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Sample records for avian auditory system

  1. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates. PMID:26002617

  2. Sensorimotor nucleus NIf is necessary for auditory processing but not vocal motor output in the avian song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Jessica A; Raksin, Jonathan N; Schmidt, Marc F

    2005-04-01

    Sensorimotor integration in the avian song system is crucial for both learning and maintenance of song, a vocal motor behavior. Although a number of song system areas demonstrate both sensory and motor characteristics, their exact roles in auditory and premotor processing are unclear. In particular, it is unknown whether input from the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which exhibits both sensory and premotor activity, is necessary for both auditory and premotor processing in its target, HVC. Here we show that bilateral NIf lesions result in long-term loss of HVC auditory activity but do not impair song production. NIf is thus a major source of auditory input to HVC, but an intact NIf is not necessary for motor output in adult zebra finches.

  3. Coordinated Eph-ephrin signaling guides migration and axon targeting in the avian auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen-Sharpley Michelle R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the avian sound localization circuit, nucleus magnocellularis (NM projects bilaterally to nucleus laminaris (NL, with ipsilateral and contralateral NM axon branches directed to dorsal and ventral NL dendrites, respectively. We previously showed that the Eph receptor EphB2 is expressed in NL neuropil and NM axons during development. Here we tested whether EphB2 contributes to NM-NL circuit formation. Results We found that misexpression of EphB2 in embryonic NM precursors significantly increased the number of axon targeting errors from NM to contralateral NL in a cell-autonomous manner when forward signaling was impaired. We also tested the effects of inhibiting forward signaling of different Eph receptor subclasses by injecting soluble unclustered Fc-fusion proteins at stages when NM axons are approaching their NL target. Again we found an increase in axon targeting errors compared to controls when forward signaling was impaired, an effect that was significantly increased when both Eph receptor subclasses were inhibited together. In addition to axon targeting errors, we also observed morphological abnormalities of the auditory nuclei when EphB2 forward signaling was increased by E2 transfection, and when Eph-ephrin forward signaling was inhibited by E6-E8 injection of Eph receptor fusion proteins. Conclusions These data suggest that EphB signaling has distinct functions in axon guidance and morphogenesis. The results provide evidence that multiple Eph receptors work synergistically in the formation of precise auditory circuitry.

  4. Formation of the avian nucleus magnocellularis from the auditory anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Susan J; Rubel, Edwin W; Nishi, Rae

    2006-10-01

    In the avian auditory system, the neural network for computing the localization of sound in space begins with bilateral innervation of nucleus laminaris (NL) by nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons. We used antibodies against the neural specific markers Hu C/D, neurofilament, and SV2 together with retrograde fluorescent dextran labeling from the contralateral hindbrain to identify NM neurons within the anlage and follow their development. NM neurons could be identified by retrograde labeling as early as embryonic day (E) 6. While the auditory anlage organized itself into NM and NL in a rostral-to-caudal fashion between E6 and E8, labeled NM neurons were visible throughout the extent of the anlage at E6. By observing the pattern of neuronal rearrangements together with the pattern of contralaterally projecting NM fibers, we could identify NL in the ventral anlage. Ipsilateral NM fibers contacted the developing NL at E8, well after NM collaterals had projected contralaterally. Furthermore, the formation of ipsilateral connections between NM and NL neurons appeared to coincide with the arrival of VIIIth nerve fibers in NM. By E10, immunoreactivity for SV2 was heavily concentrated in the dorsal and ventral neuropils of NL. Thus, extensive pathfinding and morphological rearrangement of central auditory nuclei occurs well before the arrival of cochlear afferents. Our results suggest that NM neurons may play a central role in formation of tonotopic connections in the auditory system.

