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Sample records for avian influenza vaccines

  1. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielink, van R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce

  2. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  3. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  4. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  5. Vaccinating chickens against avian influenza with fowlpox recombinants expressing the H7 haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, D B; Selleck, P; Heine, H G

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the H7 haemagglutinin of avian influenza virus in poultry. Specific-pathogen-free poultry were vaccinated with fowlpox recombinants expressing H7 or H1 haemagglutinins of influenza virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 2 or 7 days of age and challenged with virulent Australian avian influenza virus at 10 and 21 days later, respectively. Morbidity and mortality, body weight change and the development of immune responses to influenza haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein were recorded. Vaccination of poultry with fowlpox H7 avian influenza virus recombinants induced protective immune responses. All chickens vaccinated at 7 days of age and challenged 21 days later were protected from death. Few clinical signs of infection developed. In contrast, unvaccinated or chickens vaccinated with a non-recombinant fowlpox or a fowlpox expressing the H1 haemagglutinin of human influenza were highly susceptible to avian influenza. All those chickens died within 72 h of challenge. In younger chickens, vaccinated at 2 days of age and challenged 10 days later the protection was lower with 80% of chickens protected from death. Chickens surviving vaccination and challenge had high antibody responses to haemagglutinin and primary antibody responses to nucleoprotein suggesting that although vaccination protected substantially against disease it failed to completely prevent replication of the challenge avian influenza virus. Vaccination of chickens with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza H7 haemagglutinin provided good protection against experimental challenge with virulent avian influenza of H7 type. Although eradication will remain the method of first choice for control of avian influenza, in the circumstances of a continuing and widespread outbreak the availability of vaccines based upon fowlpox recombinants provides an additional method for disease control.

  6. Vector vaccines for control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccines play a critical role in the poultry industries efforts at disease control and prevention. However, providing safe, efficacious, and cost-effective vaccines remains a constant issue to the industry. In addition, many viruses undergo mutation in the field requiring vaccine adjustments. Recent...

  7. Quantification of the effect of vaccination on transmission of avian influenza (H7N7) in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der A.J.; Koch, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Boven, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry and their threatening zoonotic consequences emphasize the need for effective control measures. Although vaccination of poultry against avian influenza provides a potentially attractive control measure, little is known

  8. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the... serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8 for poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent... influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following...

  9. Diagnosing avian influenza infection in vaccinated populations by systems for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, I; Cattoli, G

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza is recommended as a tool to support control measures in countries affected by avian influenza. Vaccination is known to increase the resistance of susceptible birds to infection and also to reduce shedding; however, it does not always prevent infection. Vaccinated infected flocks can therefore be a source of infection and thus be responsible for the perpetuation of infection. To avoid the spread of infection in a vaccinated population, immunization strategies must allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), combined with an appropriate monitoring system. Vaccinated exposed flocks must be identified and managed by restriction policies that include controlled marketing and stamping-out. Several vaccines and diagnostic tests to detect infection in vaccinated populations are available, the tests having various properties and characteristics. In order to achieve eradication, the most appropriate DIVA vaccination strategy must be identified and an appropriate monitoring programme be designed, taking into account risk factors, the epidemiological situation and the socioeconomic implications of the policy.

  10. Increased immunogenicity of avian influenza DNA vaccine delivered to the skin using a microneedle patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Song, Jae-Min; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Choi, Seong-O; Lee, Jeong Woo; Donis, Ruben O.; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective public health responses to an influenza pandemic require an effective vaccine that can be manufactured and administered to large populations in the shortest possible time. In this study, we evaluated a method for vaccination against avian influenza virus that uses a DNA vaccine for rapid manufacturing and delivered by a microneedle skin patch for simplified administration and increased immunogenicity. We prepared patches containing 700 µm-long microneedles coated with an avian H5 influenza hemagglutinin DNA vaccine from A/Viet Nam/1203/04 influenza virus. The coating DNA dose increased with DNA concentration in the coating solution and the number of dip coating cycles. Coated DNA was released into the skin tissue by dissolution within minutes. Vaccination of mice using microneedles induced higher levels of antibody responses and hemagglutination inhibition titers, and improved protection against lethal infection with avian influenza as compared to conventional intramuscular delivery of the same dose of the DNA vaccine. Additional analysis showed that the microneedle coating solution containing carboxymethylcellulose and a surfactant may have negatively affected the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. Overall, this study shows that DNA vaccine delivery by microneedles can be a promising approach for improved vaccination to mitigate an influenza pandemic. PMID:22504442

  11. Silent spread of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus amongst vaccinated commercial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poetri, O.N.; Boven, M.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Koch, G.; Wibawan, I.W.; Stegeman, A.; Broek, van den J.; Bouma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a single vaccination of commercial layer type chickens with an inactivated vaccine containing highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain H5N1 A/chicken/Legok/2003, carried out on the farm, was sufficient to protect against infection with the

  12. EVALUATION OF OIL BASED AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINE (H5NI PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ADJUVANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. NISAR, ANWARUL-HAQ, S. NOOR AND Z. J. GILL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu vaccine from H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus was prepared with two concentrations of adjuvant (Montanide ISA 70MVG. Two vaccines (I and II were prepared containing 50 and 60% Montanide, respectively. Immune response of both the vaccines as single, as well as booster, dose was evaluated in layer birds through haemagglutination inhibition test. Single dose of both vaccines showed poor immune response, while booster dose gave better response with both the vaccines. However, the vaccine prepared with 60% Montanide provided better immune response compared with the vaccine containing 50% montanide.

  13. Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kampen, K. R.; Tang, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with

  14. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  15. Avian influenza: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer K; Noppenberger, Jennifer

    2007-01-15

    A review of the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, including human cases, viral transmission, clinical features, vaccines and antivirals, surveillance plans, infection control, and emergency response plans, is presented. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential. The next human influenza pandemic, if caused by the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, is estimated to have a potential mortality rate of more than a hundred million. Outbreaks in poultry have been associated with human transmission. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate greater than 50%. Bird-to-human transmission of the avian influenza virus is likely by the oral-fecal route. The most effective defense against an influenza pandemic would be a directed vaccine to elicit a specific immune response toward the strain or strains of the influenza virus. However, until there is an influenza pandemic, there is no evidence that vaccines or antivirals used in the treatment or prevention of such an outbreak would decrease morbidity or mortality. Surveillance of the bird and human populations for the highly pathogenic H5N1 is being conducted. Infection-control measures and an emergency response plan are discussed. Avian influenza virus A/H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in humans. Understanding its pathology, transmission, clinical features, and pharmacologic treatments and preparing for the prevention and management of its outbreak will help avoid its potentially devastating consequences.

  16. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  17. A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, John; Burmakina, Svetlana V; Thomas, Colleen; Spackman, Erica; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Swayne, David E; Palese, Peter

    2008-01-24

    The protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved through vaccination, as part of a broader disease control strategy. We have previously generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing, (i) an H5 hemagglutinin protein, modified by the removal of the polybasic cleavage peptide and (ii) the ectodomain of the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein in the place of the ectodomain of influenza neuraminidase (Park MS, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(21):8203-8). Here we show this virus is attenuated in primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture, and demonstrate protection of C57BL/6 mice from lethal challenge with an H5 HA-containing influenza virus through immunisation with the recombinant virus. In addition, in-ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryonated chicken eggs provided 90% and 80% protection against highly stringent lethal challenge by NDV and H5N1 virus, respectively. We propose that this virus has potential as a safe in-ovo live, attenuated, bivalent avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus vaccine.

  18. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  20. Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de E.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Vervelde, L.

    2012-01-01

    The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV,

  1. Protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-09-17

    Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.

  2. A randomized clinical trial of an inactivated avian influenza A (H7N7 vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Couch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern for a pandemic caused by a newly emerged avian influenza A virus has led to clinical trials with candidate vaccines as preparation for such an event. Most trials have involved vaccines for influenza A (H5N1, A (H7N7 or A (H9N2. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dosage-related safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza A (H7N7 vaccine in humans. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-five healthy young adults were randomized to receive two doses intramuscularly of placebo or 7.5, 15, 45 or 90 µg of HA of an inactivated subunit influenza A (H7N7 vaccine (25 per group, four weeks apart. Reactogenicity was evaluated closely for one week and for any adverse effect for six months after each dose. Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibody responses were determined four weeks after each dose and at six months. RESULTS: Reactogenicity evaluations indicated the vaccinations were well tolerated. Only one subject developed a ≥4-fold serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI antibody response and a final titer of ≥1:40 four weeks after dose two and only five subjects developed a neutralizing antibody rise and a final titer of ≥1:40 in tests performed at a central laboratory. Four of the five were given the 45 or 90 µg HA dosage. A more sensitive HAI assay at the study site revealed a dose-response with increasing HA dosage but only 36% in the 90 µg HA group developed a ≥4-fold rise in antibody in this test and only one of these achieved a titer of ≥1:32. CONCLUSION: This inactivated subunit influenza A (H7N7 vaccine was safe but poorly immunogenic in humans. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00546585.

  3. Efficacy of avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines in chickens of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H D

    1987-01-01

    An experimental avian influenza (AI) oil-emulsion vaccine was formulated with 1 part inactivated A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) AI virus emulsified in 4 parts oil. Broilers were vaccinated subcutaneously (SC) either at 1 or 3 days old or at 4 or 5 wks old. Commercial white leghorn (WL) layers were vaccinated SC at 12 and 20 wks old or at only 20 wks old. Maximum geometric mean hemagglutination-inhibition titers postvaccination (PV) were 1:86-1:320 for broilers, 1:597 for twice-vaccinated layers, and 1:422 for once-vaccinated layers. Ninety to 100% of vaccinated broilers were protected against death and morbidity when challenged with highly pathogenic A/chicken/Penn/83 (H5N2) AI virus 4 weeks PV, and all were protected when challenged 8 wks PV. All controls and most vaccinates were infected by challenge virus, and 90-100% of controls died or exhibited clinical signs. Vaccinated commercial pullets were protected against morbidity, death, and egg-production decline at either peak of lay (25 wks old) or at 55 wks old. All unvaccinated controls became morbid or died, and egg production ceased 72 hours after challenge. The 0.5-ml vaccine dose was determined to contain 251 and 528 mean protective doses (PD50S) in 4-wk-old and 1-year-old SPF WL chickens, respectively, challenged 4 wks PV.

  4. Multivalent HA DNA vaccination protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infection in chickens and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rao

    Full Text Available Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency and inability to protect against evolving avian influenza viruses.The ability of DNA vaccines encoding hemagglutinin (HA proteins from different HPAI H5N1 serotypes was evaluated for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and to protect against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5N1 strain challenge in mice and chickens after DNA immunization by needle and syringe or with a pressure injection device. These vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized multiple strains of HPAI H5N1 when given in combinations containing up to 10 HAs. The response was dose-dependent, and breadth was determined by the choice of the influenza virus HA in the vaccine. Monovalent and trivalent HA vaccines were tested first in mice and conferred protection against lethal H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 challenge 68 weeks after vaccination. In chickens, protection was observed against heterologous strains of HPAI H5N1 after vaccination with a trivalent H5 serotype DNA vaccine with doses as low as 5 microg DNA given twice either by intramuscular needle injection or with a needle-free device.DNA vaccines offer a generic approach to influenza virus immunization applicable to multiple animal species. In addition, the ability to substitute plasmids encoding different strains enables rapid adaptation of the vaccine to newly evolving field isolates.

  5. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  6. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  7. Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Stone, H D

    1999-06-01

    The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50= 0.006 μg AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

  8. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  9. Immunity to current H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses: From vaccines to adaptive immunity in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 2014-2015 outbreaks of H5N2 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S., studies were performed to assess the immunity required for protection against future outbreaks should they occur. We assessed the ability of vaccines to induce protection of chickens and turkeys...

  10. Newcastle disease virus-based H5 influenza vaccine protects chickens from lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jingjiao; Lee, Jinhwa; Liu, Haixia; Mena, Ignacio; Davis, A. Sally; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Morozov, Igor; Li, Yuhao; Yang, Jianmei; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A.; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5Nx viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines ha...

  11. Duration of immunity following the administration of oil-based avian influenza H5N1 vaccine in layers

    OpenAIRE

    NISAR, Maryam; RASHID*, Asif; IQBAL, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) occurs worldwide and causes tremendous economic losses. The disease is characterised by respiratory signs, depression, and reduced food and water intake. In the present study, an oil-based vaccine created by using Montanide ISA 70 MVG, was prepared and the duration of immunity checked at different time intervals. For this purpose, the cumulative mean titre (CMT) was calculated after employing haemagglutination inhibition test in 50 pullets at day zero before vaccination a...

  12. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  13. Principles for vaccine protection in chickens and domestic waterfowl against avian influenza: emphasis on Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E

    2006-10-01

    The H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) epizootic began with reports of mortality from China in 1996 and, by June 2005, caused outbreaks of disease in nine additional Asian countries, affecting or resulting in culling of over 200 million birds. Vaccines can be used in programs to prevent, manage, or eradicate AI. However, vaccines should only be used as part of a comprehensive control strategy that also includes biosecurity, quarantine, surveillance and diagnostics, education, and elimination of infected poultry. Potent AI vaccines, when properly used, can prevent disease and death, increase resistance to infection, reduce field virus replication and shedding, and reduce virus transmission, but do not provide "sterilizing immunity" in the field; i.e., vaccination does not completely prevent AI virus replication. Inactivated AI vaccines and a recombinant fowlpox-H5-AI vaccine are licensed and used in various countries. Vaccines have been shown to protect chickens, geese, and ducks from H5 HPAI. The inactivated vaccines prevented disease and mortality in chickens and geese, and reduced the ability of the field virus to replicate in gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Although the Asian H5N1 HPAI virus did not cause disease or mortality in ducks, the use of inactivated vaccine did reduce field virus replication in the respiratory and intestinal tracts. The inactivated vaccine protected geese from morbidity and mortality, and reduced challenge virus replication. The recombinant fowlpox-H5-AI vaccine has provided similar protection, but the vaccine is used only in chickens and with the advantage of application at 1 day of age in the hatchery.

  14. Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zoghby Elham F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2. The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans.

  15. Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Esaki, Motoyuki; Dorsey, Kristi M; Jiang, Haijun; Jackwood, Mark; Moraes, Mauro; Gardin, Yannick

    2015-02-25

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce protection against heterologous isolates and ability to overcome maternal antibody interference. In these studies, we compared protection of chickens provided by a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006) against homologous H5N1 as well as heterologous H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic (HP) AI challenge. The results demonstrated all vaccinated birds were protected from clinical signs of disease and mortality following homologous challenge. In addition, oral and cloacal swabs taken from challenged birds demonstrated that vaccinated birds had lower incidence and titers of viral shedding compared to sham-vaccinated birds. Following heterologous H5N1 or H5N2 HPAI challenge, 80-95% of birds receiving the HVT vector AI vaccine at day of age survived challenge with fewer birds shedding virus after challenge than sham vaccinated birds. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that splenic T lymphocytes from HVT-vector-AI vaccinated chickens recognized MHC-matched target cells infected with H5, as well as H6, H7, or H9 AI virus. Taken together, these studies provide support for the use of HVT vector vaccines expressing HA to protect poultry against multiple lineages of HPAI, and that both humoral and cellular immunity induced by live vaccines likely contributes to protection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service . Surveillance for Avian Influenza CDC, ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  17. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Halbherr

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade. Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  18. The Effect of Antibiofin® on the Immune Response Against Avian Influenza Subtype H9N2 Vaccine in Broiler Chickens

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    Forough Talazadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some herbs such as thyme (Thymus vulgaris are rich in flavonoids, act as antioxidants, and may improve the immune function. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effects of Antibiofin® (mostly including Thymus vulgaris in drinking water on immune response against avian influenza (AI subtype H9N2 vaccine of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: One hundred eighty one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided into 4 equal groups. Chickens of groups A and B received 0.1% and 0.2% Antibiofin® respectively in their drinking water. Chickens of group C did not receive Antibiofin® but were vaccinated against AI. Chickens of group D were not vaccinated against influenza disease and did not receive Antibiofin®. All groups except group D were vaccinated with AIND killed. Blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as after vaccination on days 14, 21 and 28, and antibody titer against influenza disease vaccine was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. Results: The results of this study showed that receiving Antibiofin® at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations, 14 and 28 days after vaccination, could increase the specific antibody titer against avian influenza subtype H9N2 vaccine compared to the control group. Conclusions: Antibiofin® enhanced the systemic antibody response against avian influenza subtype H9N2 vaccine in broiler chickens

  19. Positive regulation of humoral and innate immune responses induced by inactivated Avian Influenza Virus vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Fatma; Hassanin, Ola

    2015-12-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used for mammals and birds in a trial to eliminate the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) infection from the world. However and up till now the virus is still existed via modulation of its antigenic structure to evade the pressure of host immune responses. For a complete understanding of the immune responses following AI vaccination in chickens, the modulations of the chickens humoral immune responses and interferon-alpha signaling pathway, as a fundamental part of the innate immune responses, were investigated. In our study, we measured the humoral immune response using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In addition, chicken interferon-alpha pathway components was measured at RNA levels using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) following one dose of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine at 14 days of age. In this study, the protective levels of humoral antibody responses were observed at 14, 21 and 28 days following immunization with inactivated (Re-1/H5N1) AI vaccine. In the chicken spleen cells, up regulation in the chicken interferon-alpha pathway components (MX1 & IRF7) was existed as early as 48 h post vaccination and remained until 28 days post vaccination at the endogenous state. However, after the recall with ex-vivo stimulation, the up regulation was more pronounced in the transcriptional factor (IRF7) compared to the antiviral gene (MX1) at 28 days post vaccination. So far, from our results it appears that the inactivated H5N1 vaccine can trigger the chicken interferon-alpha signaling pathway as well as it can elicit protective humoral antibody responses.

  20. The control of H5 or H7 mildly pathogenic avian influenza: a role for inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, David A

    2002-02-01

    Biosecurity is the first line of defence in the prevention and control of mildly pathogenic avian influenza (MPAI). Its use has been highly successful in keeping avian influenza (AI) out of commercial poultry worldwide. However, sometimes AI becomes introduced into poultry populations and, when that occurs, biosecurity again is the primary means of controlling the disease. There is agreement that routine serological monitoring, disease reporting, isolation or quarantine of affected flocks, application of strict measures to prevent the contamination of and movement of people and equipment, and changing flock schedules are necessities for controlling AI. There is disagreement as to the disposition of MPAI-infected flocks: some advocate their destruction and others advocate controlled marketing. Sometimes biosecurity is not enough to stop the spread of MPAI. In general, influenza virus requires a dense population of susceptible hosts to maintain itself. When there is a large population of susceptible poultry in an area, use of an inactivated AI vaccine can contribute to AI control by reducing the susceptibility of the population. Does use of inactivated vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists MPAI control (which may reduce the risk of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI)) but, unless steps are taken to prevent it, vaccination may interfere with sero-epidemiology in the case of an HPAI outbreak. Does lack of vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists in identification of sero-positive (convalescent) flocks in a HPAI eradication program, but it interferes with MPAI control (which in turn may increase the risk of emergence of HPAI).A number of hypothetical concerns have been raised about the use of inactivated AI vaccines. Infection of vaccinated flocks, serology complications and spreading of virus by vaccine crews are some of the hypothetical concerns. The discussion of these concerns

  1. Chimeric avian paramyxovirus-based vector immunization against highly pathogenic avian influenza followed by conventional Newcastle disease vaccination eliminates lack of protection from virulent ND virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steglich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we described a chimeric, hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5 expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV-based vector vaccine (chNDVFHNPMV8H5 in which NDV envelope glycoproteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus-8 (APMV-8. This chimeric vaccine induced solid protection against lethal HPAIV H5N1 even in chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV (MDA+. However, due to the absence of the major NDV immunogens it failed to induce protection against Newcastle disease (ND. Here, we report on protection of MDA+ chickens against HPAI H5N1 and ND, by vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 either on day 1 or day seven after hatch, and subsequent immunization with live attenuated NDV seven days later. Vaccination was well tolerated and three weeks after immunization, challenge infections with highly pathogenic NDV as well as HPAIV H5N1 were carried out. All animals remained healthy without exhibiting any clinical signs, whereas non-vaccinated animals showed morbidity and mortality. Therefore, vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 can be followed by NDV vaccination to protect chickens from HPAIV as well as NDV, indicating that the antibody response against chNDVFHNPMV8H5 does not interfere with live ND vaccination.

  2. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks is significantly reduced by a genetically distant H5N2 vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Boven, van M.; Stegeman, A.; Water, van de S.G.P.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza. Although it is known that vaccines that have a high homology with the challenge virus are able to prevent infection in ducks, little is yet known about the ability of genetically more distant vaccines in preventing

  3. Antibody and T-cell responses to a virosomal adjuvanted H9N2 avian influenza vaccine: impact of distinct additional adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radosević, Katarina; Rodriguez, Ariane; Mintardjo, Ratna; Tax, Dennis; Bengtsson, Karin Lövgren; Thompson, Catherine; Zambon, Maria; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Uytdehaag, Fons; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    A highly efficacious vaccine is required to counteract a threat of an avian influenza pandemic. Increasing the potency of vaccines by adjuvation is essential not only to overcome generally low immunogenicity of pandemic strains, but also to allow dose sparing and as such to make it feasible to

  4. Adaption of wild-bird origin H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus Clade 2.3.4.4 in vaccinated poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014-2015 incursion of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused the largest animal health emergency in U.S. history and renewed interest in developing vaccines against these newly emergent viruses. Our previous research demonstrated several H5 vaccines with varyi...

  5. Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Murcia

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1 gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies.

  6. Respiratory immune responses in the chicken; Towards development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Several important poultry pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), enter the host through the mucosae of the respiratory tract (RT) and subsequently disseminate towards other organs in the body. Therefore, animal health significantly depends on the control of infection in the lung tissue by

  7. Towards an improved vaccination programme against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poetri, O.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 are considered to be a major threat for both the poultry industry and public health, and Indonesia is one of the HPAI H5N1 endemic country with the highest incidence of human cases worldwide. The control measures of HPAI, like stamping-out were

  8. Efficacy of Live-Attenuated H9N2 Influenza Vaccine Candidates Containing NS1 Truncations against H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses

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    Sujuan Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza virus is a zoonotic agent with a broad host range that can contribute genetic information to H5 or H7N9 subtype viruses, which are significant threats to both humans and birds. Thus, there is a great need for a vaccine to control H9N2 avian influenza. Three mutant viruses of an H9N2 virus A/chicken/Taixing/10/2010 (rTX-NS1-73, rTX-NS1-100, and rTX-NS1-128 were constructed with different NS1 gene truncations and confirmed by western blot analysis. The genetic stability, pathogenicity, transmissibility, and host immune responses toward these mutants were evaluated. The mutant virus rTX-NS1-128 exhibited the most attenuated phenotype and lost transmissibility. The expression levels of interleukin 12 in the nasal and tracheal tissues from chickens immunized with rTX-NS1-128 were significantly upregulated on day 3 post-immunization and the IgA and IgG antibody levels were significantly increased on days 7, 14, and 21 post-immunization when compared to chickens that received an inactivated vaccine. rTX-NS1-128 also protected chickens from challenge by homologous and heterologous H9N2 avian influenza viruses. The results indicate that rTX-NS1-128 can be used as a potential live-attenuated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza.

  9. Addition of αGal HyperAcute™ technology to recombinant avian influenza vaccines induces strong low-dose antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Alex Chen

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza represents a severe public health threat. Over the last decade, the demand for highly efficacious vaccines against avian influenza viruses has grown, especially after the 2013 H7N9 outbreak in China that resulted in over 600 human cases with over 200 deaths. Currently, there are several H5N1 and H7N9 influenza vaccines in clinical trials, all of which employ traditional oil-in-water adjuvants due to the poor immunogenicity of avian influenza virus antigens. In this study, we developed potent recombinant avian influenza vaccine candidates using HyperAcute™ Technology, which takes advantage of naturally-acquired anti-αGal immunity in humans. We successfully generated αGal-positive recombinant protein and virus-like particle vaccine candidates of H5N1 and H7N9 influenza strains using either biological or our novel CarboLink chemical αGal modification techniques. Strikingly, two doses of 100 ng αGal-modified vaccine, with no traditional adjuvant, was able to induce a much stronger humoral response in αGT BALB/c knockout mice (the only experimental system readily available for testing αGal in vivo than unmodified vaccines even at 10-fold higher dose (1000 ng/dose. Our data strongly suggest that αGal modification significantly enhances the humoral immunogenicity of the recombinant influenza vaccine candidates. Use of αGal HyperAcute™ technology allows significant dose-sparing while retaining desired immunogenicity. Our success in the development of highly potent H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine candidates demonstrated the potential of αGal HyperAcute™ technology for the development of vaccines against other infectious diseases.

  10. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  11. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  12. Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Dawn; Thomas, Colleen; Spackman, Erica; Pritchard, Nikki; Rojo, Francisco; Bublot, Michel; Swayne, David E

    2010-06-23

    A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of 10 commercially available H5 vaccines against challenge with H5N2 LPAI viruses isolated from Latin America in 2003. The original 1994 vaccine seed virus in commercial inactivated vaccines did not significantly reduce challenge virus shed titers. However, two seed strains of inactivated vaccines, genetically more closely related to the challenge virus, did significantly reduce titers of challenge virus shed from respiratory tract. In addition, a live recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine containing a more distantly related Eurasian lineage H5 gene insert significantly reduced respiratory shedding as compared to sham vaccinates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying vaccine seed strains in commercial finished products for regulatory verification and the need for periodic challenge testing against current field strains in order to select efficacious vaccine seed strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  14. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

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    Jihu Lu

    Full Text Available Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  15. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  16. 76 FR 66032 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease Vector AGENCY... authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Avian Influenza... product: Requester: Biomune Company. Product: Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype...

  17. Fowl adenovirus serotype 9 vectored vaccine for protection of avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fowl adenovirus serotype 9, a non-pathogenic large double stranded DNA virus, was developed as a viral vector to express influenza genes as a potential vaccine. Two separate constructs were developed that expressed either the hemagglutinin gene of A/Chicken/Jalisco/2012 (H7) or A/ Chicken/Iowa/20...

  18. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  19. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  20. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

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    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  1. [Summary of Guangdong provincial seminar on avian influenza and influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-yi; Chen, Qing; Hu, Gui-fang

    2005-12-01

    On 8th November 2005, an academic seminar on avian influenza and influenza in Guangdong Province was held by Guangdong Society of Tropical Medicine and the Epidemiology Committee of the Guangdong Preventive Medicine Society in Southern Medical University, addressing the current problems in epidemics of avian influenza. The specialists attending the conference arrived at the common consideration that at present, the avian influenza virus H5N1 has not the capacity to trigger an pandemic in human population, but scattered cases had been reported to increase the suspicions of H5N1 virus transmission between humans. Due attention should be paid to the tendency of expansion of the host range and epidemic area, and the possibility of disastrous influenza pandemic among human populations persists, for which rational consideration is called for, and the role of specialists should be fully recognized who are endeavoring to examine the possible scale of influenza occurrence and devise strategy to deal with the epidemic in Guangdong province according to the practical situation in China. Increased funds and investment in scientific research on avian influenza is urged for influenza prediction and surveillance, rapid and early diagnostic assays, understanding of virus variation, mechanism of H5N1 virus adaptation to human hosts, effective medicines and vaccines for prevention and therapy of avian influenza. Laboratory bio-safety control should be enforced to prevent infections originated from laboratories. The specialists appeal that the media report the news objectively and issue the public warnings against avian influenza after consulting specialists, so as to avoid unnecessary social panic.

