poultry exporters, contingency plans are being developed and evaluated in preparation for the arrival of these viral strains. Objectives  With this cross‐sectional study, to our knowledge the first in its kind in Central or South America, we sought to learn whether Peruvian poultry workers had...

  9. Prevalence of avian influenza and host ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Møller, Anders Pape

    2007-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are common reservoirs of the low pathogenic subtypes of avian influenza (LPAI), which are easily transmitted to poultry and become highly pathogenic. As the risk of virus transmission depends on the prevalence of LPAI in host-reservoir systems, there is an urgent need for understanding how host ecology, life history and behaviour can affect virus prevalence in the wild. To test for the most important ecological correlates of LPAI virus prevalence at the interspecific ...

  10. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhiping; Li Jinsong; Zhang Yandong; Li Lin; Ma Limin; Li Dan; Gao Feng; Xia Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used ...

  11. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Several aspects of the disease lack scientific information, which has hampered the management of some recent crises. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. On the basis of data generated in recent outbreaks and in light of new OIE regulations and maintenance of anim...

  12. Avian influenza: The tip of the iceberg

    OpenAIRE

    Balkhy Hanan

    2008-01-01

    For some years now, we have been living with the fear of an impending pandemic of avian influenza (AI). Despite the recognition, in 1996, of the global threat posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus found in farmed geese in Guangdong Province, China, planning for the anticipated epidemic remains woefully inadequate; this is especially true in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. These deficiencies became obvious in 1997, with the outbreak of AI in the live animal markets in...

  13. Avian influenza: Myth or mass murder?

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI) is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A virus...

  14. Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds Against Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Call, Evan W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests in vitro for antiviral activity against avian influenza viruses, A/Turkey/Sanpete/85 (H6N8) and A/Turkey/Sanpete/86 (H10N9), isolated in Sanpete County, Utah, utilized known antiviral agents, amantadine•HCl (adamantanamine hydrochloride) and ribavirin (1-β-D ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide). The testing involved evaluation of seven drug concentrations. Maximum tolerated dose, minimum inhibitory concentration and therapeutic indexes were determined for each drug used. Both dru...

  15. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Gerardo M; Lucio Eduardo; Rodríguez-Ropón Andrea; Méndez Sara T; Vázquez Lourdes; Escorcia Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs...

  16. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Xudong Lin; Seth Schobel; Magdalena Plancarte; Kelly, Terra R.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined ...

  17. Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, D. K. W.; Leung, C. Y. H.; Gilbert, M.; Joyner, P. H.; Ng, E. M.; Tse, T. M.; Guan, Y; Peiris, J. S. M.; Poon, L.L.M

    2011-01-01

    We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacorona...

  18. Scaling of avian primary feather length

    OpenAIRE

    Nudds, Robert L.; Kaiser, Gary V.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather ( ) contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus). The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was contro...

  19. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  20. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  1. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  2. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408... Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared...

  3. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  4. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  5. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  6. THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen of poultry as it can cause severe economic losses through disease, including respiratory signs and mortality, and effects on trade. Avian influenza virus is classified as type A influenza, which is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. Charact...

  7. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding. PMID:24304759

  8. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  9. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  10. Design and construction of a device for elaborate films of Vyns or Cellulose with control thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a part of the studies about the elaboration of reference radioactive sources, which are done in the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Specially concerns with the elaboration of α-β radioactive sources. The importance of this work is because their applications increase day by day. Medicine, engineering, agriculture and even the arts cannot escape to the influence and impact of the nuclear sciences. But, what are the radioactive sources?, what is a holder of a radioactive source?, why we elaborate holders with special materials?, which is the best technique to elaborate them?. These topics are commented in this work. The material is as follows: the introduction and objective are described in chapter one. The second chapter deals with concepts about atomic and molecular structures, general description of nuclear radiation and their characteristics, comments about radioactive law decay, interaction of the alpha particles with the matter and a short description about surface barrier detectors. The different methods for elaborate a radioactive source holders are described in the chapter three. This same chapter speaks the topic about the elaboration of vyns or cellulose films and a device is proposed for make them; are some methods described how to take measure of their thickness. Chapter four shows the results, analysis and the respective conclusions. (Author)

  11. Elaborate visual and acoustic signals evolve independently in a large, phenotypically diverse radiation of songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Shultz, Allison J; Burns, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The concept of a macroevolutionary trade-off among sexual signals has a storied history in evolutionary biology. Theory predicts that if multiple sexual signals are costly for males to produce or maintain and females prefer a single, sexually selected trait, then an inverse correlation between sexual signal elaborations is expected among species. However, empirical evidence for what has been termed the 'transfer hypothesis' is mixed, which may reflect different selective pressures among lineages, evolutionary covariates or methodological differences among studies. Here, we examine interspecific correlations between song and plumage elaboration in a phenotypically diverse, widespread radiation of songbirds, the tanagers. The tanagers (Thraupidae) are the largest family of songbirds, representing nearly 10% of all songbirds. We assess variation in song and plumage elaboration across 301 species, representing the largest scale comparative study of multimodal sexual signalling to date. We consider whether evolutionary covariates, including habitat, structural and carotenoid-based coloration, and subfamily groupings influence the relationship between song and plumage elaboration. We find that song and plumage elaboration are uncorrelated when considering all tanagers, although the relationship between song and plumage complexity varies among subfamilies. Taken together, we find that elaborate visual and vocal sexual signals evolve independently among tanagers. PMID:24943371

  12. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  13. Avian influenza risk perception, Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, Richard; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Ho, Ella Y.Y.; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.; Leung, Gabriel M

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of 986 Hong Kong households determined exposure and risk perception of avian influenza from live chicken sales. Householders bought 38,370,000 live chickens; 11% touched them when buying, generating 4,220,000 exposures annually; 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33%–39%) perceived this as risky, 9% (7%–11%) estimated >50% likelihood of resultant sickness, whereas 46% (43%–49%) said friends worried about such sickness. Recent China travel (adjusted odds ratio 0.35; CI 0.13–0...

  14. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  15. Mapping and modelling of Angola's avian diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Miguel José Ascensão Freire Parada

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão e Conservação de Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Universidade de Évora Angola harbours one of the richest and most diverse avifaunas in Africa, due to its vast number of biomas and ecosystems. However, mainly due to the Portuguese Colonial war (1961-1974) and Angolan civil war (1974-2002), the country’s avian diversity and distribution is still poorly known. One way to increase the scientific knowledge of Angolan ornithology is by studyi...

  16. Elaboration and characterisation of SiAlON-boron nitride refractory ceramic composites; Elaboration et caracterisation de composites ceramiques refractaires SiALON-Nitrure de bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doche, C.

    1996-05-07

    SiAlON-BN are materials able to replace carbon refractories used in steel-making shop, especially for low carbon steels elaboration. Two family of composites are studied: Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN obtained by hot compression, and SiAlON-BN by natural sintering. In the first case, an organic precursor of BN which seems to activate the sintering process was also used. For all these materials, we studied elaboration processes, microstructures, mechanical properties, and thermal shocks, oxidation and corrosion resistances by liquid iron. BN presence lowers mechanical properties, but increases thermal shock and oxidation resistance at high temperature. From all the sintering add-on, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, neodymium and lanthanum oxides seems to give a light improvement of high temperature resistance. (A.B.)

  17. Impact of Age, Season, and Flowing vs. Stagnant Water Habitat on Avian Influenza Prevalence in Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, B; Marché, S; Houdart, P; van den Berg, T; Vangeluwe, D

    2016-05-01

    Due to their probable role in the spread of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, and in order to explore its implication in the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus epidemiology, mute swans represent one particular wild bird species specifically targeted in the avian influenza (AI) surveillance elaborated in Belgium. A total of 640 individual mute swans have been sampled during a 4-yr AI surveillance program (2007-2010) to determine the AI seroprevalence and viroprevalence in this species; all were analyzed through age, temporal, and habitat (flowing and stagnant water) factors. Using a nucleoprotein (NP)-based ELISA, a global antibody prevalence of 35% has been found and was characterized by two peaks in the winter and the summer that might be indicative of a greater LPAI virus circulation in the autumn than in the spring. A significantly higher antibody prevalence was detected in adult swans (53.8%) as compared to juveniles (15.5%). In contrast, a low prevalence of infection (2.7%) was found, mainly in juvenile mute swans and only during the autumn migration period. Interestingly, an impact of water habitat was observed based on the comparison of the antibody prevalence and prevalence of infection from swan populations living on stagnant water vs. flowing water, suggesting that stagnant water provides a more-favorable environment for LPAI persistence and transmission. PMID:27309074

  18. Engagement of the ATEE in the elaboration of regulation texts; L`action de l`atee lors de l`elaboration des textes reglementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacubowiez, I. [ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French technical association for energy savings (ATEE) has been involved in the elaboration of regulations concerning efficiency and pollution of medium-power combustion equipment (boilers, engines, dryers, furnaces...), with the aim of promoting energy efficiency and rational utilization of energy. It has thus been involved in the development of a new classification of these equipment with regard to their fuel and energy sources (decree 2910), and decrees on boiler (lower than 50 MW) efficiency, technical inspections, and classification of heat networks

  19. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  20. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds. PMID:25973630

  1. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  2. Studying avian encephalization with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Watanabe, Akinobu; Kawabe, Soichiro

    2016-08-01

    Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape. Thus far, however, studies using GM have not attempted to translate the meaning of encephalization to shape data. As such, we tested the statistical relationship between size and encephalization quotients (EQs) to brain shape utilizing a broad interspecific sample of avian endocranial data. Although statistically significant, the analyses indicate that allometry accounts for <10% of total neuroanatomical shape variation. Notably, we find that EQs, despite being corrected for allometric scaling based on size, contain size-related neuroanatomical shape changes. In addition, much of what is traditionally considered encephalization comprises clade-specific trends in relative forebrain expansion, particularly driven by landbirds. EQs, therefore, fail to capture 90% of the total neuroanatomical variation after correcting for allometry and shared phylogenetic history. Moving forward, GM techniques provide crucial tools for investigating key drivers of this vast, largely unexplored aspect of avian brain morphology. PMID:27112986

  3. Risk Mapping of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Distribution and Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. J. Williams

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza begs effective and accurate mapping of current knowledge and future risk of infection. Methods for such mapping, however, are rudimentary, and few good examples exist for use as templates for risk-mapping efforts. We review the transmission cycle of avian influenza viruses, and identify points on which risk-mapping can focus. We provide examples from the literature and from our work that illustrate mapping risk based on (1 avian influenza case occurrences, (2 poultry distributions and movements, and (3 migratory bird movements.

  4. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R. G.; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  5. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in their level and duration of replication and in their virulence. At the other end of the spectrum, five avian viruses were restricted by 100- to 10,000-fold in replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract and were clearly attenuated compared with the human influenza virus. In hamsters, the 10 viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication in the nasal turbinates, ranging from viruses that replicated as efficiently as the human virus to those that were 8,000- fold restricted. Since several avian viruses were closely related serologically to human influenza viruses, studies were done to confirm the avian nature of these isolates. Each of the avian viruses plaqued efficiently at 42°C, a restrictive temperature for replication of human influenza A viruses. Avian strains that had replicated either very efficiently or very poorly in squirrel monkeys still grew to high titer in the intestinal tracts of ducks, a tropism characteristic of avian, but not mammalian, influenza viruses. These observations indicate that some avian influenza A viruses grow well and cause disease in a primate host, whereas other avian viruses are very restricted in this host. These findings also provide a basis for determining the gene or genes involved in the restriction of replication that is observed with the attenuated avian viruses. Application of such information may allow the preparation of reassortant viruses derived from a virulent human influenza virus and an attenuated avian virus for possible

  6. Data base on avian mortality on man-made structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computerized data base concerning avian mortality on man-made structures is available for searching at the Ecological Sciences Information Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This data base, which contains entries from the available literature, provides information on avian mortality from either collision into or electrocution on man-made structures. Primary emphasis has been placed on avian collision with obstacles such as television and radio towers, airport ceilometers, transmission lines, and cooling towers. Other structures included in the studies are fences, glass walls and windows, lighthouses, telegraph and telephone wires, buildings, monuments, smokestacks, and water towers.

  7. Analysis of avian leukosis virus infections with an enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, D P; Ball, R F; Dougherty, R M

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian leukosis virus group-specific antigen was used to study infections with and shedding of avian leukosis virus in a commercial flock of chickens with a known high incidence of infection. Avian leukosis virus group-specific antigen was detected in serum or cloacal washings from 76% of a group of 100 61-week-old hens. With eggs collected during the next 3 weeks, antigen was detected in the albumen of 88% of the eggs from ELISA-positive hens a...

  8. Elaboration of a radioimmunoanalytical method for the determination of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoanalytical (RIA) method was elaborated for the determination of ferritin in human blood serum in clinical practice. Placental ferritin separated from the human after-delivery placental and antibodies against the human placental ferritin obtained by the immunization of rabbits with this antigen were used. The whole complex of basic conditions and parameters of the RIA method was tested including the estimation of the region of normal values and clinical tests. The method elaborated was compared with the commercial kit Ferritin RIA Amersham, code IM 1051, chosen as references kit. The results of the determination of control parameters as well as ferritin levels obtained by the method elaborated exert good agreement with the references kit and correspond to requirements for routine RIA practice. (author) 3 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Female song occurs in songbirds with more elaborate female coloration and reduced sexual dichromatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Howard Webb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elaborate plumages and songs in male birds provide classic evidence for Darwinian sexual selection. However, trait elaboration in birds is not gender-restricted: female song has recently been revealed as a taxonomically-widespread trait within the songbirds (oscine Passerines, prompting increased research into likely functions and social/ecological correlates. Here we use phylogenetically-informed comparative analysis to test for an evolutionary association between female song and plumage color elaboration in songbirds. If there is an evolutionary trade-off between signaling modes, we predict a negative correlation between acoustic and visual elaboration. This trade-off hypothesis has been commonly proposed in males but has mixed empirical support. Alternatively, if song and plumage have similar or overlapping functions and evolve under similar selection pressures, we predict a positive correlation between female song and female plumage elaboration. We use published data on female song for 1,023 species of songbirds and a novel approach that allows for the reliable and objective comparison of color elaboration between species and genders. Our results reveal a significant positive correlation between female colorfulness and female song presence. In species where females sing, females (but not males are on average more colorful – with concomitantly reduced average sexual dichromatism. These results suggest that female plumage and female song likely evolved together under similar selection pressures and that their respective functions are reinforcing. We discuss the potential roles of sexual versus social selection in driving this relationship, and the implications for future research on female signals.