  5. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  6. Estradiol selectively enhances auditory function in avian forebrain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caras, Melissa L; O'Brien, Matthew; Brenowitz, Eliot A; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-12-01

    Sex steroids modulate vertebrate sensory processing, but the impact of circulating hormone levels on forebrain function remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that circulating sex steroids modulate single-unit responses in the avian telencephalic auditory nucleus, field L. We mimicked breeding or nonbreeding conditions by manipulating plasma 17β-estradiol levels in wild-caught female Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Extracellular responses of single neurons to tones and conspecific songs presented over a range of intensities revealed that estradiol selectively enhanced auditory function in cells that exhibited monotonic rate level functions to pure tones. In these cells, estradiol treatment increased spontaneous and maximum evoked firing rates, increased pure tone response strengths and sensitivity, and expanded the range of intensities over which conspecific song stimuli elicited significant responses. Estradiol did not significantly alter the sensitivity or dynamic ranges of cells that exhibited non-monotonic rate level functions. Notably, there was a robust correlation between plasma estradiol concentrations in individual birds and physiological response properties in monotonic, but not non-monotonic neurons. These findings demonstrate that functionally distinct classes of anatomically overlapping forebrain neurons are differentially regulated by sex steroid hormones in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. The Avian Proghrelin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how the proghrelin system functions in regulating growth hormone release and food intake as well as defining its pleiotropic roles in such diverse physiological processes as energy homeostasis, gastrointestinal tract function and reproduction require detailed knowledge of the structure and function of the components that comprise this system. These include the preproghrelin gene that encodes the proghrelin precursor protein from which two peptide hormones, ghrelin and obestatin, are derived and the cognate receptors that bind proghrelin-derived peptides to mediate their physiological actions in different tissues. Also key to the functioning of this system is the posttranslational processing of the proghrelin precursor protein and the individual peptides derived from it. While this system has been intensively studied in a variety of animal species and humans over the last decade, there has been considerably less investigation of the avian proghrelin system which exhibits some unique differences compared to mammals. This review summarizes what is currently known about the proghrelin system in birds and offers new insights into the nature and function of this important endocrine system. Such information facilitates cross-species comparisons and contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the proghrelin system.

  8. Experimental analysis of the auditory detection process on avian point counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T.R.; Alldredge, M.W.; Pollock, K.H.; Wettroth, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system for simulating the conditions of avian surveys in which birds are identified by sound. The system uses a laptop computer to control a set of amplified MP3 players placed at known locations around a survey point. The system can realistically simulate a known population of songbirds under a range of factors that affect detection probabilities. The goals of our research are to describe the sources and range of variability affecting point-count estimates and to find applications of sampling theory and methodologies that produce practical improvements in the quality of bird-census data. Initial experiments in an open field showed that, on average, observers tend to undercount birds on unlimited-radius counts, though the proportion of birds counted by individual observers ranged from 81% to 132% of the actual total. In contrast to the unlimited-radius counts, when data were truncated at a 50-m radius around the point, observers overestimated the total population by 17% to 122%. Results also illustrate how detection distances decline and identification errors increase with increasing levels of ambient noise. Overall, the proportion of birds heard by observers decreased by 28 ?? 4.7% under breezy conditions, 41 ?? 5.2% with the presence of additional background birds, and 42 ?? 3.4% with the addition of 10 dB of white noise. These findings illustrate some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting avian abundance estimates based on auditory detections, and why estimates that do not account for variations in detection probability will not withstand critical scrutiny. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  9. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  10. Mirrored patterns of lateralized neuronal activation reflect old and new memories in the avian auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth M; Maeda, Rie K; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-08-25

    In monolingual humans, language-related brain activation shows a distinct lateralized pattern, in which the left hemisphere is often dominant. Studies are not as conclusive regarding the localization of the underlying neural substrate for language in sequential language learners. Lateralization of the neural substrate for first and second language depends on a number of factors including proficiency and early experience with each language. Similar to humans learning speech, songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor early in development. Here, we show mirrored patterns of lateralization in the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex (the caudomedial nidopallium [NCM]) in sequentially tutored zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata​) in response to their first tutor song, learned early in development, and their second tutor song, learned later in development. The greater the retention of song from their first tutor, the more right-dominant the birds were when exposed to that song; the more birds learned from their second tutor, the more left-dominant they were when exposed to that song. Thus, the avian auditory cortex may preserve lateralized neuronal traces of old and new tutor song memories, which are dependent on proficiency of song learning. There is striking resemblance in humans: early-formed language representations are maintained in the brain even if exposure to that language is discontinued. The switching of hemispheric dominance related to the acquisition of early auditory memories and subsequent encoding of more recent memories may be an evolutionary adaptation in vocal learners necessary for the behavioral flexibility to acquire novel vocalizations, such as a second language. PMID:27288718

  11. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  12. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

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    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope for future clinical studies

  13. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-01-01

    Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope f...