  2. Use of M2e ELISAs for longitudinal surveillance of commercial poultry in Indonesia vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Michael Haryadi; Tarigan, Simson; Sumarningsih; Artanto, Sidna; Indriani, Risa; Anggoro, Dito; Putra, Cahyaditya Pratama; Idris, Syafrison; Untari, Tri; Asmara, Widya; Tabbu, Charles Rangga; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2017-11-01

    In countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is endemic and controlled by vaccination, post-vaccination serological monitoring is essential to differentiate vaccinated poultry from those that are infected. The objectives of this study were to validate two experimental ELISAs that detect antibodies raised against the M2e protein of avian influenza virus that can be used for DIVA purposes. Results from the sM2e and tM2e ELISAs were compared with other conventional tests for the detection of H5N1influenza virus (virus isolation and RT-PCR) using samples collected from 16 commercial flocks in Indonesia. These comprised vaccinated layers aged between 18 and 68 weeks old that were sampled at ten-weekly intervals. A small number of sera were positive in sM2e and tM2e ELISA, 14 (0.6%) and 17 (0.7%) respectively, with low OD 420 (0.1-0.3), but only 4 sera were positive in both tests. At the flock level, the incidence of M2e positive sera was low (4%), well below previously established minimum of 40% for an HPAIV H5N1-infected flock. Conventional M and H5 gene RT-PCRs indicated that none of 16 flocks were infected at any time during the study. No virus was isolated from any of the 480 pooled swab samples, except from one, for which the combined data analysis suggest to be the result of a laboratory cross-contamination. Clinical disease, mortalities or reduction in production performance, indicative of field H5N1 challenge, were not observed either in any of the flocks. Birds from two surveyed flocks, challenged in the laboratory with an Indonesian HPAIV H5N1 developed M2e antibodies in 50% and 55% of surviving birds with OD 420 in the range of 0.35-1.47 in tM2e ELISA, confirming the validity of the criteria established for use of M2e ELISA for DIVA purposes. Overall these results showed that the tM2e ELISA could be a useful monitoring tool to ascertain freedom from H5N1 infections in vaccinated commercial poultry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  3. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  4. The response of mute swans (Cygnus olor, Gm. 1789) to vaccination against avian influenza with an inactivated H5N2 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-10-22

    Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response of wild mute swans to immunization with an inactivated AI H5N2 vaccine approved for use in poultry. The serological responses of mute swans were assessed by comparison with racing pigeons (Columba livia), a species which is characterized by different susceptibility to infection with the H5N1 HPAI virus and plays a questionable role in the ecology of influenza (H5N1) viruses. Swans were vaccinated once or twice at an interval of 4 weeks. The humoral immune response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and NP-ELISA. The lymphocyte blast transformation test was used to determine the cell-mediated immune response. Higher values of the geometric mean titer (GMT) and 100 % seroconversion (HI ≥32) were noted in double vaccinated swans (1448.2) than in single vaccinated swans (128.0) or in double vaccinated pigeons (215.3). Significant differences in HI titers were observed between swans and pigeons, but no variations in ELISA scores were noted after the booster dose. Immunization of swans had no effect on the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. The inactivated H5N2 vaccine was safe and immunogenic for mute swans and pigeons. Vaccination may have practical implications for swans kept in zoos, wildlife parks or rehabilitation centers. However, challenge studies are needed to prove the efficacy of the H5N2 AI vaccine.

  5. Matrix-M Adjuvated Seasonal Virosomal Influenza Vaccine Induces Partial Protection in Mice and Ferrets against Avian H5 and H7 Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cox

    Full Text Available There is a constant threat of zoonotic influenza viruses causing a pandemic outbreak in humans. It is virtually impossible to predict which virus strain will cause the next pandemic and it takes a considerable amount of time before a safe and effective vaccine will be available once a pandemic occurs. In addition, development of pandemic vaccines is hampered by the generally poor immunogenicity of avian influenza viruses in humans. An effective pre-pandemic vaccine is therefore required as a first line of defense. Broadening of the protective efficacy of current seasonal vaccines by adding an adjuvant may be a way to provide such first line of defense. Here we evaluate whether a seasonal trivalent virosomal vaccine (TVV adjuvated with the saponin-based adjuvant Matrix-M (MM can confer protection against avian influenza H5 and H7 virus strains in mice and ferrets. We demonstrate that mice were protected from death against challenges with H5N1 and H7N7, but that the protection was not complete as evidenced by severe clinical signs. In ferrets, protection against H7N9 was not observed. In contrast, reduced upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads and reduced lung pathology, was achieved in H5N1 challenged ferrets. Together these results suggest that, at least to some extent, Matrix-M adjuvated seasonal virosomal influenza vaccine can serve as an interim measure to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with a pandemic outbreak.

  6. Inactivated H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine with gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen could produce improved immune response in broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D-H; Kwon, J-S; Lee, H-J; Lee, Y-N; Hur, W; Hong, Y-H; Lee, J-B; Park, S-Y; Choi, I-S; Song, C-S

    2011-05-01

    The frequent economic losses incurred with H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI) infection have raised serious concerns for the poultry industry. A 1-dose regimen with inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could not prevent vaccinated poultry from becoming infected and from shedding wild viruses. A study was conducted to determine whether a 2-dose regimen of inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could enhance the immunologic response in chickens. Such gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen has produced encouraging results associated with improved immune responses to an H9N2 LPAI. This strategy could be cost effective and helpful for preventing avian influenza virus in the poultry industry.

  7. The Application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox System in the Generation of Bivalent Duck Enteritis Virus Vaccine against Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Duck enteritis virus (DEV is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines. Currently, there are two commonly used methods for gene insertion: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR. Owing to its advantages in efficiency and independence from molecular requirements of the homologous arms, we utilized NHEJ-dependent CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the influenza hemagglutinin (HA antigen expression cassette into the DEV genome. The insert was initially tagged with reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP, and a Cre-Lox system was later used to remove the GFP gene insert. Furthermore, a universal donor plasmid system was established by introducing double bait sequences that were independent of the viral genome. In summary, we provide proof of principle for generating recombinant DEV viral vectored vaccines against the influenza virus using an integrated NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system.

  8. Newcastle disease virus-based H5 influenza vaccine protects chickens from lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingjiao; Lee, Jinhwa; Liu, Haixia; Mena, Ignacio; Davis, A Sally; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Morozov, Igor; Li, Yuhao; Yang, Jianmei; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5N x viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines have been demonstrated to be efficacious and safe in poultry. Herein, we developed an NDV-based H5 vaccine (NDV-H5) that expresses a codon-optimized ectodomain of the hemagglutinin from the A/chicken/Iowa/04-20/2015 (H5N2) virus and evaluated its efficacy in chickens. Results showed that both live and inactivated NDV-H5 vaccines induced hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H5N2 virus in immunized chickens after prime and booster, and both NDV-H5 vaccines completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic H5N2 A/turkey/Minnesota/9845-4/2015 virus. No clinical signs and only minimal virus shedding was observed in both vaccinated groups. In contrast, all mock-vaccinated, H5N2-infected chickens shed virus and died within 5 days post challenge. Furthermore, one dose of the live NDV-H5 vaccine also provided protection of 90% chickens immunized by coarse spraying; after exposure to H5N2 challenge, sera from vaccinated surviving chickens neutralized both highly pathogenic H5N1 and H5N8 viruses. Taken together, our results suggest that the NDV-based H5 vaccine is able to protect chickens against intercontinental highly pathogenic H5N x viruses and can be used by mass application to protect the poultry industry.

  9. Studies on Nanoparticle Based Avian Influenza Vaccines to Present Immunogenic Epitopes of the Virus with Concentration on Ectodomain of Matrix 2 (M2e) Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapoor Dighaleh, Sankhiros

    2011-12-01

    Avian influenza is an infectious disease of avian species caused by type A influenza viruses with a significant economic impact on the poultry industry. Vaccination is the main prevention strategy in many countries worldwide. However, available vaccines elicit antibodies against two major surface protein of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), where they constantly change by point mutations. Influenza viruses can also easily undergo gene reassortment. Therefore, to protect chickens against new strain of avian influenza virus, as well as control and prevent virus spread among farms, new vaccines needed to be designed which is a tedious, time consuming and expensive. Recently, conserved regions of the influenza genome have been evaluated as possible universal vaccines to eliminate constant vaccine updates based on circulating virus. In this study, peptide nanotechnology was used to generate vaccine nanoparticles that carry the highly conserved external domain of matrix 2 protein (M2e). These nanoparticles presented M2e in monomeric or tetrameric forms, designated as PSC-M2e-CH and BNSC-M2eN-CH. respectively. First, to demonstrate immunogenicity of these nanoparticles, we measured anti-M2e antibody in chickens, particularly when a high dose was applied. Prior to vaccination-challenge study, the challenge dose were determined by oculonasal inoculation of 10 6 EID50 or 107.7 EID50 of low pathogenicity AI virus HSN2 followed by measuring cloacal and tracheal virus shedding. A biphasic virus shedding pattern was observed with two peaks of virus shedding at days 4 and 8 for both tracheal and cloacal swabs. The chickens infected with 107.7 EID50 had significant virus shedding as compared with 106 EID50. Based on results of mentioned studies, a vaccination-challenge study was conducted by using 75mug of each vaccine construct per inoculation (with and without adjuvant) and higher dose of virus for challenge. BN5C-M2e-CH with adjuvant significantly reduced the

  10. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  11. Vaccination against H9N2 avian influenza virus reduces bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation in cynomolgus macaques after intranasal virus challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Misako; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Itoh, Yasushi; Soda, Kosuke; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Park, Chun-Ho; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2016-12-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus causes sporadic human infection. Since humans do not possess acquired immunity specific to this virus, we examined the pathogenicity of an H9N2 virus isolated from a human and then analyzed protective effects of a vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. After intranasal challenge with A/Hong Kong/1073/1999 (H9N2) (HK1073) isolated from a human patient, viruses were isolated from nasal and tracheal swabs in unvaccinated macaques with mild fever and body weight loss. A formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine derived from our virus library was subcutaneously inoculated to macaques. Vaccination induced viral antigen-specific IgG and neutralization activity in sera. After intranasal challenge with H9N2, the virus was detected only the day after inoculation in the vaccinated macaques. Without vaccination, many bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues (BALTs) were formed in the lungs after infection, whereas the numbers of BALTs were smaller and the cytokine responses were weaker in the vaccinated macaques than those in the unvaccinated macaques. These findings indicate that the H9N2 avian influenza virus HK1073 is pathogenic in primates but seems to cause milder symptoms than does H7N9 influenza virus as found in our previous studies and that a formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine induces protective immunity against H9N2 virus. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Jiyeung; Ahn, So Shin; Byun, Young-Ho; Seong, Baik Lin; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk; Choi, Young Ki; Na, Yun Jeong; Hwang, Inhwan; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Chang Geun

    2009-01-01

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8 + T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains.

  13. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  14. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants.

  15. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  16. A baculovirus dual expression system-based vaccine confers complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 avian influenza virus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype have become highly prevalent in avian species. Although these viruses generally cause only mild to moderate disease, they can infect a wide variety of species, including chickens, quail, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasant, partridge, and pigeon, even transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. Results The results showed that stronger immune responses were induced in a mouse model immunized with BV-Dual-HA than in those vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the same antigen. Moreover, complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 virus was observed in mice. Conclusion BV-Dual-HA could be utilized as a vaccine candidate against H9N2 virus infection.

  17. Heterologous prime-boost immunization of Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccines protected broiler chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2017-07-24

    Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen for both human and animal health. There is a great need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for AI infections in the field. Live-attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored AI vaccines have shown to be effective, but preexisting antibodies to the vaccine vector can affect the protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. To improve the efficacy of AI vaccine, we generated a novel vectored vaccine by using a chimeric NDV vector that is serologically distant from NDV. In this study, the protective efficacy of our vaccines was evaluated by using H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004, a prototype strain for vaccine development. The vaccine viruses were three chimeric NDVs expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in combination with the neuraminidase (NA) protein, matrix 1 protein, or nonstructural 1 protein. Comparison of their protective efficacy between a single and prime-boost immunizations indicated that prime immunization of 1-day-old SPF chicks with our vaccine viruses followed by boosting with the conventional NDV vector strain LaSota expressing the HA protein provided complete protection of chickens against mortality, clinical signs and virus shedding. Further verification of our heterologous prime-boost immunization using commercial broiler chickens suggested that a sequential immunization of chickens with chimeric NDV vector expressing the HA and NA proteins following the boost with NDV vector expressing the HA protein can be a promising strategy for the field vaccination against HPAIVs and against highly virulent NDVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  20. Suboptimal protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam in ducks vaccinated with commercial poultry vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric; Davis, C Todd; Donis, Ruben; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Hoang Dang; Do, Hoa Thi; Inui, Ken; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2013-10-09

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries including Vietnam, and play a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) [FAO]. In this study, we examined the protective efficacy in ducks of two commercial H5N1 vaccines widely used in Vietnam; Re-1 containing A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 hemagglutinin (HA) clade 0 antigens, and Re-5 containing A/duck/Anhui/1/2006 HA clade 2.3.4 antigens. Ducks received two doses of either vaccine at 7 and at 14 or 21 days of age followed by challenge at 30 days of age with viruses belonging to the HA clades 1.1, 2.3.4.3, 2.3.2.1.A and 2.3.2.1.B isolated between 2008 and 2011 in Vietnam. Ducks vaccinated with the Re-1 vaccine were protected after infection with the two H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in 2008 (HA clades 1.1 and 2.3.4.3) showing no mortality and limited virus shedding. The Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines conferred 90-100% protection against mortality after challenge with the 2010 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2.1.A); but vaccinated ducks shed virus for more than 7 days after challenge. Similarly, the Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines only showed partial protection against the 2011 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2.1.A and 2.3.2.1.B), with a high proportion of vaccinated ducks shedding virus for more than 10 days. Furthermore, 50% mortality was observed in ducks vaccinated with Re-1 and challenged with the 2.3.2.1.B virus. The HA proteins of the 2011 challenge viruses had the greatest number of amino acid differences from the two vaccines as compared to the viruses from 2008 and 2009, which correlates with the lesser protection observed with these viruses. These studies demonstrate the suboptimal protection conferred by the Re-1 and Re-5 commercial vaccines in ducks against H5N1 HPAI clade 2.3.2.1 viruses, and underscore the importance of monitoring vaccine efficacy in the control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... August 7, 2017 Increase in Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus During the Fifth Epidemic — China, October 2016–February 2017 Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and candidate vaccine viruses developed for ...

  2. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude; Wang, Yue; Liao, Guoyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. ► Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. ► H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  3. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  4. Antibody titer has positive predictive value for vaccine protection against challenge with natural antigenic-drift variants of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with Hong Kong in 2002, vaccines have been used as part of an integrated control strategy in 14 countries/regions to protect poultry against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003 and vaccination was initiated the following year. ...

  5. Optimization of incubation temperature in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H9N2 vaccinal subtype of avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sedigh-Eteghad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are little information about growth properties of low pathogenic (LP avian influenza virus (AIV in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs at different incubation temperatures. Knowledge of this information increases the quantity and quality of antigen in vaccine production process. For this purpose, 10-5 dilution of AIV (A/Chicken/Iran/99/H9N2 was inoculated (Intra-allantoic into 400, 11-day old specific pathogen free (SPF ECEs in the 0.1 mL per ECE rate and incubated in 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37.5, 38, 39 ̊C for 72 hr in 65% humidity. Early death embryos in first 24 hr were removed. Amnio-allantoic fluid was withdrawn into the measuring cylinder, and tested for hemagglutination (HA activity and egg infective dose 50 (EID50. The utilizable ECEs and amnio-allantoic fluid volume was significantly increased in 35 ̊C, (p < 0.05. Significant difference in HA and EID50 titers, were seen only in 39 ̊C group. Therefore, 35°C is an optimum temperature for incubation of inoculated ECEs.

  6. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  7. Development and evaluation of an avian influenza, neuraminidase subtype 1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for poultry using the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Mundt, E; Mundt, A; Sylte, M; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; García, M

    2010-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using baculovirus, purified, recombinant N1 protein from A/chicken/Indonesia/PA7/2003 (H5N1) virus. The N1-ELISA showed high selectivity for detection of N1 antibodies, with no cross-reactivity with other neuraminidase subtypes, and broad reactivity with sera to N1 subtype isolates from North American and Eurasian lineages. Sensitivity of the N1-ELISA to detect N1 antibodies in turkey sera, collected 3 wk after H1N1 vaccination, was comparable to detection of avian influenza antibodies by the commercial, indirect ELISAs ProFLOK AIV Plus ELISA Kit (Synbiotics, Kansas City, MO) and Avian Influenza Virus Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME). However, 6 wk after vaccination, the Synbiotics ELISA kit performed better than the N1-ELISA and the IDEXX ELISA kit. An evaluation was made of the ability of the N1-ELISA to discriminate vaccinated chickens from subsequently challenged chickens. Two experiments were conducted, chickens were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 and H5N9 viruses and challenged with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, and chickens were vaccinated with recombinant poxvirus vaccine encoding H7 and challenged with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. Serum samples were collected at 14 days postchallenge and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), quantitative neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and N1-ELISA. At 2 days postchallenge, oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus isolation (VI) to confirm infection. The N1-ELISA was in fair agreement with VI and HI results. Although the N1-ELISA showed a lower sensitivity than the NI assay, it was demonstrated that detection of N1 antibodies by ELISA was an effective and rapid assay to identify exposure to the challenge virus in vaccinated chickens. Therefore, N1-ELISA can facilitate a vaccination strategy with differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals using a neuraminidase heterologous approach.

  8. Standardization of an inactivated H17N1 avian influenza vaccine and efficacy against A/Chicken/Italy/13474/99 high-pathogenicity virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Falcone, E; Lombardi, G; Moreno, A; Sala, G; Tollis, M

    2003-01-01

    The minimum requirements for assessing the immunogenicity of an experimental avian influenza (AI) vaccine prepared from inactivated A/Turkey/Italy/2676/99 (H7N1) low-pathogenicity (LP) AI (LPAI) virus were determined in chickens of different ages. A correlation between the amount of hemagglutinin (HA) per dose of vaccine and the protection against clinical signs of disease and infection by A/Chicken/Italy/13474/99 highly pathogenic (HP) AI (HPAI) virus was established. Depending on the vaccination schedule, one or two administrations of 0.5 microg of hemagglutinin protected chickens against clinical signs and death and completely prevented virus shedding from birds challenged at different times after vaccination.

  9. H9N2 avian influenza transmission and antigenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low pathogenic H9N2 avian influenza has become endemic in parts of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa causing respiratory disease with occasional mortality. The use of vaccination has become common to try and control the clinical disease, but vaccination has not been shown to be an effective er...

  10. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  11. Efficacy of two H5N9-inactivated vaccines against challenge with a recent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolate from a chicken in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublot, Michel; Le Gros, François-Xavier; Nieddu, Daniela; Pritchard, Nikki; Mickle, Thomas R; Swayne, David E

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two avian influenza (AI) H5-inactivated vaccines containing either an American (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9; H5N9-WI) or a Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9; H5N9-It). Three-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated once and challenged 3 wk later with a H5N1 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus isolated from a chicken in Thailand in 2004. All unvaccinated challenged birds died within 2 days, whereas 90% and 100% of chickens vaccinated with H5N9-WI and H5N9-It, respectively, were protected against morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines prevented cloacal shedding and significantly reduced oral shedding of the challenge HPAI virus. Additional chickens (vaccinated or unvaccinated) were placed in contact with the directly challenged birds 18 hr after challenge. All unvaccinated chickens in contact with unvaccinated challenged birds died within 3 days after contact, whereas unvaccinated chickens in contact with vaccinated challenged birds either showed a significantly delayed mortality or did not become infected. All vaccinated contacts were protected against clinical signs, and most chickens did not shed detectable amount of HPAI virus. Altogether, these data indicate that both vaccines protected very well against morbidity and mortality and reduced or prevented shedding induced by direct or contact exposure to Asian H5N1 HPAI virus.

  12. Carcass Management During Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page on Avian Influenza (AI) describes carcass management during Avian Flu outbreaks, including who oversees carcass management, how they're managed, environmental concerns from carcass management, and disinfection. The page also describes what AI is.

  13. Influence of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy and susceptibility of one day old chicks against Egyptian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-02-24

    In Egypt, continuous circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 in vaccinated commercial poultry challenges strenuous control efforts. Here, vaccine-derived maternal AIV H5 specific immunity in one-day old chicks was investigated as a factor of vaccine failure in long-term blanket vaccination campaigns in broiler chickens. H5 seropositive one-day old chicks were derived from breeders repeatedly immunized with a commercial inactivated vaccine based on the Potsdam/H5N2 strain. When challenged using the antigenically related HPAIV strain Italy/98 (H5N2) clinical protection was achieved until at least 10 days post-hatch although virus replication was not fully suppressed. No protection at all was observed against the Egyptian HPAIV strain EGYvar/H5N1 representing a vaccine escape lineage. Other groups of chicks with maternal immunity were vaccinated once at 3 or 14 days of age using either the Potsdam/H5N2 vaccine or a vaccine based on EGYvar/H5N1. At day 35 of age these chicks were challenged with the Egyptian HPAIV strain EGYcls/H5N1 which co-circulates with EGYvar/H5N1 but does not represent an antigenic drift variant. The Potsdam/H5N2 vaccinated groups were not protected against EGYcls/H5N1 infection while, in contrast, the EGYvar/H5N1 vaccinated chicks withstand challenge with EGYvar/H5N1 infection. In addition, the results showed that maternal antibodies could interfere with the immune response when a homologous vaccine strain was used. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Protection conferred by recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (rHVT-H5) vaccine in the rearing period in two commercial layer chicken breeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Selim, Abdullah; Tripodi, Astrid; Samy, Mohamed; Sobhy, Heba; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Safwat, Marwa; Saad, Mona; Erfan, Ahmed; Hassan, Mohamed; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended.

  15. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  16. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  17. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to

  20. Global spread and control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5 and H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge from the mutation of H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAI) after circulation in terrestrial poultry for a few weeks to years. There have been 42 distinct HPAI epizootics since 1959. The largest being the H5N1 A/G...

  1. Avian Influenza: A growing threat to Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is probably the most widespread avian influenza subtype in poultry around the world being endemic in a large part of Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and in Germany. Currently, there is no standardized clade system to describe the antigenic vari...

  2. Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F.; Klausen, Joan; Holm, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    seroconverted, and 76% developed a titre >= 32. The geometric mean titre after vaccination was 137. A significant species variation in response was noted; penguins, pelicans, ducks, geese, herons, Guinea fowl, cranes, cockatiels, lovebirds, and barbets showed very poor response to vaccination, while very high...

  3. ADULT INFLUENZA VACCINATION GUIDELINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with the influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are associated with ... .well as the potential benefit and the safety of the vaccine ..... 4.6 Antiviral agents for influenza A2 ... persons who are to travel to other areas, e.g. northern.

  4. Development of a dual-protective live attenuated vaccine against H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses by modifying the NS1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-hye; Song, Min-Suk; Park, Su-Jin; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Baek, Yun Hee; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kim, Semi; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry have caused serious economic losses and raised concerns for human health due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. However, licensed H5N1 and H9N2 vaccines for animals and humans have not been developed. Thus, to develop a dual H5N1 and H9N2 live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), the HA and NA genes from a virulent mouse-adapted avian H5N2 (A/WB/Korea/ma81/06) virus and a recently isolated chicken H9N2 (A/CK/Korea/116/06) virus, respectively, were introduced into the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone expressing truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-73, NS1-86, NS1-101, NS1-122) but still possessing a full-length NS gene. Two H5N2/NS1-LAIV viruses (H5N2/NS1-86 and H5N2/NS1-101) were highly attenuated compared with the full-length and remaining H5N2/NS-LAIV viruses in a mouse model. Furthermore, viruses containing NS1 modifications were found to induce more IFN-β activation than viruses with full-length NS1 proteins and were correspondingly attenuated in mice. Intranasal vaccination with a single dose (10(4.0) PFU/ml) of these viruses completely protected mice from a lethal challenge with the homologous A/WB/Korea/ma81/06 (H5N2), heterologous highly pathogenic A/EM/Korea/W149/06 (H5N1), and heterosubtypic highly virulent mouse-adapted H9N2 viruses. This study clearly demonstrates that the modified H5N2/NS1-LAIV viruses attenuated through the introduction of mutations in the NS1 coding region display characteristics that are desirable for live attenuated vaccines and hold potential as vaccine candidates for mammalian hosts.

  5. Identification of viral epitopes recognized by the immune system following vaccination and challenge with the H7N9 avian influenza virus from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2013, the first cases of H7N9 influenza were reported in humans in China, and shortly thereafter the virus was confirmed from poultry in live bird markets. Since that time the virus has persisted in both human and avian populations. The genetic composition of these H7N9 influenza virus...

  6. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  7. Optimization of inactivated H5N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza vaccine and inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine with antigen dose and prime-boost regimen in domestic ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain. In the case of the inactivated H5N9 vaccine, a single dose of vaccine was inadequate to induce proper antibody titer when administered to day-old ducks, which necessitates boost vaccination. Administration of the oil-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine administration in day-old and 2-week-old ducks resulted in a lower body weight at the time of slaughtering, compared to that of gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine. However, gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine failed to induce proper immune response to an extent recommend by OIE-World Organization for Animal Health. In the case of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine, a moderate or low dose of vaccine was appropriate for day-old ducks receiving the gel prime-oil boost vaccination. Single vaccination with oil adjuvants affects the mean body weight of 7-week-old ducks, suggesting that the gel adjuvant is more suitable for meat production. We expect that the use of adjuvants in a prime-boost regimen and at antigen doses set in this study will be helpful to maximize body weight in the case of domestic duck production at the actual farm site. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. A national survey of emergency nurses and avian influenza threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Ann; Dake, Joseph A; Price, James H; Jordan, Timothy R; Rega, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived likelihood of emergency nurses reporting to work during an avian influenza outbreak, to consider options if nurses decided not to report work, and to explore Protection Motivation Theory constructs as predictors of reporting to work. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional survey of emergency nurses within the United States. A total of 332 nurses (46%) responded. Most emergency nurses (84%) reported they would report to work (1 in 6 would not). The likelihood of reporting to work differed by education level, nurses' avian influenza information sources, and nurses who had family living with them. Of the nurses who decided not to report to work, the majority were willing to provide health information (90%), administer vaccinations (82%), and triage (74%) neighbors/friends from home. One third of nurses had not attended a disaster-preparedness drill within the past year. Only 20% identified formal training while on the job as a source of avian influenza information. A third of emergency nurses would be worried about getting an avian influenza vaccination because of potential adverse effects. Protection Motivation Theory accounted for almost 40% of the variance of likelihood to report to work, with response costs being the largest predictor. Disaster drills, avian influenza job training, and vaccination education are necessary to prepare emergency nurses for an outbreak. The findings support emergency nurses' willingness to work from home if they are unable to report to work. This finding is new and may have implications for disaster planning, staffing, and ED operations. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to the loss of tens of millions of birds, either to disease or preventive culling. ... is to stimulate regional collaboration on avian influenza prevention and control. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  10. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  11. Egg-Independent Influenza Vaccines and Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Manini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain. In particular, if the next influenza pandemic were to arise from an avian influenza virus, and thus reduce the egg-laying hen population, there would be a shortage of embryonated eggs available for vaccine manufacturing. Although the production of egg-derived vaccines will continue, new technological developments have generated a cell-culture-based influenza vaccine and other more recent platforms, such as synthetic influenza vaccines.

  12. Immune response in domestic ducks following intradermal delivery of inactivated vaccine against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus adjuvanted with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Gomis, Susantha; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Ducks are a natural reservoir for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which produces a range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic infections to severe disease with mortality. Vaccination against HPAI is one of the few methods available for controlling avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in domestic ducks; therefore, it is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy against HPAI in domestic ducks. However, few studies have focused on enhancing the immune response by testing alternative administration routes and adjuvants. While attempting to maximize the efficacy of a vaccine, it is important to select an appropriate vaccine delivery route and adjuvant to elicit an enhanced immune response. Although several studies have indicated that the vaccination of ducks against HPAI viruses has offered protection against lethal virus challenge, the immunogenicity of the vaccine still requires improvement. In this study, we characterized the immune response following a novel vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAI virus in domestic ducks. Our novel intradermal delivery system and the application of the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant allowed us to obtain information regarding the sustained vaccine immunity. Compared with the intramuscular route of vaccination, the intradermal route resulted in higher antibody titer as well as lower antibody deviation following secondary vaccination. In addition, the use of a CpG-ODN adjuvant had a dose-sparing effect on antibody titer. Furthermore, when a high dose of antigen was used, the CpG-ODN-adjuvanted vaccine maintained a high mean antibody titer. This data demonstrates that intradermal immunization combined with administration of CpG-ODN as an adjuvant may be a promising strategy for improving vaccine efficacy in domestic ducks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  14. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hadifar

    Full Text Available Killed avian influenza virus (AIV vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006 was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test.

  15. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-09

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  16. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    populations to serve as reservoirs for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. There are still uncertainties regarding the epidemiological and ecological mechanisms that regulate "spill-over" and "spill-back" transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between poultry and wild bird populations, and the interspecies transmission of avian influenza from infected birds to humans and other species of mammals. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry vaccination programs for the control and eradication of avian influenza in poultry populations at the national and regional level, and the effect of long term poultry vaccination programs on human public health risks from avian influenza viruses. There is a need to determine risk factors associated with the extent of direct human involvement in the spread and proliferation of avian influenza viruses through commercial supply chain and transportation networks, and specific risk factors associated with domestic and international trade in live poultry, captive wild birds, poultry food products, (meat, eggs, poultry by-products (feathers, poultry meal, poultry manure, and poultry litter. Addressing these issues will greatly enhance our ability to implement economically and ecologically sustainable programs for the control of avian influenza outbreaks in wild and domesticated birds, increase our capability for promoting the protection of wild bird populations from disease and disruption, and help improve food security and public health in countries worldwide.