  10. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  11. Elaborative inferences

    OpenAIRE

    Iza, Mauricio; Ezquerro, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, existe evidencia tanto de la actividad inferencial elaborativa automática, como de la incompletud en la realización de inferencias puente o hacia atrás (anáfora, estructuración causal). McKoon y Ratcliff (1992) han argumentado a favor de una teoría “minimalista” para las inferencias durante la lectura, contrastándola con las teorías “constructivistas”, incluyendo las teorías basadas en modelos mentales o situacionales. ...

  12. MM98.19 An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Chiffre, Leonardo De

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  13. A framework for elaborating a geological disposal safety case: Main issues to be addressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International guidance on safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste is being elaborated by IAEA. A comparison of experiences acquired in developing deep repository projects shows that many important issues related to the progressive building of confidence in the safety demonstration of such facilities are commonly addressed by the various organisations involved in radioactive waste management. However, there is still some discrepancies in defining the steps that form the staged elaboration of a safety case. This paper intends to propose a framework for defining the safety case in describing the main issues to be addressed and highlighting questions of consistency between former steps. (author)

  14. The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Invited participants on the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, sponsored by Hainan Normal University (HNU), China, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, the Research Council of Norway, and China Ornithological Society (COS).

  15. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye;

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size......, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this...... pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits....

  16. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  17. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity, Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...

  18. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  19. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Best Prevention is to Avoid Sources of Exposure Currently, the ...

  1. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  2. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  3. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  4. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  5. Region 6 Avian Health Program FY2011 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities and fund allocations of the Region 6 Avian Health Program in FY2011. Activities include morbidity and mortality monitoring, disease...

  6. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  7. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species...

  8. How to Make a Bird Skull: Major Transitions in the Evolution of the Avian Cranium, Paedomorphosis, and the Beak as a Surrogate Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Hanson, Michael; Fabbri, Matteo; Pritchard, Adam; Bever, Gabe S; Hoffman, Eva

    2016-09-01

    The avian skull is distinctive in its construction and in its function. Much of bird anatomical variety is expressed in the beak; but the beak itself, largely formed of the premaxillary bone, is set upon a shortened face and a bulbous, enlarged braincase. Here, we use original anatomical observations and reconstructions to describe the overall form of the avian skull in a larger context and to provide a general account of the evolutionary transformation from the early dinosaur skull-the skull of an archosaurian macropredator-to that of modern birds. Facial shortening, the enlargement of the braincase around an enlarged brain (with consequential reduction of circumorbital elements and the adductor chamber), and general thinning and looser articulation of bones are trends. Many of these owe to juvenilization or paedomorphosis, something that is abundantly evident from comparison of a juvenile early theropod (Coelophysis) to early avialans like Archaeopteryx Near the avian crown, the premaxilla becomes dramatically enlarged and integrated into the characteristic mobile kinetic system of birds. We posit that this addition of a large element onto the skull may be biomechanically feasible only because of the paedomorphic shortening of the face; and kinesis of the beak only because of the paedomorphic thinning of the bones and loosening of articulations, as played out in reverse during the maturation of Coelophysis Finally, the beak itself becomes elaborated as the hands are integrated into the wing. There are structural, kinematic, and neurological similarities between avian pecking and primate grasping. The ability to precision-select high-quality food against a complex but depauperate background may have permitted crown birds to survive the end-Cretaceous cataclysm by feeding on insects, seeds, and other detritus after the collapse of higher trophic levels in the food web. PMID:27371392

  9. Avian ecology of arid habitats in Namibia / Henriette Cornelia Potgieter

    OpenAIRE

    Potgieter, Henriette Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Examination of bird assemblages along an environmental gradient which encompasses both climate and habitat change is needed if we are to better understand the potential effects of these changes for avians and the ecological process that depend upon them. Climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on deserts and desert margins, resulting in distributional shifts of entire ecosystems and new community associations. This study explores the probable responses of avian communities to...

  10. The role of the avian hippocampus in spatial memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Macphail E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Avian hippocampal function is surveyed, using data drawn from three areas: conventional laboratory paradigms, pigeon navigation, and food-storing. Damage to the avian hippocampus disrupts performance in laboratory tasks that tap spatial learning and memory, and also disrupts both pigeon homing and cache recovery by food-storing birds. Further evidence of hippocampal involvement in food-storing is provided by the fact that the hippocampus of food-storing birds is ...

  11. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Codd, Jonathan R.; Phillip L. Manning; Mark A Norell; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in th...

  12. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model uneart...

  13. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoye, B.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.M.; Klaassen, M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian infl uenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideratio...

  14. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    OpenAIRE

    van Boven, M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C. A.; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i) the animal reservoir, (ii) humans who were infected b...

  15. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Shriner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID(50 equivalents/mL across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day ranged from 10(3.89 (H3N6 to 10(5.06 (H4N6 for the wild bird viruses and 10(2.08 (H6N2 to 10(2.85 (H4N8 for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05 higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics.

  16. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    OpenAIRE

    Heatley, J. Jill; Villalobos, de, Leonor Cristina

    2012-01-01

    J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and ...

  17. Will Wallace's Line Save Australia from Avian Influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is separated from the Asian faunal realm by Wallace's Line, across which there is relatively little avian migration. Although this does diminish the risk of high pathogenicity avian influenza of Asian origin arriving with migratory birds, the barrier is not complete. Migratory shorebirds, as well as a few landbirds, move through the region on annual migrations to and from Southeast Asia and destinations further north, although the frequency of infection of avian influenza in these groups is low. Nonetheless, high pathogenicity H5N1 has recently been recorded on the island of New Guinea in West Papua in domestic poultry. This event increases interest in the movements of birds between Wallacea in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia, particularly by waterbirds. There are frequent but irregular movements of ducks, geese, and other waterbirds across Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, including movements to regions in which H5N1 has occurred in the recent past. Although the likelihood of avian influenza entering Australia via an avian vector is presumed to be low, the nature and extent of bird movements in this region is poorly known. There have been five recorded outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza in Australian poultry flocks, all of the H7 subtype. To date, Australia is the only inhabited continent not to have recorded high pathogenicity avian influenza since 1997, and H5N1 has never been recorded. The ability to map risk from high pathogenicity avian influenza to Australia is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on the extent of bird movements between Australia and its northern neighbors. Recently developed techniques offer the promise to fill this knowledge gap.

  18. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Wang, Jun; Avian Genome Consortium

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolutionary relationships of modern birds are among the most challenging to understand in systematic biology and have been debated for centuries. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders, and used the genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomics analyses (Jarvis et al. in press; Zhang et al....

  19. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  20. 禽流感病%Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先志

    1999-01-01

    @@ 禽流感病(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类疾病综合征.1997年5月,我国香港特别行政区1例3岁儿童死于不明原因的多器官功能衰竭,同年8月经美国疾病预防和控制中心以及WHO荷兰鹿特丹国家流感中心鉴定为禽甲型流感病毒H5N1[A(H5N1)]引起的人类流感[1~3].这是世界上首次证实A(H5N1)感染人类,因而引起医学界的广泛关注.

  1. 禽流感%Avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学工; 龙云铸

    2005-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是禽类流行性感冒的简称,是由甲型流感病毒株的某些亚型引起的急性呼吸道传染病。通常情况下,禽流感病毒并不感染人类,但自1997年禽甲型流感病毒H5N1感染人类之后,相继有H9N2、H7N7.亚型感染人类和H5N1再次感染人类的报道,引起了世人的广泛关注。

  2. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  3. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  4. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...... Sp, the HI test may be effectively considered a gold standard. In the framework of LPAI surveillance, where large numbers of samples have to be processed, the blocking ELISA could be a valid alternative to the HI test, in that it is almost as sensitive and specific as the HI test yet quicker and...... has been evaluated in comparison with HI test results, whose performance for poultry has not been properly evaluated. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the HI test and six other diagnostic assays for the detection of AI...

  5. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    . The use of thin, flexible endoscopes has made direct observation of the syrinx possible in situ. The effects of direct muscle stimulation on the syringeal aperture have identified adductor and abductor muscles, confirming results from electromyographic studies. Endoscopic observations have revealed...... the dynamics of syringeal reconfiguration during phonation, which in most bird species investigated results in simultaneous movement of soft tissue masses (the medial and lateral labia in songbirds and lateral tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds) into the bronchial lumen where they collide. High......-speed video-filming during sound production has revealed that sound pulses coincide with short duration formation of slots between the soft tissue masses forming a pneumatic valve, which suggests that the avian sound generating mechanism is a similar to that in the human larynx. Lately studies have revealed...

  6. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.; Dunning, J.B., Jr.; Ribic, C.A.; Finch, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary. The cited sources were not necessarily the first ones to use the terms. Many definitions were taken verbatim from the cited source material. Others were modified slightly to clarify the meaning. Definitions that were modified to a greater extent are indicated as being adapted from the originals. Terms that have been used in more than one way by different authors are listed with numbered alternative definitions if the definitions differ substantially.

  7. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  8. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  9. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  10. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüschow Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds. Findings During 2 hunting seasons (2006/2007 and 2007/2008 falconers took tracheal and cloacal swabs from 1080 prey birds that were captured by their falconry birds (n = 54 in Germany. AIV-RNA of subtypes H6, H9, or H13 was detected in swabs of 4.1% of gulls (n = 74 and 3.8% of ducks (n = 53 using RT-PCR. The remaining 953 sampled prey birds and all falconry birds were negative. Blood samples of the falconry birds tested negative for AIV specific antibodies. Serum samples from all 43 falconers reacted positive in influenza A virus-specific ELISA, but remained negative using microneutralisation test against subtypes H5 and H7 and haemagglutination inhibition test against subtypes H6, H9 and H13. Conclusion Although we were able to detect AIV-RNA in samples from prey birds, the corresponding falconry birds and falconers did not become infected. Currently falconers do not seem to carry a high risk for getting infected with AIV through handling their falconry birds and their prey.

  11. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  12. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  13. Avian antimicrobial host defense peptides: from biology to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guolong; Sunkara, Lakshmi T

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens. PMID:24583933

  14. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of impress

  15. An Elaboration on the Effect of Reading Anxiety on Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…

  16. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion abo

  17. The Elaboration of the Academic Technology Roadmap (ATRM) : Three Cases in Academic Material Science Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Okutsu, Shoko; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Academic Technology Road Map (ATRM) was originally proposed to support academic Science and Engineering (S&E) laboratories. In this paper, ATRM is elaborated through three cases in academic materials science laboratories. According to those cases, a knowledge collaboration board (KCB) is newly designed based on the “Kadai-Barashi approach”and the original ATRM.

  18. elaboration de polymere a empreinte moleculaire destine au developpement d'un capteur des pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    belladgham, wahiba

    2016-01-01

    Dans le present travail , notre interet s'est porté sur l'elaboration des materiaux a empreinte moleculaire MIP destines au developpement dun capteur des pesticides danc notre cas , la synthese du MIP s'est faite en polymerisant sous irradiation UV , LE MELANGE CONSTITUE .

  19. The Effects of Embedded and Elaborative Interrogation Questions on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish, the present study utilized domain specific texts to examine the effects of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without the adjuncts, from a social psychology textbook, and then…

  20. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Jun; Gomi, Katsuya; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Penitrem A is one of the most elaborated members of the fungal indole diterpenes. Two separate penitrem gene clusters were identified using genomic and RNA sequencing data, and 13 out of 17 transformations in the penitrem biosynthesis were elucidated by heterologous reconstitution of the relevant...

  1. Erotic Education: Elaborating a Feminist and Faith-Based Pedagogy for Experiential Learning in Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Rosemary P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores intersections among Jesuit, Quaker, and feminist theologies and pedagogies of social justice education in order to propose and elaborate an innovative theoretical and theological framework for experiential learning in religious studies that prioritizes relationality, called erotic education. This essay then applies the…

  2. Autobiographical Elaboration Reduces Memory Distortion: Cognitive Operations and the Distinctiveness Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M.; Gallo, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval monitoring enhances episodic memory accuracy. For instance, false recognition is reduced when participants base their decisions on more distinctive recollections, a retrieval monitoring process called the distinctiveness heuristic. The experiments reported here tested the hypothesis that autobiographical elaboration during study (i.e.,…

  3. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana…

  4. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  5. Aid for elaboration of operating technical specifications for a PWR by probabilistic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors show how the probabilistic studies are used for the elaboration of operating technical specifications. This probabilistic study is made on the residual heat removal system. The probability of core meltdown is made principally by gamming, in open position, of valves of this circuit. The return is a modification of valves conception and a modification of the operating mode

  6. Enhancing Learning Outcomes in Computer-Based Training via Self-Generated Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the utility of an instructional strategy known as the "query method" for enhancing learning outcomes in computer-based training. The query method involves an embedded guided, sentence generation task requiring elaboration of key concepts in the training material that encourages learners to "stop and…

  7. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  8. An avian outbreak associated with panzootic equine influenza in 1872: an early example of highly pathogenic avian influenza?