  14. Hear no evil: The effect of auditory warning signals on avian innate avoidance, learned avoidance and memory

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    Emma C. SIDDALL, Nicola M. MARPLES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aposematic insect species advertise their toxicity to potential predators using olfactory and auditory signals, in addition to visual signals, to produce a multimodal warning display. The olfactory signals in these displays may have interesting effects, such as eliciting innate avoidance against novel colored prey, or improving learning and memory of defended prey. However, little is known about the effects of such ancillary signals when they are auditory rather than olfactory. The few studies that have investigated this question have provided conflicting results. The current study sought to clarify and extend understanding of the effects of prey auditory signals on avian predator responses. The domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus was used as a model avian predator to examine how the defensive buzzing sound of a bumblebee Bombus terrestris affected the chick’s innate avoidance behavior, and the learning and memory of prey avoidance. The results demonstrate that the buzzing sound had no effect on the predator’s responses to unpalatable aposematically colored crumbs, suggesting that the agitated buzzing of B. terrestris may provide no additional protection from avian predators [Current Zoology 57 (2: 197–207, 2011].

  15. Hear no evil:The effect of auditory warning signals on avian innate avoidance,learned avoidance and memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emma C.SIDDALL; Nicola M.MARPLES

    2011-01-01

    Many aposematic insect species advertise their toxicity to potential predators using olfactory and auditory signals,in addition to visual signals,to produce a multimodal warning display.The olfactory signals in these displays may have interesting effects,such as eliciting innate avoidance against novel colored prey,or improving learning and memory of defended prey.However,little is known about the effects of such ancillary signals when they are auditory rather than olfactory.The few studies that have investigated this question have provided confficting results.The current study sought to clarify and extend understanding of the effects of prey auditory signals on avian predator responses.The domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus was used as a model avian predator to examine how the defensive buzzing sound of a bumblebee Bombus terrestris affected the chick's innate avoidance behavior,and the learning and memory of prey avoidance.The resuits demonstrate that the buzzing sound had no effect on the predator's responses to unpalalable aposematically colored crumbs,suggesting that the agitated buzzing of B.terrestris may provide no additional protection from avian predators.

  16. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  17. Target-specific regulation of presynaptic release properties at auditory nerve terminals in the avian cochlear nucleus.

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    Ahn, J; MacLeod, K M

    2016-03-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) acts as a time- and firing rate-dependent filter that mediates the transmission of information across synapses. In the auditory brain stem, the divergent pathways that encode acoustic timing and intensity information express differential STP. To investigate what factors determine the plasticity expressed at different terminals, we tested whether presynaptic release probability differed in the auditory nerve projections to the two divisions of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Estimates of release probability were made with an open-channel blocker ofN-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Activity-dependent blockade of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with application of 20 μM (+)-MK801 maleate was more rapid in NM than in NA, indicating that release probability was significantly higher at terminals in NM. Paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was tightly correlated with the blockade rate at terminals in NA, suggesting that PPR was a reasonable proxy for relative release probability at these synapses. To test whether release probability was similar across convergent inputs onto NA neurons, PPRs of different nerve inputs onto the same postsynaptic NA target neuron were measured. The PPRs, as well as the plasticity during short trains, were tightly correlated across multiple inputs, further suggesting that release probability is coordinated at auditory nerve terminals in a target-specific manner. This highly specific regulation of STP in the auditory brain stem provides evidence that the synaptic dynamics are tuned to differentially transmit the auditory information in nerve activity into parallel ascending pathways. PMID:26719087

  18. Online contributions of auditory feedback to neural activity in avian song control circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Jon T.; Michael S. Brainard

    2008-01-01

    Birdsong, like human speech, relies critically on auditory feedback to provide information about the quality of vocalizations. Although the importance of auditory feedback to vocal learning is well established, whether and how feedback signals influence vocal premotor circuitry has remained obscure. Previous studies in singing birds have not detected changes to vocal premotor activity following perturbations of auditory feedback, leading to the hypothesis that contributions of feedback to voc...