  17. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  18. Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F.; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is,

  19. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  20. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protection of chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection by live vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Keil, Günther M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-01-29

    Attenuated vaccine strains of the alphaherpesvirus causing infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) can be used for mass application. Previously, we showed that live virus vaccination with recombinant ILTV expressing hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) protected chickens against ILT and fowl plague caused by HPAIV carrying the corresponding hemagglutinin subtypes [Lüschow D, Werner O, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W. Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 2001;19(30):4249-59; Veits J, Lüschow D, Kindermann K, Werner O, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. J Gen Virol 2003;84(12):3343-52]. However, protection against H5N1 HPAIV was not satisfactory. Therefore, a newly designed dUTPase-negative ILTV vector was used for rapid insertion of the H5-hemagglutinin, or N1-neuraminidase genes of a recent H5N1 HPAIV isolate. Compared to our previous constructs, protein expression was considerably enhanced by insertion of synthetic introns downstream of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter within the 5'-nontranslated region of the transgenes. Deletion of the viral dUTPase gene did not affect in vitro replication of the ILTV recombinants, but led to sufficient attenuation in vivo. After a single ocular immunization, all chickens developed H5- or N1-specific serum antibodies. Nevertheless, animals immunized with N1-ILTV died after subsequent H5N1 HPAIV challenge, although survival times were prolonged compared to non-vaccinated controls. In contrast, all chickens vaccinated with either H5-ILTV alone, or H5- and N1-ILTV simultaneously, survived

  2. The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The isolation of influenza virus 80 years ago in 1933 very quickly led to the development of the first generation of live-attenuated vaccines. The first inactivated influenza vaccine was monovalent (influenza A). In 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes. Since 1973, the WHO has issued annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that identify currently circulating strains. In 1978, the first trivalent vaccine included two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Currently, there are two influenza B lineages circulating; in the latest WHO recommendations, it is suggested that a second B strain could be added to give a quadrivalent vaccine. The history of influenza vaccine and the associated technology shows how the vaccine has evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses.

  3. A mathematical model of avian influenza with half-saturated incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Tchuenche, Jean Michel; Smith, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    The widespread impact of avian influenza viruses not only poses risks to birds, but also to humans. The viruses spread from birds to humans and from human to human In addition, mutation in the primary strain will increase the infectiousness of avian influenza. We developed a mathematical model of avian influenza for both bird and human populations. The effect of half-saturated incidence on transmission dynamics of the disease is investigated. The half-saturation constants determine the levels at which birds and humans contract avian influenza. To prevent the spread of avian influenza, the associated half-saturation constants must be increased, especially the half-saturation constant H m for humans with mutant strain. The quantity H m plays an essential role in determining the basic reproduction number of this model. Furthermore, by decreasing the rate β m at which human-to-human mutant influenza is contracted, an outbreak can be controlled more effectively. To combat the outbreak, we propose both pharmaceutical (vaccination) and non-pharmaceutical (personal protection and isolation) control methods to reduce the transmission of avian influenza. Vaccination and personal protection will decrease β m, while isolation will increase H m. Numerical simulations demonstrate that all proposed control strategies will lead to disease eradication; however, if we only employ vaccination, it will require slightly longer to eradicate the disease than only applying non-pharmaceutical or a combination of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical control methods. In conclusion, it is important to adopt a combination of control methods to fight an avian influenza outbreak.

  4. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  5. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  6. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  7. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  8. (Highly pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a zoonotic agent

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff , Donata; Globig , Anja; Beer , Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence b...

  9. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of avian influenza H5N1 virosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Sarachai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the avian influenza (H5N1 virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether (C12E8 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative stained transmission electron microscope (TEM demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (Bio-Beads SM2 was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines.

  11. Now and future influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, F L

    1990-03-01

    Influenza is a modern day plague. In the young, the clinical picture is classical, but in the elderly, the disease may go unsuspected until complications such as pneumonia develop. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible, and these viruses mutate with great regularity. Antibodies to the HA and NA surface antigens of influenza viruses, both naturally and vaccine induced, are protective. The earliest influenza vaccines were crude, toxic, and ineffective. With modern purification techniques, the egg-grown viruses have been turned into safe, immunogenic, and effective killed-virus vaccines--whole virus and split virus. Surveillance permits the correct virus strains to be incorporated into each new vaccine. Those who have been experiencing the worst effects of influenza have been identified. These individuals need to be immunized each year. In the future, live influenza virus vaccines may offer the benefits of ease of administration and longer-lasting protection. Synthetic peptides, genetically engineered antigens, and even nonantigen (anti-idiotype) vaccines are possible, but such vaccines will require adjuvant enhancement. For the present, greater efforts must be made to use existing influenza vaccines.

  12. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  13. Protection of White Leghorn chickens by U.S. emergency H5 vaccination against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Balzli, Charles; Lee, Dong-Hun; Suarez, David L; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2017-11-01

    During December 2014-June 2015, the U.S. experienced a high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak caused by clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx Goose/Guangdong lineage viruses with devastating consequences for the poultry industry. Three vaccines, developed based on updating existing registered vaccines or currently licensed technologies, were evaluated for possible use: an inactivated reverse genetics H5N1 vaccine (rgH5N1) and an RNA particle vaccine (RP-H5), both containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.4.4 strain, and a recombinant herpesvirus turkey vectored vaccine (rHVT-H5) containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.2 strain. The efficacy of the three vaccines, alone or in combination, was assessed in White Leghorn chickens against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 HPAI virus challenge. In Study 1, single (rHVT-H5) and prime-boost (rHVT-H5+rgH5N1 or rHVT-H5+RP-H5) vaccination strategies protected chickens with high levels of protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 2, single vaccination with either rgH5N1 or RP-H5 vaccines provided clinical protection in adult chickens and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 3, double rgH5N1 vaccination protected adult chickens from clinical signs and mortality when challenged 20weeks post-boost, with high levels of long-lasting protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. These studies support the use of genetically related vaccines, possibly in combination with a broad protective priming vaccine, for emergency vaccination programs against clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx HPAI virus in young and adult layer chickens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  15. Adjuvant solution for pandemic influenza vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Van Hoeven, Neal; Perrone, Lucy; Baldwin, Susan L; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard A; Reed, Steven G

    2012-10-23

    Extensive preparation is underway to mitigate the next pandemic influenza outbreak. New vaccine technologies intended to supplant egg-based production methods are being developed, with recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) as the most advanced program for preventing seasonal and avian H5N1 Influenza. Increased efforts are being focused on adjuvants that can broaden vaccine immunogenicity against emerging viruses and maximize vaccine supply on a worldwide scale. Here, we test protection against avian flu by using H5N1-derived rHA and GLA-SE, a two-part adjuvant system containing glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a formulated synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, and a stable emulsion (SE) of oil in water, which is similar to the best-in-class adjuvants being developed for pandemic flu. Notably, a single submicrogram dose of rH5 adjuvanted with GLA-SE protects mice and ferrets against a high titer challenge with H5N1 virus. GLA-SE, relative to emulsion alone, accelerated induction of the primary immune response and broadened its durability against heterosubtypic H5N1 virus challenge. Mechanistically, GLA-SE augments protection via induction of a Th1-mediated antibody response. Innate signaling pathways that amplify priming of Th1 CD4 T cells will likely improve vaccine performance against future outbreaks of lethal pandemic flu.

  16. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  17. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  18. Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1 virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

  19. Matrix-M Adjuvated Seasonal Virosomal Influenza Vaccine Induces Partial Protection in Mice and Ferrets against Avian H5 and H7 Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Freek; Roos, Anna; Hafkemeijer, Nicole; Baart, Matthijs; Tolboom, Jeroen; Dekking, Liesbeth; Stittelaar, Koert; Goudsmit, Jaap; Radošević, Katarina; Saeland, Eirikur

    2015-01-01

    There is a constant threat of zoonotic influenza viruses causing a pandemic outbreak in humans. It is virtually impossible to predict which virus strain will cause the next pandemic and it takes a considerable amount of time before a safe and effective vaccine will be available once a pandemic

  20. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  1. Avian influenza overview September–November 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian; Kuiken, Thijs; Mulatti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Between 1 September and 15 November 2017, 48 A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry holdings and 9 H5 HPAI wild bird events were reported within Europe. A second epidemic HPAI A(H5N8) wave started in Italy on the third week of July and is still ongoing on 15November...... to focus in order to achieve the most effective testing of dead birds for detection of H5 HPAI viruses. Monitoring the avian influenza situation in other continents revealed the same risks as in the previous report (October 2016-August 2017): the recent human case of HPAI A(H5N6) in China underlines...... the continuing threat of this avian influenza virus to human health and possible introduction via migratory wild birds into Europe. Close monitoring is required of the situation in Africa with regards to HPAI of the subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H5N8), given the rapidity of the evolution and the uncertainty...

  2. Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Laurel Yong-Hwa; Anh, Ha Do Lien; Simmons, Cameron; de Jong, Menno D.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Schumacher, Reto; Peng, Yan Chun; McMichael, Andrew J.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Townsend, Alain R. M.; Askonas, Brigitte A.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Dong, Tao

    2008-01-01

    The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but are ineffective against strains that have undergone significant antigenic variation. An alternative approach is to

  3. Protection against H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Monkeys by an Inactivated H5N1 Whole Particle Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Misako; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Pham, Van Loi; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Takaya; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Le, Quynh Mai; Ito, Mutsumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3), in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3. PMID:24376571

  4. Protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian and pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys by an inactivated H5N1 whole particle vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Nakayama

    Full Text Available H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3, in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3.

  5. Avian influenza A viruses in birds of the order Psittaciformes: reports on virus isolations, transmission experiments and vaccinations and initial studies on innocuity and efficacy of oseltamivir in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Blanco Peña, K M; Yilmaz, A; Redmann, T; Hofheinz, S

    2007-07-01

    Birds of the order Psittaciformes are - besides chickens, turkeys and other birds - also susceptible to infection with avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and succumb following severe disease within one week. Published data prove that various parakeets, amazons, cockatoos, African grey parrots and budgerigars (genera Barnardius, Psittacula, Cacatua, Eolophus, Amazona, Myiopsitta, Psittacus and Melopsittacus) were found dead following natural infections. Natural infections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 cause severe disease and high rates of mortality. Experimental transmission studies with AlVs of the subtypes H5 and H7 confirm these data. Viruses of the subtypes H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H11N6 and H11N8 may cause also clinical signs and occasionally losses in naturally infected psittacine birds. Clinical signs and losses were also noted following experimental infection of budgerigars with a H4N6 virus. In the EU and in other countries, vaccination of exposed exotic and rare birds and poultry is a possible and an acceptable measure to provide protection. Currently, the EU Commission accepts inactivated adjuvanted vaccines whereas in some other countries recently developed vector vaccines are applied. However, birds remain susceptible during the time interval between application of any vaccine and the development of immunity. This critical period can be bridged with antiviral drugs. Our in ovo studies demonstrate that the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is non-toxic for chicken embryos at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg body weight. These dosages prevented entirely the replication of a HPAIV of the subtype H7N1 when this drug is given shortly prior to, simultaneously or soon after inoculation of chicken embryos with this AIV. Thus, we speculate that exposed valuable birds such as psittacines at risk can be successfully treated.

  6. Experimental and Field Results Regarding Immunity Induced by a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vector Vaccine Against H5N1 and Other H5 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Yannick; Palya, Vilmos; Dorsey, Kristi Moore; El-Attrache, John; Bonfante, Francesco; Wit, Sjaak de; Kapczynski, Darrell; Kilany, Walid Hamdy; Rauw, Fabienne; Steensels, Mieke; Soejoedono, Retno D

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus (HPAIV) is one of the possible complementary means available for affected countries to control AI when the disease has become, or with a high risk of becoming, endemic. Efficacy of the vaccination against AI relies essentially, but not exclusively, on the capacity of the vaccine to induce immunity against the targeted virus (which is prone to undergo antigenic variations), as well as its capacity to overcome interference with maternal immunity transmitted by immunized breeding hens to their progeny. This property of the vaccine is a prerequisite for its administration at the hatchery, which assures higher and more reliable vaccine coverage of the populations than vaccination at the farm. A recombinant vector vaccine (Vectormune® AI), based on turkey herpesvirus expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5N1 HPAIV as an insert, has been used in several experiments conducted in different research laboratories, as well as in controlled field trials. The results have demonstrated a high degree of homologous and cross protection against different genetic clades of the H5N1 HPAIV. Furthermore, vaccine-induced immunity was not impaired by the presence of passive immunity, but on the contrary, cumulated with it for improved early protection. The demonstrated levels of protection against the different challenge viruses exhibited variations in terms of postchallenge mortality, as well as challenge virus shedding. The data presented here highlight the advantages of this vaccine as a useful and reliable tool to complement biosecurity and sanitary policies for better controlling the disease due to HPAIV of H5 subtypes, when the vaccination is applied as a control measure.

  7. Avian influenza, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on avian influenza and Newcastle disease focus on waterfowls, considered natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study surveyed avian influenza (AI), Gumboro and Newcastle disease antibodies and antigens in birds in live wild bird markets (LWBMs), live poultry markets (LPMs) and free flying in Kaduna State ...

  8. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, M. van; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore,

  9. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van R.M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry Beest Holle, van M.; Meijer, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore,

  10. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  11. Coadministration of Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing GM-CSF with Inactivated H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Increased the Immune Responses and Protective Efficacy Against a Wild Bird Source of H5N1 Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangwei; Wang, Xinglong; Jia, Yanqing; Wang, Chongyang; Tang, Qiuxia; Han, Qingsong; Xiao, Sa; Yang, Zengqi

    2017-10-01

    Wild birds play a key role in the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV). There is a continual urgent requirement for AIV vaccines to address the ongoing genetic changes of AIV. In the current study, we trialed a novel AIV vaccine against the wild bird source of H5N1 type AIV with recombinant adenovirus expressing granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. A total of 150-day-old commercial chicks, with AIV-maternal-derived antibody, were divided into 6 groups. The primary vaccination was performed at day 14 followed by a subsequent boosting and intramuscular challenge on day 28 and 42, respectively. Recombinant GM-CSF (rGM-CSF) expressed by adenovirus, named as rAd-GM-CSF, raised the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers (log 2 ) against AIV from 7.0 (vaccinate with inactivated vaccine alone) to 8.4 after booster immunization. Moreover, the rGM-CSF addition markedly increased the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and major histocompatibility complex-II in the lungs, compared with those immunized with inactivated vaccine alone on day 29, that is, 18 h post booster immunization. Following challenge, chicks inoculated with the inactivated AIV vaccine and rAd-GM-CSF together exhibited mild clinical signs and 62% survivals compared to 33% in the group immunized with inactivated AIV vaccine alone. Higher level of HI titers, immune related molecule expressions, and protection ratio demonstrates a good potential of rGM-CSF in improving humoral and cell mediated immune responses of inactivated AIV vaccines.

  12. On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.

  13. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The public health impact of avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J M; Veguilla, V; Belser, J A; Maines, T R; Van Hoeven, N; Pappas, C; Hancock, K; Tumpey, T M

    2009-04-01

    Influenza viruses with novel hemagglutinin and 1 or more accompanying genes derived from avian influenza viruses sporadically emerge in humans and have the potential to result in a pandemic if the virus causes disease and spreads efficiently in a population that lacks immunity to the novel hemagglutinin. Since 1997, multiple avian influenza virus subtypes have been transmitted directly from domestic poultry to humans and have caused a spectrum of human disease, from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. To assess the pandemic risk that avian influenza viruses pose, we have used multiple strategies to better understand the capacity of avian viruses to infect, cause disease, and transmit among mammals, including humans. Seroepidemiologic studies that evaluate the frequency and risk of human infection with avian influenza viruses in populations with exposure to domestic or wild birds can provide a better understanding of the pandemic potential of avian influenza subtypes. Investigations conducted in Hong Kong following the first H5N1 outbreak in humans in 1997 determined that exposure to poultry in live bird markets was a key risk factor for human disease. Among poultry workers, butchering and exposure to sick poultry were risk factors for antibody to H5 virus, which provided evidence for infection. A second risk assessment tool, the ferret, can be used to evaluate the level of virulence and potential for host-to-host transmission of avian influenza viruses in this naturally susceptible host. Avian viruses isolated from humans exhibit a level of virulence and transmissibility in ferrets that generally reflects that seen in humans. The ferret model thus provides a means to monitor emerging avian influenza viruses for pandemic risk, as well as to evaluate laboratory-generated reassortants and mutants to better understand the molecular basis of influenza virus transmissibility. Taken together, such studies provide valuable information with which we can assess the public

  15. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  16. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence.   Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  17. Influenza vaccinations : who needs them and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination programmes should aim at reducing the burden from influenza among those who need it most. The primary aim of this literature review is to identify who should receive priority in influenza vaccination programmes. Risk factors for severe post-influenza complications include

  18. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P study demonstrates the suboptimal protection with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine given alone in Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a

  19. SEROMONITORING OF AVIAN INFLUENZA H9 SUBTYPE IN BREEDERS AND COMMERCIAL LAYER FLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Numan, M. Siddique and M. S. Yousaf1

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H9 in vaccinated layer flocks was carried out. Serum samples were divided into age groups A, B, C, D (commercial layers and E, F, G, H (layer breeders. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test was performed to determine serum antibodies against AIV-H9 subtype. Geometric mean titer (GMT values were calculated. Results showed the level of protection of vaccinated birds was satisfactory.

  20. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid H; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Shalaby, Azhar G; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge.

  1. Vaccination with Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Neuraminidase Protects against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza Virus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Alaina J; Gabbard, Jon D; Li, Zhuo; Dlugolenski, Daniel A; Johnson, Scott K; Tripp, Ralph A; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses along with other emerging influenza viruses continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enable the evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure. The neuraminidase (NA) surface glycoprotein, while diverse, has a conserved enzymatic site and presents an appealing target for priming broadly effective antibody responses. Here we show that vaccination with parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a promising live viral vector expressing NA from avian (H5N1) or pandemic (H1N1) influenza virus, elicited NA-specific antibody and T cell responses, which conferred protection against homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. Vaccination with PIV5-N1 NA provided cross-protection against challenge with a heterosubtypic (H3N2) virus. Experiments using antibody transfer indicate that antibodies to NA have an important role in protection. These findings indicate that PIV5 expressing NA may be effective as a broadly protective vaccine against seasonal influenza and emerging pandemic threats. IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality annually, while emerging viruses pose potential pandemic threats. Currently licensed influenza virus vaccines rely on the antigenic match of hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine strain selection, and most vaccines rely on HA inhibition titers to determine efficacy, despite the growing

  2. Suspension culture process for H9N2 avian influenza virus (strain Re-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglin; Guo, Suying; Li, Zhenguang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Zexiang; Song, Guicai

    2017-10-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus has caused huge economic loss for the Chinese poultry industry since it was first identified. Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the disease. Meanwhile suspension culture has become an important tool for the development of influenza vaccines. To optimize the suspension culture conditions for the avian influenza H9N2 virus (Re-2 strain) in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we studied the culture conditions for cell growth and proliferation parameters for H9N2 virus replication. MDCK cells were successfully cultured in suspension, from a small scale to industrial levels of production, with passage time and initial cell density being optimized. The influence of pH on the culture process in the reactor has been discussed and the process parameters for industrial production were explored via amplification of the 650L reactor. Subsequently, we cultivated cells at high cell density and harvested high amounts of virus, reaching 10log2 (1:1024). Furthermore an animal experiment was conducted to detect antibody. Compared to the chicken embryo virus vaccine, virus cultured from MDCK suspension cells can produce a higher amount of antibodies. The suspension culture process is simple and cost efficient, thus providing a solid foundation for the realization of large-scale avian influenza vaccine production.

  3. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  4. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  5. The Relationship of Avian Influenza and Waterbirds in Creating Genetic Diversity and the Role of Waterbirds as Reservoir for Avian Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Avian Influenza (AI has enormous implications for poultry and human health.These outbreaks are caused by influenza A virus that belongS to the family of Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are RNA viruses, negative polarity, and the envelope has segmented genom. Generally, Avian Influenza is a disease which originally occurred in birds with complex ecology including reassortment and transmission among different species of birds and mammals. The gene of AI virus can be transmitted among human and avian species as shown by the virus reasortantment that caused pandemic human influenza in 1957 and 1968. Pandemi in 1957 and 1968 were different from previously human viruses because the substitution of several genes are derived from avian viruses. Wild waterfowls especially Anseriformes (duck, muscovy duck and geese and Charadriiformes (gulls, seabirds, wild birds are the natural reservoirs for influenza type A viruses and play important role on the ecology and propagation of the virus. From this reservoir, influenza type A virus usually can be transmitted to other birds, mammals (including human and caused outbreak of lethal diseases. Waterfowl that is infected with influenza A virus usually does not show any clinical symptoms. However, several reports stated that HPAI viruses can cause severe disease with neurogical disorders led to death in waterfowl. Migration of birds including waterfowls have active role in transmitting and spreading the disease. Movement of wild birds and inappropriate poultry trade transportation play a greater role as vector in spreading HPAI to humans. Ecological change of environment has also a great effect in spreading AI viruses. The spreading pattern of AI viruses is usually influenced by seasons, where the prevalence of AI was reported to be in the fall, winter and rainy seasons. Finally, the effective control strategies against the spreading of AI viruses is required. Programs of monitoring, surveilence and

  6. [Epidemiological perspectives on SARS and avian influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    SARS is a respiratory infection caused by Coronavirus (Nidoviruses, RNA) from which 3 groups are known. Group 1 affects dogs, cats, pigs, and the human agent is 229 E. Group 2 affects bovines or rodents, and the human agent is OC43. And group 3 corresponds to the avian pathology.... The epidemics emerged on February 2003 in Guangdong, South China, due to consumption of exotic animals (Civeta, etc.), and it spread through interperson contagion to other regions in Asia, America and Europe. Incubation period is about 2-7 days. Transmission Of the virus is person-to person, but also by excretions and residual water. Basic reproductive rate is 2 to 4, and it is considered that 2.7 persons are infected from the initial case. In June 2003, SARS affected over 8,000 people and 774 were killed. Mortality approaches to 10%, and it is higher among older people rising up to 50% in those aged over 65 years. It is important to quickly establish action protocols regarding clinical, epidemiological and prevention aspects. Avian influenza is an infection caused by type A Influenza Orthomixovirus, in which migration birds and wild ducks are the main reservoir. Avian viruses correspond to H5, H7, H9. In 1997 it was observed that type AH5N1 jumped interspecies barrier and affected 18 humans, and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and in 2004 this type of poultry flu was described in Asia. FAO has emphasized that sacrifice of chicken in affected farms is the most effective measure to fight against the disease. It has also been established suppression of imports from these countries. There is no evidence on interperson contagion from chicken contagion, nor on food-borne contagion to humans.

  7. An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed Farm By The Introduction Of A Water Fowl. ... C A Meseko, A T Oladokun, B Shehu. Abstract. Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a range of Influenza type A viruses of high and low pathogenicity (Fauci, 2005). H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) ...

  8. (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Globig, Anja; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-27

    Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Pox Vaccine. 113.326 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... established as follows: (1) Fowl pox susceptible birds all of the same age and from the same source, shall be...

  10. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together research agencies and ... Chinese Academy of Sciences. Institution Country. China. Institution Website ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can happen when enough virus gets into a person’s eyes, nose or mouth, or is inhaled. This ...

  12. History and evolution of influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovari, P; Alberti, M; Alicino, C

    2011-09-01

    Since the isolation of influenza virus in 1933, a great deal of work was carried out in order to develop influenza vaccines and improve these fundamental tools of prevention in terms of production, quality control, safety and tolerability, and immunogenicity. The paper summarizes the cornerstones of the continuous evolution of influenza vaccines and the most recent and promising developments in this field.

  13. Vaccinia-based influenza vaccine overcomes previously induced immunodominance hierarchy for heterosubtypic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Yoon, Jungsoon; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Kang, Kyuho; Woo, Sunje; Jung, Dea-Im; Song, Man Ki; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Jihye; Lee, Jeewon; Yoon, Yeup; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Youn, Jin-Won

    2014-08-01

    Growing concerns about unpredictable influenza pandemics require a broadly protective vaccine against diverse influenza strains. One of the promising approaches was a T cell-based vaccine, but the narrow breadth of T-cell immunity due to the immunodominance hierarchy established by previous influenza infection and efficacy against only mild challenge condition are important hurdles to overcome. To model T-cell immunodominance hierarchy in humans in an experimental setting, influenza-primed C57BL/6 mice were chosen and boosted with a mixture of vaccinia recombinants, individually expressing consensus sequences from avian, swine, and human isolates of influenza internal proteins. As determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and polyfunctional cytokine secretion, the vaccinia recombinants of influenza expanded the breadth of T-cell responses to include subdominant and even minor epitopes. Vaccine groups were successfully protected against 100 LD50 challenges with PR/8/34 and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which contained the identical dominant NP366 epitope. Interestingly, in challenge with pandemic A/Cal/04/2009 containing mutations in the dominant epitope, only the group vaccinated with rVV-NP + PA showed improved protection. Taken together, a vaccinia-based influenza vaccine expressing conserved internal proteins improved the breadth of influenza-specific T-cell immunity and provided heterosubtypic protection against immunologically close as well as distant influenza strains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  15. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow APAIR to assess the socioeconomic impact of avian ... control measure to mitigate the negative effects of avian influenza and its control on ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  16. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  17. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüschow Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds. Findings During 2 hunting seasons (2006/2007 and 2007/2008 falconers took tracheal and cloacal swabs from 1080 prey birds that were captured by their falconry birds (n = 54 in Germany. AIV-RNA of subtypes H6, H9, or H13 was detected in swabs of 4.1% of gulls (n = 74 and 3.8% of ducks (n = 53 using RT-PCR. The remaining 953 sampled prey birds and all falconry birds were negative. Blood samples of the falconry birds tested negative for AIV specific antibodies. Serum samples from all 43 falconers reacted positive in influenza A virus-specific ELISA, but remained negative using microneutralisation test against subtypes H5 and H7 and haemagglutination inhibition test against subtypes H6, H9 and H13. Conclusion Although we were able to detect AIV-RNA in samples from prey birds, the corresponding falconry birds and falconers did not become infected. Currently falconers do not seem to carry a high risk for getting infected with AIV through handling their falconry birds and their prey.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country.

  19. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno D.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the

  20. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  1. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  2. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  3. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiping; Li, Jinsong; Zhang, Yandong; Li, Lin; Ma, Limin; Li, Dan; Gao, Feng; Xia, Zhiping

    2012-08-06

    Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  4. Antimicrobial Products Registered for Disinfection Use against Avian Influenza on Poultry Farms and Other Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA registers disinfectants against Avian Influenza A. Although there are no antimicrobial products registered for the H5N2 subtype of Avian Influenza A virus, based on available scientific information these products will work against other HPAI strains.

  5. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and ... Key words: Avian influenza virus, H5N1, fluorescent antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ..... poultry and is potentially zoonotic.

  6. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  7. Global dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models with psychological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Pang, Liuyong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  8. Universal influenza vaccines, science fiction or soon reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Altenburg, Arwen F; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-01

    Currently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza viruses. Because of an ever-present threat of the next influenza pandemic and the continuous emergence of drift variants of seasonal influenza A viruses, there is a need for an universal influenza vaccine that induces protective immunity against all influenza A viruses. Here, we summarize some of the efforts that are ongoing to develop universal influenza vaccines.

  9. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Caran; Wasilenko, Jamie; Adams, Sean C; Cardona, Carol J; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tung; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric; Roth, Jason; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2012-09-01

    In a previous study, we found clear differences in pathogenicity and response to vaccination against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI; HA dade 2.3.4) between Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata) ducks vaccinated using a commercial inactivated vaccine (Re-1). The objective of the present study was to further investigate the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species of ducks by examining clinical signs and innate immune responses to infection with a different strain of H5N1 HPAI virus (HA clade 1) in two domestic ducks, Pekin and Muscovy, and one wild-type duck, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Protection conferred by vaccination using the Re-1 vaccine against infection with this virus was also compared between Pekin and Muscovy ducks. Differences in pathogenicity were observed among the virus-infected ducks, as the Muscovy ducks died 2 days earlier than did the Pekin and mallard ducks, and they presented more-severe neurologic signs. Conversely, the Pekin and mallard ducks had significantly higher body temperatures at 2 days postinfection (dpi) than did the Muscovy ducks, indicating possible differences in innate immune responses. However, similar expression of innate immune-related genes was found in the spleens of virus-infected ducks at this time point. In all three duck species, there was up-regulation of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6, CCL19, RIG-I, and MHC class I and down-regulation of MHC class II, but variable expression of IL-18 and TLR7. As in our previous study, vaccinated Muscovy ducks showed less protection against virus infection than did Pekin ducks, as evidenced by the higher mortality and higher number of Muscovy ducks shedding virus when compared to Pekin ducks. In conclusion, infection with an H5N1 HPAI virus produced a systemic infection with high mortality in all three duck species; however, the disease was more severe in Muscovy ducks, which also had a poor response to vaccination. The

  10. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  11. Salmonella expression of the avian influenza HA and M2e genes for protection of poultry from lethal challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is viral disease of poultry and detection in commercial flocks can result in trade embargos causing serious economic impact to the poultry industry. Vaccination is currently used to increase protection of birds against AI and limit transmission to susceptible cohorts. Because ...

  12. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  13. Molecular diagnostics of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2006-01-01

    direct sequencing of the PCR product. The possibility of typization using molecular methods is based on the big difference at the amino acid and nucleotide levels between different HA subtypes (from 20- 74%, while the differences between strains of the same HA subtype are relatively small (0- 9%. The basic advantage in the detection and typization of influenza viruses using the RTPCR method is that it saves time. Namely, it can be performed directly from the samples taken in the field, and the result can be obtained within the same day, contrary to conventional methods that take 7 to 10 days. The obtained PCR product can also be sequenced immediately, which can provide an answer to the possible virulent potential of the isolate and its further spreading. The establishment of changes in the HA gene sequence can provide us with the information about the direction of the development of the genetic drift. The paper will describe in detail the possibilities for the implementation of molecular methods in diagnostics and typization, in fact, in the molecular epizootiology of avian influenza.