    OpenAIRE

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Morens and Taubenberger (2010) An avian outbreak associated with panzootic equine influenza in 1872: an early example of highly pathogenic avian influenza? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(6), 373–377. Background  An explosive fatal epizootic in poultry, prairie chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese, occurred over much of the populated United States between 15 November and 15 December 1872. To our knowledge the scientific literature contains no mention of the ...

  9. Development of avian external genitalia: interspecific differences and sexual differentiation of the male and female phallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ana M; Brennan, Patricia L R; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Avian genitalia, particularly in waterfowl, are extremely diverse. Penis morphology varies among species, and penis length and elaboration are associated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations, yet the developmental mechanisms responsible for this variation are unknown. In addition, females have a small phallic structure that is homologous to the male phallus, but little is known about when or how sexual differentiation takes place. To determine whether species-specific genital morphologies and sexual differentiation occur during duck embryonic development, we characterized development from the onset of genital tubercle initiation through stages of sexual differentiation in 3 species. Pekin and Laysan ducks have long, thick penises, whereas those of Mandarin ducks are shorter and thinner. Development of the genital tubercle is similar throughout the pre-hatching period across the 3 species, suggesting that differences in penis morphology arise post-hatching. We observed that male and female phallus development is similar at early stages, but the female phallus later regresses. Then, we compared male and female genital development between ducks and chickens, which develop a non-intromittent penis. We found that external genital development in male and female chickens resembles that of female ducks, which raises the possibility that male phallus development became feminized during galliform evolution. PMID:25011524

  10. Studies Regarding the Elaboration of the Manganese Austenitic Steel in the Induction Electric Furnace with Acid Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper forwards a method of elaborating the manganese austenitic steel in induction electric furnaces with a capacity of 250 Kg having an acid furnace coating. Considering the fact that when elaborating the manganese austenitic steel sulphur can be obtained under 0.02% constitutes an additional reason to attempt the elaboration of this steel in the electric furnaces through induction with acid coating, even if the load has over 0.02% S.

  11. The experience on public consultation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and discusses the process of public consultation followed by the regulatory body, Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN), during the elaboration of nuclear regulations. In this paper, the due legislation on federal administration, law n. 9784/99, is referred to and the procedures established by CNEN for the elaboration of a nuclear regulation are described. The public consultation has the objective of improving the democratization of nuclear regulations elaboration process, allowing the participation of interested parties such as professional associations directly involved, organizations interested in its application and the general public. During the process of elaboration of a nuclear regulation, the basic text is, first of all, discussed and improved by a task group. This group is composed by CNEN's officials and representatives of organizations, enterprises and public agencies involved in the related area. Once the first version of the proposed regulation is ready, it is formally open to consultation and posted at CNEN website for a period of time. The suggestions, therein presented on-line, are analyzed by the task group and the conclusions are also posted at the site; those considered pertinent are incorporated to proposed regulation. As an example, the public consultation results obtained in 2008 with the revision of the CNEN-NN-6.02: Licensing of Radioactive Facilities regulation, are presented. Such results cover two aspects: the analysis of the participants profile and the analysis of the contributions. Public participation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations is a new way for CNEN to know the licensees and public demands, doubts and needs. This tool has demonstrated usefulness and therefore must be maintained by the regulatory body. (author)

  12. Use of software to optimize time and costs in the elaboration of the basic drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to choose areas to implement pipe yards, terminals, campsite, pipeline path and other areas of assistance for the construction and assembly of the pipeline, it is necessary previous location studies to elaborate the basic drawing. However it is not always possible to contract a company registered in aerial survey to elaborate this type of drawing, either for the cost or time, and where the lack of a basic drawing can lead to an erroneous choice or one which reflects an exaggerated estimate or not adequate logistics. In order to minimize costs and optimizing time, without compromising quality, this study proposes the use of software 'virtual globe' type for mapping and geographic location available on the internet to assist in the gathering of geographical, altimetric, hydro graphic, road, environmental, socioeconomic and aerial images, information necessary to elaborate the basic drawing. This article includes a case study of the oil pipeline Cacimbas-Barra do Riacho project and a proposed procedure to be used in the elaboration of basic drawings using data generated using the referred to software. In 2007 the Pipeline Construction and Assembly sector, CMDPI unit of PETROBRAS Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT was designated to select an area of 2 hectares where the pipe storage yard for pipes to be used in the Oil Pipeline Cacimbas- Barra do Riacho in Espirito Santo state would be constructed. The area was chosen following some pre-requisites and using as main resources in the gathering of information necessary to select the area, 'virtual globe' type software and a CAD type software with the capacity to import images and altimetric identification as well as exporting drawing data to the mentioned. The activity, much simpler than hiring an aerial survey, was elaborated surpassing expectations of time-costs besides complying with the necessary technical demands. (author)

  13. Resonance effects indicate radical pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thorsten

    2005-03-01

    Migratory birds possess a physiological magnetic compass that helps them to find north during their migratory flights, but the mechanism underlying this ability is not understood. In vitro experiments show that two types of mechanisms are in principle capable of detecting earth-strength magnetic fields in biological systems: the use of biological magnetic materials such as magnetite crystals, or magnetically sensitive chemical reactions. We have recently demonstrated that oscillating magnetic fields can provide a viable diagnostic test to identify the existence of a radical-pair mechanism as they will not affect the properties of magnetite-based sensors, but disrupt a radical-pair based mechanism through resonance effects. European robins, a species of migratory birds, were disoriented in a magnetic orientation test when a very weak (100 nT) oscillating field of 1.3 or 7 MHz was added to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the effect of the oscillating field depended on the alignment of oscillating field with the geomagnetic field and showed an intensity dependence consistent with theoretical expectations from the radical pair mechanism, thereby providing evidence for the existence of a radical-pair mechanism in birds. We will discuss future avenues of research towards identifying not only the mechanism, but also the chemical nature of the receptors underlying magnetoreception, and in particular the photoreceptor chryptochrome, an emerging candidate for the long sought after magnetoreceptor.

  14. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1, ACH2N2 and A(H3N2 have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H and 9 neuraminidases (N. Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7. In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human cases (23 deaths were reported in Viet Nam and Thailand. H5N1 virus-infected patients presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Complications included respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, liver dysfunction and hematologic disorders. Since 1999, 7 cases of human influenza H9N2 infection have been identified in China and Hong Kong. The importance of human infection with avian influenza viruses. H5N1 virus can directly infect humans. Genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses may occur in humans co infected with current human A(HIN1 or A(H3N2 subtypes and avian influenza viruses. The result would be a new influenza virus with pandemic potential. All genes of H5Nl viruses isolated from humans are of avian origin. Prevention and control. The reassortant virus containing H and N from avian and the remaining proteins from human influenza viruses will probably be used as a vaccine strain. The most important control measures are rapid destruction of all infected or exposed birds and rigorous disinfection of farms. Individuals exposed to suspected animals should receive prophylactic treatment with antivirals and annual vaccination. .

  15. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maseleno, Andino; Hasan, Md. Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built an Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System for identifying avian influenza disease and displaying the result of identification process. In this paper, we describe five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs,...

  16. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeng T. Endarti; Shamsul A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian inf...

  17. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Avian Influenza A Virus Transmission to Pigs in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shuo; Qi, Wenbao; Chen, Jidang; Zhu, Wanjun; Huang, Zhen; Xie, Jiexiong; Zhang, Guihong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, three novel avian-origin swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were first isolated from pigs in Guangdong Province, southern China, yet little is known about the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses among pigs in southern China. Here, we report for the first time the seroprevalence of avian H3, H4, and H6 influenza viruses in swine populations and the lack of seroepidemiological evidence of avian H5 influenza virus transmission to pigs in China.

  18. Evaluation of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for Differentiation of Avian Mycoplasma Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y; Garcia, M.; Levisohn, S; Lysnyansky, I.; Leiting, V.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Kleven, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used for typing avian mycoplasma species. Forty-four avian mycoplasma strains were successfully typed into eight distinct groups, with each representing a different species. Homology of AFLP patterns of 35% or less was used as a cutoff value to differentiate avian mycoplasma strains into different species.

  19. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  20. Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tweed, S. Aleina; Skowronski, Danuta M.; David, Samara T; Larder, Andrew; Petric, Martin; Lees, Wayne; Li, Yan; Katz, Jacqueline; Krajden, Mel; Tellier, Raymond; Halpert, Christine; Hirst, Martin; Astell, Caroline; Lawrence, David; Mak, Annie

    2004-01-01

    Avian influenza that infects poultry in close proximity to humans is a concern because of its pandemic potential. In 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 occurred in poultry in British Columbia, Canada. Surveillance identified two persons with confirmed avian influenza infection. Symptoms included conjunctivitis and mild influenzalike illness.

  1. 75 FR 10645 - Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Voluntary Control Program and Payment of Indemnity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Voluntary Control Program and Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant... avian influenza in commercial poultry. As amended by this document, the rule provides that the amount of... agencies with respect to H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks, provides that consistency...

  2. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  3. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  4. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  5. Elaboration of Bi 2Se 3 by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, A.; Al Bayaz, A.; Foucaran, A.; Pascal-Delannoy, F.; Boyer, A.

    2002-03-01

    For the first time, Bi 2Se 3 thin films were elaborated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylbismuth (TMBi) and diethylselenium (DESe) as metalorganic sources. The MOCVD elaboration of Bi 2Se 3 was carried out in a horizontal reactor for a substrate temperature ( Tg) varying from 450°C to 500°C, a total hydrogen flow rate DT=3 l min -1, RVI/V ratio >14 and TMBi partial pressure lower than 1.10 -4 atm. By X-ray diffraction and SEM observation, we noticed the polycrystalline structure of the layers typical preferential c-orientation and confirm the hexagonal structure. The microprobe data indicate that the best stoichiometry of Bi 2Se 3 was achieved. These films always displayed n-type conduction, and the maximum value of thermoelectric power α was found to be close to -120 μV/K.

  6. Elaboration of coatings, such as WC-Co, by detonation gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaboration of ceramic oxide and cermet coatings by Korund detonation gun process has been developed and optimized during this study. Experimental measurements of detonation wave pressure and speed have allowed us to conclude at the representation validity of detonation with Chapman - Jouguet model and detonation product downstream flow with Taylor Zeldovich model. Composition, microhardness, roughness, porosity and adhesion optimization of different coatings including alumina, zirconia-yttria and tungsten carbide cobalt, have been obtained by spraying parameters effects studies. Coatings produced by this process are generally very dense and adherent (i.e porosity ≅ 1 at 2%; adhesion - 40 at 75 MPa). Mechanical properties have been studied by 3 or 4 point bend test which have shown that interfacial failure is combined: adhesive-cohesive. The comparison of properties, especially erosion resistance of coatings obtained by different hypersonic spray processes, has shown the very good behaviour of the coatings elaborated during this study. (author)

  7. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM, which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept most frequently used in elaboration process was involvement, and that argument quality and endorser credibility were the factors most often employed in measuring their effect on the dependant variables. The review provides valuable insights as it presents a holistic view of the model and the variables used in the model.

  8. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  9. Elaborating the Concepts of Part and Whole in Variation Theory: The Case of Learning Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ho Cheong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the concepts of part and whole in Ference Marton's variation theory for dealing with how learners come to understand something of a whole as made up of its parts. Understanding of the parts and the whole is more difficult than expected; as the whole may have an influence on the parts, the nature of…

  10. An Elaboration and Analysis of Two Policy Implementation Frameworks to Better Understand Project Exile

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Matthew Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    An Elaboration and Analysis of Two Policy Implementation Frameworks to Better Understand Project Exile Matthew Lloyd Collins (ABSTRACT) In 1997, on average every 40 to 45 hours criminals either shot or killed a victim in the City of Richmond, Virginia. This resulted in 122 firearm homicides in that year alone. This gun-related violent crime epidemic so terrorized law-abiding citizens that many of them became hostages in their own homes. In response to this horrifi...

  11. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana was delivered (successful communication), (b) half of the banana was delivered (partially successful communication), and (c) the chow was delivered ...

  12. Acquisition and elaboration of superficial three-dimensional images in plastic and reconstructive surgery: Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alfano C; Mezzana Paolo; Scuderi N

    2005-01-01

    Since 1970, as computed axial tomography machines became easily available and became more sophisticated, image acquisition techniques and analysis improved, developed rapidly and became very useful in medical diagnosis. Today it is possible to examine either the anatomic and functional aspects of deep body organs and tissues including all the minute details as well as their morphological relations with superficial structures. Through precise graphic elaboration programs we can obtain informat...

  13. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept...

  14. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categ...

  15. THE LAYER “HYDROGEOLOGY” NECESSARY FOR ELABORATING LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPS USING GIS

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA BIALI

    2012-01-01

    THE LAYER “HYDROGEOLOGY” NECESSARY FOR ELABORATING LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPS USING GIS. Drawing up a detailed risk map for the landslide of a slope is based on a complex research activity to establish the area indicators resulted from the instability process (relief, petrography and terrain litology, stratification, hydrogeology, anterior and precursory physic-geologic phenomena, present and perspective use of the terrain, hydrologic regime, etc.). In this context, in the preset paper we try to a...

  16. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  17. Elaboration and characterization of environmental properties of TiO2 plasma sprayed coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, L; Keller, N; Bertrand, G.; Klein, D; C. Coddet

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an attractive material for numerous technological applications such as photocatalytical applications. These materials can in some conditions have the ability to allow the environmental purification of air and water by the decomposition and removal of harmful substances, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC), benzene compounds, NOx, SO2, etc. Our work was focused on the elaboration and the evaluation of the environmental properties of titanium dioxide coatings by ...

  18. Evidence for a low-compressibility carbon nitride polymorph elaborated at ambient pressure and mild temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Goglio, Graziella; Foy, Denis; Pechev, Stanislav; Majimel, Jérôme; Demazeau, Gérard; Guignot, Nicolas; Andrault, Denis

    2009-01-01

    International audience Superhard materials like diamond are essential for abrasive or cutting tool applications. In this way, carbon nitrides are of relevant interest because they are expected to exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, high values of bulk modulus being predicted. A smart and simple method was used to synthesize carbon nitrides and allowed elaborating a low-compressibility polymorph. The processing consists in the decomposition of commercial thiosemicarbazide (H2NC(S)N2H...