  14. How influenza vaccination policy may affect vaccine logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2012-06-22

    When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. We Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand. A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time-frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A Sally; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Bray, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ferrets and human volunteers. However, the emergence of a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 1976 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in 1997 stimulated an increase in NHP research, because these agents are difficult to study in naturally infected patients and cannot be administered to human volunteers. In this paper, we review the published literature on the use of NHPs in influenza research from 1893 through the end of 2014. The first section summarizes observational studies of naturally occurring influenza-like syndromes in wild and captive primates, including serologic investigations. The second provides a chronological account of experimental infections of NHPs, beginning with Pfeiffer's study and covering all published research on seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including vaccine and antiviral drug testing. The third section reviews experimental infections of NHPs with avian influenza viruses that have caused disease in humans since 1997. The paper concludes with suggestions for further studies to more clearly define and optimize the role of NHPs as experimental animals for influenza research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. Sally; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Bray, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ferrets and human volunteers. However, the emergence of a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 1976 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in 1997 stimulated an increase in NHP research, because these agents are difficult to study in naturally infected patients and cannot be administered to human volunteers. In this paper, we review the published literature on the use of NHPs in influenza research from 1893 through the end of 2014. The first section summarizes observational studies of naturally occurring influenza-like syndromes in wild and captive primates, including serologic investigations. The second provides a chronological account of experimental infections of NHPs, beginning with Pfeiffer’s study and covering all published research on seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including vaccine and antiviral drug testing. The third section reviews experimental infections of NHPs with avian influenza viruses that have caused disease in humans since 1997. The paper concludes with suggestions for further studies to more clearly define and optimize the role of NHPs as experimental animals for influenza research. PMID:25746173

  18. Influenza vaccines: Evaluation of the safety profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The safety of vaccines is a critical factor in maintaining public trust in national vaccination programs. Vaccines are recommended for children, adults and elderly subjects and have to meet higher safety standards, since they are administered to healthy subjects, mainly healthy children. Although vaccines are strictly monitored before authorization, the possibility of adverse events and/or rare adverse events cannot be totally eliminated. Two main types of influenza vaccines are currently available: parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines and intranasal live attenuated vaccines. Both display a good safety profile in adults and children. However, they can cause adverse events and/or rare adverse events, some of which are more prevalent in children, while others with a higher prevalence in adults. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of influenza vaccine safety according to target groups, vaccine types and production methods. PMID:29297746

  19. Recommendations pertaining to the use of influenza vaccines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccination is the most effective strategy to prevent influenza. It is recommended that influenza vaccine be administered each year before the influenza season, i.e. from March to June, although for individuals at increased risk of severe influenza in whom vaccination was missed, vaccine may be administered later.

  20. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clar,Christine; Oseni,Zainab; Flowers,Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi,Maryam; Rees,Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Coch...

  1. Heterosybtypic T-cell immunity to influenza in humans: challenges for universal T-cell influenza vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya eSridhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV remains a significant global health issue causing annual epidemics, pandemics and sporadic human infections with highly pathogenic avian or swine influenza viruses. Current inactivated and live vaccines are the mainstay of the public health response to influenza although vaccine efficacy is lower against antigenically distinct viral strains. The first pandemic of the 21st century underlined the urgent need to develop new vaccines capable of protection against a broad range of influenza strains. Such universal influenza vaccines are based on the idea of heterosubtypic immunity wherein immune responses to epitopes conserved across IAV strains can confer protection against subsequent infection and disease. T-cells recognising conserved antigens are a key contributor to reducing viral load and limiting disease severity during heterosubtypic infection in animal models. Recent studies undertaken during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provided key insights into the role of cross-reactive T-cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection in humans. This review focuses on human influenza to discuss the epidemiological observations that underpin cross-protective immunity, the role of T-cells as key players in mediating heterosubtypic immunity including recent data from natural history cohort studies and the ongoing clinical development of T-cell inducing universal influenza vaccines. The challenges and knowledge gaps for developing vaccines to generate long-lived protective T-cell responses is discussed.

  2. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans: epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Matloob

    2014-12-01

    New human influenza A virus strains regularly emerge causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Lately, several zoonotic avian influenza A strains have been reported to directly infect humans. In early 2013, a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) strain was discovered in China to cause severe respiratory disease in humans. Since then, over 450 human cases of H7N9 infection have been discovered and 165 of them have died. Multiple epidemiological, phylogenetic, in vivo, and in vitro studies have been done to determine the origin and pathogenesis of novel H7N9 strain. This article reviews the literature related to the epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 strain since its discovery in February 2013 till August 2014. The data available so far indicate that H7N9 was originated by a two-step reassortment process in birds and transmitted to humans through direct contact with live-bird markets. H7N9 is a low-pathogenic avian virus and contains several molecular signatures for adaptation in mammals. The severity of the respiratory disease caused by novel H7N9 virus in humans can be partly attributed to the age, sex, and underlying medical conditions of the patients. A universal influenza vaccine is not available, though several strain-specific H7N9 candidate vaccine viruses have been developed. Further, novel H7N9 virus is resistant to antiviral drug amantadine and some H7N9 isolates have acquired the resistance to neuraminidase-inhibitors. Therefore, constant surveillance and prompt control measures combined with novel research approaches to develop alternative and effective anti-influenza strategies are needed to overcome influenza A virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  4. The Effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis Bacterin on the Immune Response Against Influenza and Newcastle Disease Vaccines in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Talazadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In poultry production, improving immunity is very important to prevent infectious diseases. One solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious disease is administration of immunostimulants. Surveys have indicated that some bacteria can work as immunomodulators such as Mycobacterium vaccae and can promote Th1-mediated mechanisms, and switch off pre-existing Th2 preponderance (1. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin on the immune response against Influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chickens . Materials and Methods: A total of 170 day-old broiler chicks were purchased and divided randomly into 5 equal groups. Chickens of group A received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on two days before vaccination against Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Chickens of group B received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the first injection of bacterin. Chickens of group C received 106bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the second injection of bacterin. Chickens of group D, vaccinated against Newcastle disease and avian influenza but did not receive bacterin. Chickens of group E, did not vaccinate against Newcastle disease and avian influenza and did not receive bacterin. All groups except group E, were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2. Blood samples were collected and antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and avian influenza vaccine was determined by HI test. Results: The results of present study showed that receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin for 3 times, significantly increased the specific antibody response to avian influenza subtype H9N2 vaccine. Also about Newcastle vaccine, significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine at 21 and 28 days after vaccination. Conclusions: Receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin

  5. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  6. The threshold of a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  7. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  8. [Highly pathogenic avian influenza--monitoring of migratory waterfowl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Since 1979, the group belonging to Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary Public Health and the Avian Zoonoses Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University is continuing isolation of avian influenza virus from such migratory waterfowls as whistling swan, pintail and tufted dugs flying from Siberia and/or northern China. They have already isolated many interesting influenza viruses. Serotype of the isolates is various; some H5 and H7 and human types of viruses were also isolated; and its pathogenicity for chickens is not high. It was interested that low pathogenic H5N3 virus isolated from whistling swan acquired severe pathogenicity during passage in chicks.

  9. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 7.73 and 81.6%, respectively.

  10. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  11. Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-09-15

    In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses. In this review, we mainly focused on the epidemiological dynamics, biological characteristics, molecular phylogeny and vaccine strategy of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus in China to present an overview of the situation of H9N2 in China.

  12. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  13. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  15. Safety and effectiveness of MF-59 adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-06-08

    The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of transmission parameters of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Bouma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research efforts, little is yet known about key epidemiological parameters of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in their avian hosts. Here we show how these parameters can be estimated using a limited number of birds in experimental transmission studies. Our quantitative estimates, based on Bayesian methods of inference, reveal that (i the period of latency of H5N1 influenza virus in unvaccinated chickens is short (mean: 0.24 days; 95% credible interval: 0.099-0.48 days; (ii the infectious period of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens is approximately 2 days (mean: 2.1 days; 95%CI: 1.8-2.3 days; (iii the reproduction number of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens need not be high (mean: 1.6; 95%CI: 0.90-2.5, although the virus is expected to spread rapidly because it has a short generation interval in unvaccinated chickens (mean: 1.3 days; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 days; and (iv vaccination with genetically and antigenically distant H5N2 vaccines can effectively halt transmission. Simulations based on the estimated parameters indicate that herd immunity may be obtained if at least 80% of chickens in a flock are vaccinated. We discuss the implications for the control of H5N1 avian influenza virus in areas where it is endemic.

  17. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  20. Experience in control of avian influenza in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, L D

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia for over ten years, providing considerable experience on which to base appropriate long-term strategies for their control. Experience in Hong Kong SAR demonstrates that existing production and marketing practices should be changed and a range of parallel measures used. It also shows the extent of surveillance required to ensure continuing freedom from infection. Certain high-risk practices should be changed or otherwise overcome in order to control and prevent disease, including intensive rearing of large numbers of poultry in premises without biosecurity commensurate with the level of risk for exposure; complex market chains involving many smallholders selling poultry through large numbers of transporters and middlemen in poorly regulated live poultry markets; and rearing of large numbers of ducks outdoors. These high-risk practices are compounded by weak veterinary services and poor reporting systems. In many parts of Asia, these methods of rearing and marketing are an integral way of life, support the poorest members of the community or cannot be changed quickly without severe socioeconomic consequences. The gains made so far will be ephemeral unless there is a shift from an emergency focus to one of consolidation in which these high-risk practices are identified and sustainable measures implemented to minimize the risks they pose, taking account of the socioeconomic effects of interventions. Vaccination will play a key role, as it currently does in China and Viet Nam.

  1. Development of stable influenza vaccine powder formulations : Challenges and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, J-P; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought

  2. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI

  3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  4. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  5. Review of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza cases that were diagnosed in Zaria at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, were reviewed in this study. The outbreaks occurred between the months of December, 2006 and March, 2007. The clinical signs and postmortem lesions ...

  6. The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to the anticipated pandemic of the early twenty first century. ... Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic fowls back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. This has grave consequences for the poultry ...

  7. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outbreaks may only occur after transmission from migratory species to domestic flocks through local amplification and secondary spread through the movement of poultry or people, as well as equipment or vehicles contaminated by sick birds. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together ...

  8. Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam for collaboration on research and research capacity building in avian influenza prevention and control. This grant will allow APAIR to investigate the effectiveness of the measures employed by China, Thailand and Viet Nam and evaluate the factors contributing to their success or failure.

  9. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  10. Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease viruses in wild birds in three states of Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  11. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has gaps, complicating epidemic control. A model was developed to back-calculate the day HPAI virus was introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data of the Dutch HPAI H7N7 epidemic (2003). The

  12. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  13. Avian Influenza Risk : Characterization and Dynamics of Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Public health authorities are concerned that this strain may mutate to became contagious between people. Throughout Southeast Asia and China, farmers raise poultry ...

  14. PRODUKSI KOLOSTRUM ANTIVIRUS AVIAN INFLUENZA DALAM RANGKA PENGENDALIAN INFEKSI VIRUS FLU BURUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esfandari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the prospect of bovine colostrum utilization to produce specific antibody as passive immunotherapy against avian influenza. Pregnant Frisian Holstein cows were injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI vaccine given double doses subcutaneously three times every two weeks. Prior to vaccination, the cows were given immunomodulator 0.1 mg.kg-1 BW administered orally for three days. The animals then were injected by inactive H5N1 antigent without adjuvant intravenously to meet the dose of 104 HAU. Blood samples were collected to detect anti AI antibody using Enzyme Linked Jmmunosorbent Assay technique. Colostral samples were analysed to detect antibody against AI using Haemagglutination Inhibition technique. IgG stabilities were tested against enzyme, pH, and spray dried prosessing with inlet dan outlet temperature of 1400C and 520C.repectively. The colostral lgG efficacy on neutralizing H5N1 virus activity was determined in vitro (by using Serum Neutralization Test and protective titer measurement and in ovo (challenge test by using Embryonic Chicken Egg. The result indicated that serum antibody against H5N1 was detected one week after the second vaccination. Titer of colostral antibody against H5N1 was high (28 . Biological activity of colostral IgG remain stable at pH 5-7 and after spraying-drying prosessing, but decreased after treatment by trypsin and pepsin enzymes. The neutralization test showed that the fresh and spray dried colostral IgG against H5N1 were able to neutralize 107 EID50 AI virus H5N1 with neutralization index of 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, pregnant Frisian Holstein cows injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI vaccine were able to produce colostral lgG against AI H5Nl

  15. Influenza vaccinations of health care personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting people of all age groups all over the world. Seasonal influenza leads to substantial morbidity and mortality on a global scale. Vaccines are undeniably one of the most important health advances of the past century, however, managing influenza in working populations remains a difficult issue. Vaccination of health care workers (HCW is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers have significant impact on the frequency with which vaccines are offered and accepted, but many HCWs are poorly equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits and risks. Principal reasons for vaccination are the willing not to be infected and avoiding transmission to patients and the family. The main reasons for refusing is lack of time, a feeling of invulnerability to vaccination, conviction of not being at risk, of being too young or in good health. Misconceptions about influenza vaccine efficacy, like adverse effects, and fear of contracting illness from the vaccine are significantly associated with noncompliance with vaccination. Therefore, strategies to increase awareness of the importance of recommending influenza immunization among health professionals are required. Med Pr 2013;64(1:119–129

  16. Medical students' attitude towards influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Birthe A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wicker, Sabine; Chapman, Gretchen; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-04-15

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare personnel (HCP) and most institutions offer vaccination for free and on site. However, medical students do not always have such easy access, and the predictors that might guide the motivation of medical students to get vaccinated are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among pre-clinical medical students in a German University hospital to assess the social cognitive predictors of influenza vaccination, as well as reasons for refusal and acceptance of the vaccine. Findings show that pre-clinical medical students have comparable knowledge gaps and negative attitudes towards influenza vaccination that have previously been reported among HCP. Lower injunctive norms and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to no intention to get vaccinated against influenza, while a positive instrumental attitude and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to a high intention to get vaccinated. The variables in the regression model explained 20% of the variance in intention to get vaccinated. The identified factors should be addressed early in medical education, and hospitals might benefit from a more inclusive vaccination program and accessibility of free vaccines for their medical students.

  17. Respon Imun Itik Bali terhadap Berbagai Dosis Vaksin Avian Influenza H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Kade Suardana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the immune response of Bali ducks against various doses ofAvian Influenza H5N1 vaccine. The study was carried out using a complete Random-Split in Time researchdesign as many as 40 of Bali ducks of 3 months age were kept separately in 4 groups. The ducks werevaccinated twice in two week interval with AI H5N1 vaccine of 0 (as negative control, 1/2, 1, and 2 doses.Sera were collected one day before first vaccination, then every week until three weeks after the secondvaccination. All sera were tested by hemaglutination inhibition (HI test. The result shows that antibodylevel with double dose was significantly higher than single dose, half dose, and negative control (P<0.01.However antibody level in ducks vaccinated with single and half dose did not show any significant difference(P > 0.05.

  18. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  19. [From new vaccine to new target: revisiting influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, M

    2011-09-01

    Annual vaccination is since many years the corner stone of Influenza control strategy. Because conventional vaccine are needle-based, are less immunogenic in old people and induce only systemic IgG production, intranasal and intradermal vaccines that are recently or will be soon available in Belgium will offer distinct advantages. Intradermal vaccination is on the Belgian market since 2010. A stronger immune response that allows an antigen sparing strategy is elicited because antigens are delivered near the dermal dendritic cells. Local side effects are more pronounced than after intramuscular injection. The needle-free intranasal vaccine that has been approved for use in people less than 18 years old by the EMEA in October 2010 induces also a mucosal IgA response. Improved clinical results than with intramuscular vaccine has been documented in several studies in children. Several conditions are contraindication to nasal vaccination because of patterns of side effects and because the vaccine is an live-attenuated vaccine. Pregnant women has become a top priority for Influenza vaccination in the recommendations of the High Council of Health in Belgium since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Several studies has since then documented the increased risk for Influenza-related morbidity in pregnant women especially during the third trimester and independently of the presence of other comorbidities. Reduced incidence of documented Influenza and of Influenza-related hospitalizations are observed in the new born of vaccinated women until 6 months of age. Availability of new vaccines for Influenza and better knowledge of the benefit of vaccination in target populations are important tools to optimize vaccine coverage of the population.

  20. The Knowledge Level of Interns of Medical Faculty in Ondokuz Mayis University about Avian Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Terzi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: It is predictable that our country, especially Samsun city will be affect by a probable avian influenza epidemic because of is location that takes place in the region of wild birds migration way. The aim of this study is to ascertain the knowledge level of interns of medical faculty about avian influenza. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 175 (81.7% of 214 intern of medical faculty between 1 and 30 May 2008. A questionnaire included six questions related with the agent, group of the agent and therapy of avian influenza and source of information about avian influenza, was applied to the participants. The questionnaire also included 10 questions, which should be answered as true/false for each the following subjects transmission ways, risk groups, symptoms and protection methods of the disease. Each correct answer is scored as one point and a knowledge score was calculated for each subject. RESULTS: In all, 79 students (45.1% were girls, 96(54.9% were boys. The median age was 24.6±1.1 years. While the proportion of true response was 73.7% about the avian influenza agent, 55.3% of the whole group knew the group of the agent. The median points for knowing the transmission ways of virus, risk groups and prevention were 7.0, 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. The median point of the participants was 9,0 for the question related with the symptoms of the disease and this question was the most correctly answered one. Although 56.4% of the participants knew the treatment of the disease, 33.5% of them stated that vaccination is protective. The information sources about disease were television (74.2%, newspapers/magazine (46.8% and the internet (36.0%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it’s found that interns have a medium level of knowledge about avian influenza. Lessons about, the diseases those can cause epidemics and important health problems in the future should be integrated in to the education programs to improve the knowledge level of interns

  1. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  2. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes.

  3. Advances and Future Challenges in Recombinant Adenoviral Vectored H5N1 Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has increased the potential for a new pandemic to occur. This event highlights the necessity for developing a new generation of influenza vaccines to counteract influenza disease. These vaccines must be manufactured for mass immunization of humans in a timely manner. Poultry should be included in this policy, since persistent infected flocks are the major source of avian influenza for human infections. Recombinant adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines are an attractive alternative to the currently licensed influenza vaccines. This class of vaccines induces a broadly protective immunity against antigenically distinct H5N1, can be manufactured rapidly, and may allow mass immunization of human and poultry. Recombinant adenoviral vectors derived from both human and non-human adenoviruses are currently being investigated and appear promising both in nonclinical and clinical studies. This review will highlight the current status of various adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines and will outline novel approaches for the future.

  4. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  5. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  6. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  7. A Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis of Avian Influenza Policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Fournié, Guillaume; Abul Kalam, Md; Biswas, Paritosh K; Hoque, Ahasanul; Debnath, Nitish C; Rahman, Mahmudur; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Harper, David; Heymann, David L

    2017-11-13

    Avian influenza is a major animal and public health concern in Bangladesh. A decade after development and implementation of the first national avian influenza and human pandemic influenza preparedness and response plan in Bangladesh, a two-stage qualitative stakeholder analysis was performed in relation to the policy development process and the actual policy. This study specifically aimed to identify the future policy options to prevent and control avian influenza and other poultry-related zoonotic diseases in Bangladesh. It was recommended that the policy should be based on the One Health concept, be evidence-based, sustainable, reviewed and updated as necessary. The future policy environment that is suitable for developing and implementing these policies should take into account the following points: the need to formally engage multiple sectors, the need for clear and acceptable leadership, roles and responsibilities and the need for a common pool of resources and provision for transferring resources. Most of these recommendations are directed towards the Government of Bangladesh. However, other sectors, including research and poultry production stakeholders, also have a major role to play to inform policy making and actively participate in the multi-sectoral approach.

  8. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  9. Outbreak of avian influenza H7N3 on a turkey farm in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Matthijs, M.G.R.; Koch, G.; Westendorp, S.T.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This case report describes the course of an outbreak of avian influenza on a Dutch turkey farm. When clinical signs were observed their cause remained unclear. However, serum samples taken for the monitoring campaign launched during the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2003, showed that all the remaining turkeys were seropositive against an H7 strain of avian influenza virus, and the virus was subsequently isolated from stored carcases. The results of a reverse-transcriptase P...

  10. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Nipah virus , severe acute respiratory syndrome virus , and avian influenza virus reiterate the impor- tance of zoonotic microbes as...Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays...been, and continue to emerge as, threats to human health. The recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in bird populations and the

  11. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  12. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  13. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  14. Uptake of the Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, DA

    2016-09-01

    Influenza is caused by a highly infectious RNA virus, which usually occurs in a seasonal pattern with epidemics in the winter months. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of the influenza vaccine in a pregnant population and ascertain the reasons why some women did not receive it. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a two-week period in January 2016 in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin, a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering over 9000 infants per year. There were 504 women studied over the 2-week period. Overall, 197(39.1%) women received the vaccine at a mean gestational age 20.9 weeks (SD 7.0). Given the increased rates of influenza in the community and the associated implications for mother and infant, it is important that pregnant women are educated regarding the risks of influenza in pregnancy and encourage this cohort to be vaccinated.

  15. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Promoting Influenza Vaccination to Restaurant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Parrish, Amanda T; Ahmed, Faruque; Zhou, Chuan; Allen, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate an evidence-based workplace approach to increasing adult influenza vaccination levels applied in the restaurant setting We implemented an intervention and conducted a pre/post analysis to determine effect on vaccination. Eleven Seattle-area restaurants. Restaurants with 25+ employees speaking English or Spanish and over 18 years. Restaurants received influenza vaccination promotion materials, assistance arranging on-site vaccination events, and free influenza vaccinations for employees. Pre/post employee surveys of vaccination status with direct observation and employer interviews to evaluate implementation. We conducted descriptive analysis of employee survey data and performed qualitative analysis of implementation data. To assess intervention effect, we used a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a restaurant-specific random effect. Vaccination levels increased from 26% to 46% (adjusted odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.69, 3.22), with 428 employees surveyed preintervention, 305 surveyed postintervention, and response rates of 73% and 55%, respectively. The intervention was effective across subgroups, but there were restaurant-level differences. An access-based workplace intervention can increase influenza vaccination levels in restaurant employees, but restaurant-level factors may influence success. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  17. Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R. H. H.; Hoes, A. W.; Hak, E.

    Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness have mostly been derived from nonrandomised studies and therefore are potentially confounded. The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing mortality among the elderly, taking both measured and unmeasured

  18. Immunization safety review: influenza vaccines and neurological complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen R

    ..., unlike other vaccines. The Immunization Safety Review committee reviewed the data on influenza vaccine and neurological conditions and concluded that the evidence favored rejection of a causal relationship...

  19. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1): a Threat to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. Therefore, H5N1 virus has rightly received attention as a potential pandemic threat. However, it is noted that the pandemics of 1957 and 1968 did not arise from highly pathogenic influenza viruses, ...

  20. Strategies and challenges for eliciting immunity against avian influenza virus in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E; Kapczynski, Darrell

    2008-10-01

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged during the past two decades as essential tools in avian influenza (AI) control for poultry, because they increase resistance to infection, prevent illness and death, reduce virus replication and shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts, and reduce virus transmission to birds and mammals, including humans. Such protection in birds is primarily mediated by homosubtypic humoral immunity against the hemagglutinin protein, but cell-mediated and innate immunity contribute to protection in some bird species. The immune response to the neuraminidase protein can contribute to protection, but immunity to the viral internal proteins is generally not protective. Although, some preliminary studies with M2e protein in chickens suggest partial protection may be achievable. Historically, the H5 subtype AI vaccines have demonstrated broad homosubtypic protection, primarily against H5 high-pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses isolated in the early stages of outbreaks. However, as H5 viruses have become endemic and outbreaks prolonged, some drift variants with resistance to earlier H5 AI vaccines have emerged in Central America, China, Egypt, and Indonesia. How widespread such drift variants are will remain unknown until more detailed genetic and antigenic analyses are conducted on field isolates. Future vaccines will utilize biotechnology to produce new AI vaccine seed strains using HA genes more closely matching circulating field viruses. In addition, newer technologies for AI vaccines will improve vaccine coverage by using mass application technologies for example by drinking water, by spray, or via injection in ovo or at the hatchery.

  1. Isolation and characterization of virus of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    2004-03-01

    are highly pathogenic to experimental animals. It is concluded that the causative agent of the outbreaks of avian disease in Indonesia was avian influenza H5 subtype virus. The result has been the basis of further study such as development serological tests and vaccine production. The decission of Indonesian Government to conduct vaccination program using homolog vaccine in order to control the disease is regarded as the correct choice. However, it should be accompanied by conducting surveillance and monitoring of the disease as well as the possibility of mutation of virus. The program should be coordinated nationally.

  2. Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic implication on poultry enterprises in Adamawa state, Nigeria. MR Ja'afar-Furo, HG Balla, B Yakubu. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (1) 2007: pp. 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjass.v6i1.2302 · AJOL African Journals ...

  3. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines... Secretary issued a declaration for pandemic influenza vaccines, which has been amended a number of times. The original pandemic influenza vaccine declaration was published on January 26, 2007,\\1\\ and was...

  4. Influenza Vaccinations, Fall 2009: Model School-Located Vaccination Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…

  5. Genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; Kayed, Ahmed; Moatasim, Yassmin; Webby, Richard J; McKenzie, Pamela P; Kayali, Ghazi; Ali, Mohamed A

    2017-07-01

    A newly emerged H5N8 influenza virus was isolated from green-winged teal in Egypt during December 2016. In this study, we provide a detailed characterization of full genomes of Egyptian H5N8 viruses and some virological features. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the Egyptian H5N8 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome of the Egyptian H5N8 viruses was related to recently characterized reassortant H5N8 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 isolated from different Eurasian countries. Multiple peculiar mutations were characterized in the Egyptian H5N8 viruses, which probably permits transmission and virulence of these viruses in mammals. The Egyptian H5N8 viruses preferentially bound to avian-like receptors rather than human-like receptors. Also, the Egyptian H5N8 viruses were fully sensitive to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors. Chicken sera raised against commercial inactivated avian influenza-H5 vaccines showed no or very low reactivity with the currently characterized H5N8 viruses in agreement with the genetic dissimilarity. Surveillance of avian influenza in waterfowl provides early warning of specific threats to poultry and human health and hence should be continued.

  6. Prospective study of avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S Krueger

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 rural Thai adults living within Kamphaeng Phet Province were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Serological analyses of enrollment sera suggested this cohort had experienced subclinical avian influenza virus (AIV infections with H9N2 and H5N1 viruses.After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 mos for acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Cohort members confirmed to have influenza A infections were enrolled with their household contacts in a family transmission study involving paired sera and respiratory swab collections. Cohort members also provided sera at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Serologic and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed against avian, swine, and human influenza viruses.Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 81 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted; 31 (38% were identified as influenza A infections by qRT-PCR. Eighty-three household contacts were enrolled; 12 (14% reported ILIs, and 11 (92% of those were identified as influenza infections. A number of subjects were found to have slightly elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2 virus: 21 subjects (2.7% at 12-months and 40 subjects (5.1% at 24-months. Among these, two largely asymptomatic acute infections with H9N2 virus were detected by >4-fold increases in annual serologic titers (final titers 1:80. While controlling for age and influenza vaccine receipt, moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated H9N2 titers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-5.2 at the 24-month encounter. One subject had an elevated titer (1:20 against H5N1 during follow-up.From 2008-10, evidence for AIV infections was sparse among this rural population. Subclinical H9N2 AIV infections likely occurred, but serological results were confounded by antibody cross-reactions. There is a critical need for improved serological diagnostics to more accurately detect subclinical AIV infections in

  7. Prospective study of avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Whitney S; Khuntirat, Benjawan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Blair, Patrick J; Chittagarnpitch, Malinee; Putnam, Shannon D; Supawat, Krongkaew; Gibbons, Robert V; Bhuddari, Darunee; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Heil, Gary L; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, 800 rural Thai adults living within Kamphaeng Phet Province were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Serological analyses of enrollment sera suggested this cohort had experienced subclinical avian influenza virus (AIV) infections with H9N2 and H5N1 viruses. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 mos for acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have influenza A infections were enrolled with their household contacts in a family transmission study involving paired sera and respiratory swab collections. Cohort members also provided sera at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Serologic and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed against avian, swine, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 81 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted; 31 (38%) were identified as influenza A infections by qRT-PCR. Eighty-three household contacts were enrolled; 12 (14%) reported ILIs, and 11 (92%) of those were identified as influenza infections. A number of subjects were found to have slightly elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) virus: 21 subjects (2.7%) at 12-months and 40 subjects (5.1%) at 24-months. Among these, two largely asymptomatic acute infections with H9N2 virus were detected by >4-fold increases in annual serologic titers (final titers 1:80). While controlling for age and influenza vaccine receipt, moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated H9N2 titers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-5.2) at the 24-month encounter. One subject had an elevated titer (1:20) against H5N1 during follow-up. From 2008-10, evidence for AIV infections was sparse among this rural population. Subclinical H9N2 AIV infections likely occurred, but serological results were confounded by antibody cross-reactions. There is a critical need for improved serological diagnostics to more accurately detect subclinical AIV infections in humans.

  8. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, Hon S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  9. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hadipour,MM

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known ab...

  10. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  11. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses. Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenza-virus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and nucleic acid-based vaccines. This review discusses recent scientific advances in the development of next-generation universal influenza vaccines.

  12. The Pathology of Avian Influenza in Birds and Animals: An Analytical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikova, E. I.; Getmanova, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza virus remains enigmatic despite of long extensive studies. Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is able to infect a large spectrum of animal and bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus represents a serious problem both for a human and birds, particularly for chicks. Many studies have been performed in order to show differences between highly and low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, and examine their biological properties. Many separate pathological and microscopic descriptions are interspersed in numerous published articles. The aim of our study was to analyze data published in international scientific journals, and to attempt a generalized view of avian influenza pathology in various animal and bird hosts. We summarized and systematized data describing pathological changes caused by both highly and low pathogenic types of avian influenza virus (H5N1) in animals and birds, and developed generalized descriptions with accent at the type of virus. We also tried to show up species specific features of pathological changes in birds and animals infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). The results of this analytical work may be useful for pathological studies of a new avian influenza virus isolates, and for understanding of avian influenza pathogenesis in birds and animals. (author)

  13. Drugs against avian influenza a virus: design of novel sulfonate inhibitors of neuraminidase N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udommaneethanakit, Thanyarat; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Frecer, Vladimir; Seneci, Pierfausto; Miertus, Stanislav; Bren, Urban

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has raised a global concern for both the animal as well as human health. Besides vaccination, that may not achieve full protection in certain groups of patients, inhibiting neuraminidase or the transmembrane protein M2 represents the main measure of controlling the disease. Due to alarming emergence of influenza virus strains resistant to the currently available drugs, development of new neuraminidase N1 inhibitors is of utmost importance. The present paper provides an overview of the recent advances in the design of new antiviral drugs against avian influenza. It also reports findings in binding free energy calculations for nine neuraminidase N1 inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir -carboxylate, -phosphonate, and -sulfonate) using the Linear Interaction Energy method. Molecular dynamics simulations of these inhibitors were performed in a free and two bound states - the so called open and closed conformations of neuraminidase N1. Obtained results successfully reproduce the experimental binding affinities of the already known neuraminidase N1 inhibitors, i.e. peramivir being a stronger binder than zanamivir that is in turn stronger binder than oseltamivir, or phosphonate inhibitors being stronger binders than their carboxylate analogues. In addition, the newly proposed sulfonate inhibitors are predicted to be the strongest binders - a fact to be confirmed by their chemical synthesis and a subsequent test of their biological activity. Finally, contributions of individual inhibitor moieties to the overall binding affinity are explicitly evaluated to assist further drug development towards inhibition of the H5N1 avian influenza A virus.

  14. Effect of Vaccination on Transmission of HPAI H5N1: The Effect of a Single Vaccination Dose on Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influanza H5N1 in Peking Ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Boven, van R.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koch, G.

    2007-01-01

    The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus is widespread among domestic ducks throughout Southeast Asia. Many aspects of the poultry industry and social habits hinder the containment and eradication of AI. Vaccination is often put forward as a tool for the control of AI. However, vaccination

  15. Challenges of influenza A viruses in humans and animals and current animal vaccines as an effective control measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors. Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools against IAV. Numerous vaccines against animal IAVs have been developed by a variety of vaccine technologies and some of them are currently commercially available. We summarize several challenges in control of IAVs faced by human and animals and discuss IAV vaccines for animal use with those application in susceptible populations. PMID:29399575

  16. 75 FR 69046 - Notice of Determination of the High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech Republic and Sweden AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 status of the Czech Republic and Sweden... status of the Czech Republic and Sweden relative to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1...

  17. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  18. Influvac, a trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Fabiano, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Influenza represents a major sanitary and socio-economic burden and vaccination is universally considered the most effective strategy for preventing the disease and its complications. Traditional influenza vaccines have been on the market since the late 1940s, with million of doses administered annually worldwide, and demonstrated a substantial efficacy and safety. The trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine has been available for more than 25 years and has been studied in healthy children, adults and the elderly and in people affected by underlying chronic medical conditions. We describe vaccine technology focusing on subunit vaccine production procedures and mode of action and provide updated information on efficacy and safety available data. A review of efficacy and safety data in healthy subjects and in high risk populations from major sponsor- and investigator-driven studies. The vaccine showed a good immunogenicity and a favorable safety profile in all target groups. In the panorama of actually available influenza vaccines, trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine represents a well-established tool for preventing flu and the associated complications.

  19. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  20. Current situation of avian influenza with emphasis on pathobiology, epidemiology and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  1. Serosurvey of antibody to highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian influenza is a disease of economic and public health importance that has been described in most domestic animals and humans. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 epidemic in Nigeria was observed in agro-ecological zones where pigs and chickens are raised in shared environment with chances of ...

  2. Outbreak of avian influenza H7N3 on a turkey farm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Matthijs, M.G.R.; Koch, G.; Westendorp, S.T.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This case report describes the course of an outbreak of avian influenza on a Dutch turkey farm. When clinical signs were observed their cause remained unclear. However, serum samples taken for the monitoring campaign launched during the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2003, showed

  3. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Boer, de Fred

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over

  4. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, S. (Shenglai); D. Kleijn (David); Müskens, G.J.D.M. (Gerard J. D. M.); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Glazov, P.M. (Petr M.); Si, Y. (Yali); Prins, H.H.T. (Herbert H. T.); De Boer, W.F. (Willem Frederik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus

  5. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is

  6. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load,

  7. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.; Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood

  8. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  9. Modelling the Innate Immune Response against Avian Influenza Virus in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T J; Fischer, E A J; Jansen, C A; Rebel, J M J; Spekreijse, D; Vervelde, L; Backer, J A; de Jong, M.C.M.; Koets, A P

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α, -β

  10. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions. To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 31 December 2016), Embase (1974 to 31 December 2016), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 1 July 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 July 2017). Randomised controlled trials comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy children under 16 years. Previous versions of this review included 19 cohort and 11 case-control studies. We are no longer updating the searches for these study designs but have retained the observational studies for historical purposes. Review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the key outcomes of influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), complications (hospitalisation, ear infection), and adverse events. Due to variation in control group risks for influenza and ILI, absolute effects are reported as the median control group risk, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNVs) are reported accordingly. For other outcomes aggregate control group risks are used. We included 41 clinical trials (> 200,000 children). Most of the studies were conducted in children over the

  11. Comparative analysis of chest radiological findings between avian human influenza and SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Mingjin; Mai Weiwen; Xian Jianxing; Zhang Jiayun; Lin Wenjian; Wei Liping; Chen Jincheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the chest radiological findings of a mortal avian human influenza case. Methods: One patient in our hospital was proved to be infected avian human influenza in Guangdong province on March 1, 2006. The Clinical appearances and chest radiological findings of this case were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of 3 mortal SARS cases out of 16 cases in 2003. Results: Large consolidated areas in left lower lobe was showed in pulmonary radiological findings of this patient and soon developed into ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome). However, the pulmonary radiological findings had no characteristic. Characteristics of soaring size and number during short term appeared in SARS instead of avian human influenza. Final diagnosis was up to the etiology and serology examination. Conclusion: Bronchial dissemination was not observed in this avian human influenza case. Pay attention to the avian human influenza in spite of no history of contract with sick or dead poultry in large city. (authors)

  12. Cost Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccine for U.S. Children: Live Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Brown, Shawn T; DePasse, Jay; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Smith, Kenneth J; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2016-09-01

    Prior studies showed that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is more effective than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children aged 2-8 years, supporting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations in 2014 for preferential LAIV use in this age group. However, 2014-2015 U.S. effectiveness data indicated relatively poor effectiveness of both vaccines, leading CDC in 2015 to no longer prefer LAIV. An age-structured model of influenza transmission and vaccination was developed, which incorporated both direct and indirect protection induced by vaccination. Based on this model, the cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination strategies in children aged 2-8 years in the U.S. was estimated. The base case assumed a mixed vaccination strategy where 33.3% and 66.7% of vaccinated children aged 2-8 years receive LAIV and IIV, respectively. Analyses were performed in 2014-2015. Using published meta-analysis vaccine effectiveness data (83% LAIV and 64% IIV), exclusive LAIV use would be a cost-effective strategy when vaccinating children aged 2-8 years, whereas IIV would not be preferred. However, when 2014-2015 U.S. effectiveness data (0% LAIV and 15% IIV) were used, IIV was likely to be preferred. The cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination in children aged 2-8 years is highly dependent on vaccine effectiveness; the vaccine type with higher effectiveness is preferred. In general, exclusive IIV use is preferred over LAIV use, as long as vaccine effectiveness is higher for IIV than for LAIV. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) is...

  14. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  15. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.

  16. Protection against Multiple Subtypes of Influenza Viruses by Virus-Like Particle Vaccines Based on a Hemagglutinin Conserved Epitope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We selected the conserved sequence in the stalk region of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA trimmer, the long alpha helix (LAH, as the vaccine candidate sequence, and inserted it into the major immunodominant region (MIR of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc, and, by using the E. coli expression system, we prepared a recombinant protein vaccine LAH-HBc in the form of virus-like particles (VLP. Intranasal immunization of mice with this LAH-HBc VLP plus cholera toxin B subunit with 0.2% of cholera toxin (CTB* adjuvant could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immune responses and protect mice against a lethal challenge of homologous influenza viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8 (H1N1. In addition, passage of the immune sera containing specific antibodies to naïve mice rendered them resistant against a lethal homologous challenge. Immunization with LAH-HBc VLP vaccine plus CTB* adjuvant could also fully protect mice against a lethal challenge of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus or the avian H9N2 virus and could partially protect mice against a lethal challenge of the avian H5N1 influenza virus. This study demonstrated that the LAH-HBc VLP vaccine based on a conserved sequence of the HA trimmer stalk region is a promising candidate vaccine for developing a universal influenza vaccine against multiple influenza viruses infections.

  17. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, Economic Evaluation Database (EED and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication.Selection criteria:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events.Data collection and analysis:We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs, and we used random-effects models.MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251, in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347 focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population

  18. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, Christine; Oseni, Zainab; Flowers, Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Rees, Karen

    2015-05-05

    This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes. To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Economic Evaluation Database (EED) and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov). We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs), and we used random-effects models. We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251), in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347) focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population and reported cardiovascular outcomes among their safety analyses; four trials (n = 1682) focused on prevention of

  19. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  20. Simplifying influenza vaccination during pandemics : sublingual priming and intramuscular boosting of immune responses with heterologous whole inactivated influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murugappan, Senthil; Patil, Harshad P; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-01-01

    The best approach to control the spread of influenza virus during a pandemic is vaccination. Yet, an appropriate vaccine is not available early in the pandemic since vaccine production is time consuming. For influenza strains with a high pandemic potential like H5N1, stockpiling of vaccines has been

  1. Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, W L A; Stockhofe, N; Weesendorp, E; van Zoelen-Bos, D; Heutink, R; Quak, S; Goovaerts, D; Heldens, J G M; Maas, R; Moormann, R J; Koch, G

    2011-09-28

    In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named "pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009" (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. Three swine influenza vaccines, two of them commercially available and one experimental, were therefore tested and compared for their efficacy against an H1N1v challenge. One of the commercial vaccines is based on an American classical H1N1 influenza strain, the other is based on a European avian H1N1 influenza strain. The experimental vaccine is based on reassortant virus NYMC X179A (containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1v) and the internal genes of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1)). Excretion of infectious virus was reduced by 0.5-3 log(10) by the commercial vaccines, depending on vaccine and sample type. Both vaccines were able to reduce virus replication especially in the lower respiratory tract, with less pathological lesions in vaccinated and subsequently challenged pigs than in unvaccinated controls. In pigs vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, excretion levels of infectious virus in nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, were at or below 1 log(10)TCID(50) per swab and lasted for only 1 or 2 days. An inactivated vaccine containing the HA and NA of an H1N1v is able to protect pigs from an infection with H1N1v, whereas swine influenza vaccines that are currently available are of limited efficaciousness. Whether vaccination of pigs against H1N1v will become opportune remains to be seen and will depend on future evolution of this strain in the pig population. Close monitoring of the pig population, focussing on presence and evolution of

  2. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  3. Safety of influenza vaccination in children with allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Global guidelines strongly recommend annual influenza vaccination in people age 6 months and older, particularly in asthmatic children. There is no doubt about the benefit of influenza vaccination in asthmatic children. However, some of the vaccine's components may elicit an IgE mediated hypersensitivity or disease exacerbation, including life-threatening events, in children with allergic diseases. As a result, concerns regarding the safety of the vaccine still continue today. The influenza v...

  4. Differential lung NK cell responses in avian influenza virus infected chickens correlate with pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, C.A.; de Geus, E.D.; van Haarlem, D.A.; van de Haar, P.M.; Löndt, B.Z; Graham, S.P.; Göbel, T.W.; van Eden, W.; Brookes, S.M.; Vervelde, L.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus results in mild clinical signs while infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses causes death of the birds within 36–48 hours. Since natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to play an important role in influenza-specific immunity, we hypothesise that NK cells are involved in this difference in pathogenicity. To investigate this, the role of chicken NK-cells in LPAI virus infection was studied. Next...

  5. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2?1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population?based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine inf...

  6. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoom John

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65% showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen

  7. Economics of influenza vaccine administration timing for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Tai, Julie H Y; Bailey, Rachel R; Smith, Kenneth J; Nowalk, Andrew J

    2010-03-01

    To determine how much should be invested each year to encourage and operationalize the administration of influenza vaccine to children before November and how late the vaccine should be offered each year. Monte Carlo decision analytic computer simulation models. The children's influenza vaccination timing model quantified the incremental economic value of vaccinating a child earlier in the influenza season and the incremental cost of delaying vaccination. The children's monthly influenza vaccination decision model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating versus not vaccinating for every month of the influenza season. Getting children vaccinated by the end of October rather than when they are currently getting vaccinated could save society between $6.4 million and $9.2 million plus 653 and 926 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and third-party payers between $4.1 million and $6.1 million plus 647 to 942 QALYs each year. Decision makers may want to continue offering influenza vaccination to children at least through the end of December. Vaccinating with trivalent inactivated virus vaccine was more cost-effective than vaccinating with live attenuated influenza vaccine for every month. Policymakers could invest up to $6 million to $9 million a year to get children vaccinated in September or October without expending any net costs.

  8. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.  Created: 5/27/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  9. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  10. Conventional influenza vaccines influence the performance of a universal influenza vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Janelle; Lo, Chia-Yun; Price, Graeme E; Misplon, Julia A; Epstein, Suzanne L; Garcia, Mayra

    2018-02-08

    Universal influenza vaccines are designed to protect against diverse strains of influenza virus. Preclinical testing of new vaccine candidates is usually done in naïve animals, despite intended use in the human population with its varied immune history including responses to previous vaccinations. As an approach more relevant to human use, we tested a candidate universal influenza vaccine in mice with a history of conventional vaccination. Female BALB/c mice were given two intramuscular doses of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine (DT), one month apart. Another group was given two intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). One month after the second dose, mice were given the universal influenza vaccine: recombinant adenoviruses expressing influenza A nucleoprotein (A/NP) and matrix 2 (M2) (A/NP + M2-rAd). Immune responses to universal vaccine antigens A/NP and M2 were assessed by ELISA and interferon-γ ELISPOT. Protection was tested by challenge with mouse-adapted A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) and monitoring for weight loss and survival. Universal vaccine performance was enhanced, inhibited or unaffected by particular prior vaccinations. Mice given Afluria IIV and LAIV had greater antibody and T-cell response to A/NP than mice without prior vaccination, providing examples of enhanced A/NP + M2-rAd performance. Though Fluvirin IIV partially inhibited, the universal vaccine still provided considerable protection unlike conventional vaccination. Fluzone IIV and DT had no effect on A/NP + M2-rAd performance. Thus our results demonstrate that universal vaccine candidate A/NP + M2-rAd was at least partially effective in mice with diverse prior histories. However, the degree of protection and nature of the immune responses may be affected by a history of conventional vaccination and suggests that performance in humans would be influenced by immune history. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  12. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2·1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population-based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine influenza virus strains. Seroreactivity was sparse among participants suggesting little human risk of zoonotic influenza infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sultana, Rebecca; Islam, M. Saiful; Rahman, Mustafizur; Fry, Alicia M.; Shu, Bo; Lindstrom, Stephen; Nahar, Kamrun; Goswami, Doli; Haider, M. Sabbir; Nahar, Sharifun; Butler, Ebonee; Hancock, Kathy; Donis, Ruben O.; Davis, Charles T.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Luby, Stephen P.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2009-01-01

    We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus. PMID:19751601

  14. Cross-protection against lethal H5N1 challenge ferrets with an adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Baras (Benoît); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); J.H. Simon (James); R.J.M.M. Thoolen (Robert); S.P. Mossman (Sally); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.A. Wettendorff (Martine); E. Hanon (Emmanuel); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Unprecedented spread between birds and mammals of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype has resulted in hundreds of human infections with a high fatality rate. This has highlighted the urgent need for the development of H5N1 vaccines that can be

  15. 76 FR 78658 - Webinar Overview of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup's Draft Report and Draft Recommendations for Achieving the Healthy People 2020 Annual Coverage Goals for Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Personnel... Influenza Vaccination Subgroup (HCPIVS), will host an informational webinar to introduce the committee's...

  16. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  17. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  18. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community.

  19. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in minor gallinaceous species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can vary greatly among bird species. Chickens and turkeys are major avian species that, like ducks, have been extensively studied for avian influenza. To a lesser extent, minor avian species such as quail, partridges, and pheasants have also been investigated for avian influenza. Usually, such game fowl species are highly susceptible to highly pathogenic AIVs and may consistently spread both highly pathogenic AIVs and low-pathogenic AIVs. These findings, together with the fact that game birds are considered bridge species in the poultry-wildlife interface, highlight their interest from the transmission and biosecurity points of view. Here, the general pathobiological features of low-pathogenic AIV and highly pathogenic AIV infections in this group of avian species have been covered.

  20. Development of a thermostable microneedle patch for influenza vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistilis, Matthew; Bommarius, Andreas S; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop thermostable microneedle patch formulations for influenza vaccine that can be partially or completely removed from the cold chain. During vaccine drying associated with microneedle patch manufacturing, ammonium acetate and HEPES buffer salts stabilized influenza vaccine, surfactants had little effect during drying, drying temperature had weak effects on vaccine stability, and drying on polydimethylsiloxane led to increased stability compared to drying on stainless steel. A number of excipients, mostly polysaccharides and some amino acids, further stabilized the influenza vaccine during drying. Over longer time scales of storage, combinations of stabilizers preserved the most vaccine activity. Finally, dissolving microneedle patches formulated with arginine and calcium heptagluconate had no significant activity loss for all three strains of seasonal influenza vaccine during storage at room temperature for six months. We conclude that appropriately formulated microneedle patches can exhibit remarkable thermostability that could enable storage and distribution of influenza vaccine outside the cold chain. PMID:25448542

  1. Adaptation of high-growth influenza H5N1 vaccine virus in Vero cells: implications for pandemic preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Tseng

    Full Text Available Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14, a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus and egg-adapted high-growth A/PR/8/1934 virus, could grow efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells but not Vero cells which is the most popular cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. After serial passages and plaque purifications of the NIBRG-14 vaccine virus in Vero cells, one high-growth virus strain (Vero-15 was generated and can grow over 10(8 TCID(50/ml. In conclusion, one high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus was generated in Vero cells, which can be used to manufacture influenza H5N1 vaccines and prepare reassortant vaccine viruses for other influenza A subtypes.

  2. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  3. Effects of influenza vaccination and influenza illness on exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1998-01-01

    Despite reports that influenza vaccination appears to be safe in multiple sclerosis there is uncertainty which patients may benefit from it. By using a questionnaire we compared the effects of influenza illness (1995-1996 season) and influenza vaccination (autumn of 1996) on neurologic symptoms in

  4. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  5. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  6. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  7. Bringing influenza vaccines into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settembre, Ethan C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-01-01

    The recent H7N9 influenza outbreak in China highlights the need for influenza vaccine production systems that are robust and can quickly generate substantial quantities of vaccines that target new strains for pandemic and seasonal immunization. Although the influenza vaccine system, a public-private partnership, has been effective in providing vaccines, there are areas for improvement. Technological advances such as mammalian cell culture production and synthetic vaccine seeds provide a means to increase the speed and accuracy of targeting new influenza strains with mass-produced vaccines by dispensing with the need for egg isolation, adaptation, and reassortment of vaccine viruses. New influenza potency assays that no longer require the time-consuming step of generating sheep antisera could further speed vaccine release. Adjuvants that increase the breadth of the elicited immune response and allow dose sparing provide an additional means to increase the number of available vaccine doses. Together these technologies can improve the influenza vaccination system in the near term. In the longer term, disruptive technologies, such as RNA-based flu vaccines and 'universal' flu vaccines, offer a promise of a dramatically improved influenza vaccine system.

  8. Making evidence-based selections of influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Childress, Billy-Clyde; Montney, Joshua D; Albro, Elise A

    2014-01-01

    Years ago, intramuscular influenza vaccines were the only option for those who wanted to arm themselves against the flu. Today there are alternatives, including intradermal injections and intranasal sprays. In order to select the right influenza vaccine for their patients, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals must have a basic understanding of the immune system. Influenza vaccines elicit different levels of immune response involving innate and adaptive immunity, which are critical ...

  9. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  10. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections of humans in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Praptiningsih, Catharina Y.; Lafond, Kathryn E.; Storms, Aaron D.; Samaan, Gina; Ariawan, Iwan; Soeharno, Nugroho; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Storey, J. Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 vir...

  11. Trivalent MDCK cell culture-derived influenza vaccine Optaflu (Novartis Vaccines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, Alexander; Halperin, Scott A

    2009-06-01

    Annual influenza epidemics continue to have a considerable impact in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination remains the principal measure to prevent seasonal influenza and reduce associated morbidity and mortality. The WHO recommends using established mammalian cell culture lines as an alternative to egg-based substrates in the manufacture of influenza vaccine. In June 2007, the EMEA approved Optaflu, a Madin Darby canine kidney cell culture-derived influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis Vaccines. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of cell culture-based technology for influenza vaccine production, compares immunogenicity and safety data for Optaflu with that of currently marketed conventional egg-based influenza vaccines, and considers the prospects for wider use of cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

  12. Immunogenicity and Clinical Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination In Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Kay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at high risk from influenza due to disproportionate morbidity, mortality, and adverse pregnancy outcomes following infection. As such, they are classified as a high priority group for vaccination. However, changes in the maternal immune system required to accommodate the allogeneic fetus may alter the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines. A large number of studies have evaluated the safety of the influenza vaccine. Here, we will review available studies on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, focusing on both humoral and cellular immunity.

  13. Formulation of influenza T cell peptides : in search of a universal influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soema, Peter Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines rely on the induction of antibodies to neutralize the virus. However, influenza viruses frequently undergo genetic mutations due to antigenic drift and shift, altering the surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase to which antibodies usually bind. This

  14. Development and Regulation of Novel Influenza Virus Vaccines: A United States Young Scientist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender

    2018-04-27

    Vaccination against influenza is the most effective approach for reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. However, influenza vaccines are unique among all licensed vaccines as they are updated and administered annually to antigenically match the vaccine strains and currently circulating influenza strains. Vaccine efficacy of each selected influenza virus vaccine varies depending on the antigenic match between circulating strains and vaccine strains, as well as the age and health status of the vaccine recipient. Low vaccine effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in recent years provides an impetus to improve current seasonal influenza vaccines, and for development of next-generation influenza vaccines that can provide broader, long-lasting protection against both matching and antigenically diverse influenza strains. This review discusses a perspective on some of the issues and formidable challenges facing the development and regulation of the next-generation influenza vaccines.

  15. Cross-protective peptide vaccine against influenza A viruses developed in HLA-A*2402 human immunity model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Ichihashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL induction is an important target for the development of a broadly protective human influenza vaccine, since most CTL epitopes are found on internal viral proteins and relatively conserved. In this study, the possibility of developing a strain/subtype-independent human influenza vaccine was explored by taking a bioinformatics approach to establish an immunogenic HLA-A24 restricted CTL epitope screening system in HLA-transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HLA-A24 restricted CTL epitope peptides derived from internal proteins of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus were predicted by CTL epitope peptide prediction programs. Of 35 predicted peptides, six peptides exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activity in vivo. More than half of the mice which were subcutaneously vaccinated with the three most immunogenic and highly conserved epitopes among three different influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 survived lethal influenza virus challenge during both effector and memory CTL phases. Furthermore, mice that were intranasally vaccinated with these peptides remained free of clinical signs after lethal virus challenge during the effector phase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This CTL epitope peptide selection system can be used as an effective tool for the development of a cross-protective human influenza vaccine. Furthermore this vaccine strategy can be applicable to the development of all intracellular pathogens vaccines to induce epitope-specific CTL that effectively eliminate infected cells.

  16. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.

  17. [Clinical aspects of human infection by the avian influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubau, P

    2009-01-01

    The species barrier is not perfect for Influenza A and numerous transmissions of the virus from pigs or poultry to humans have been described these years. Appearing in 1997 and becoming epidemic in 2003, influenza A/H5N1 provoked many deadly enzootics in poultry batteries (highly pathogenic avian influenza of HPAI). Starting in Asia, many countries throughout Africa and Europe were affected. Sporadic human cases were described in direct contact with diseased chicken or other poultry. Half of the cases are lethal, but human to human transmission occurs with difficulty. From January 2003 to August 11th 2009, 438 cases were declared worldwide with 262 deaths. Many countries declared cases, but recently most cases occurred in Egypt. Measures in hospital were taken which were copied from the measures for SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), but these were probably excessive in this case, considering the low rate of secondary cases with A/H5N1. In many human infections, signs of severe respiratory distress develop and multi organ failure. It was feared that this deadly virus could become easily transmitted between humans, leading to a new pandemic. This was not the case up to now. The strong pathogenicity of the virus is still not completely explained, but the deep location of infection in the lungs and the deregulation of cytokine production by the target cells, particularly macrophages, may be part of the explanation.

  18. Intervention strategies to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza viruses: scientific basis, challenges and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Leslie D

    2013-09-01

    A range of measures has been recommended and used for the control and prevention of avian influenza. These measures are based on the assessment of local epidemiological situations, field observations and other scientific information. Other non-technical factors are (or in some cases should be) taken into account when developing and recommending control measures. The precise effects under field conditions of most individual interventions applied to control and prevent avian influenza have not been established or subjected to critical review, often because a number of measures are applied simultaneously without controls. In most cases, the combination of measures used results in control or elimination of the virus although there are some countries where this has not been the case. In others, especially those with low poultry density, it is not clear whether the link between the adoption of a set of measures and the subsequent control of the disease is causative. This article discusses the various measures recommended, with particular emphasis on stamping out and vaccination, examines how these measures assist in preventing zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses and explores gaps in knowledge regarding their effectiveness. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the strongest correlate of cross-reactive antibody responses in migratory bird handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshansky, Christine M; Wong, Sook-San; Jeevan, Trushar; Smallwood, Heather S; Webby, Richard J; Shafir, Shira C; Thomas, Paul G

    2014-12-09

    Avian species are reservoirs of influenza A viruses and could harbor viruses with significant pandemic potential. We examined the antibody and cellular immune responses to influenza A viruses in field or laboratory workers with a spectrum of occupational exposure to avian species for evidence of zoonotic infections. We measured the seroprevalence and T cell responses among 95 individuals with various types and degrees of prior field or laboratory occupational exposure to wild North American avian species using whole blood samples collected in 2010. Plasma samples were tested using endpoint enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination (HA) inhibition (HAI) assays to subtypes H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, and H12 proteins. Detectable antibodies were found against influenza HA antigens in 77% of individuals, while 65% of individuals tested had measurable T cell responses (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay [ELISPOT]) to multiple HA antigens of avian origin. To begin defining the observed antibody specificities, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ELISA responses, which measure both head- and stalk-binding antibodies, do not predict HAI reactivities, which measure primarily head-binding antibodies. This result suggests that ELISA titers can report cross-reactivity based on the levels of non-head-binding responses. However, the strongest positive correlate of HA-specific ELISA antibody titers was receipt of seasonal influenza virus vaccination. Occupational exposure was largely uncorrelated with serological measures, with the exception of individuals exposed to poultry, who had higher levels of H7-specific antibodies than non-poultry-exposed individuals. While the cohort had antibody and T cell reactivity to a broad range of influenza viruses, only occupational exposure to poultry was associated with a significant difference in antibody levels to a specific subtype (H7). There was no evidence that T cell assays

  20. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  1. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal influenza vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Arun; Meldgaard, Trine Sundebo; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses....... Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenzavirus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could...... provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly...

  2. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2011-01-01

    After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. 75 FR 10645 - Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Voluntary Control Program and Payment of Indemnity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks, provides that consistency with humane euthanasia guidelines will be... markets. In the commenter's view, this action would not only provide for disease control but would benefit...

  4. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt ... Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. ... Reconstituted clinical samples consisting of H5 AIVs mixed with ...