  19. Paradigms of the Concepts and Principles Substantiating the Elaboration and Presentation of the Financial Reporting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Berechet (Dragnea)

    2014-01-01

    The present article deals with a number of existing paradigms of the concepts and principles substantiating the elaboration and presentation of the financial reporting situations throughout the world. There are presented and commented the accounting postulates, principles, conventions and doctrines, available in different accounting systems, both across the European continent, and across the American continent. The present article concludes with the authors’ comments on the accounting concept...

  20. Elaboration of procedure for analysis of industrial and economic activities: the experience of LUKoil petroleum company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and engineering centre within LUKoil company for economic studies has elaborated a method permitting analysis of production and economic activities of the LUKOIL petroleum production complex. The method envisages the following trends of analysis: general assessment of production and economic activities, analysis of basic production assets, manpower and wages use, net cost of marketable products, the state of finances, as well as specific features in analyzing the activities undertaken by joint ventures

  1. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  2. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  3. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  4. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  5. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Wentworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  6. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  7. Contributions of attention and elaboration to associative encoding in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Siri-Maria; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-08-01

    Episodic memory declines during healthy aging, with a particular reduction in the ability to encode associations. We investigated the role of alternating attentional focus between two items of a pair in order to generate associative links, as well as working memory based elaborative processes in this age-related memory deficit. While their eye gaze behavior and ERPs were recorded, 19 young and 22 elderly (64-79 years) participants used interactive imagery to encode pairs of spatially separated objects. In a subsequent recognition test, older adults showed a larger reduction in associative than item memory, relative to young adults. For both age groups the number of eye gaze transitions between objects at encoding was correlated with associative recognition performance, suggesting that alternating attentional focus between items aids the generation of relational links necessary to encode associative memories. However, the relative time course of eye gaze transitions over the encoding interval for trials that were subsequently retrieved vs. forgotten differed between age groups. Furthermore, the ERPs of older adults exhibited strongly reduced frontal slow wave "subsequent memory effects", suggesting that they engaged to a lesser extent in working memory-based elaboration of the associative link. Based on these results, we propose that older adults exhibit a reduced tendency to generate and elaborate on internal representations of inter-item associative links. Rather, they use a less effective encoding strategy that disproportionally relies on the external stimulus display, resulting in lower associative memory performance. PMID:26115601

  8. Elaboration of constitutive equations of creep and creep damage under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaboration of the constitutive equations of creep and creep damage under irradiation for structural analyses in multiaxial states of stress is discussed. In order to formulate the continuous transition of swelling after the incubation period of neutron irradiation, the curvature parameter proposed by Bates et al. was introduced into the evolution equation of swelling. The consitutive equation of irradiation-enhanced creep, furthermore, was elaborated by taking account of the physical mechanisms of the flux- and fluence-dependence of dislocation behavior. As regards the transient creep, on the other hand, the creep law of McVetty type and Kachanov-Rabotnov creep-damage theory were modified to describe the irradiation-enhanced creep. The irradiation-induced creep was formulated by incorporating the SIPA (Stress-Induced Preferential Absorption) mechanism. Finally unirradiated creep, postirradiation creep, and in-reactor creep of type 316 stainless steel at elevated temperatures were predicted by the elaborated constitutive equations. The validity of the equations was discussed by comparing the predictions with those of the corresponding experiments. (author)

  9. The Impact of Elaborated Feedback on Competency Assessment of IT Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandra TOADER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedback represents an important component in the process of assessing the competencies of the IT professionals as it allows to evaluate their performance and helps their managers to personalize the learning content according to employees’ needs and profiles. In the current paper we propose a computer-based formative feedback framework that provides personalized feedback for the technical employees. Extensive research has been carried out focusing on formative assessment aspects that includes the elaborate feedback. An online competency assessment tool was designed and it is going to be implemented in order to measure the professionals’ performance in software organizations. The subjects of the study are going to be software developers, working in departments of IT Romanian companies. Their performance is going to be evaluated through the competency-based assessment tool. At the end of the assessment process, an elaborate feedback is provided in order to improve their current level of competency acquired. The current paper reveals the role of the computer-based formative assessment within software organizations as well as the importance of an elaborate feedback that can improve the employees’ knowledge and skills.

  10. Interactive mechanism between avian infectious bronchitis S1 protein T cell peptide and avian MHC I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Zhu; Lu, Mei; Huang, Qing-Hua; Huang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Shao-Hua; Cui, Yan-Shun; Liu, Chang; Tan, Liugang; Kong, Zhengjie; Xu, Chuan-Tian

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to construct a 3D structure of the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-β2M complex through homology modelling technology, perform molecular docking of the predicted infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein potential epitope peptide Sp6 (NQFYIKLT) and the avian MHC-β2M complex, and demonstrate the interactive mechanism between Sp6 and MHC using molecular dynamical simulations. The peptide Sp6 and the non-related peptide NP89-97 (PKKTGGPIY) were used to stimulate in vitro recombinant plasmid (pCAGGS-S1) avian splenic lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results show that CD8(+) T lymphocytes reproduce stimulated by the Sp6 and the nonrelated peptide proliferate by 34.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent quantitative PCR results show that the secretion of IFN-γ in avian splenic lymphocytes increases after Sp6 stimulation. These data suggest that Sp6 can induce the activated avian lymphocytes in vitro to produce CTL, which is the CTL epitope in IBV S1. PMID:26876645

  11. ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

    2008-01-30

    Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

  12. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  13. Sequence conservation of an avian centromeric repeated DNA component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, E; de Kloet, S R

    1994-06-01

    The approximately 190-bp centromeric repeat monomers of the spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus, Charadriidae), the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis, Phoenicopteridae), the sarus crane (Grus antigone, Gruidae), parrots (Psittacidae), waterfowl (Anatidae), and the merlin (Falco columbarius, Falconidae) contain elements that are interspecifically highly variable, as well as elements (trinucleotides and higher order oligonucleotides) that are highly conserved in sequence and relative location within the repeat. Such conservation suggests that the centromeric repeats of these avian species have evolved from a common ancestral sequence that may date from very early stages of avian radiation. PMID:8034177

  14. The challenges of avian influenza virus: mechanism, epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F. GAO; Pang-Chui SHAW

    2009-01-01

    @@ Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by avian-origin influenza virus. Again H5N1 is in the spotlight of the world, not only for the scientists but also for the ordinary people. How much do we know about this virus? Where will this virus go and where did it come? Can we avoid a possible pandemic of influenza? Will the human beings conquer this devastating agent? Obviously we can list more questions than we know the answers.

  15. Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, S. J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H S; Chan, J. M.; Carpenter, Z. W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J T; Pedersen, J; Karesh, W; Daszak, P; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. L...

  16. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    OpenAIRE

    Koh GCH; Wong TY; Cheong SK; Koh DSQ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unre...

  17. Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

  18. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in t...

  19. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sanhong Liu; Liuyong Pang; Shigui Ruan; Xinan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward...

  20. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana; Cvjetković Dejan; Jerant-Patić Vera; Milošević Vesna; Tadić-Radovanov Jelena; Kovačević Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1), ACH2N2) and A(H3N2) have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H) and 9 neuraminidases (N). Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7). In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human ca...

  1. Applied comparative anatomy of the avian middle ear.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, R.

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy of the middle ear has been studied in nine species of birds, with particular reference to the structure of the ossicle and its relationship to the tympanic membrane. The morphology of the avian middle ear has been compared to that of the reconstructed human middle ear. Drum to stapes foot plate assemblies created during ossiculoplasty operations differ from the pattern found in the avian middle ear in a number of important respects and this may help to explain why they are often u...

  2. Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Taiana P.; Brown, Justin D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. I...

  3. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  4. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  5. Role of estrogen in avian osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M M; Hansen, K K

    2004-02-01

    One of the difficulties associated with commercial layer production is the development of osteoporosis in hens late in the production cycle. In light of this fact and because of hens' unique requirements for Ca, many studies have focused on the regulation of Ca and the role of estrogen in this process. The time course of estrogen synthesis over the productive life of hens has been well documented; increased circulating estrogen accompanies the onset of sexual maturity while decreases signal a decline in egg production prior to a molt. Numbers of estrogen receptors decrease with age in numerous tissues. The parallel changes in calcium-regulating proteins, primarily Calbindin D28K, and in the ability of duodenal cells to transport Ca, are thought to occur as a result of the changes in estrogen, and are also reversible by the molt process. In addition to the traditional model of estrogen action, evidence now exists for a possible nongenomic action of estrogen via membrane-bound receptors, demonstrated by extremely rapid surges of ionized Ca in chicken granulosa cells in response to 17beta-estradiol. Estrogen receptors have also been discovered in duodenal tissue, and tamoxifen, which binds to the estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause a rapid increase in Ca transport in the duodenum. In addition, recent evidence also suggests that mineralization of bone per se may not explain entirely the etiology of osteoporosis in the hen but that changes in the collagen matrix may contribute through decreases in bone elasticity. Taken together, these studies suggest that changes in estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor populations may underlie the age-related changes in avian bone. As with postmenopausal women, dietary Ca and vitamin D are of limited benefit as remedies for osteoporosis in the hen. PMID:14979570

  6. Nonconserved tryptophan 38 of the cell surface receptor for subgroup J avian leukosis virus discriminates sensitive from resistant avian species

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, D. (Dana); Plachý, J; Reinišová, M. (Markéta); Šenigl, F. (Filip); Trejbalová, K. (Kateřina); Geryk, J. (Josef); Hejnar, J. (Jiří)

    2013-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is unique among the avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses in using the multimembrane-spanning cell surface protein Na+/H+ exchanger type 1 (NHE1) as a receptor. The precise localization of amino acids critical for NHE1 receptor activity is key in understanding the virus-receptor interaction and potential interference with virus entry. Because no resistant chicken lines have been described until now, we compared the NHE1 amino acid sequences from permissive...

  7. Elaboration of mini plates with U-Mo for irradiation in a high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: International new efforts for the reconversion of HEU in research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors, have greatly incremented U-Mo fuels qualification activities. These qualifications require the resolution of undesired interaction at high fluxes between UMo particles and the aluminum matrix in the case of dispersed fuels and the development of U-Mo monolithic fuels. These efforts are being manifested in the planning and execution of additional series of irradiation tests of mini plates and full size plates. Recently, CNEA has elaborated mini plates with different proposals for the irradiation at the ATR reactor (250 MWTH, maximum thermal neutron flux 1015 n.cm-2.seg-1) at Idaho National Laboratory, USA. Uranium 7% (w/w) molybdenum (U-7Mo) particles were coated with silicon. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silane and high temperature diffusion of silicon were used. Hydrided, milled and dehydrated (HMD) particles heat treated at 1000 C degrees during four hours and centrifugal atomized powder were coated and the results compared. Mini plates were elaborated with both kinds of particles. Mini plates were also elaborated with U-7Mo and silicon particles dispersed in the aluminium matrix. Monolithic mini plates were also developed by co lamination of U-7Mo with a Zircaloy-4 cladding. The different steps of this process are detailed and the method is shown to be versatile, can be easily scaled up and is performed with small modifications of usual equipment in fuel plants. The irradiation experiment is called RERTR-7A, includes a total of 32 mini plates and it is planed to finalize by mid 2006. (author)

  8. Peripheral androgen receptors sustain the acrobatics and fine motor skill of elaborate male courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Longpre, Kristy M; Chew, Jennifer G; Fusani, Leonida; Schlinger, Barney A

    2013-09-01

    Androgenic hormones regulate many aspects of animal social behavior, including the elaborate display routines on which many species rely for advertisement and competition. One way that this might occur is through peripheral effects of androgens, particularly on skeletal muscles that control complex movements and postures of the body and its limbs. However, the specific contribution of peripheral androgen-muscle interactions to the performance of elaborate behavioral displays in the natural world has never been examined. We study this issue in one of the only natural physiological models of animal acrobatics: the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). In this tropical bird, males compete with each other and court females by producing firecracker-like wing- snaps and by rapidly dancing among saplings over the forest floor. To test how activation of peripheral androgen receptors (AR) influences this display, we treat reproductively active adult male birds with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide (BICAL) and observe the effects of this manipulation on male display performance. We not only validate the peripheral specificity of BICAL in this species, but we also show that BICAL treatment reduces the frequency with which adult male birds perform their acrobatic display maneuvers and disrupts the overall structure and fine-scale patterning of these birds' main complex wing-snap sonation. In addition, this manipulation has no effect on the behavioral metrics associated with male motivation to display. Together, our findings help differentiate the various effects of peripheral and central AR on the performance of a complex sociosexual behavioral phenotype by indicating that peripheral AR can optimize the motor skills necessary for the production of an elaborate animal display. PMID:23782945

  9. Homogeneous luminescent stain etched porous silicon elaborated by a new multi-step stain etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method to produce porous silicon which derived from the conventional stain etching (SE) method. But instead of one etching step that leads to formation of porous layer, the substrate is subjected to an initial etching step with a duration Δt0 followed by a number of supplementary short steps that differs from a layer to another. The duration of the initial step is just the necessary time to have a homogenous porous layer on the whole surface of the substrate. It was found that this duration is largely dependent of the doping type and level of the silicon substrate. The duration of supplementary steps was kept as short as possible to prevent the formation of bubbles on the silicon surface during silicon dissolution which leads generally to inhomogeneous porous layers. It is found from surface investigation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that multistep stain etching (MS-SE) method allows to produce homogeneous porous silicon nanostructures compared to the conventional SE method. The chemical composition of the obtained porous layers has been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that porous layers produced by SE and MS-SE methods have comparable spectra indicating that those layers are composed of nanocrystallites with comparable sizes. But the intensity of photoluminescence of layer elaborated by MS-SE method is higher than that elaborated by the SE method. Total reflectance characteristics show that the presented method allows the production of porous silicon layers with controllable thicknesses and optical properties. Results for porous silicon layers elaborated on heavily doped n-type silicon show that the reflectance can be reduced to values less than 3% in the major part of the spectrum.