  5. Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Ip, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014–2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. Further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade 2.3.4.4 virus was remarkably promiscuous, creating reassortants with multiple neuraminidase subtypes. Improving our understanding of the circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl will help to provide early warning of threats from avian influenza to poultry, and potentially human, health.

  6. Isolation strategy of a two-strain avian influenza model using optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardlijah, Ariani, Tika Desi; Asfihani, Tahiyatul

    2017-08-01

    Avian influenza has killed many victims of both birds and humans. Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans have resulted transmission from poultry to humans. To prevent or minimize the patients of avian influenza can be done by pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures such as the use of masks, isolation, etc. We will be analyzed two strains of avian influenza models that focus on treatment of symptoms with insulation, then investigate the stability of the equilibrium point by using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. We also used optimal control to reduce the number of humans infected by making the isolation level as the control then proceeds optimal control will be simulated. The completion of optimal control used in this study is the Pontryagin Minimum Principle and for simulation we are using Runge Kutta method. The results obtained showed that the application of two control is more optimal compared to apply one control only.

  7. Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A.; Chui, Kenneth K.H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in US seniors and if these associations are modified by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN We abstracted approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years, 2002–2006. We estimated a single year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization by state for each influenza season and observed an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age for each influenza season. State-and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, seniors, or both using mixed effects models. SETTING United States population, 2002–2006 PARTICIPANTS US population aged 65 and above MEASUREMENTS State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and seniors were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively. RESULTS Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the seniors themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in seniors. CONCLUSION Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for seniors and has the potential to be more beneficial to seniors than the existing policy to prevent influenza by vaccinating seniors themselves. PMID:21275932

  8. Influenza vaccination status and attitudes among restaurant employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Amanda T; Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Allen, Claire L

    2015-01-01

    Restaurant employees represent a substantial portion of the US workforce, interact closely with the public, and are at risk for contracting influenza, yet their influenza vaccination rates and attitudes are unknown. Assess influenza vaccination rates and attitudes among Seattle restaurant employees, to identify factors that could enhance the success of a restaurant-based vaccination program. In 2012, we invited employees of Seattle restaurants to complete an anonymous paper survey assessing participant demographics, previous influenza vaccination status, and personal attitudes toward influenza vaccination (using a 5-point scale). Sit-down, full service restaurants in or near Seattle, Washington, were eligible if they had no previous history of offering worksite influenza vaccinations and had more than 20 employees who were older than 18 years and spoke either English or Spanish. We invited staff in all restaurant positions (servers, bussers, kitchen staff, chefs, managers, etc) to complete the survey, which was available in English and Spanish. Of 428 restaurant employees surveyed, 26% reported receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine in 2011-2012 (response rate = 74%). Across 8 attitude statements, participants were most likely to agree that the vaccine is not too expensive (89%), and least likely to agree that it is relevant for their age group (25%), or normative at their workplace (13%). Vaccinated participants reported significantly more positive attitudes than unvaccinated participants, and Hispanics reported significantly more positive attitudes than non-Hispanic whites. Increasing influenza vaccination rates among restaurant employees could protect a substantial portion of the US workforce, and the public, from influenza. Seattle restaurant employees have low vaccination rates against seasonal influenza. Interventions aimed at increasing vaccination among restaurant employees should highlight the vaccine's relevance and effectiveness for working-age adults.

  9. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Health and Economic Impact of Maine's 2009 Influenza Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. On the role of vaccine dose and antigenic distance in the transmission dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and its selected mutants in vaccinated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaras, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Influenza virus infections can cause high morbidity and mortality rates among animals and humans, and result in staggering direct and indirect financial losses amounting to billions of US dollars. Ever since it emerged in 1996 in Guangdong province, People’s Republic of China, one particular

  11. Influenza vaccine coverage, influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Pilar; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Glòria; Batalla, Joan; Acosta, Lesly M; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-07-12

    The objective of this work was to study the behaviour of influenza with respect to morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia, and their association with influenza vaccination coverage. The study was carried out over 13 influenza seasons, from epidemiological week 40 of 1994 to week 20 of 2007, and included confirmed cases of influenza and all-cause mortality. Two generalized linear models were fitted: influenza-associated morbidity was modelled by Poisson regression and all-cause mortality by negative binomial regression. The seasonal component was modelled with the periodic function formed by the sum of the sinus and cosines. Expected influenza mortality during periods of influenza virus circulation was estimated by Poisson regression and its confidence intervals using the Bootstrap approach. Vaccination coverage was associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity (pcase of influenza-associated morbidity, an increase of 5% in vaccination coverage represented a reduction of 3% in the incidence rate of influenza. There was a positive association between influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality. Excess mortality attributable to influenza epidemics was estimated as 34.4 (95% CI: 28.4-40.8) weekly deaths. In conclusion, all-cause mortality is a good indicator of influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage is associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity but not with all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

  13. Replication of avian influenza viruses in equine tracheal epithelium but not in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Thomas M.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.; Reedy, Stephanie E.; Tiwari, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a hypothesis that horses are susceptible to avian influenza viruses by in vitro testing, using explanted equine tracheal epithelial cultures, and in vivo testing by aerosol inoculation of ponies. Results showed that several subtypes of avian influenza viruses detectably replicated in vitro. Three viruses with high in vitro replication competence were administered to ponies. None of the three demonstrably replicated or caused disease signs in ponies. While these results do not exh...

  14. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; M?skens, Gerard J. D. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose...

  15. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants,United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Hun Lee,; Justin Bahl,; Mia Kim Torchetti,; Mary Lea Killian,; Ip, Hon S.; David E Swayne,

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

  16. A simple and rapid approach to develop recombinant avian herpesvirus vectored vaccines using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na; Zhang, Yaoyao; Pedrera, Miriam; Chang, Pengxiang; Baigent, Susan; Moffat, Katy; Shen, Zhiqiang; Nair, Venugopal; Yao, Yongxiu

    2018-01-29

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as live vaccine against Marek's disease (MD) worldwide for more than 40 years either alone or in combination with other serotypes. HVT is also widely used as a vector platform for generation of recombinant vaccines against a number of avian diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) using conventional recombination methods or recombineering tools on cloned viral genomes. In the present study, we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing as a rapid and efficient method of generating HVT recombinants expressing VP2 protein of IBDV. This approach offers an efficient method to introduce other viral antigens into the HVT genome for rapid development of recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2018 The Pirbright Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-01-01

    Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the ...

  18. Influenza vaccine-mediated protection in older adults: Impact of influenza infection, cytomegalovirus serostatus and vaccine dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merani, Shahzma; Kuchel, George A; Kleppinger, Alison; McElhaney, Janet E

    2018-07-01

    Age-related changes in T-cell function are associated with a loss of influenza vaccine efficacy in older adults. Both antibody and cell-mediated immunity plays a prominent role in protecting older adults, particularly against the serious complications of influenza. High dose (HD) influenza vaccines induce higher antibody titers in older adults compared to standard dose (SD) vaccines, yet its impact on T-cell memory is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the antibody and T-cell responses in older adults randomized to receive HD or SD influenza vaccine as well as determine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus affects the response to vaccination, and identify differences in the response to vaccination in those older adults who subsequently have an influenza infection. Older adults (≥65years) were enrolled (n=106) and randomized to receive SD or HD influenza vaccine. Blood was collected pre-vaccination, followed by 4, 10 and 20weeks post-vaccination. Serum antibody titers, as well as levels of inducible granzyme B (iGrB) and cytokines were measured in PBMCs challenged ex vivo with live influenza virus. Surveillance conducted during the influenza season identified those with laboratory confirmed influenza illness or infection. HD influenza vaccination induced a high antibody titer and IL-10 response, and a short-lived increase in Th1 responses (IFN-γ and iGrB) compared to SD vaccination in PBMCs challenged ex vivo with live influenza virus. Of the older adults who became infected with influenza, a high IL-10 and iGrB response in virus-challenged cells was observed post-infection (week 10 to 20), as well as IFN-γ and TNF-α at week 20. Additionally, CMV seropositive older adults had an impaired iGrB response to influenza virus-challenge, regardless of vaccine dose. This study illustrates that HD influenza vaccines have little impact on the development of functional T-cell memory in older adults. Furthermore, poor outcomes of influenza infection in

  19. Avian and human influenza A virus receptors in trachea and lung of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongratsakul, Sukanya; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sakpuaram, Thavajchai; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Moonjit, Pattra; Yodsheewan, Rungrueang; Songserm, Thaweesak

    2010-12-01

    Influenza A viruses are capable of crossing the specific barrier between human beings and animals resulting in interspecies transmission. The important factor of potential infectivity of influenza A viruses is the suitability of the receptor binding site of the host and viruses. The affinities of avian and human influenza virus to bind with the receptors and the distributions of receptors in animals are different. This study aims to investigate the anatomical distribution of avian and human influenza virus receptors using the double staining lectin histochemistry method. Double staining of lectin histochemistry was performed to identify both SA alpha2,3 Gal and SA alpha2,6 Gal receptors in trachea and lung tissue of dogs, cats, tigers, ferret, pigs, ducks and chickens. We have demonstrated that avian and human influenza virus receptors were abundantly present in trachea, bronchus and bronchiole, but in alveoli of dogs, cats and tigers showed SA alpha2,6 Gal only. Furthermore, endothelial cells in lung tissues showed presence of SA alpha2,3 Gal. The positive sites of both receptors in respiratory tract, especially in the trachea, suggest that all mammalian species studied can be infected with avian influenza virus. These findings suggested that dogs and cats in close contact with humans should be of greater concern as an intermediate host for avian influenza A in which there is the potential for viral adaptation and reassortment.

  20. Hemagglutinin pseudotyped lentiviral particles: characterization of a new method for avian H5N1 influenza sero-diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nefkens , Isabelle; Garcia , Jean-Michel; Ling , Chu Shui; Lagarde , Nadège; Nicholls , John; Tang , Dong Jiang; Peiris , Malik; Buchy , Philippe; Altmeyer , Ralf

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has spread globally in birds and infected over 270 humans with an apparently high mortality rate. Serologic studies to determine the extent of asymptomatic H5N1 infection in humans and other mammals and to investigate the immunogenicity of current H5N1 vaccine candidates have been hampered by the biosafety requirements needed for H5N1 micro-neutralization tests. OBJECTIVE: Development of a serodiagnostic tool for highly pathogenic infl...

  1. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  2. Stakeholder attitudes toward influenza vaccination policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Pamela Protzel; Orenstein, Walter A; Hinman, Alan R; Gazmararian, Julie

    2010-11-01

    There is growing interest in simplifying recommendations to vaccinate Americans against influenza. The article discusses interviews with 35 stakeholders from the medical, public health, educational, insurance, and vaccine industry sectors to assess the potential for policy change, and discusses questions posed to the interviewees on current and future influenza vaccination policy and barriers to policy change. About 97% of respondents support the expansion of vaccination for all school-age children, and about 95% support universal vaccination, but there are reservations expressed by the respondents, despite the support for this policy change. Barriers to influenza vaccination recommendations include access, supply, confusing recommendations, and public perceptions. Barriers to universal vaccination include lack of infrastructure, cost, need for education, and vaccine supply. Issues concerning resources and education are challenges that impede policy change. The study findings can be useful to policy makers and practitioners for reviewing U.S. vaccination policy and changes to the policy.

  3. Cross-reactivity between avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and divergent H7 subtypic- and heterosubtypic influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Dayan; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Gao, Xin; Xiao, Yan; Ren, Lili; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Shu, Yuelong; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-02-24

    The number of human avian H7N9 influenza infections has been increasing in China. Understanding their antigenic and serologic relationships is crucial for developing diagnostic tools and vaccines. Here, we evaluated the cross-reactivities and neutralizing activities among H7 subtype influenza viruses and between H7N9 and heterosubtype influenza A viruses. We found strong cross-reactivities between H7N9 and divergent H7 subtypic viruses, including H7N2, H7N3, and H7N7. Antisera against H7N2, H7N3, and H7N7 could also effectively neutralize two distinct H7N9 strains. Two-way cross-reactivities exist within group 2, including H3 and H4, whereas one-way cross-reactivities were found across other groups, including H1, H10, H9, and H13. Our data indicate that the hemaglutinins from divergent H7 subtypes may facilitate the development of vaccines for distinct H7N9 infections. Moreover, serologic diagnoses for H7N9 infections need to consider possible interference from the cross-reactivity of H7N9 with other subtype influenza viruses.

  4. Descriptive results of a prospective cohort study of avian influenza in the Mekong River Delta of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long V; Stevenson, M; Schauer, B; Nguyen, D T; Tran, Q D; Tien, T N; Tran, P T T; Jones, G; Prattley, D; Morris, R

    2014-12-01

    A prospective cohort study of avian influenza infection in poultry flocks was carried out in the Mekong River Delta of Viet Nam between December 2008 and April 2010. Our objectives were to (i) estimate the prevalence and incidence of avian influenza virus infection and (ii) assess the efficacy of H5N1 vaccination programmes as indicated by the presence of H5 antibody in vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry. Real-time PCR and H5 multiplex assays were used to detect the antigen of avian influenza viruses from swab samples. The haemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect H5 antibody. A total of 17 968 swab and 14 878 blood samples were collected from 5476 birds over the study period. The overall incidence rate of influenza type A virus infection was 5 (95% CI 4-7) positive birds per 100 bird-months at risk. The overall incidence rate of H5 virus infection was 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.5) positive birds per 100 bird-months at risk. Fifty (95% CI 48-52) birds per 100 tested birds were H5 HI positive in the unvaccinated group compared with 71 (95% CI 69-73) birds per 100 in the vaccinated group. Influenza type A and H5 viruses were circulating in village poultry throughout the study period with no recorded signs of clinical disease. This implies that interventions need to be carried out continuously throughout the year rather than only focusing on the established high-risk periods. Broiler ducks had an incidence rate of influenza H5 virus infection approximately four times greater than that of layer ducks and in-contact species. We conclude that broiler ducks are likely to be the main entry route for H5 virus into poultry flocks in the MRD. Control efforts would benefit from understanding why there is a difference between villages in H5 incidence and developing strategies to provide greater protection to broiler ducks. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  6. Genetic Data Provide Evidence for Wind-Mediated Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypma, R.J.F.; Jonges, M.; Bataille, A.M.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Koch, G.; van Boven, R.M.; Koopmans, M.; van Ballegooijen, W.M.; Wallinga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry can cause severe economic damage and represent a public health threat. Development of efficient containment measures requires an understanding of how these influenza viruses are transmitted between farms. However, the actual mechanisms of

  7. Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Damrongwatanapokin, Sudarat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Nanthapornphiphat, Kamonchart; Ratanamungklanon, Somchuan; Tunak, Eakchai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Vivatthanavanich, Veravit; Lekdumrongsak, Thawat; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Tunhikorn, Schwann

    2005-01-01

    During the second outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, probable horizontal transmission among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of those viruses showed no differences from the first isolate obtained in January 2004. This finding has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and pathogenicity in mammals. PMID:15890122

  8. H5N1 avian influenza virus: human cases reported in southern China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crofts, J.; Paget, J.; Karcher, F.

    2003-01-01

    Two cases of confirmed influenza due to the avian influenza A H5N1 virus were reported last week in Hong Kong (1). The cases occurred in a Hong Kong family who had recently visited Fujian province in southern China. The daughter, aged 8 years, died following a respiratory illness. The cause of her

  9. Prevalence of Avian Origin H5 and H7 Influenza Virus Antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of ongoing influenza surveillance efforts in livestock and companion animals in Nigeria, a study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of avian H5 and H7 influenza virus antibodies in exotic and Nigerian village dogs in Ibadan and Sagamu, two cities in Oyo and Ogun states respectively. One hundred and ...

  10. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevon L. Fuller; Sassan S. Saatchi; Emily E. Curd; Erin Toffelmier; Henri A. Thomassen; Wolfgang Buermann; David F. DeSante; Mark P. Nott; James F. Saracco; C. J. Ralph; John D. Alexander; John P. Pollinger; Thomas B. Smith.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur...

  11. Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Kinga; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic agents, capable of crossing the species barriers. Nowadays, they still constitute a great challenge worldwide. The natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds, despite the fact they have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species, including humans. Even when influenza A viruses are able to get into another than waterfowl population, they are often unable to efficiently adapt and transmit between individuals. Only in rare cases, these viruses are capable of establishing a new lineage. To succeed a complete adaptation and further transmission between species, influenza A virus must overcome a species barrier, including adaptation to the receptors of a new host, which would allow the virus-cell binding, virus replication and, then, animal-to-animal transmission. For many years, pigs were thought to be intermediate host for adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans, because of their susceptibility to infection with both, avian and human influenza viruses, which supported hypothesis of pigs as a 'mixing vessel'. In this review, the molecular factors necessary for interspecies transmission are described, with special emphasis on adaptation of avian influenza viruses to the pig population. In addition, this review gives the information about swine influenza viruses circulating around the world with special emphasis on Polish strains.

  12. Field avian metapneumovirus evolution avoiding vaccine induced immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Cecchinato, Mattia; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Brown, Paul; Naylor, Clive J

    2010-01-22

    Live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines have largely brought turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) under control in Europe but unexplained outbreaks still occur. Italian AMPV longitudinal farm studies showed that subtype B AMPVs were frequently detected in turkeys some considerable period after subtype B vaccination. Sequencing showed these to be unrelated to the previously applied vaccine. Sequencing of the entire genome of a typical later isolate showed numerous SH and G protein gene differences when compared to both a 1987 Italian field isolate and the vaccine in common use. Experimental challenge of vaccinated birds with recent virus showed that protection was inferior to that seen after challenge with the earlier 1987 isolate. Field virus had changed in key antigenic regions allowing replication and leading to disease in well vaccinated birds.

  13. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Pose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrated that the vaccine candidate against avian influenza virus H5N1 based on the hemagglutinin H5 (HA fused to the chicken CD154 (HACD can also be used for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA. As the strategy of DIVA requires at least two proteins, we obtained a variant of the nucleoprotein (NP49-375 in E. coli. After its purification by IMAC, the competence of the proteins NP49-375 and HACD as coating antigens in indirect ELISA assays were tested by using the sera of chickens immunized with the proteins HA and HACD and the reference sera from several avian influenza subtypes. Together with these sera, the sera from different species of birds and the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases were analyzed by competition ELISA assays coated with the proteins NP49-375 and HACD. The results showed that the segment CD154 in the chimeric protein HACD did not interfere with the recognition of the molecule HA by its specific antibodies. Also, we observed variable detection levels when the reference sera were analyzed in the ELISA plates coated with the protein NP49-375. Moreover, only the antibodies of the reference serum subtype H5 were detected in the ELISA plates coated with the protein HACD. The competition ELISA assays showed percentages of inhibition of 88-91% for the positives sera and less than 20% for the negative sera. We fixed the cut-off value of these assays at 25%. No antibody detection was observed in the sera from different species of birds or the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases. This study supported the fact that the ELISA assays using the proteins NP49-375 and HACD could be valuable tools for avian influenza surveillance and as a strategy of DIVA for counteracting the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 outbreaks.

  14. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose, A G; Rodríguez, E S; Méndez, A C; Gómez, J N; Redondo, A V; Rodríguez, E R; Ramos, E M G; Gutiérrez, A Á; Moltó, M P R; Roche, D G; Ugalde, Y S; López, A M

    2015-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that the vaccine candidate against avian influenza virus H5N1 based on the hemagglutinin H5 (HA) fused to the chicken CD154 (HACD) can also be used for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). As the strategy of DIVA requires at least two proteins, we obtained a variant of the nucleoprotein (NP49-375) in E. coli. After its purification by IMAC, the competence of the proteins NP49-375 and HACD as coating antigens in indirect ELISA assays were tested by using the sera of chickens immunized with the proteins HA and HACD and the reference sera from several avian influenza subtypes. Together with these sera, the sera from different species of birds and the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases were analyzed by competition ELISA assays coated with the proteins NP49-375 and HACD. The results showed that the segment CD154 in the chimeric protein HACD did not interfere with the recognition of the molecule HA by its specific antibodies. Also, we observed variable detection levels when the reference sera were analyzed in the ELISA plates coated with the protein NP49-375. Moreover, only the antibodies of the reference serum subtype H5 were detected in the ELISA plates coated with the protein HACD. The competition ELISA assays showed percentages of inhibition of 88-91% for the positives sera and less than 20% for the negative sera. We fixed the cut-off value of these assays at 25%. No antibody detection was observed in the sera from different species of birds or the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases. This study supported the fact that the ELISA assays using the proteins NP49-375 and HACD could be valuable tools for avian influenza surveillance and as a strategy of DIVA for counteracting the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 outbreaks.

  15. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein ...

  16. Can influenza epidemics be prevented by voluntary vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Vardavas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous modeling studies have identified the vaccination coverage level necessary for preventing influenza epidemics, but have not shown whether this critical coverage can be reached. Here we use computational modeling to determine, for the first time, whether the critical coverage for influenza can be achieved by voluntary vaccination. We construct a novel individual-level model of human cognition and behavior; individuals are characterized by two biological attributes (memory and adaptability that they use when making vaccination decisions. We couple this model with a population-level model of influenza that includes vaccination dynamics. The coupled models allow individual-level decisions to influence influenza epidemiology and, conversely, influenza epidemiology to influence individual-level decisions. By including the effects of adaptive decision-making within an epidemic model, we can reproduce two essential characteristics of influenza epidemiology: annual variation in epidemic severity and sporadic occurrence of severe epidemics. We suggest that individual-level adaptive decision-making may be an important (previously overlooked causal factor in driving influenza epidemiology. We find that severe epidemics cannot be prevented unless vaccination programs offer incentives. Frequency of severe epidemics could be reduced if programs provide, as an incentive to be vaccinated, several years of free vaccines to individuals who pay for one year of vaccination. Magnitude of epidemic amelioration will be determined by the number of years of free vaccination, an individuals' adaptability in decision-making, and their memory. This type of incentive program could control epidemics if individuals are very adaptable and have long-term memories. However, incentive-based programs that provide free vaccination for families could increase the frequency of severe epidemics. We conclude that incentive-based vaccination programs are necessary to control

  17. Prospects of HA-Based Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar M. Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines afford substantial protection in humans by inducing strain-specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs. Most of these Abs target highly variable immunodominant epitopes in the globular domain of the viral hemagglutinin (HA. Therefore, current vaccines may not be able to induce heterosubtypic immunity against the divergent influenza subtypes. The identification of broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs against influenza HA using recent technological advancements in antibody libraries, hybridoma, and isolation of single Ab-secreting plasma cells has increased the interest in developing a universal influenza vaccine as it could provide life-long protection. While these BnAbs can serve as a source for passive immunotherapy, their identification represents an important step towards the design of such a universal vaccine. This review describes the recent advances and approaches used in the development of universal influenza vaccine based on highly conserved HA regions identified by BnAbs.

  18. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  19. Impact of quadrivalent influenza vaccine on public health and influenza-related costs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Jamotte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV containing three influenza strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and one B have been recommended for the prevention of influenza. However, worldwide co-circulation of two distinct B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata and difficulties in predicting which lineage will predominate each season have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV, which include both B lineages. Our analysis evaluates the public health benefit and associated influenza-related costs avoided which would have been obtained by using QIV rather than TIV in Australia over the period 2002–2012. Methods A static model stratified by age group was used, focusing on people at increased risk of influenza as defined by the Australian vaccination recommendations. B-lineage cross-protection was accounted for. We calculated the potential impact of QIV compared with TIV over the seasons 2002–2012 (2009 pandemic year excluded using Australian data on influenza circulation, vaccine coverage, hospitalisation and mortality rates as well as unit costs, and international data on vaccine effectiveness, influenza attack rate, GP consultation rate and working days lost. Third-party payer and societal influenza-related costs were estimated in 2014 Australian dollars. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Using QIV instead of TIV over the period 2002–2012 would have prevented an estimated 68,271 additional influenza cases, 47,537 GP consultations, 3,522 hospitalisations and 683 deaths in the population at risk of influenza. These results translate into influenza-related societal costs avoided of $46.5 million. The estimated impact of QIV was higher for young children and the elderly. The overall impact of QIV depended mainly on vaccine effectiveness and the influenza attack rate attributable to the mismatched B lineage. Conclusion The broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the number of influenza infections

  20. Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more likely to cause severe ...

  1. [Incidence of avian flu worldwide and in the Russian Federation. Improvement of surveillance and control of influenza during preparation for potential pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Problem of influenza and acute respiratory virus infections (ARVI) remains one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic issues in despite of certain achievements in vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. In Russia influenza and ARVI account for up to 90% of the total annual incidence of infectious disease (up to 30 million of sick people; 45-60% of them are children). Economic damage, caused by influenza and ARVI, makes around 86% of total economic damage, caused by infectious diseases. WHO predicts that in the years coming a new antigenic influenza virus will appear, which can lead to development of large pandemia with 4-5 times increase in disease incidence and 5-10 times increase in death rate. During 2005 some changes in animal influenza epidemiology were registered. New cases of people infections are detected, the virus has spread to some new countries. Avian influenza is a high contagious virus infection that can affect all bird species. For birds influenza is enteral infection, it severely affects parenchymatous organs, especially spleen, and lungs. By now it is known that carriers of avian influenza virus H5N1 can be all known species of wild waterfowl and near-water birds. Poultry is highly susceptible to many stocks of influenza virus H5N1, death rate reaches 100%. At that hens, especially chickens, are most susceptible. From January 2004 to 24th November 2005 in the world there were detected 131 cases of influenza, caused by virus A/H5N1/, 68 of them (51%) ended in lethal outcome (Vietnam--92 cases, Thailand--21 cases, Cambodia--4, Indonesia--11, China--3). Most of the described cases of avian influenza resulted from direct contact with infected birds (handling bird internal organs is especially dangerous). In frozen meat of infected birds the virus can remain for about one year. Heating kills virus (no cases of infection caused by use for food of poultry products were detected). In order to prevent wide ranging spread of infection over Russia it is

  2. Evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D; Krueger, Whitney S; Chum, Channimol; Wierzba, Thomas F; Heil, Gary L; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R; Friary, John A; Capuano, Ana W; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Peiris, Malik; Shao, Hongxia; Perez, Daniel R; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-04-01

    Southeast Asia remains a critical region for the emergence of novel and/or zoonotic influenza, underscoring the importance of extensive sampling in rural areas where early transmission is most likely to occur. In 2008, 800 adult participants from eight sites were enrolled in a prospective population-based study of avian influenza (AI) virus transmission where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus had been reported in humans and poultry from 2006 to 2008. From their enrollment sera and questionnaires, we report risk factor findings for serologic evidence of previous infection with 18 AI virus strains. Serologic assays revealed no evidence of previous infection with 13 different low-pathogenic AI viruses or with HPAI avian-like A/Cambodia/R0404050/2007(H5N1). However, 21 participants had elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), validated with a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA assay specific for avian H9. Although cross-reaction from antibodies against human influenza viruses cannot be completely excluded, the study data suggest that a number of participants were previously infected with the avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) virus, likely due to as yet unidentified environmental exposures. Prospective data from this cohort will help us better understand the serology of zoonotic influenza infection in a rural cohort in SE Asia. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. All rights reserved.

  3. Nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1: striking differences between mammalian and avian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazel-Sanchez Beryl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In mammalian cells, nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1 requires the presence of a C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. This nucleolar localization signal is present only in certain strains of influenza A viruses. Therefore, only certain NS1 accumulate in the nucleolus of mammalian cells. In contrast, we show that all NS1 tested in this study accumulated in the nucleolus of avian cells even in the absence of the above described C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. Thus, nucleolar localization of NS1 in avian cells appears to rely on a different nucleolar localization signal that is more conserved among influenza virus strains.

  4. Barriers and facilitators to influenza vaccination and vaccine coverage in a cohort of health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naleway, Allison L; Henkle, Emily M; Ball, Sarah; Bozeman, Sam; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Kennedy, Erin D; Thompson, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for health care personnel (HCP). We describe influenza vaccination coverage among HCP during the 2010-2011 season and present reported facilitators of and barriers to vaccination. We enrolled HCP 18 to 65 years of age, working full time, with direct patient contact. Participants completed an Internet-based survey at enrollment and the end of influenza season. In addition to self-reported data, we collected information about the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine from electronic employee health and medical records. Vaccination coverage was 77% (1,307/1,701). Factors associated with higher vaccination coverage include older age, being married or partnered, working as a physician or dentist, prior history of influenza vaccination, more years in patient care, and higher job satisfaction. Personal protection was reported as the most important reason for vaccination followed closely by convenience, protection of patients, and protection of family and friends. Concerns about perceived vaccine safety and effectiveness and low perceived susceptibility to influenza were the most commonly reported barriers to vaccination. About half of the unvaccinated HCP said they would have been vaccinated if required by their employer. Influenza vaccination in this cohort was relatively high but still fell short of the recommended target of 90% coverage for HCP. Addressing concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness are possible areas for future education or intervention to improve coverage among HCP. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterosubtypic protection against pathogenic human and avian influenza viruses via in vivo electroporation of synthetic consensus DNA antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick J Laddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI highlights the need for novel vaccination techniques that can quickly and effectively respond to emerging viral threats. We evaluated the use of optimized consensus influenza antigens to provide broad protection against divergent strains of H5N1 influenza in three animal models of mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. We also evaluated the use of in vivo electroporation to deliver these vaccines to overcome the immunogenicity barrier encountered in larger animal models of vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice, ferrets and non-human primates were immunized with consensus plasmids expressing H5 hemagglutinin (pH5HA, N1 neuraminidase (pN1NA, and nucleoprotein antigen (pNP. Dramatic IFN-gamma-based cellular immune responses to both H5 and NP, largely dependent upon CD8+ T cells were seen in mice. Hemaggutination inhibition titers classically associated with protection (>1:40 were seen in all species. Responses in both ferrets and macaques demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus antigens to induce antibodies capable of inhibiting divergent strains of the H5N1 subtype, and studies in the mouse and ferret demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus vaccines to induce protection even in the absence of such neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals. CONCLUSIONS: By combining several consensus influenza antigens with in vivo electroporation, we demonstrate that these antigens induce both protective cellular and humoral immune responses in mice, ferrets and non-human primates. We also demonstrate the ability of these antigens to protect from both morbidity and mortality in a ferret model of HPAI, in both the presence and absence of neutralizing antibody, which will be critical in responding to the

  7. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Pearce, John M; Ely, Craig R; Guy, Lisa M Sheffield; Irons, David B; Derksen, Dirk V; Ip, Hon S

    2010-10-25

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian-North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez M. Hafez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections. Conventional control strategies in poultry based on surveillance, stamping out, movement restriction and enforcement of biosecurity measures did not prevent the virus spreading, particularly in developing countries. Several challenges limit efficiency of the vaccines to prevent outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 in endemic countries. Alternative and complementary approaches to reduce the current burden of H5N1 epidemics in poultry should be encouraged. The use of antiviral chemotherapy and natural compounds, avian-cytokines, RNA interference, genetic breeding and/or development of transgenic poultry warrant further evaluation as integrated intervention strategies for control of HPAIV H5N1 in poultry.

  9. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  10. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK SARANG SEMUT (Myrmecodia .sp TERHADAP RESPON ANTIBODY AVIAN INFLUENZA SUBTIPE H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertika Fitri Lisnanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian influenza is a kind of contagious disease which can spread not only to other poultry but also to the human (zoonosis. Avian influeza becomes world issue when the human can effect the death. Sarang Semut plant (Myrmecodia .sp which has much anti-oxidant and imunostimulant can increase immunity. Imunostimulant will help and protect body cells well. The increasing of cellular immunity will help the cell attack the AI virus and increase the work of avian influenza vaccine. Therefore, this research is done to know the influence of sarang semut extract toward poultry’s anti-body of avian influenza H5N1. This research using experimental method. The design used is RAL factorial. Factor I: the addition of sarang semut extract amounted 5mgs/kgs BB, 10 mg/kg BB, 15 mg/kg BB and Factor II: the length of giving sarang semut extract, namely:  3 days, 5 days, and 7 days. The result of this research was analyzed using variance analysis (ANOVA followed by BNT. The result of serology examination shows that in adding sarang semut extract showing the significant different in each experiment, but not showing the significant different in the time given. The more increasing of the anti-body titer average and more decreasing CV can give  the more optimal protection for H5N1 virus attack. The recomended result on this research average titer and CV is giving sarang semut extract by 10 mgs/kgs BB dosage.

  11. Landscape attributes driving avian influenza virus circulation in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Guerrini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist.

  12. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  13. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yipeng; Bi, Yuhai; Pu, Juan; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Jingjing; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Linqing; Xu, Qi; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mengda; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua

    2010-11-23

    The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  14. Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Quang Tri province, Vietnam: voices from the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Penny C; Hunter, Cynthia; Truong, Bui; Bunning, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is caused by the haemagglutinin 5, neuraminidase 1 (H5N1) influenza A virus. Around 80% of households in rural Vietnam raise poultry, which provides food security and nutrition to their households and beyond. Of these, around 15-20% are semi-commercial producers, producing at least 28% of the country's chicken. Through learning the experiences of these semi-commercial farmers, this study aimed to explore the local understandings and sociocultural aspects of HPAI's impact, particularly the aetiology, diagnosis, and the prevention and control methods in one Vietnamese rural province. This study was conducted in Quang Tri province, Vietnam. Quang Tri province has eight districts. Five of these districts were at high risk of HPAI during the study period, of which three were selected for the present study. Within these three districts, six communes were randomly selected for the study from the list of intervention communes in Quang Tri province. Six out of the 26 intervention communes in Quang Tri were therefore selected. Participants were randomly selected and recruited from lists of semi-commercial farmers, village animal health workers, village human health workers and local authorities so that the study population (representative population) included an amount of variability similar to that of the wider population. A key benefit of this village-level control program was the residential proximity of animal and human health professionals. Participants were well aware of the typical clinical signs for avian influenza and of the reporting process for suspect cases. However there was extensive room for improvement in Quang Tri province regarding access to the HPAI vaccine, essential medical equipment for animal use, and available financial support. This qualitative research study provided an important insight for in-country policy makers and international stakeholders. It is vital that there are continued efforts to prevent and

  15. Investigation of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds due to novel avian-origin influenza A(H10N8) in Nanchang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiansheng; He, Fenglan; Hu, Maohong; Zhou, Xianfeng; Wang, Bin; Feng, Changhua; Wu, Yumei; Li, Youxing; Tu, Junling; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Shengen

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events within poultry and wild birds had resulted in the establishment of another novel avian influenza A(H10N8) virus, and finally resulted in human death in Nanchang, China. However, there was a paucity of information on the prevalence of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds in Nanchang area. We investigated avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds from live poultry markets, poultry countyards, delivery vehicles, and wild-bird habitats in Nanchang. We analyzed 1036 samples from wild birds and domestic poultry collected from December 2013 to February 2014. Original biological samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus using specific primer and probe sets of H5, H7, H9, H10 and N8 subtypes by real-time RT-PCR. In our analysis, the majority (97.98%) of positive samples were from live poultry markets. Among the poultry samples from chickens and ducks, AIV prevalence was 26.05 and 30.81%, respectively. Mixed infection of different HA subtypes was very common. Additionally, H10 subtypes coexistence with N8 was the most prevalent agent during the emergence of H10N8. This event illustrated a long-term surveillance was so helpful for pandemic preparedness and response. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of highly pathogenic avian influenza in birds, with an emphasis on Asian H5N1 and recommendations for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sandrock, Christian E; Boyce, Walter M

    2008-03-01

    Avian influenza is a disease of both veterinary and public health importance. Influenza A viruses infect a range of hosts, including humans, and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. These viruses have high genetic variability, and new strains develop through both mutation and reassortment. Modes of transmission as well as the location of viral shedding may differ both by host species and by viral strain. Clinical signs of influenza A virus infection in birds vary considerably depending on the viral subtype, environmental factors, and age, health status, and species of the bird and range from decreased egg production and gastrointestinal manifestations to nervous system disorders and respiratory signs. Most commonly, peracute death with minimal clinical disease is observed in poultry infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. There are various prevention and control strategies for avian influenza, including education, biosecurity, surveillance, culling of infected animals, and vaccination. These strategies will differ by institution and current federal regulations. Each institution should have an established biosecurity protocol that can be properly instituted. Lastly, human health precautions, such as proper hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, and employee health monitoring, are imperative for at-risk individuals.

  17. Polyarteritis nodosa related with influenza vaccine = Poliarteritis nodosa relacionada con vacuna contra la influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Escobar, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis can be secondary to various processes, among them infections, malignancies, connective tissue diseases or medications, or primary, generally idiopathic. The reported adverse events after vaccination can be mild and transient or more serious such as autoimmune diseases. Possibly the most frequently described autoimmune phenomena after influenza vaccination are different forms of vasculitis. We report the case of a patient who presented a clinical picture of vasculitis classified as polyarteritis nodosa that began two weeks after receiving the influenza vaccine. After critically reviewing the literature, this would be the first clearly documented case of polyarteritis nodosa associated with vaccination against influenza.

  18. The safety of influenza vaccines in children: An Institute for Vaccine Safety white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Neal A; Talaat, Kawsar R; Greenbaum, Adena; Mensah, Eric; Dudley, Matthew Z; Proveaux, Tina; Salmon, Daniel A

    2015-12-30

    Most influenza vaccines are generally safe, but influenza vaccines can cause rare serious adverse events. Some adverse events, such as fever and febrile seizures, are more common in children than adults. There can be differences in the safety of vaccines in different populations due to underlying differences in genetic predisposition to the adverse event. Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children under 2 years of age to determine the risks of adverse events; more studies are needed to address this and several other priority safety issues with all influenza vaccines in children. All vaccines intended for use in children require safety testing in the target age group, especially in young children. Safety of one influenza vaccine in children should not be extrapolated to assumed safety of all influenza vaccines in children. The low rates of adverse events from influenza vaccines should not be a deterrent to the use of influenza vaccines because of the overwhelming evidence of the burden of disease due to influenza in children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  20. Reasons for non-vaccination: Parental vaccine hesitancy and the childhood influenza vaccination school pilot programme in England.

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, P; Chantler, T; Larson, HJ

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, the annual influenza immunisation programme in England was extended to children to reduce the burden of influenza, but uptake was sub-optimal at 53.2%. To explore the reasons some parents decided not to vaccinate their child against influenza as part of the pilot programme offered in schools. Cross-sectional qualitative study conducted between February and July 2015. 913 parents whose children were not vaccinated against influenza in the school pilots in West Yorkshire and Greater Ma...

  1. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches.

  2. Hatchability, serology and virus excretion following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an avian metapneumovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Heincz, U

    2004-12-01

    The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only were the mean titres in the in ovo vaccinated groups higher, but many more birds developed a measurable antibody response than birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Variation of the vaccine dose used in ovo had little effect on the serological responses that peaked 21 to 28 days post hatch. Re-isolation of the vaccine virus was much more successful from birds vaccinated in ovo than from birds vaccinated at 1 day old, and detection of the nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction correlated with the results of live virus isolation.

  3. Deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  4. An emerging avian influenza A virus H5N7 is a genetic reassortant of highly pathogenic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    We full genome characterised the newly discovered avian influenza virus H5N7 subtype combination isolated from a stock of Danish game ducks to investigate the composition of the genome and possible features of high pathogenicity. It was found that the haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase gene...... low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  6. Effect of receptor binding domain mutations on receptor binding and transmissibility of avian influenza H5N1 viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maines, Taronna R; Chen, Li-Mei; Van Hoeven, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Although H5N1 influenza viruses have been responsible for hundreds of human infections, these avian influenza viruses have not fully adapted to the human host. The lack of sustained transmission in humans may be due, in part, to their avian-like receptor preference. Here, we have introduced recep...

  7. Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N2 in a red-lored Amazon parrot.

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    Hawkins, Michelle G; Crossley, Beate M; Osofsky, Anna; Webby, Richard J; Lee, Chang-Won; Suarez, David L; Hietala, Sharon K

    2006-01-15

    A 3-month-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis autumnalis) was evaluated for severe lethargy. Avian influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype H5N2 with low pathogenicity was characterized by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay, chicken intravenous pathogenicity index, and reference sera. The virus was also determined to be closely related to a virus lineage that had been reported only in Mexico and Central America. The chick was admitted to the hospital and placed in quarantine. Supportive care treatment was administered. Although detection of H5 avian influenza virus in birds in the United States typically results in euthanasia of infected birds, an alternative strategy with strict quarantine measures and repeated diagnostic testing was used. The chick recovered from the initial clinical signs after 4 days and was released from quarantine 9 weeks after initial evaluation after 2 consecutive negative virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay results. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of H5N2 avian influenza A virus isolated from a psittacine bird and represents the first introduction of this virus into the United States, most likely by illegal importation of psittacine birds. Avian influenza A virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease in psittacine birds, especially in birds with an unknown history of origin. Although infection with avian influenza virus subtype H5 is reportable, destruction of birds is not always required.

  8. Making evidence-based selections of influenza vaccines.

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    Childress, Billy-Clyde; Montney, Joshua D; Albro, Elise A

    2014-01-01

    Years ago, intramuscular influenza vaccines were the only option for those who wanted to arm themselves against the flu. Today there are alternatives, including intradermal injections and intranasal sprays. In order to select the right influenza vaccine for their patients, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals must have a basic understanding of the immune system. Influenza vaccines elicit different levels of immune response involving innate and adaptive immunity, which are critical to fighting infection. For the 2013-2014 flu season, there were 13 different formulations of influenza vaccines on the market with vast differences in indications, contraindications, and effectiveness. The CDC does not recommend one vaccine over another, but recommends that all patients be vaccinated against the flu. Preventing the spread of influenza is no simple task; however, the most recent evidence on influenza vaccines and sufficient knowledge of the immune system will allow pharmacists and other healthcare providers to better advocate for vaccines, determine which are most appropriate, and ensure their proper administration.

  9. Evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia

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    Patrick J. Blair

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Southeast Asia remains a critical region for the emergence of novel and/or zoonotic influenza, underscoring the importance of extensive sampling in rural areas where early transmission is most likely to occur. Methods: In 2008, 800 adult participants from eight sites were enrolled in a prospective population-based study of avian influenza (AI virus transmission where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus had been reported in humans and poultry from 2006 to 2008. From their enrollment sera and questionnaires, we report risk factor findings for serologic evidence of previous infection with 18 AI virus strains. Results: Serologic assays revealed no evidence of previous infection with 13 different low-pathogenic AI viruses or with HPAI avian-like A/Cambodia/R0404050/2007(H5N1. However, 21 participants had elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, validated with a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA assay specific for avian H9. Conclusions: Although cross-reaction from antibodies against human influenza viruses cannot be completely excluded, the study data suggest that a number of participants were previously infected with the avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2 virus, likely due to as yet unidentified environmental exposures. Prospective data from this cohort will help us better understand the serology of zoonotic influenza infection in a rural cohort in SE Asia. Keywords: Influenza A virus, Avian, Zoonoses, Occupational exposure, Communicable diseases, Emerging, Cohort studies

  10. Serological response to influenza vaccination among children vaccinated for multiple influenza seasons.

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    Sajjad Rafiq

    Full Text Available To evaluate if, among children aged 3 to 15 years, influenza vaccination for multiple seasons affects the proportion sero-protected.Participants were 131 healthy children aged 3-15 years. Participants were vaccinated with trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV over the 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-8 seasons. Number of seasons vaccinated were categorized as one (2007-08; two (2007-08 and 2006-07 or 2007-08 and 2005-06 or three (2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08. Pre- and post-vaccination sera were collected four weeks apart. Antibody titres were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI assay using antigens to A/Solomon Islands/03/06 (H1N1, A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 and B/Malaysia/2506/04. The proportions sero-protected were compared by number of seasons vaccinated using cut-points for seroprotection of 1:40 vs. 1:320. The proportions of children sero-protected against H1N1 and H3N2 was high (>85% regardless of number of seasons vaccinated and regardless of cut-point for seroprotection. For B Malaysia there was no change in proportions sero-protected by number of seasons vaccinated; however the proportions protected were lower than for H1N1 and H3N2, and there was a lower proportion sero-protected when the higher, compared to lower, cut-point was used for sero-protection.The proportion of children sero-protected is not affected by number of seasons vaccinated.

  11. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

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    Margaret A Scull

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  12. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

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    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  13. Reasons for non-vaccination: Parental vaccine hesitancy and the childhood influenza vaccination school pilot programme in England.

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    Paterson, Pauline; Chantler, Tracey; Larson, Heidi J

    2017-08-14

    In 2013, the annual influenza immunisation programme in England was extended to children to reduce the burden of influenza, but uptake was sub-optimal at 53.2%. To explore the reasons some parents decided not to vaccinate their child against influenza as part of the pilot programme offered in schools. Cross-sectional qualitative study conducted between February and July 2015. 913 parents whose children were not vaccinated against influenza in the school pilots in West Yorkshire and Greater Manchester, England, were asked to comment on their reasons for non-vaccination and invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. 138 parents returned response forms, of which 38 were eligible and interested in participating and 25 were interviewed. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo. A third of parents who returned response forms had either vaccinated their child elsewhere, intended to have them vaccinated, or had not vaccinated them due to medical reasons (valid or perceived). Most interviewees were not convinced of the need to vaccinate their child against influenza. Parents expressed concerns about influenza vaccine effectiveness and vaccine side effects. Several parents interviewed declined the vaccine for faith reasons due to the presence of porcine gelatine in the vaccine. To significantly decrease the burden of influenza in England, influenza vaccination coverage in children needs to be >60%. Hence, it is important to understand the reasons why parents are not vaccinating their children, and to tailor the communication and immunisation programme accordingly. Our finding that a third of parents, who did not consent to their child being vaccinated as part of the school programme, had actually vaccinated their child elsewhere, intended to have their child vaccinated, or had not vaccinated them due to medical reasons, illustrates the importance of including additional questions or data sources when investigating under-vaccination. Copyright © 2017 The

  14. An innovative influenza vaccination policy: targeting last season's patients.

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    Yamin, Dan; Gavious, Arieh; Solnik, Eyal; Davidovitch, Nadav; Balicer, Ran D; Galvani, Alison P; Pliskin, Joseph S

    2014-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is the primary approach to prevent influenza annually. WHO/CDC recommendations prioritize vaccinations mainly on the basis of age and co-morbidities, but have never considered influenza infection history of individuals for vaccination targeting. We evaluated such influenza vaccination policies through small-world contact networks simulations. Further, to verify our findings we analyzed, independently, large-scale empirical data of influenza diagnosis from the two largest Health Maintenance Organizations in Israel, together covering more than 74% of the Israeli population. These longitudinal individual-level data include about nine million cases of influenza diagnosed over a decade. Through contact network epidemiology simulations, we found that individuals previously infected with influenza have a disproportionate probability of being highly connected within networks and transmitting to others. Therefore, we showed that prioritizing those previously infected for vaccination would be more effective than a random vaccination policy in reducing infection. The effectiveness of such a policy is robust over a range of epidemiological assumptions, including cross-reactivity between influenza strains conferring partial protection as high as 55%. Empirically, our analysis of the medical records confirms that in every age group, case definition for influenza, clinical diagnosis, and year tested, patients infected in the year prior had a substantially higher risk of becoming infected in the subsequent year. Accordingly, considering individual infection history in targeting and promoting influenza vaccination is predicted to be a highly effective supplement to the current policy. Our approach can also be generalized for other infectious disease, computer viruses, or ecological networks.

  15. An innovative influenza vaccination policy: targeting last season's patients.

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    Dan Yamin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination is the primary approach to prevent influenza annually. WHO/CDC recommendations prioritize vaccinations mainly on the basis of age and co-morbidities, but have never considered influenza infection history of individuals for vaccination targeting. We evaluated such influenza vaccination policies through small-world contact networks simulations. Further, to verify our findings we analyzed, independently, large-scale empirical data of influenza diagnosis from the two largest Health Maintenance Organizations in Israel, together covering more than 74% of the Israeli population. These longitudinal individual-level data include about nine million cases of influenza diagnosed over a decade. Through contact network epidemiology simulations, we found that individuals previously infected with influenza have a disproportionate probability of being highly connected within networks and transmitting to others. Therefore, we showed that prioritizing those previously infected for vaccination would be more effective than a random vaccination policy in reducing infection. The effectiveness of such a policy is robust over a range of epidemiological assumptions, including cross-reactivity between influenza strains conferring partial protection as high as 55%. Empirically, our analysis of the medical records confirms that in every age group, case definition for influenza, clinical diagnosis, and year tested, patients infected in the year prior had a substantially higher risk of becoming infected in the subsequent year. Accordingly, considering individual infection history in targeting and promoting influenza vaccination is predicted to be a highly effective supplement to the current policy. Our approach can also be generalized for other infectious disease, computer viruses, or ecological networks.

  16. Opinions and behavior of family doctors concerning vaccinating against influenza

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    Piotr Gutknecht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Influenza is a severe respiratory disease caused by influenza virus. According to estimates from the World Health Organisation (WHO, 5–15% of the world’s population, or 330–1575 million people, suffer from influenza each year. The vaccination of patients and health professionals plays an important role in the prevention of infections. Objectives. To describe family doctors’ opinions and behavior concerning influenza vaccination. Material and methods. An online survey was filled out by 77 family physicians, of whom women accounted for 53.5%. The age mean of the doctors surveyed was 44.6 ± 11.7 years. The questionnaire contained 14 questions. Results. 63.6% (49 people of the respondents were worried about flu, and 84.4% (65 people were concerned about the possibility of their family members being infected. 77.9% (60 people approve of vaccination. 51.5% (40 people of the doctors received the vaccination in the current (2015/2016 influenza season. 18.2% (14 of the respondents were vaccinated within the last five seasons. The respondents recommended vaccination against influenza to their families sometimes (50.6%, 39 or frequently (41.6%, 32. They recommended the vaccination to their patients frequently (41.6%, 32 or sometimes (53.2%, 41. Only 18.2% (14 of the respondents were covered by the free vaccination program in their workplace. As many as 76.6% (59 of the doctors would recommend the vaccination more often if it were free, and 44.2% (32 would be more willing to recommend the vaccination if they received additional payment for it. When doctors were asked why they thought patients did not have themselves vaccinated, the reasons most frequently given were: patients’ lack of time and awareness of the disease consequences and complications (57.1%, 44, patients’ fear of postvaccination reactions (44.2%, 34, inconvenience associated with vaccination, including the cost of the vaccine (42.9%, 33, patients’ belief that

  17. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Brith; Pauksen, Karlis; Sylvan, Staffan P E

    2008-04-28

    The present prospective study was conducted from 2003-2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area.The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS) even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31%) received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11%) were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34%) individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21%) the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39%) individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28%) the pneumococcal vaccine.Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine). Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age). For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75-84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza season 2005. The present study confirmed the

  18. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity

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    Sylvan Staffan PE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present prospective study was conducted from 2003–2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area. The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. Results In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31% received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11% were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34% individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21% the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39% individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28% the pneumococcal vaccine. Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine. Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age. For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75–84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza

  19. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

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    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  20. Little evidence of subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

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    Gregory C Gray

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1% were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0% had detectable antibody titers (≥ 1:10 against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6, 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1, 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9, and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5. With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  1. The consequences of climate change at an avian influenza 'hotspot'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V L; Rohani, Pejman

    2012-12-23

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) pose significant danger to human health. A key step in managing this threat is understanding the maintenance of AIVs in wild birds, their natural reservoir. Ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) are an atypical bird species in this regard, annually experiencing high AIV prevalence in only one location-Delaware Bay, USA, during their spring migration. While there, they congregate on beaches, attracted by the super-abundance of horseshoe crab eggs. A relationship between ruddy turnstone and horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) population sizes has been established, with a declining horseshoe crab population linked to a corresponding drop in ruddy turnstone population sizes. The effect of this interaction on AIV prevalence in ruddy turnstones has also been addressed. Here, we employ a transmission model to investigate how the interaction between these two species is likely to be altered by climate change. We explore the consequences of this modified interaction on both ruddy turnstone population size and AIV prevalence and show that, if climate change leads to a large enough mismatch in species phenology, AIV prevalence in ruddy turnstones will increase even as their population size decreases.

  2. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Minnesota in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann; Mor, Sunil K; Thurn, Mary; Wiedenman, Elizabeth; Otterson, Tracy; Porter, Robert E; Patnayak, Devi P; Lauer, Dale C; Voss, Shauna; Rossow, Stephanie; Collins, James E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2017-03-01

    The incursion of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) into the United States during 2014 resulted in an unprecedented foreign animal disease (FAD) event; 232 outbreaks were reported from 21 states. The disease affected 49.6 million birds and resulted in economic losses of $950 million. Minnesota is the largest turkey-producing state, accounting for 18% of U.S. turkey production. Areas with concentrated numbers of turkeys in Minnesota were the epicenter of the outbreak. The first case was presumptively diagnosed in the last week of February 2015 at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) and confirmed as HPAI H5N2 at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories on March 4, 2015. A total of 110 farms were affected in Minnesota, and the MVDL tested >17,000 samples from March to July 2015. Normal service was maintained to other clients of the laboratory during this major FAD event, but challenges were encountered with communications, staff burnout and fatigue, training requirements of volunteer technical staff, test kit validation, and management of specific pathogen-free egg requirements.

  3. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

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    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Hobson, Keith; Cardona, Carol J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  4. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

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    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children.

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    Sophia Ng

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history.We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1 and A(H3N2 particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history.Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.

  6. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  7. Outbreak of avian influenza H7N3 on a turkey farm in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkers, F C; Bouma, A; Matthijs, M G R; Koch, G; Westendorp, S T; Stegeman, J A

    2006-09-23

    This case report describes the course of an outbreak of avian influenza on a Dutch turkey farm. When clinical signs were observed their cause remained unclear. However, serum samples taken for the monitoring campaign launched during the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2003, showed that all the remaining turkeys were seropositive against an H7 strain of avian influenza virus, and the virus was subsequently isolated from stored carcases. The results of a reverse-transcriptase pcr showed that a H7N3 strain was involved, and it was characterised as of low pathogenicity. However, its intravenous pathogenicity index was 2.4, characterising it as of high pathogenicity, suggesting that a mixture of strains of low and high pathogenicity may have been present in the isolate. The outbreak remained limited to three farms.

  8. Evidence of infection with avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Shehata, Mahmoud M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs.

  9. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  10. The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L; Nelson, Jennifer C

    2013-04-19

    The test-negative design has emerged in recent years as the preferred method for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in observational studies. However, the methodologic basis of this design has not been formally developed. In this paper we develop the rationale and underlying assumptions of the test-negative study. Under the test-negative design for influenza VE, study subjects are all persons who seek care for an acute respiratory illness (ARI). All subjects are tested for influenza infection. Influenza VE is estimated from the ratio of the odds of vaccination among subjects testing positive for influenza to the odds of vaccination among subjects testing negative. With the assumptions that (a) the distribution of non-influenza causes of ARI does not vary by influenza vaccination status, and (b) VE does not vary by health care-seeking behavior, the VE estimate from the sample can generalized to the full source population that gave rise to the study sample. Based on our derivation of this design, we show that test-negative studies of influenza VE can produce biased VE estimates if they include persons seeking care for ARI when influenza is not circulating or do not adjust for calendar time. The test-negative design is less susceptible to bias due to misclassification of infection and to confounding by health care-seeking behavior, relative to traditional case-control or cohort studies. The cost of the test-negative design is the additional, difficult-to-test assumptions that incidence of non-influenza respiratory infections is similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups within any stratum of care-seeking behavior, and that influenza VE does not vary across care-seeking strata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF THE INFLUENZA VACCINE AMONG CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT HEALTH CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Galitskaya

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of vaccine «Grippol» among children with different health status was analyzed. The most efficacy of the influenza vaccine revealed in the group of children with compromised health status, as well as in the group of allergic children. The safety of influenza vaccination was confirmed in children with different health conditions.Key words: children, vaccination, influenza, efficacy, safety.

  12. Influenza Vaccination Coverage among School Employees: Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…

  13. Contemporary Avian Influenza A Virus Subtype H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 Hemagglutinin Genes Encode a Mammalian Virulence Factor Similar to the 1918 Pandemic Virus H1 Hemagglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Li; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Davis, A. Sally; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Chertow, Daniel S.; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Slemons, Richard D.; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kash, John C.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoonotic avian influenza virus infections may lead to epidemics or pandemics. The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has an avian influenza virus-like genome, and its H1 hemagglutinin was identified as a key mammalian virulence factor. A chimeric 1918 virus expressing a contemporary avian H1 hemagglutinin, however, displayed murine pathogenicity indistinguishable from that of the 1918 virus. Here, isogenic chimeric avian influenza viruses were constructed on an avian influenza virus backb...

  14. The effect of gamma-irradiation conditions on the immunogenicity of whole-inactivated Influenza A virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon C; Lau, Josyane; Singleton, Eve V; Babb, Rachelle; Davies, Justin; Hirst, Timothy R; McColl, Shaun R; Paton, James C; Alsharifi, Mohammed

    2017-02-15

    Gamma-irradiation, particularly an irradiation dose of 50kGy, has been utilised widely to sterilise highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Avian Influenza H5N1. We have reported previously that intranasal vaccination with a gamma-irradiated Influenza A virus vaccine (γ-Flu) results in cross-protective immunity. Considering the possible inclusion of highly pathogenic Influenza strains in future clinical development of γ-Flu, an irradiation dose of 50kGy may be used to enhance vaccine safety beyond the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level (SAL). Thus, we investigated the effect of irradiation conditions, including high irradiation doses, on the immunogenicity of γ-Flu. Our data confirm that irradiation at low temperatures (using dry-ice) is associated with reduced damage to viral structure compared with irradiation at room temperature. In addition, a single intranasal vaccination with γ-Flu irradiated on dry-ice with either 25 or 50kGy induced seroconversion and provided complete protection against lethal Influenza A challenge. Considering that low temperature is expected to reduce the protein damage associated with exposure to high irradiation doses, we titrated the vaccine dose to verify the efficacy of 50kGy γ-Flu. Our data demonstrate that exposure to 50kGy on dry-ice is associated with limited effect on vaccine immunogenicity, apparent only when using very low vaccine doses. Overall, our data highlight the immunogenicity of influenza virus irradiated at 50kGy for induction of high titre antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses. This suggests these conditions are suitable for development of γ-Flu vaccines based on highly pathogenic Influenza A viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Finding optimal vaccination strategies for pandemic influenza using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajan; Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2005-05-21

    In the event of pandemic influenza, only limited supplies of vaccine may be available. We use stochastic epidemic simulations, genetic algorithms (GA), and random mutation hill climbing (RMHC) to find optimal vaccine distributions to minimize the number of illnesses or deaths in the population, given limited quantities of vaccine. Due to the non-linearity, complexity and stochasticity of the epidemic process, it is not possible to solve for optimal vaccine distributions mathematically. However, we use GA and RMHC to find near optimal vaccine distributions. We model an influenza pandemic that has age-specific illness attack rates similar to the Asian pandemic in 1957-1958 caused by influenza A(H2N2), as well as a distribution similar to the Hong Kong pandemic in 1968-1969 caused by influenza A(H3N2). We find the optimal vaccine distributions given that the number of doses is limited over the range of 10-90% of the population. While GA and RMHC work well in finding optimal vaccine distributions, GA is significantly more efficient than RMHC. We show that the optimal vaccine distribution found by GA and RMHC is up to 84% more effective than random mass vaccination in the mid range of vaccine availability. GA is generalizable to the optimization of stochastic model parameters for other infectious diseases and population structures.