  10. Review of technological elaborations in innovation activity in Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most important directions of IAE activity is works on safety substantiation of perspective reactors on fast neutrons with liquid metallic heat-transfer. Hard conditions of reactor and out-of pile experiments have required the elaboration of series of special measurement systems. Realized system parameters allow to use them not only in the experiments above, but in other industrial fields. One of the basic controlled experiment parameters is short-time pressure impulse appeared under melt hitting of fuel composition into metallic heat-transfer. The original measurement system of pressure impulse in liquid sodium was elaborated. System operating conditions are as follows: influence of reactor gamma radiation; operating temperatures span 273-673 K; pressure measurement span 5 MPa and 20 MPa; transfer temperature in impulse 273-1500 K; sizes in power point are no more than diameter 50 mm; At the same time the system should provide pressure measurement error no high than 6 %. Block of factors data did not allow using state or pressure impulse measurement systems offered at the market. During system elaboration a number of difficult technical problems were solved. As the result the pressure impulse measurement system in liquid sodium for reactor experiments with models of reactor channels on fast neutrons with liquid metallic heat-transfer under temperature up to 400 deg.C was elaborated. The system includes a pressure sensor, thermo protective device consisting of a membrane unit and impulse line with metallic extended with boiling temperature higher than 1000 deg. C. The line length is up to 5 m. A generator of pressure impulses for pressure impulse measurement system control was elaborated. The generator allows to form the regulated pressure impulse with amplitude up to 60 MPa and leading edge duration up to 5 ms. Impulse duration is from 20 to 100 ms.The operation results can be used during elaboration of fast operating pressure impulse

  11. The Effect of Mini-Passage-Based Elaborative Rehearsal on English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳琼

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.The Present Situation of English Vocabulary Learning in Ordinary Universities In the present English vocabulary learning among non-English majors in China,lack of scientific memorization metheds is still a fundamental problem to college students,and vocabulary is still learned in the traditional way.Then,it is necessary for us to suggest some elaborative rehearsal strategies and test the effect of these strategies in English learning practice.As a book titled as Short-Passages for College English Vocabulary(SPFCEV)edited by Prof.

  12. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Renato Parsekian; Caldas, Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo; Ribeiro, Alexandre Antonio; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Roberto Hideo SHIMIZU; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS) hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1), BETA FLEXYTM (G2), BETA III WIRETM (G3) and BETA CNATM (G4). Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation ...

  13. Main ideas to consider in the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical method.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2010-01-01

    In this article are exposed the main ideas that has been used for the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical process, with the aim of being used as a teaching content in the Medicine career. Such ideas are: the necessity of a total correspondence between the process method and its objective, the conception of the medical attention process as a decision-taking process, the necessity of highlighting the human dimension of the medical practice, and the convenience of counting wit...

  14. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  15. Application of sol-gel process on the elaboration of SnO2 based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical, optical and chemical peculiar properties of SnO2 confers it-self some potential application. The densification difficulty during sintering of SnO2 compromises its elaboration by ceramic conventional process. In this work the preparation of SnO2 ceramics by sol-gel process was investigated. Some parameters envolved on the colloidal stability, sol-gel transition and drying process were analysed. The obtained materials were characterized by rheological, X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and pores size distribution measurements. The results show that a considerable densification during sintering at 400 and 6000C was obtained. (author)

  16. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection r

  17. Avian Encephalomyelitis in Layer Pullets Associated with Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Reimers, Nancy; Bickford, Arthur A; Charlton, Bruce R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. The clinical signs included birds down on their legs, unilateral recumbency or sitting on their hocks, lethargy, reluctance to move, dehydration, unevenness in size, low weight, tremors of the head in a few birds, and mildly to moderately elevated mortality. The flocks had been vaccinated against fowl pox and AE with a combined product in the wing-web 2 wk prior to the onset of AE clinical signs. Histopathologic examination revealed lesions consistent with AE, including lymphocytic perivascular infiltration and neuronal central chromatolysis in the brain and spinal cord, as well as gliosis in the cerebellar molecular layer. The AE virus was detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in the brain homogenate from three cases and peripheral nerves in one case. Additionally, the AE virus was isolated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated eggs from brain tissue pool samples. Other avian viral infections capable of causing encephalitis, including avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), were ruled out by attempting virus isolation and molecular procedures. PMID:27309297

  18. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING AN INTERFEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optical interferometric waveguide immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza virus is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to antigen (hemagglutinin) specific antibodies on the waveguide surface. ...

  19. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; SASHIKA, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

  20. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  1. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong;

    2014-01-01

    endogenous viral element evolution.Results: Through a systematic screening of the genomes of 48 species sampled across the avian phylogeny we reveal that birds harbor a limited number of endogenous viral elements compared to mammals, with only five viral families observed: Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae...

  2. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  3. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards

    OpenAIRE

    Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Oraveerakul, Kanisak; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Payungporn, Sunchai; Noppornpanth, Suwanna; Wattanodorn, Sumitra; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan; Arya, Nlin; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Poovorawan, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Influenza virus is not known to affect wild felids. We demonstrate that avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused severe pneumonia in tigers and leopards that fed on infected poultry carcasses. This finding extends the host range of influenza virus and has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and wildlife conservation.

  4. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-01

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. PMID:25602438

  5. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... established as follows: (1) Fowl pox susceptible birds all of the same age and from the same source, shall be... controls do not develop fowl pox during the observation period, the test is inconclusive and may...

  6. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infections in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses (AIV) are categorized as low pathogenicity (LPAI) or high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses, and can be of any of...

  7. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.31 Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. The complement-fixation test... the same week from material harvested from each source flock (or other sampling procedure acceptable... cultures shall be prepared from the same cell suspension as the cultures for testing the vaccine....

  8. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  9. MHC haplotype involvement in avian resistance to an ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jeb P; Delany, Mary E; Mullens, Bradley A

    2008-10-01

    Research on immune function in evolutionary ecology has frequently focused on avian ectoparasites (e.g., mites and lice). However, host immunogenetics involved with bird resistance to ectoparasites has not been determined. The critical role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in adaptive immunity and high genetic variation found within the MHC make this gene complex useful for exploring the immunogenetic basis for bird resistance to ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to determine if the avian MHC influenced resistance to a blood-feeding ectoparasite. Four congenic lines of chickens, differing only at the MHC, were comparatively infested with a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of birds-northern fowl mite (NFM)-which is also a serious pest species of poultry. Mite infestations were monitored over time and mite densities (weekly and maximum) were compared among lines. Chickens with the MHC haplotype B21 were relatively resistant to NFM, compared with birds in the B15 congenic line (P density were tested. The highest peak NFM populations occurred more often on hens with the B15 haplotype versus the B21 haplotype (P = 0.012), which supported the results of the congenic study. These data indicate the avian MHC influences ectoparasite resistance, which is relevant to disease ecology and avian-ectoparasite interaction. PMID:18626638

  10. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection.

  11. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  12. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

  13. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  14. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  15. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza virus in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza (AI) virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and metho...

  16. Avian influenza diagnosis in the Russian Federation: Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Rosselkhoznadzor data, during 2005-2006, the avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks were reported in the Russian Federation in the Siberian, Ural, Central and South Federal Okrugs. In 2007, the RF officials notified the IOE about HPAI/H5N1 outbreaks in the territories of the Krasnodarsky Krai, Republic of Adygea, Moskovskaya and Kaluzhskaya Oblast. In 2008 there was one report about HPAI/H5N1 outbreak in Primorskii Krai (Far Eastern Okrug). To detect and characterize the avian influenza virus the following diagnostic scheme was used in ARRIAH: suspected cases (poultry, wild birds) and for monitoring purposes. 392 samples were positive in PCR to avian influenza virus type A. The most part of them were HPAI H5N1. In 2005 it was discovered 618 samples (223 - from poultry and 395 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 174 samples (85 - from poultry and 89 are from wild birds). 84 poultry samples and 36 wild birds samples were positive to subtype H5N1 (HPAI). 44 AI virus isolates were recovered (28 - from poultry and 16 are from wild birds). In 2006 it was discovered 1014 samples (159 - from poultry and 855 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 144 samples (84 - from poultry and 60 are from wild birds). Most part of these samples were positive to subtype H5N1. 67 AI virus isolates were recovered (50 - from poultry and 17 are from wild birds). In 2007 there were analyzed 833 samples (233 - from poultry and 600 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 55 poultry samples. All are positive to H5N1 subtype. Avian Influenza type A virus genome was detected in 7 samples from 1 region. Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus was not found. In 2008 we analyzed approximately 1400 samples. Most of them are from wild birds. Only 30 samples are from poultry. Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 1 poultry sample (HPAI H5N1). Avian Influenza type A virus genome

  17. Risk Mapping for Avian Influenza: a Social–Ecological Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen dynamics are inseparable from the broader environmental context in which pathogens occur. Although some pathogens of people are primarily limited to the human population, occurrences of zoonoses and vector-borne diseases are intimately linked to ecosystems. The emergence of these diseases is currently being driven by a variety of influences that include, among other things, changes in the human population, long-distance travel, high-intensity animal-production systems, and anthropogenic modification of ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems have both direct and indirect (food-web mediated effects. Therefore, understanding disease risk for zoonoses is a social–ecological problem. The articles in this special feature focus on risk assessment for avian influenza. They include analyses of the history and epidemiological context of avian influenza; planning and policy issues relating to risk; the roles of biogeography and spatial and temporal variation in driving the movements of potential avian influenza carriers; approaches to quantifying risk; and an assessment of risk-related interactions among people and birds in Vietnamese markets. They differ from the majority of published studies of avian influenza in that they emphasize unknowns and uncertainties in risk mapping and societal responses to avian influenza, rather than concentrating on known or proven facts. From a systems perspective, the different aspects of social–ecological systems that are relevant to the problem of risk mapping can be summarized under the general categories of structural, spatial, and temporal components. I present some examples of relevant system properties, as suggested by this framework, and argue that, ultimately, risk mapping for infectious disease will need to develop a more holistic perspective that includes explicit consideration of the roles of policy, disease management, and feedbacks between ecosystems and societies.

  18. Simulation, elaboration and analysis of inter-digitated back contacts photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is the most promising and powerful energy source among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The objective of this work is to develop photovoltaic cells with back inter-digitated contacts. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of operation and the fundamental parameters of a photovoltaic cell. In a second part, we explain specificities of the inter-digitated back-contact solar cells, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of such cells. In the second chapter we study the operation of inter-digitated back-contacts solar cells by two dimensional numerical simulation in order to optimize the geometry and doping profiles of the cell. The third chapter relates to the techniques and the methods of characterization of photovoltaic devices and components. In the fourth chapter, we describe the elaboration of inter-digitated back-contact cells. Three technological processes are presented in order to develop a simple technology for cells realization. In particular, we develop the auto-aligned technological process, which enables to elaborate the cells by using only one lithography step. In the last chapter we examine various approaches to reduce the surface recombination: SiO2, silicon nitride deposited by UVCVD, hydrogen annealing, etc.. (author)

  19. Clarifying the best interests standard: the elaborative and enumerative strategies in public policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chong-Ming; Dunn, Michael C; Chin, Jacqueline J

    2016-08-01

    One recurring criticism of the best interests standard concerns its vagueness, and thus the inadequate guidance it offers to care providers. The lack of an agreed definition of 'best interests', together with the fact that several suggested considerations adopted in legislation or professional guidelines for doctors do not obviously apply across different groups of persons, result in decisions being made in murky waters. In response, bioethicists have attempted to specify the best interests standard, to reduce the indeterminacy surrounding medical decisions. In this paper, we discuss the bioethicists' response in relation to the state's possible role in clarifying the best interests standard. We identify and characterise two clarificatory strategies employed by bioethicists -elaborative and enumerative-and argue that the state should adopt the latter. Beyond the practical difficulties of the former strategy, a state adoption of it would inevitably be prejudicial in a pluralistic society. Given the gravity of best interests decisions, and the delicate task of respecting citizens with different understandings of best interests, only the enumerative strategy is viable. We argue that this does not commit the state to silence in providing guidance to and supporting healthcare providers, nor does it facilitate the abuse of the vulnerable. Finally, we address two methodological worries about adopting this approach at the state level. The adoption of the enumerative strategy is not defeatist in attitude, nor does it eventually collapse into (a form of) the elaborative strategy. PMID:27145811

  20. Simulation, elaboration and analysis of inter-digitated back-contacts photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is the most promising and powerful energy source among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The objective of this work is to develop photovoltaic cells with back inter-digitated contacts. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of operation and the fundamental parameters of a photovoltaic cell. In a second part, we explain specificities of the inter-digitated back-contact solar cells, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of such cells. In the second chapter we study the operation of inter-digitated back-contacts solar cells by two dimensional numerical simulation in order to optimize the geometry and doping profiles of the cell. The third chapter relates to the techniques and the methods of characterization of photovoltaic devices and components. In the fourth chapter, we describe the elaboration of inter-digitated back-contact cells. Three technological processes are presented in order to develop a simple technology for cells realization. In particular, we develop the auto-aligned technological process, which enables to elaborate the cells by using only one lithography step. In the last chapter we examine various approaches to reduce the surface recombination: SiO2, silicon nitride deposited by UVCVD, hydrogen annealing, etc... (author)