  16. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebel De Vleeschauwer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  17. The Benefits and Risks of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn 2009 and 2010 the world experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. As the new influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spread across the world, vaccines were being produced and licensed at an unprecedented scale and speed. In Europe, adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09

  18. Economic evaluation of influenza vaccination : Assessment for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Bos, Jasper M.; Van Gennep, Mark; Jager, Johannes C.; Baltussen, Rob; Sprenger, Marc J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza and the cost effectiveness (net costs per life-year gained) of influenza vaccination in The Netherlands. Design and setting: The economic evaluation comprised a cost-of-illness assessment and a

  19. Recommendations pertaining to the use of viral vaccines: Influenza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we provide recommendations for the use of viral vaccines in anticipation of the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza season. For a review of the 2013 influenza season, please refer to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service website (http://www.nicd.ac.za).

  20. 75 FR 10268 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines... potential to cause, sporadic human infections or have mutated to cause pandemics in humans; Whereas, these viruses may evolve into virus strains capable of causing a pandemic of human influenza because these...

  1. radioprotective and interferonogenic characteristics of influenza virus vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A.; Ershov, F.I.; Ulanova, A.M.; Kuz'mina, T.D.; Stavrakova, N.M.; Tazulakhova, Eh.B.; Shal'nova, G.A.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    Different methods of prophylactic treatment with influenza virus vaccina increase survival of irradiated mice and hamsters by 25-55% as compared to unprotected ones. Higher radioresistance occurs in the same time intervals as a rise of interferon in the blood after immunization with influenza virus vaccine. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Serological Evidence of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A H7virus in Egyptian Poultry Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; Kayed, Ahmed S; Elabd, Mona A; Zaki, Shaimaa A; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S; Mousa, Adel A; Farag, Mohamed M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses circulate widely in birds, with occasional human infections. Poultry-exposed individuals are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza viruses due to frequent exposure to poultry. Some avian H7 viruses have occasionally been found to infect humans. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H7N7 virus among poultry-exposed and unexposed individuals in Egypt were assessed during a three-years prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence of antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 0%, 1.9%, and 2.1% annually while the seroprevalence among the control group remained 0% as measured by virus microneutralization assay. We then confirmed our results using western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Although human infection with H7 in Egypt has not been reported yet, our results suggested that Egyptian poultry growers are exposed to avian H7 viruses. These findings highlight the need for surveillance in the people exposed to poultry to monitor the risk of zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses.

  3. Serological Evidence of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A H7virus in Egyptian Poultry Growers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar R Gomaa

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses circulate widely in birds, with occasional human infections. Poultry-exposed individuals are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza viruses due to frequent exposure to poultry. Some avian H7 viruses have occasionally been found to infect humans. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H7N7 virus among poultry-exposed and unexposed individuals in Egypt were assessed during a three-years prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence of antibodies (titer, ≥80 among exposed individuals was 0%, 1.9%, and 2.1% annually while the seroprevalence among the control group remained 0% as measured by virus microneutralization assay. We then confirmed our results using western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Although human infection with H7 in Egypt has not been reported yet, our results suggested that Egyptian poultry growers are exposed to avian H7 viruses. These findings highlight the need for surveillance in the people exposed to poultry to monitor the risk of zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses.

  4. Possible Triggering Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahsin Gunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated inflammatory disease and it can be provoked or exacerbated by a variety of different environmental factors, particularly infections and drugs. In addition, a possible association between vaccination and the new onset and/or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported by a number of different authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of influenza vaccination on patients with psoriasis. Here, we report the findings from 43 patients suffering from psoriasis (clinical phenotypes as mixed guttate/plaque lesions, palmoplantar or scalp psoriasis whose diseases had been triggered after influenza vaccination applied in the 2009-2010 season. The short time intervals between vaccination and psoriasis flares in our patients and the lack of other possible triggers suggest that influenza vaccinations may have provocative effects on psoriasis. However, further large and controlled studies need to be carried out to confirm this relationship.

  5. Enhanced immune responses by skin vaccination with influenza subunit vaccine in young hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G; Esser, E Stein; McMaster, Sean R; Kalluri, Priya; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Prausnitz, Mark R; Skountzou, Ioanna; Denning, Timothy L; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Compans, Richard W

    2015-09-08

    Skin has gained substantial attention as a vaccine target organ due to its immunological properties, which include a high density of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this vaccination route not only in animal models but also in adults. Young children represent a population group that is at high risk from influenza infection. As a result, this group could benefit significantly from influenza vaccine delivery approaches through the skin and the improved immune response it can induce. In this study, we compared the immune responses in young BALB/c mice upon skin delivery of influenza vaccine with vaccination by the conventional intramuscular route. Young mice that received 5 μg of H1N1 A/Ca/07/09 influenza subunit vaccine using MN demonstrated an improved serum antibody response (IgG1 and IgG2a) when compared to the young IM group, accompanied by higher numbers of influenza-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in the bone marrow. In addition, we observed increased activation of follicular helper T cells and formation of germinal centers in the regional lymph nodes in the MN immunized group, rapid clearance of the virus from their lungs as well as complete survival, compared with partial protection observed in the IM-vaccinated group. Our results support the hypothesis that influenza vaccine delivery through the skin would be beneficial for protecting the high-risk young population from influenza infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for influenza vaccination in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza. Discussion Vaccination of healthy children is not widespread in Europe despite clear demonstration of the benefits of vaccination in reducing the large health and economic burden of influenza. Universal vaccination of infants and children also provides indirect protection in other high-risk groups in the community. This paper contains the Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for the vaccination of infants and children against influenza. The aim of CEVAG is to encourage the efficient and safe use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious diseases. Summary CEVAG recommends the introduction of universal influenza vaccination for all children from the age of 6 months. Special attention is needed for children up to 60 months of age as they are at greatest risk. Individual countries should decide on how best to implement this recommendation based on their circumstances. PMID:20546586

  7. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales in southeast Asia: 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is a region with great potential for the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus. Global efforts to improve influenza surveillance in this region have documented the burden and seasonality of influenza viruses and have informed influenza prevention strategies, but little information exists about influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales. METHODS: To ascertain the existence of influenza vaccine guidelines and define the scope of vaccine sales, we sent a standard three-page questionnaire to the ten member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We also surveyed three multinational manufacturers who supply influenza vaccines in the region. RESULTS: Vaccine sales in the private sector were <1000 per 100,000 population in the 10 countries. Five countries reported purchasing vaccine for use in the public sector. In 2011, Thailand had the highest combined reported rate of vaccine sales (10,333 per 100,000. In the 10 countries combined, the rate of private sector sales during 2010-2011 (after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic exceeded 2008 pre-pandemic levels. Five countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam had guidelines for influenza vaccination but only two were consistent with global guidelines. Four recommended vaccination for health care workers, four for elderly persons, three for young children, three for persons with underlying disease, and two for pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of vaccine sales in Southeast Asia remains low, but there was a positive impact in sales after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic. Low adherence to global vaccine guidelines suggests that more work is needed in the policy arena.

  9. Fugleinfluenza og perspektiverne for vaccination mod pandemisk influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2008-01-01

    We may expect that the next influenza pandemic will affect about half the world's population within a year and that it will cause unpredictable mortality rates. In this perspective, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of new pandemic influenza strains and a discussion...... on existing and future vaccination strategies directed towards prevention of pandemic influenza is presented. There is an urgent need to develop paninfluenza-specific vaccines and invest substantially in new technologies in order to better meet this threat. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-24...

  10. Policy resistance undermines superspreader vaccination strategies for influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad R Wells

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of infection spread on networks predict that targeting vaccination at individuals with a very large number of contacts (superspreaders can reduce infection incidence by a significant margin. These models generally assume that superspreaders will always agree to be vaccinated. Hence, they cannot capture unintended consequences such as policy resistance, where the behavioral response induced by a new vaccine policy tends to reduce the expected benefits of the policy. Here, we couple a model of influenza transmission on an empirically-based contact network with a psychologically structured model of influenza vaccinating behavior, where individual vaccinating decisions depend on social learning and past experiences of perceived infections, vaccine complications and vaccine failures. We find that policy resistance almost completely undermines the effectiveness of superspreader strategies: the most commonly explored approaches that target a randomly chosen neighbor of an individual, or that preferentially choose neighbors with many contacts, provide at best a 2% relative improvement over their non-targeted counterpart as compared to 12% when behavioral feedbacks are ignored. Increased vaccine coverage in super spreaders is offset by decreased coverage in non-superspreaders, and superspreaders also have a higher rate of perceived vaccine failures on account of being infected more often. Including incentives for vaccination provides modest improvements in outcomes. We conclude that the design of influenza vaccine strategies involving widespread incentive use and/or targeting of superspreaders should account for policy resistance, and mitigate it whenever possible.

  11. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  12. Hydrogel based QCM aptasensor for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) aptasensor based on ssDNA crosslinked polymeric hydrogel for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1. A selected aptamer with high affinity and specificity against AIV H5N1 surface protein was used, and hybridization between the aptamer and ssDNA formed the crosslinker in the polymer hydrogel. The aptamer hydrogel was immobilized on the gold surface of QCM sensor using a self-assembled monolayer method. The hydrogel remained in the state of shrink if no H5N1 virus was present in the sample because of the crosslinking between the aptamer and ssDNA in the polymer network. When it exposed to target virus, the binding reaction between the aptamer and H5N1 virus caused the dissolution of the linkage between the aptamer and ssDNA, resulting in the abrupt swelling of the hydrogel. The swollen hydrogel was monitored by the QCM sensor in terms of decreased frequency. Three polymeric hydrogels with different ratio (100:1 hydrogel I, 10:1 hydrogel II, 1:1 hydrogel III) of acrylamide and the aptamer monomer were synthesized, respectively, and then were used as the QCM sensor coating material. The results showed that the developed hydrogel QCM aptasensor was capable of detecting target H5N1 virus, and among the three developed aptamer hydrogels, hydrogel III coated QCM aptasensor achieved the highest sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.0128 HAU (HA unit). The total detection time from sampling to detection was only 30 min. In comparison with the anti-H5 antibody coated QCM immunosensor, the hydrogel QCM aptasensor lowered the detection limit and reduced the detection time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic impacts of avian influenza outbreaks in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, G; Sridevi, R; Nandakumar, S N; Vineet, R; Rajeev, P; Binu, M K; Balamurugan, V; Rahman, H

    2018-04-01

    This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules. The secondary data on transfer payments and expenditure incurred to control AI were collected from developmental departments and were analysed. The estimated loss (culling live birds, eggs and feed destruction) per duck farm was USD 9,181, USD 3,889 and USD 156 in case of commercial farms reared for meat, dual-purpose and backyard farms, respectively. The loss incurred by small-scale broiler and backyard poultry farms was USD 453 and USD 40, respectively. The loss incurred by large and small duck hatcheries was USD 11,963 and USD 5,790, respectively, due to culling of hatchlings, young birds and destroying eggs. The government invested USD 744,890 to contain the disease spread through massive culling, surveillance and monitoring of poultry and humans due to zoonotic nature of the disease. A sharp market reaction on own and substitute product prices and eight weeks' time lag in price recovery was observed. The consequential impact on tourism especially for the backwater boat operators amounted to a loss of USD 2,280/boat due to fall in tourist inflow. Since, control measures are post-incidence, it is necessary to adopt appropriate preventive bio-security measures at the farm level besides periodical screening of domestic birds in migratory birds' flyway locations like Kuttanad to reduce the AI burden on various stakeholders including government. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Investigating avian influenza infection hotspots in old-world shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gaidet

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May. This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered.

  15. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF INACTIVATED OF SUBUNIT INFLUENZA VACCINE AT MASS VACCINATION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.Z. Gendon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of infantile mass vaccination with inactivated subunit influenza vaccine (Influvac. It shows that vaccination of 57–72% of children aged 3–17 from organized collectives residing in Mytishchi and Orekhovoczuevo districts of Moscow region was accompanied with nearly triple reduce of flu rates vs. Narofominsk and Odintsovo districts where vaccination was occasional (< 1% of children. The efficiency of the vaccination made 63,7%. Low reactogenicity of the influenza vaccine was recorded. Its convenient packing allows vaccination of large number of children in a short time. The article justifies the necessity of yearly vaccinations even in case of similarity of flu virus strain.Key words: children, mass vaccination, subunit flu vaccine, safety.

  16. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...

  17. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  18. Midwives' influenza vaccine uptake and their views on vaccination of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, D A; Permalloo, N; Cordery, R J; Anderson, S R

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women in England are now offered seasonal influenza vaccine. Midwives could be influential in promoting this, but specific information on their views on the policy and their role in its implementation is lacking. London midwives were surveyed for their views on the new policy and their own vaccine uptake, using an anonymously self-completed semi-structured online survey via a convenience sampling approach. In total, 266 midwives responded. Sixty-nine percent agreed with the policy of vaccinating all pregnant women. Seventy-six percent agreed that midwives should routinely advise pregnant women on vaccination, but only 25% felt adequately prepared for this role. Just 28% wished to be vaccinators, due to concerns about increased workload and inadequate training. Forty-three percent received seasonal influenza vaccine themselves. Major reasons for non-uptake were doubts about vaccine necessity (34%), safety (25%) and effectiveness (10%); and poor arrangements for vaccination (11%). Suggested strategies for improving their own uptake included better access to evidence of effectiveness (67%) and improved work-based vaccination (45%). London midwives support influenza vaccination of pregnant women, but are more willing to give advice on, than to administer, the vaccine. Midwives' own influenza vaccine uptake could improve with more information and easier access to vaccination in their workplace.

  19. Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee

    2018-03-09

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1) altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA) that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2) loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3) mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry.

  20. Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Hee Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1 altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2 loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3 mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry.

  1. Review on the effects of influenza vaccination during pregnancy on preterm births

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Marta C; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women are considered to be susceptible to severe influenza illness and are recommended as a priority group to be targeted for influenza vaccination in countries with vaccination programs. Increased rates of poor birth outcomes have also been temporally associated with influenza infection, especially when pandemics strains emerge. Even though the primary purpose for influenza vaccination during pregnancy is to decrease the risk of influenza infection in the women, other potential bene...

  2. Influenza vaccination among Saudi Hajj pilgrims: Revealing the uptake and vaccination barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Barasheed, Osamah; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Bokhary, Hamid; Azeem, Mohammed I; Habeebullah, Turki; Bakarman, Marwan; Asghar, Atif; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2018-04-12

    Hajj is the world's largest annual mass gathering that attracts two to three million Muslims from around the globe to a religious assemblage in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The risk of acquisition and transmission of influenza among Hajj pilgrims is high. Therefore, influenza vaccination is recommended, and was monitored frequently among pilgrims from different countries. However, the vaccination uptake among Saudi pilgrims has not been assessed in recent years. This analysis aims to evaluate influenza vaccine uptake among Saudi Hajj pilgrims, and identify the key barriers to vaccination. Data on influenza vaccination were obtained from Saudi pilgrims who took part in a large trial during the Hajj of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Pilgrims were met and recruited in Mina, Makkah during the peak period of Hajj and were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire that recorded their influenza vaccination history, including reason(s) for non-receipt of vaccine. A total of 6974 Saudi pilgrims aged between 18 and 95 (median 34) years were recruited; male to female ratio was 1:1.2. Of the total, 90.8% declared their influenza vaccination history, 51.3% of them reported receiving influenza vaccine before travel to Hajj. The vaccination rates for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 21.4%, 48.2% and 58.1%, respectively (P Saudi Hajj pilgrims is increasing over years but still needs further improvement. Lack of awareness and misperceptions are the main barriers. Education of Saudi pilgrims and health professionals is required to raise awareness about influenza vaccination. Further studies are needed to understand pilgrims' misperceptions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  4. Subdeltoid/subacromial bursitis associated with influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old male presented with subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis following influenza vaccine administration into the left deltoid muscle. This shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) could have been prevented by the use of a safe, evidence based protocol for the intramuscular injection of the deltoid muscle.

  5. Considerations of strategies to provide influenza vaccine year round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambach, Philipp; Alvarez, Alba Maria Ropero; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Ortiz, Justin R.; Hombach, Joachim; Verweij, Marcel; Hendriks, Jan; Palkonyay, Laszlo; Pfleiderer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is potential for influenza vaccine programmes to make a substantial impact on severe disease in low-resource settings, however questions around vaccine composition and programmatic issues will require special attention. Some countries may benefit from immunization programmes that provide

  6. School-Located Influenza Vaccination Clinics: Local Health Department Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, James

    2009-01-01

    Universal childhood influenza vaccination presents challenges and opportunities for health care and public health systems to vaccinate the children who fall under the new recommendation. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations and guidelines are helpful, but they do not provide strategies on how to deliver immunization…

  7. Intranasal delivery of influenza subunit vaccine formulated with GEM particles as an adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Amorij, Jean P; van Roosmalen, Maarten L; Leenhouts, Kees; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    Nasal administration of influenza vaccine has the potential to facilitate influenza control and prevention. However, when administered intranasally (i.n.), commercially available inactivated vaccines only generate systemic and mucosal immune responses if strong adjuvants are used, which are often

  8. A literature review to identify factors that determine policies for influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Cohen, J.M.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Späth, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a literature review of influenza vaccination policy, describing roles and interactions between stakeholders and the factors influencing policy-making. Methods: Major databases were searched using keywords related to influenza vaccination, decision-making and healthpolicy.

  9. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  10. Incorporation of membrane-bound, mammalian-derived immunomodulatory proteins into influenza whole virus vaccines boosts immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Paul C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza epidemics continue to cause morbidity and mortality within the human population despite widespread vaccination efforts. This, along with the ominous threat of an avian influenza pandemic (H5N1, demonstrates the need for a much improved, more sophisticated influenza vaccine. We have developed an in vitro model system for producing a membrane-bound Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccine (CYT-IVAC. Numerous cytokines are involved in directing both innate and adaptive immunity and it is our goal to utilize the properties of individual cytokines and other immunomodulatory proteins to create a more immunogenic vaccine. Results We have evaluated the immunogenicity of inactivated cytokine-bearing influenza vaccines using a mouse model of lethal influenza virus challenge. CYT-IVACs were produced by stably transfecting MDCK cell lines with mouse-derived cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2 and IL-4 fused to the membrane-anchoring domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Influenza virus replication in these cell lines resulted in the uptake of the bioactive membrane-bound cytokines during virus budding and release. In vivo efficacy studies revealed that a single low dose of IL-2 or IL-4-bearing CYT-IVAC is superior at providing protection against lethal influenza challenge in a mouse model and provides a more balanced Th1/Th2 humoral immune response, similar to live virus infections. Conclusion We have validated the protective efficacy of CYT-IVACs in a mammalian model of influenza virus infection. This technology has broad applications in current influenza virus vaccine development and may prove particularly useful in boosting immune responses in the elderly, where current vaccines are minimally effective.

  11. Multigenic DNA vaccine induces protective cross-reactive T cell responses against heterologous influenza virus in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merika T Koday

    Full Text Available Recent avian and swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks illustrate the ongoing threat of influenza pandemics. We investigated immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a multi-antigen (MA universal influenza DNA vaccine consisting of HA, M2, and NP antigens in cynomolgus macaques. Following challenge with a heterologous pandemic H1N1 strain, vaccinated animals exhibited significantly lower viral loads and more rapid viral clearance when compared to unvaccinated controls. The MA DNA vaccine induced robust serum and mucosal antibody responses but these high antibody titers were not broadly neutralizing. In contrast, the vaccine induced broadly-reactive NP specific T cell responses that cross-reacted with the challenge virus and inversely correlated with lower viral loads and inflammation. These results demonstrate that a MA DNA vaccine that induces strong cross-reactive T cell responses can, independent of neutralizing antibody, mediate significant cross-protection in a nonhuman primate model and further supports development as an effective approach to induce broad protection against circulating and emerging influenza strains.

  12. Avian influenza epidemic in Italy due to serovar H7N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, A; Dall'Ara, P; Martino, P A

    2001-01-01

    Beginning at the end of March 1999, a syndrome characterized by severe depression, anorexia, fever, and respiratory and enteric symptoms appeared in flocks of turkeys and, to a lesser extent, of chickens in the densely populated poultry-rearing regions of northeast Italy. The disease was characterized by sinusitis, tracheitis, peritonitis, and pancreatitis. The mortality varied between 5% and 90%. The disease was diagnosed as low pathogenic avian influenza, H7N1 serotype. After a summer period of declining cases, the disease reappeared in autumn exclusively in turkeys. Since the middle of December 1999, many farms of chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowl were abruptly affected by a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus, with very severe depression and mortality up to 100% in a few days. By the end of March 2000, nearly 500 farms, representing over 15 million birds, were affected or depopulated. To date, control measures have focused on improved biosecurity measures. Vaccine was not allowed, but its use was debated.

  13. Live, Attenuated Influenza A H5N1 Candidate Vaccines Provide Broad Cross-Protection in Mice and Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kimberly L; Jin, Hong; Duke, Greg; Lu, Bin; Luke, Catherine J; Murphy, Brian; Swayne, David E; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic. Methods and Findings Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA) and a wild-type (wt) N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2), were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 106 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3) that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses. Conclusions The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans. PMID:16968127

  14. Live, attenuated influenza A H5N1 candidate vaccines provide broad cross-protection in mice and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorsolo L Suguitan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic.Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA and a wild-type (wt N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2, were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 10(6 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3 that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses.The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans.

  15. Conservation and diversity of influenza A H1N1 HLA-restricted T cell epitope candidates for epitope-based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thiamjoo Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune-related evolution of influenza viruses is exceedingly complex and current vaccines against influenza must be reformulated for each influenza season because of the high degree of antigenic drift among circulating influenza strains. Delay in vaccine production is a serious problem in responding to a pandemic situation, such as that of the current H1N1 strain. Immune escape is generally attributed to reduced antibody recognition of the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins whose rate of mutation is much greater than that of the internal non-structural proteins. As a possible alternative, vaccines directed at T cell epitope domains of internal influenza proteins, that are less susceptible to antigenic variation, have been investigated.HLA transgenic mouse strains expressing HLA class I A*0201, A*2402, and B*0702, and class II DRB1*1501, DRB1*0301 and DRB1*0401 were immunized with 196 influenza H1N1 peptides that contained residues of highly conserved proteome sequences of the human H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, H5N1, and avian influenza A strains. Fifty-four (54 peptides that elicited 63 HLA-restricted peptide-specific T cell epitope responses were identified by IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. The 54 peptides were compared to the 2007-2009 human H1N1 sequences for selection of sequences in the design of a new candidate H1N1 vaccine, specifically targeted to highly-conserved HLA-restricted T cell epitopes.Seventeen (17 T cell epitopes in PB1, PB2, and M1 were selected as vaccine targets based on sequence conservation over the past 30 years, high functional avidity, non-identity to human peptides, clustered localization, and promiscuity to multiple HLA alleles. These candidate vaccine antigen sequences may be applicable to any avian or human influenza A virus.

  16. Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake in a Respiratory Outpatients Clinic

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rossiter, A

    2017-02-01

    Influenza is an acute viral respiratory illness that continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in Ireland. Despite well-established national and international guidelines1 and increased public awareness campaigns, vaccine uptake rates are well below target worldwide2. We performed an audit of influenza vaccine uptake at a Respiratory outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral centre. 54% (n=41) of patients received the annual vaccine, well below the target of 75% set by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

  17. Continuing evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) has caused great economic losses in Korean poultry industry since the first outbreak in 1996. Although the hemagglutinin gene of early H9N2 viruses were closely related to Chinese Y439-like lineage virus, it evolved into a unique Korean lineage after ...

  18. Use of Epidemiologic Models in the Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, J.A.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, mathematical models have become more and more accepted as a tool to develop surveillance programs and to evaluate the efficacy of intervention measures for the control of infectious diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. Predictive models are used to simulate the

  19. Epidemiological models to assist the management of highly pathogenic avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, J.A.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, epidemiological models have been used more and more frequently as a tool for the design of programmes for the management of infectious diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. Predictive models are used to simulate the effects of various control measures on the spread

  20. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other

  1. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  2. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  3. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Mainland China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.-L. Li (Xin-Lou); K. Liu (Kun); H.-W. Yao (Hong-Wu); Y. Sun (Ye); W.-J. Chen (Wan-Jun); R.-X. Sun (Ruo-Xi); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); L.Q. Fang (Lily); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has posed a significant threat to both humans and birds, and it has spanned large geographic areas and various ecological systems throughout Asia, Europe and Africa, but especially in mainland China. Great efforts in control and prevention of

  4. Avian influenza (H7N9) virus infection in Chinese tourist in Malaysia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Timothy; Thevarajah, Bharathan; Lee, Shiu Fee; Suleiman, Maria; Jeffree, Mohamad Saffree; Menon, Jayaram; Saat, Zainah; Thayan, Ravindran; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Yeo, Tsin Wen

    2015-01-01

    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally.

  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) isolated from whooper swans, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Saito, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

  6. Risk for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus on poultry farms, The Netherlands, 2007–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Ruth; Gonzales Rojas, Jose; Wit, de Sjaak; Stahl, Julia; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Elbers, Armin R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007–2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors:

  7. Contesting Risk and Responsibility: European Debates on Food and Agricultural Governance of Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In August 2005, avian influenza entered European public arenas as the next food and agricultural risk. As the virus was detected close to Europe, questions arose whether measures were required to protect human health and secure European food supply. This article analyzes the public debates on the

  8. Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for domestic and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian influenza (AI) virus strains vary in their ability to infect, transmit and cause disease and death in different bird species. Low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapted to pass to domestic poultry, where they replicate in respiratory and in...

  9. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  10. H9N2 avian influenza virus antibody titers in human population in fars province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the avian influenza A virus subtypes, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have the potential to cause an influenza pandemic because they are widely prevalent in avian species in Asia and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans. This study was carried out to determined the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza virus in different human populations in Fars province, which is situated in the south of Iran. Antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus were measured using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test in sera from 300 individuals in five different population in Fars province, including poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, veterinarians, patients with clinical signs of respiratory disease, and clinically normal individuals, who were not or rarely in contact with poultry. Mean antibody titers of 7.3, 6.8, 6.1, 4.5, and 2.9 and seroprevalences of 87%, 76.2%, 72.5%, 35.6%, and 23% were determined in those groups, respectively. Higher prevalences were detected in poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, and veterinarians, possibly due to their close and frequent contact with poultry.

  11. Surveillance for early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus is widespread and has led to outbreaks in domestic birds in many countries. Although infection does not pose a serious concern for animal heath, LPAI virus subtypes H5 and H7 can mutate into the highly pathogenic form (HPAI), which can

  12. Controlling highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks : An epidemiological and economic model analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J. A.; van Roermund, H. J W; Fischer, Egil; van Asseldonk, M. A P M; Bergevoet, R. H M

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) can cause large losses for the poultry sector and for animal disease controlling authorities, as well as risks for animal and human welfare. In the current simulation approach epidemiological and economic models are combined to compare different

  13. Non-Attenuation Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian influenza H5N1 represents one of the most researched viruses in laboratories world-wide in recent times with regards to its epidemiology, ecology, biology and geography. The virus has caused 409 human cases and 256 human fatalities to date. Some laboratory activities and other lab related works predispose ...

  14. Paired serologic and polymerase chain reaction analyses of avian influenza prevalence in Alaskan shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance has revealed low prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in shorebirds except Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the North American Atlantic coast. Similarly, of five species of shorebirds surveyed in Alaska in 2010, Ruddy Turnstones had the highest AIV antibody prevalence; prevalence of AIV RNA was low or zero.

  15. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  16. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends...

  17. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  18. Avian Influenza surveillance: on the usability of FTA cards to solve biosafety and transport issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, R.H.; Hooft, van W.F.; Waldenstrom, J.; Latorre-Margalef, N.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans1. These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes2. Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs3. Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported.

  19. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected...

  20. Avian Influenza Biosecurity: Filling the Gaps with Non-Traditional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have become endemic, crippling trade and livelihood for many, and in rare cases, resulting in human fatalities. It is imperative that up-to-date education and training in accessible and interactive formats be available to key target audiences like poultry producers, backyard flock owners, and…