  1. Conceptual design of a system to help the elaboration of healthcare waste management plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays the daily amount of wastes generated in the world is enormous. There are several categories of wastes with specific characteristics, some of them hazardous. These features, when associated with not properly waste disposal can put at risk both life quality and natural resources of present-day as well as future generations. From 10% to 25% of the wastes generated by health care facilities require special handling care due to their physical, biological, chemical, or radiological characteristics. This requires, among other things, the implementation of specific measures for their environmentally safe management. These measures shall be provided in a formal document, named Health care Waste Management Plan, which shall be written by all health care providers. In Brazil, general guides for elaboration of these documents are well defined by regulatory bodies and technical advices. At federal level, these directives are given by the following organizations: National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA, National Council for the Environment - CONAMA, and Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. At CDTN (Center of Nuclear Technology Development), as part of a doctoral thesis at State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), a methodology that systematizes the management of the several activities involved with hazardous and radioactive wastes was developed, in order to be used as a guidance tool for this task. The objective of this present work is to adapt this methodology to health care waste management and present a conceptual design of a semi-expert system to help the elaboration of Health care Waste Management Plans. (author)

  2. Elaboration of metallic and composite fillings by plasma transferred arc. Process analysis and tribological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental part of this research thesis addresses the parametric study of two surface filling processes (by plasma transferred arc, and by plasma arc projection followed by a coating remelting by electron beam), the elaboration by plasma transferred arc and the metallurgical characterization of fillings of nickel base alloys and composite materials made of tungsten carbides dispersed in a nickel matrix, and the characterization of fretting wear of the so-elaborated fillings in aqueous environment. The results show that the plasma transferred arc filling technique allows coating quality and microstructure to be controlled by adjusting the mass energy of the transferred arc. Besides, this technique results in a very good control of nickel alloy coatings. The various studied composites show that it is better to use a matrix with very few alloying elements or pre-coated carbides in order to avoid any cracking phenomenon. The content of dispersed carbides must not be greater than 60 per cent in weight. The best wear behaviour is obtained with polyhedral tungsten carbides dispersed within a low alloyed nickel matrix

  3. Fast elaboration of diagnostic data for real time control in FTU tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic controller developed for MHD instability control on FTU via the real time (RT EC launcher [1, 2] is based on the a-priori estimate of the instabilities location and on the fast elaboration of the stream of diagnostic data. A fast data acquisition system, based on existing standard FTU diagnostics, collects thermal and magnetic signals by a 12-channels ECE polychromator [3] and by a set of 22 Mirnov coils respectively. Moreover, the EC time waveform from directional couplers along the transmission line is acquired as well. This set of signals is processed in a timescale significantly shorter than the typical time step of the controller (1ms. RT elaboration algorithms aim at supplying the controller [4] with reliable information about the existence and the spatial location of the instability and about the actual ECRH deposition layer in plasma. The main algorithms blocks are ECE-ECE, ECE-Mirnov and ECE-ECRH cross-correlation, and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition of Mirnov signals. The capabilities of effective detection, false positive resilience, and mode discrimination will be discussed through the application to actual plasma data.

  4. Methodological guide for the follow-up and elaboration of performance assessments of a methanization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide aims at giving indications required for a good implementation of an exploitation follow-up of a methanization plant. More precisely, it aims at foreseeing equipment necessary to the follow-up of installation construction, at preparing the operator to the follow-up and command of his installation, at elaborating operation assessments and performance interpretations, at proposing solutions and/or improvements. The described follow-up process can be applied to all the process stages (from receipt to by-product valorization), and addresses technical as well as economic aspects. Thus, four types of assessments are made: technical, energetic, environmental, and social-economic. This guide comprises five parts: a presentation of follow-up objectives (information to be looked for, benefits and drawbacks, follow-up level to be implemented), the follow-up methodology, follow-up assessments (what they are and how to elaborate them), practical sheets (practical presentation of techniques, typical Excel spreadsheets), and a glossary which explains the main technical terms

  5. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  6. Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties of Shape Memory Alloys TI50-NI50 Elaborated by Arc Melting and by Powder Metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Olier, P.; Brachet, J.; Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    This study was focussed on the elaboration and transformation of Ti50Ni50 shape memory alloys in relation to structural and thermomechanical properties. An original method for producing TiNi alloys by powder metallurgy (PM), through combustion synthesis, was developed. After hot extrusion, intermetallic rods without porosity were obtained. Microstructural and thermomechanical properties of products obtained by this method were systematically compared to those of some alloys elaborated by the ...

  7. Correlation of Cytokine Elaboration with Mononuclear Cell Adhesion to Platelet Storage Bag Plastic Polymers: a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    ElKattan, Ikbal; Anderson, James; Yun, J. K.; Colton, E.; Yomtovian, Roslyn

    1999-01-01

    The basis for many febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions associated with platelet transfusion therapy is cytokine elaboration and accumulation in the storage bag, which correlate with the leukocyte content and the length of platelet storage. We propose that a possible additional variable in the elaboration and accumulation of cytokines is the differential adhesion of mononuclear cells to the plastic substrate of the platelet storage bag. We hypothesize that mononu...

  8. Anxiety Elaboration Strategies in the Response Sequences of Scenes in the “Once-Upon-A-Time…” Projective Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Fagulha, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    In this study we proceed to the identification of four anxiety elaboration strategies in the response sequences of scenes in the “Once-upon-a-time…” projective technique. A strategy which corresponds to the negation of the anxiety emotion – Negation –, two strategies which represent different means of positive dealing with anxiety – Operational Adaptative Strategy and Emotional Equilibration Strategy –, and a fourth strategy which represents the failure of the elaboration of this emotion – Im...

  9. Examining an Elaborated Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating Among College Women: The Roles of Social Comparison and Body Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G.

    2014-01-01

    Social comparison (i.e., body, eating, exercise) and body surveillance were tested as mediators of the thin-ideal internalization-body dissatisfaction relationship in the context of an elaborated sociocultural model of disordered eating. Participants were 219 college women who completed two questionnaire sessions 3 months apart. The cross-sectional elaborated sociocultural model (i.e., including social comparison and body surveillance as mediators of the thin-ideal internalization-body dissat...

  10. Evaluation and optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveillance of wild bird populations for avian influenza viruses (AIV) contributes to our understanding of AIV evolution and ecology. Both real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) are standard methods for detecting A...

  11. Nonconserved tryptophan 38 of the cell surface receptor for subgroup J avian leukosis virus discriminates sensitive from resistant avian species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Dana; Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Šenigl, Filip; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Geryk, Josef; Hejnar, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 15 (2013), s. 8399-8407. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1651 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : avian leukosis virus * ALV-J * NHE1 * host resistance * receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.648, year: 2013

  12. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  13. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  14. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  15. Molecular diagnostics of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2006-01-01

    direct sequencing of the PCR product. The possibility of typization using molecular methods is based on the big difference at the amino acid and nucleotide levels between different HA subtypes (from 20- 74%, while the differences between strains of the same HA subtype are relatively small (0- 9%. The basic advantage in the detection and typization of influenza viruses using the RTPCR method is that it saves time. Namely, it can be performed directly from the samples taken in the field, and the result can be obtained within the same day, contrary to conventional methods that take 7 to 10 days. The obtained PCR product can also be sequenced immediately, which can provide an answer to the possible virulent potential of the isolate and its further spreading. The establishment of changes in the HA gene sequence can provide us with the information about the direction of the development of the genetic drift. The paper will describe in detail the possibilities for the implementation of molecular methods in diagnostics and typization, in fact, in the molecular epizootiology of avian influenza.

  16. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  17. Organo-silica-titania nanocomposite elaborated by sol-gel processing with tunable optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, J. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, CNRS-UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42100 Saint-Etienne, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France)]. E-mail: janyce.franc@univ-st-etienne.fr; Blanc, D. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, CNRS-UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42100 Saint-Etienne, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Zerroukhi, A. [Laboratoire de Rheologie des Matieres Plastiques, UMR CNRS 5156, 23 rue Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Chalamet, Y. [Laboratoire de Rheologie des Matieres Plastiques, UMR CNRS 5156, 23 rue Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Last, A. [Research Center Karlsruhe, Institute for Microstructure Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Destouches, N. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, CNRS-UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42100 Saint-Etienne, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2006-04-15

    Organically modified silica-titania thin films were elaborated by a sol-gel process and UV assisted photopolymerisation. Two different chelating agents, methacrylic acid (MAA) and a {beta}-diketone (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl acetoacetone (MAEA)) were compared in this work. It was demonstrated that the choice of the chelating agent is a key parameter to increase the molar ratio Si:Ti and therefore raise the refractive index of the material. {beta}-Diketone has proven to be a good candidate to stabilise the titanium precursor and its effects were compared to those observed with methacrylic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the material formation and modification upon irradiation. M-lines spectroscopy was used to measure the refractive index of the material that varied between 1.51 and 1.59 depending on the titanium molar concentration. Optical properties were analysed in view of applications in the field of micro-optics and optical coatings.

  18. Economic tools for biodiversity. An elaboration of TEEB recommendations with regard to the Taskforce Biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group on Economic Instruments of the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Task Force addressed the question how the recommendations of the report of the United Nations 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) can be realized in the Netherlands. A selection of topics has been made for which policy proposals are developed which might be promising and can lead to a better protection of the biodiversity. The following proposals were investigated and/or elaborated: decrease of the social discount rate; further greening of the tax system; import levy on bulk commodities; taxes on non-sustainable wood; levy on the use of open space; differential tax on animal proteins; and a revision of biomass incentives.

  19. Re—usable Templates for Documenting the Elaboration and Architectural Design of the CMS Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Wellisch; L.Tuura; 等

    2001-01-01

    Modern standards and definitions of deliverables for software development are provided by by various standards like PSS-05,CMMI,ECSS,V,Rational Unified process or SPICE(ISO 15504),Modern document templates and the corresponding documents are based on atomic shells that cross-link,and can be subsequently assembled into a set of complete documents;views of the information in the shells.This makes the information easy to maintain,and enables selective views of the documentation.We will present a catalogue of document templates that has been developed in the context of the CMS CAFE forum,as well as their cross-linkage,using UML as the modelling language The templates allow for documenting the elaboration and architectural design phases of software development,They can be used as the basis for establishing and documenting architecture,while establishing trace-ability to use-cases,requirements,constraints,and important technological choices in a maintainable manner.

  20. Contribution to the elaboration and implementation of LEP-L3 second level microcoded Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is devoted to the elaboration of the L3 second level trigger which is based on the dedicated programmable XOP processor. This system will reduce the trigger rate by a factor of ten and will ensure that the hardwired level-one processors function correctly. The present document describes all developments that L.A.P.P. is engaged in from the system design up to the complete experimental set up, especially: - The hardware development of the fast input memories as well as the FASTBUS interface unit which allows the microprocessor XOP to run as a performant FASTBUS Master, - the associated software developments, - the implementation of a VME test system dedicated to all control tasks

  1. Elaboration of pellets of LiF: Mg, Cu, P and its dosimetric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LiF: Mg, Cu, P is at the moment in the entire world one of the TL materials of more interest, by its equivalence with the tissue, as well as for its high sensitivity, which is 25 to 35 times greater than of the TLD-100 of Harshaw (USA). In our laboratory dosemeters of this material have been developed in form of sinterized pellets. The importance of these new dosemeters in pellet form is due to that in this form its manipulation is facilitated. Due to its high sensitivity, these dosemeters result to be those but appropriate to measure the ionizing radiations, in intervals of extremely low dose. In this report the method of elaboration of the pellets, as well as its main dosimetric characteristics are presented. (Author)

  2. Final repository symposium 2014. Elaboration and consequences of final repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    June 23 - 25 the second Symposium for Final Repository took place in Duesseldorf, having been organised by Aachen Institute for Nuclear Training (AiNT). Around 90 participants, national and international, were given the opportunity to discuss contents and consequences of the site location for final repository of thermal active resp. highly radioactive waste. The Symposium introduces the dialogue of implementing the site selection law (StandAG). Through 18 lectures within 4 topics as well as 2 panel discussions an appealing and many-faceted elaboration of the topic ''Repository Exploration'' was given. Concepts of final repository from abroad and as well the juridical controversial interrogations of StandAG were regarded. Consensus of the session: for site selection there needs to be a negotiation process of safety, duration and participation. Through Prof. Dr. Armin Grunwald and Prof. Dr. Bruno Thomauske two members of the commission appointed by the German Bundestag and the Federal Assembly were participating as speakers.

  3. Main ideas to consider in the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article are exposed the main ideas that has been used for the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical process, with the aim of being used as a teaching content in the Medicine career. Such ideas are: the necessity of a total correspondence between the process method and its objective, the conception of the medical attention process as a decision-taking process, the necessity of highlighting the human dimension of the medical practice, and the convenience of counting with a synthetic representation of the clinical method that facilitates its learning and comprehension. These elements will make possible that the clinical method model facilitates the learning and posterior performance of a more effective and efficient medical attention process, with the following betterment of the medical services’ quality and of the patients’ satisfaction.

  4. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects. PMID:10840911

  5. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F;

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate that...... to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement. After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This...... dissemination of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT...

  6. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F;

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate that...... to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement. After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This...... dissemination of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT...

  7. Elaboration of training and methodological guidance for handling with radioactive waste issues in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a great potential for the development and civilian use of the uranium industrial complex in Kazakhstan, there are several existing obstacles in the form of public opinion which still possesses a strong ''radiation phobia'' as a result of past military activity in the Republic. It is not enough to have talks on the radio or articles in newspapers from famous authoritative individuals to overcome this radiation phobia. Systematic education of the public is necessary in order to cultivate a new generation of ecological specialists and business specialists. Therefore, it is necessary to create a plan to carry out this daunting task. In this paper, the creation of such a plan is elaborated. (author)

  8. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Darla K Zelenitsky; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C.; McGee, Amanda R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we...

  9. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Warning System using Dempster-Shafer Theory and Web Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Maseleno, Andino; Hasan, Md. Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built a Web Mapping and Dempster-Shafer theory as early warning system of avian influenza. Early warning is the provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a h...

  10. Avian leukosis virus infection: analysis of viremia and DNA integration in susceptible and resistant chicken lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T W; Humphries, E H

    1984-01-01

    Avian leukosis viruses induce lymphoid leukosis, a lymphoma which develops within the bursa of Fabricius several months after virus infection. Chickens from the Hyline SC and FP lines are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to avian leukosis virus-induced lymphoid leukosis. We examined plasma and cellular DNA obtained from avian leukosis virus-infected chickens for the presence of viremia and integrated viral sequences to determine whether the extent of virus infection is comparable in i...

  11. Adenovirus as a carrier for the development of influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, De-chu C.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Toro, Haroldo; Shi, Zhongkai; van Kampen, Kent R.

    2009-01-01

    A long-sought goal during the battle against avian influenza is to develop a new generation of vaccines capable of mass immunizing humans as well as poultry (the major source of avian influenza for human infections) in a timely manner. Although administration of the currently licensed influenza vaccine is effective in eliciting protective immunity against seasonal influenza, this approach is associated with a number of insurmountable problems for preventing an avian influenza pandemic. Many o...

  12. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Hsien Tseng; Hsiang-Jung Tsai; Chung-Ming Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful ...

  13. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Deborah J; Owlarn, Suthira; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2011-01-01

    The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP) axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi) or Smed-ptc(RNAi) lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi) grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new, and then

  14. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renato Parsekian; Caldas, Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo; Ribeiro, Alexandre Antonio; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Shimizu, Roberto Hideo; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS) hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1), BETA FLEXYTM (G2), BETA III WIRETM (G3) and BETA CNATM (G4). Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF) ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD) ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM) of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends. PMID:26691975

  15. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Parsekian Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1, BETA FLEXYTM (G2, BETA III WIRETM (G3 and BETA CNATM (G4. Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends.

  16. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Evans

    Full Text Available The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi or Smed-ptc(RNAi lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new

  17. Genome-wide analysis of acetivibrio cellulolyticus provides a blueprint of an elaborate cellulosome system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassa Bareket

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial degradation of plant cell walls and its conversion to sugars and other byproducts is a key step in the carbon cycle on Earth. In order to process heterogeneous plant-derived biomass, specialized anaerobic bacteria use an elaborate multi-enzyme cellulosome complex to synergistically deconstruct cellulosic substrates. The cellulosome was first discovered in the cellulolytic thermophile, Clostridium thermocellum, and much of our knowledge of this intriguing type of protein composite is based on the cellulosome of this environmentally and biotechnologically important bacterium. The recently sequenced genome of the cellulolytic mesophile, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus, allows detailed comparison of the cellulosomes of these two select cellulosome-producing bacteria. Results Comprehensive analysis of the A. cellulolyticus draft genome sequence revealed a very sophisticated cellulosome system. Compared to C. thermocellum, the cellulosomal architecture of A. cellulolyticus is much more extensive, whereby the genome encodes for twice the number of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins. The A. cellulolyticus genome has thus evolved an inflated number of 143 dockerin-containing genes, coding for multimodular proteins with distinctive catalytic and carbohydrate-binding modules that play critical roles in biomass degradation. Additionally, 41 putative cohesin modules distributed in 16 different scaffoldin proteins were identified in the genome, representing a broader diversity and modularity than those of Clostridium thermocellum. Although many of the A. cellulolyticus scaffoldins appear in unconventional modular combinations, elements of the basic structural scaffoldins are maintained in both species. In addition, both species exhibit similarly elaborate cell-anchoring and cellulosome-related gene- regulatory elements. Conclusions This work portrays a particularly intricate, cell-surface cellulosome system in A. cellulolyticus

  18. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  19. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Alexandre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks and charadriiforms (waders drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology.

  20. A new feathered maniraptoran dinosaur fossil that fills a morphological gap in avian origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing; ZHAO Qi; NORELL Mark; SULLIVAN Corwin; HONE David; ERICKSON Gregory; WANG XiaoLin; HAN FengLu; GUO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have substantially reduced the morphological gap between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, yet avians including Archaeopteryx differ from non-avian theropods in their limb proportions. In particular, avians have proportionally longer and more robust forelimbs that are capable of supporting a large aerodynamic surface. Here we report on a new maniraptoran dinosaur, Anchiornis huxleyi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from Iacustrine deposits of uncertain age in western Liaoning, China. With an estimated mass of 110 grams, Anchiornis is the smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. It exhibits some wrist features indicative of high mobility, presaging the wing-folding mechanisms seen in more derived birds and suggesting rapid evolution of the carpus. Otherwise, Anchiornis is intermediate in general morphology between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, particularly with regard to relative forelimb length and thickness, and represents a transitional step toward the avian condition. In contrast with some recent comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, our phylogenetic analysis incorporates subtle morphological variations and recovers a conventional result supporting the monophyly of Avialae.

  1. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  2. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  3. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger

  4. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    -250% greater than those recorded at equivalent latitudes in the central Amazon basin. These findings reflect the extraordinary abundance of species associated with humid montane regions at equatorial latitudes and the importance of orography in avian speciation. In a broader context, our data reinforce......The search for a common cause of species richness gradients has spawned more than 100 explanatory hypotheses in just the past two decades. Despite recent conceptual advances, further refinement of the most plausible models has been stifled by the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases...... at continental scales. We used a database of the geographic ranges of 2,869 species of birds breeding in South America (nearly a third of the world's living avian species) to explore the influence of climate, quadrat area, ecosystem diversity, and topography on species richness gradients at 10 spatial scales...

  5. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004–May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 viru...

  6. Global Climate Change Leads to Mistimed Avian Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marcel E; Both, Christiaan; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is apparent as an advancement of spring phenology. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that all components of food chains will shift their phenology at the same rate. This differential shift will lead to mistimed reproduction in many species, including seasonally breeding birds. We argue that climate change induced mistiming in avian reproduction occurs because there is a substantial period between the moment of decision making on when to reproduce and the moment at ...

  7. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Michael Cassone; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence tha...

  8. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michael Cassone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence that the central clock has effects is piecemeal. Second, selection acting on characters that are linked to the circadian clock should influence aspects of the clock mechanism itself. Little evidence exists for this in birds, but there have been few attempts to assess this idea. At its core, the avian circadian clock is a multi-oscillator system comprising the pineal gland, the retinae and the avian homologues of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, whose mutual interactions ensure coordinated physiological functions, which are in turn synchronized to ambient light cycles via encephalic, pineal and retinal photoreceptors. At the molecular level, avian biological clocks comprise a genetic network of positive elements clock and bmal1 whose interactions with the negative elements period2, period3 and the cryptochromes form an oscillatory feedback loop that circumnavigates the 24 hrs of the day. We assess the possibilities for dual integration of the clock with time-dependent cognitive processes. Closer examination of the molecular, physiological, and behavioral elements of the circadian system would place birds at a very interesting fulcrum in the neurobiology of time in learning, memory and navigation. 

  9. The bird of time: cognition and the avian biological clock

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration, and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence th...

  10. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  11. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-01-01

    Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis) exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the...

  12. Is low pathogenic avian influenza virus virulent for wild waterbirds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiken, T

    2013-01-01

    Although low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is traditionally considered to have adapted to its wild waterbird host to become avirulent, recent studies have suggested that LPAIV infection might after all have clinical effects. Therefore, I reviewed the literature on LPAIV infections in wild waterbirds. The virulence of LPAIV was assessed in 17 studies on experimental infections and nine studies on natural infections. Reported evidence for virulence were reductions in return rate, fee...

  13. Embryonic growth and antioxidant provision in avian eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Pike , Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian embryos undergo extremely rapid development over a relatively short period of time, and so are likely to suffer high levels of oxidative damage unless this is mitigated by sufficient maternal allocation of appropriate antioxidants. At a species level, it is therefore predicted that antioxidants should be allocated to eggs according to the rate of embryonic growth, such that eggs containing embryos that grow faster are furnished with higher antioxidant levels, independent of egg size. We...

  14. Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-World Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; El Mamy, Ahmed B. Ould; Cappelle, Julien; Caron, Alexandre; Graeme S. Cumming; Grosbois, Vladimir; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Abolnik, Celia; Mundava, Josphine; Fofana, Bouba; Ndlovu, Mduduzi

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location a...

  15. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the current knowledge of the determinants of pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in mammals is summarized. It is becoming apparent that common mechanisms exist across influenza A virus strains and...

  16. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  17. The Irrationality of GOF Avian Influenza Virus Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The last two and a half years have witnessed a curious debate in virology characterized by a remarkable lack of discussion. It goes by the misleading epithet “gain of function” (GOF) influenza virus research, or simply GOF. As will be seen, there is nothing good to be gained. The controversial experiments confer aerosol transmission on avian influenza virus strains that can infect humans, but which are not naturally transmitted between humans. Some of the newer strains are clearly highly path...

  18. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  19. Molecular cloning of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29) transforming sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenberger, J A; Schulz, R A; Garon, C F; Tsichlis, P N; Papas, T S

    1981-01-01

    Avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29), a defective acute leukemia virus, has a broad oncogenic spectrum in vivo and transforms fibroblasts and hematopoietic target cells in vitro. We have used recombinant DNA technology to isolate and to characterize the sequences that are essential in the transformation process. Integrated MC29 proviral DNA was isolated from a library of recombinant phage containing DNA from the MC29-transformed nonproducer quail cell line Q5. The cloned DNA was analyzed by So...

  20. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E.; Martin Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island...

  1. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda; Edgar Dantán-González

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herba...

  2. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied...

  3. Sociable schedules: interplay between avian seasonal and social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara; Piersma, Theunis; van der Jeugd, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Timing is essential in seasonally changing habitats. Survival and reproduction are enhanced through precise adjustment to environmental conditions. Avian seasonal behaviour, that is, diverse activities associated with reproduction, moult and migration, has an endogenous basis and is ultimately linked to changes in environmental factors such as food supply. However, behaviour occurs in social contexts, and interactions with conspecifics are intimately linked to seasonal activities. Time progra...

  4. Does weather affect biting fly abundance in avian nests?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Rivero de Aguilar, Juan; Cerro Gómez, Sara del; Ruiz De Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno Klemming, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Environmental factors may strongly affect avian-biting fly interactions in different ways because insects are heterothermic organisms that depend greatly on environmental variables to activate their metabolism and behaviour. We studied the effects of weather on both blackfly (Simuliidae) and biting midge Culicoides (Ceratopogonidae) abundance in nests of three passerine species: blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, great tits Parus major and pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, breeding in the sam...

  5. Phylogenetic Position of Avian Nocturnal and Diurnal Raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Gillian C Gibb; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    We report three new avian mitochondrial genomes, two from widely separated groups of owls and a falcon relative (the Secretarybird). We then report additional progress in resolving Neoavian relationships in that the two groups of owls do come together (it is not just long-branch attraction), and the Secretarybird is the deepest divergence on the Accipitridae lineage. This is now agreed between mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. There is no evidence for the monophyly of the combined three gr...

  6. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry, like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and pala­table insects mimicking distasteful ones, involve signals directed at the eyes of birds. Despite this, studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare, particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade. Defensive visual mimicry, which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators. Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object, such as a leaf, stick, or pebble. In this paper, I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds. The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey, but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators. Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds, I show how quantitative models of avian color, luminance, and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals. Overall, I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2, Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4, and masquerade (5 as follows: 1 Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2 Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3 Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4 Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5 Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids [Current Zoology 58 (4: 630–648, 2012].

  7. Immunological phenotype of lymphomas induced by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L. C.; S.A. Courtneidge; Bishop, J M

    1983-01-01

    The production of immunoglobulin by six cell lines derived from bursal tumors induced by avian leukosis virus follows two general patterns: (i) three cell lines that have been extensively passaged in culture synthesize and secrete light chains only; (ii) three cell lines that are recently isolated produce and secrete monomeric immunoglobulin M in addition to free light chains. All six cell lines synthesize and secrete both glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of light chain. We conclude that...

  8. Rapid induction of hypothyroidism by an avian leukosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, J K; Smith, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Infection of 10-day chicken embryos with an avian leukosis virus, RAV-7, resulted in hypothyroidism within 3 weeks posthatching. Histological examination of the thyroids from infected chickens showed an extensive infiltration of lymphoblastoid cells by 7 days posthatching. Areas resembling germinal centers were present in the thyroids of infected chickens by 3 weeks posthatching. Examination of circulating thyroid and pancreas hormones showed a significant reduction in T3 and T4 levels and a ...

  9. Relationship of avian retrovirus DNA synthesis to integration in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Y.M.; Coffin, J M

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro integration system derived from avian leukosis virus-infected cells supports both intra- and intermolecular integration of the viral DNA. In the absence of polyethylene glycol, intramolecular integration of viral DNA molecules into themselves (autointegration) was preferred. In the presence of polyethylene glycol, integration into an exogenously supplied DNA target was greatly promoted. Analysis of integration intermediates revealed that the strand transfer mechanisms of both reac...

  10. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-01-01

    Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry,like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and palatable insects mimicking distasteful ones,involve signals directed at the eyes of birds.Despite this,studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare,particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade.Defensive visual mimicry,which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry,occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators.Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object,such as a leaf,stick,or pebble.In this paper,I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds.The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey,but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators.Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds,I show how quantitative models of avian color,luminance,and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals.Overall,I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2),Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4),and masquerade (5) as follows:1) Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2) Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3) Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4) Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5) Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids.

  11. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  12. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  13. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  14. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  15. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  16. New Perspectives on the Ontogeny and Evolution of Avian Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M

    2016-09-01

    Close correspondence between form and function is a central tenet of natural selection. One of the most striking, textbook cases for form-function congruence is the evolution of flight and the body plan of birds: compared with other tetrapods, extant adult birds have highly modified integuments and skeletons, and it has traditionally been assumed that many of these modifications are adaptations or exaptations for flight. However, developing birds that lack many of the morphological signatures of flight capacity nevertheless use their developing wings for a variety of flapping behaviors, such as wing-assisted incline running and even brief flight. Immature birds thereby demonstrate that rudimentary "flight" apparatuses are more functional than traditional assumptions about form-function relationships would predict. Here, I review the ontogeny of avian locomotion, highlighting how the developmental acquisition of flight in extant birds can improve our understanding of form-function relationships in the avian body plan, and provide insight into the evolutionary origin of flight among extinct non-avian theropod dinosaurs. PMID:27371381

  17. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  18. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  19. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Cheng, K M; Purdy, P H; Silversides, F G

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A simple vitrification method that included dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose as cryoprotective agents, and allowed the storage of tissue in a sealed macrotube was applied to the testicular tissue from 1-wk-old Japanese quail. The vitrified tissue was warmed at room temperature or at 40°C. After warming, tissue was implanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 8- to 9-d-old chicken embryos and the vascularization of the grafts was evaluated. When compared with fresh tissue, the tissue that had been warmed at 40°C showed no difference in vascularization. The tissue that had been warmed at room temperature was significantly less vascularized than the fresh tissue. Vitrification of testicular tissue and storage in macrotubes provide a promising model for preservation and recovery of male germplasm of avian species. PMID:23155032

  20. Elaboration of remediation plan for contamined sites of Puglia region; Un piano per la bonifica di aree del territorio pugliese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, F.; Mura, A.; Tassoni, E.; Mazzotta, V.; Furgiuele, G. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1995-03-01

    ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) was designated by the Ministry of Environment to elaborate the remediation plan for contamined sites of Puglia region. The plan was developped by ENEA, following criteria and guidelines fixed by the Environment Department in a decree of may 16th 1989. The activities of the plan were conducted through the following four stages: census and mapping of potentially contamined sites; settlement of the first list of contamined sites to submit to remediation; program elaboration for short term interventions on site remediation and drafting general projects; program elaboration for middle term interventions on site remediation. The information collected about all sites during the investigations have been organized on a database, in which an algorithm permits the risk indexes for each site be calculated automatically.

  1. Avian Flu School: A Training Approach to Prepare for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel; Bunn, David A.; Sandrock, Christian E.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI....

  2. A new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair, feather, and avian scales. : Origin of hair, feather and avian scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dhouailly, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    In zoology it is well known that birds are characterized by the presence of feathers, and mammals by hairs. Another common point of view is that avian scales are directly related to reptilian scales. As a skin embryologist, I have been fascinated by the problem of regionalization of skin appendages in amniotes throughout my scientific life. Here I have collected the arguments that result from classical experimental embryology, from the modern molecular biology era, and from the recent discove...

  3. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia bone marrow exhibit aberrant cytogenetics and cytokine elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) play a fundamental role in the BM microenvironment (BME) and abnormalities of these cells may contribute to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to characterize the cytokine and gene expression profile, immunophenotype and cytogenetics of BM-MSCs from AML patients compared to normal BM-MSCs from healthy donors. AML BM-MSCs showed decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels compared to normal BM-MSCs. AML BM-MSCs expressed similar β1 integrin, CD44, CD73, CD90 and E-cadherin compared to normal BM-MSCs. Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal aberrations in AML BM-MSCs, some overlapping with and others distinct from their corresponding AML blasts. No significant difference in gene expression was detected between AML BM-MSCs compared to normal BM-MSCs; however, comparing the differences between AML and MSCs from AML patients with the differences between normal hematopoietic cells and normal MSCs by Ingenuity pathway analysis showed key distinctions of the AML setting: (1) upstream gene regulation by transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor, tissue transglutaminase 2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4; (2) integrin and interleukin 8 signaling as overrepresented canonical pathways; and (3) upregulation of transcription factors FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog and v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog. Thus, phenotypic abnormalities of AML BM-MSCs highlight a dysfunctional BME that may impact AML survival and proliferation

  4. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia bone marrow exhibit aberrant cytogenetics and cytokine elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Basu, S K; Zhao, X; Chien, S; Fang, M; Oehler, V G; Appelbaum, F R; Becker, P S

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) play a fundamental role in the BM microenvironment (BME) and abnormalities of these cells may contribute to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to characterize the cytokine and gene expression profile, immunophenotype and cytogenetics of BM-MSCs from AML patients compared to normal BM-MSCs from healthy donors. AML BM-MSCs showed decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels compared to normal BM-MSCs. AML BM-MSCs expressed similar β1 integrin, CD44, CD73, CD90 and E-cadherin compared to normal BM-MSCs. Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal aberrations in AML BM-MSCs, some overlapping with and others distinct from their corresponding AML blasts. No significant difference in gene expression was detected between AML BM-MSCs compared to normal BM-MSCs; however, comparing the differences between AML and MSCs from AML patients with the differences between normal hematopoietic cells and normal MSCs by Ingenuity pathway analysis showed key distinctions of the AML setting: (1) upstream gene regulation by transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor, tissue transglutaminase 2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4; (2) integrin and interleukin 8 signaling as overrepresented canonical pathways; and (3) upregulation of transcription factors FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog and v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog. Thus, phenotypic abnormalities of AML BM-MSCs highlight a dysfunctional BME that may impact AML survival and proliferation. PMID:25860293

  5. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  6. The passage of cells can improve the detection rate of avian leukosis virus to facilitate the elimination of avian leukosis in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Peipei; Cheng, Hegang; Sun, Shuhong

    2013-01-01

    Avian leukosis (AL) is one of the most harmful diseases to the poultry industry in China. The detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV) p27 antigen plays a decisive role in the elimination of avian leukosis. To explore the influence of passaging cells on the detection rate of the ALV p27 antigen, 21 aseptic anticoagulated blood samples were collected from 21 chickens for which the cloacal swabs were positive for the p27 antigen to inoculate two sets of cell culture plates containing DF1 cel...

  7. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37°C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal ...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian-Like H4N8 Swine Influenza Virus Discovered in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shuo; Qi, Wen-bao; Chen, Ji-dang; Cao, Nan; Zhu, Wan-jun; Yuan, Li-Guo; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Gui-hong

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of an avian-like H4N8 swine influenza virus containing an H5N1 avian influenza virus segment from swine in southern China. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral RNA segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the Asia lineage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian H4N8 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.

  9. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Benavente, Javier, E-mail: franciscojavier.benavente@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  10. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  11. Elaboration of functionally graded materials for plasma facing components of the thermonuclear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) W/Cu to replace the compliance layer (Cu-OFHC) in the plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor like ITER. The peculiarity of this work is to elaborate these materials without exceeding the melting temperature of copper in order to control its microstructure. The co-sintering is the most attractive solution to achieve this goal. The first phase of this study has been to decrease the sintering temperature of the tungsten to achieve this co-sintering. The elaboration of a Functionally Graded Materials being delicate, thermomechanical calculations were performed in order to determine the number and chemical composition in order to increase the lifespan of Plasma Facing Components. Spark Plasma Sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve maximum density of WxCu1-x composites. The effect of copper content and density of the WxCu1-x composites on thermal and mechanical properties was investigated. The SPS conditions were applied for W/CuCrZr assemblies with a compliance layer composed of several interlayers. The importance of time for the integrity of assemblies thereof has been highlighted. The study of the dwell time during W/CuCrZr assembly leads to identify a parameter to characterize the integrity of the interface regardless of the composition and the nature of the layer of compliance. Moreover, the phenomena associated with the formation of the interface assembly have been identified. The interface W/WxCu1-x is formed by the extrusion of the copper layer of the WxCu1-x inside the tungsten porosities. The WyCu1-y/CuCrZr interface is formed by copper migration of CuCrZr layer inside the WyCu1-y layer. Finally optimization assembly conditions showed that the mechanical stresses due to the densification of the Functionally Graded Materials can be limited by sintering the FGM before the assembly. (author)

  12. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Sensor and Cooling Devices Based on Elaborated Bismuth-Telluride Alloy Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Boulouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal motivation of this work is the development and realization of smart cooling and sensors devices based on the elaborated and characterized semiconducting thermoelectric thin film materials. For the first time, the details design of our sensor and the principal results are published. Fabrication and characterization of Bi/Sb/Te (BST semiconducting thin films have been successfully investigated. The best values of Seebeck coefficient (α(T at room temperature for Bi2Te3, and (Bi1−xSbx2Te3 with x = 0.77 are found to be −220 µV/K and +240 µV/K, respectively. Fabrication and evaluation of performance devices are reported. 2.60°C of cooling of only one Peltier module device for an optimal current of Iopt=2.50 mA is obtained. The values of temperature measured by infrared camera, by simulation, and those measured by the integrated and external thermocouple are reported. A sensitivity of the sensors of 5 mV Torr−1 mW−1 for the pressure sensor has been found with a response time of about 600 ms.

  13. Elaboration of Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for S-Nitrosoglutathione Targeting to Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, R; Virriat, A S; Ronzani, C; Fontanay, S; Grandemange, S; Elaissari, A; Foliguet, B; Maincent, P; Leroy, P; Duvaj, R E; Rihn, B H; Joubert, O

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a potential therapeutic for infectious disease treatment because of its pivotal role in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and host defense in addition to direct antibacterial activities. In this study, sterically stabilized cationic liposomes (SSCL) and sterically stabilized anionic liposomes (SSAL) were developed as nanocarriers for macrophage targeting. Elaborated liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release behavior and cytotoxicity. Their versatility in targeting monocytes/macrophages was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry revealed that cellular uptake of both SSCL and SSAL was governed by several endocytic clathrin- and caveolae-dependent mechanisms. Quantitative assessments of intracellular nitric oxide demonstrated highly efficient uptake of GSNO-loaded SSCL that was twenty-fold higher than that of GSNO-free molecules. GSNO-loaded SSCL displayed strong bacteriostatic effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can be involved in pulmonary infectious diseases. These results reveal the potential of liposomal GSNO as an anti-infective therapeutic due to its macrophage targeting capacity and direct antibacterial effects. PMID:27301185

  14. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development. PMID:26483621

  15. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.; Boumchedda, K.; Lerari, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products ← waste products← finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO3 content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm3, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850° C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal (λ = 0,031 W/m° C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

  16. 3-D Thermal, Hydrodynamic and Magnetic Modelling of Elaboration of Glass by Induction in Cold Crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for more than 30 years by AREVA, with three main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products, reduction of the final volume of waste and operability in an industrial context. In parallel the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), SGN (respectively Areva's R and D provider and Engineering) and AREVA (industrial Operator) have developed the cold crucible induction melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The 3D numerical simulation of elaboration of glass by induction in cold crucible needs a coupled approach of the different phenomena: induction, thermal and hydrodynamic. Indeed, those three phenomena are strongly coupled because of the temperature dependence of the glass properties. The hotter the molten glass, the higher the electrical conductivity. In the present paper, we will focus on a full 3D simulation, when mechanical stirrer and bubbling are stopped in the cold crucible melter. In this case, the convection is driven by two phenomena. First, buoyancy forces are modelled in the Boussinesq approximation. Second, thermo capillary convection at the surface is taken into account. This effect is due to the variation of the surface tension with the temperature. Thermo convective circulations appear within the molten glass when the total Joule power injected reached a specific threshold. (authors)

  17. Acquisition and elaboration of superficial three-dimensional images in plastic and reconstructive surgery: Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970, as computed axial tomography machines became easily available and became more sophisticated, image acquisition techniques and analysis improved, developed rapidly and became very useful in medical diagnosis. Today it is possible to examine either the anatomic and functional aspects of deep body organs and tissues including all the minute details as well as their morphological relations with superficial structures. Through precise graphic elaboration programs we can obtain information about spatial relations which was not possible using simply classical clinical examination. It is possible, for example, to "point out" an area of interest from its anatomic context, to carry out virtual cleavage of planes and to measure volumes and distances. New developments in image acquisition systems permit transfer of three-dimensional data directly from existing objects. The three -dimensional computerized axial tomography for deep structures, and the laser scanners for superficial structure, quickly furnish (1-3 seconds for the laser scanners useful information to plan the surgical operation. When analysing 3D-imaging techniques it is important to appreciate their utility for the planning and the follow up of surgery, particularly for the head and thorax, where the three dimensional evaluation is better than the classic double dimensional system that is incomplete and difficult to interpret. In the future, these systems will be important for the best aesthetic and functional results and above all for reducing the surgical time.

  18. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H2 + CO2), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation

  19. Molecular basis for three-dimensional elaboration of the Aquilegia petal spur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yant, Levi; Collani, Silvio; Puzey, Joshua; Levy, Clara; Kramer, Elena M.

    2015-01-01

    By enforcing specific pollinator interactions, Aquilegia petal nectar spurs maintain reproductive isolation between species. Spur development is the result of three-dimensional elaboration from a comparatively two-dimensional primordium. Initiated by localized, oriented cell divisions surrounding the incipient nectary, this process creates a pouch that is extended by anisotropic cell elongation. We hypothesized that the development of this evolutionary novelty could be promoted by non-mutually exclusive factors, including (i) prolonged, KNOX-dependent cell fate indeterminacy, (ii) localized organ sculpting and/or (iii) redeployment of hormone-signalling modules. Using cell division markers to guide transcriptome analysis of microdissected spur tissue, we present candidate mechanisms underlying spur outgrowth. We see dynamic expression of factors controlling cell proliferation and hormone signalling, but no evidence of contribution from indeterminacy factors. Transcriptome dynamics point to a novel recruitment event in which auxin-related factors that normally function at the organ margin were co-opted to this central structure. Functional perturbation of the transition between cell division and expansion reveals an unexpected asymmetric component of spur development. These findings indicate that the production of this three-dimensional form is an example of organ sculpting via localized cell division with novel contributions from hormone signalling, rather than a product of prolonged indeterminacy. PMID:25673682

  20. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)