  19. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  20. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and takin

  1. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  2. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people. PMID:20481341

  3. A loudspeaker-based room auralization system for auditory research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    systematically study the signal processing of realistic sounds by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, a flexible, reproducible and fully controllable auditory environment is needed. A loudspeaker-based room auralization (LoRA) system was developed in this thesis to provide virtual auditory...... investigated the perception of distance in VAEs generated by the LoRA system. These results showed that the distance of far field sources are similarly perceived in these VAEs as in real environments. For close sources (<1 m), a comprehensive study about the near field compensated HOA method was presented and...

  4. Modifying Directionality through Auditory System Scaling in a Robotic Lizard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The peripheral auditory system of a lizard is strongly directional. This directionality is created by acoustical coupling of the two eardrums and is strongly dependent on characteristics of the middle ear, such as interaural distance, resonance frequency of the middle ear cavity and of the tympanum...

  5. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R [Laboratorio de Ingenieria en Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Ruta 11 - Km 10, Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  6. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  7. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... that are necessary for the auditory system to retrieve the pitch of complex sounds. The existence of different pitch-coding mechanisms for low-numbered (spectrally resolved) and high-numbered (unresolved) harmonics was investigated by comparing pitch-discrimination performance across different cohorts of listeners...

  8. Lecture recording system in anatomy: possible benefit to auditory learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacro, Thierry R H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ariail, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    The literature reports that using Learning Recording Systems (LRS) is usually well received by students but that the pedagogical value of LRS in academic settings remains somewhat unclear. The primary aim of the current study is to document students' perceptions, actual pattern of usage, and impact of use of LRS on students' grade in a dental gross and neuroanatomy course. Other aims are to determine if students' learning preference correlated with final grades and to see if other factors like gender, age, overall academic score on the Dental Aptitude Test (DAT), lecture levels of difficulty, type of lecture, category of lecture, or teaching faculty could explain the impact, if any, of the use of LRS on the course final grade. No significant correlation was detected between the final grades and the variables studied except for a significant but modest correlation between final grades and the number of times the students accessed the lecture recordings (r=0.33 with P=0.01). Also, after adjusting for gender, age, learning style, and academic DAT, a significant interaction between auditory and average usage time was found for final grade (P=0.03). Students who classified themselves as auditory and who used the LRS on average for fewer than 10 minutes per access, scored an average final grade of 16.43 % higher than the nonauditory students using the LRS for the same amount of time per access. Based on these findings, implications for teaching are discussed and recommendations for use of LRS are proposed. PMID:23508921

  9. Conserved mechanisms of vocalization coding in mammalian and songbird auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Sarah M N; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquity of social vocalizations among animals provides the opportunity to identify conserved mechanisms of auditory processing that subserve communication. Identifying auditory coding properties that are shared across vocal communicators will provide insight into how human auditory processing leads to speech perception. Here, we compare auditory response properties and neural coding of social vocalizations in auditory midbrain neurons of mammalian and avian vocal communicators. The auditory midbrain is a nexus of auditory processing because it receives and integrates information from multiple parallel pathways and provides the ascending auditory input to the thalamus. The auditory midbrain is also the first region in the ascending auditory system where neurons show complex tuning properties that are correlated with the acoustics of social vocalizations. Single unit studies in mice, bats and zebra finches reveal shared principles of auditory coding including tonotopy, excitatory and inhibitory interactions that shape responses to vocal signals, nonlinear response properties that are important for auditory coding of social vocalizations and modulation tuning. Additionally, single neuron responses in the mouse and songbird midbrain are reliable, selective for specific syllables, and rely on spike timing for neural discrimination of distinct vocalizations. We propose that future research on auditory coding of vocalizations in mouse and songbird midbrain neurons adopt similar experimental and analytical approaches so that conserved principles of vocalization coding may be distinguished from those that are specialized for each species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  10. A loudspeaker-based room auralization system for auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    . This system provides a flexible research platform for conducting auditory experiments with normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and aided hearing-impaired listeners in a fully controlled and realistic environment. This includes measures of basic auditory function (e.g., signal detection, distance perception...

  11. Profile of Minocycline Neuroprotection in Bilirubin-Induced Auditory System Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Ann C.; Chiou, Victoria; Zuckoff, Sarah B; Shapiro, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Excessive hyperbilirubinemia in human neonates can cause permanent dysfunction of the auditory system, as assessed with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). Jaundiced Gunn rat pups (jjs) exhibit similar BAEP abnormalities as hyperbilirubinemic neonates. Sulfadimethoxine (sulfa) administration to jjs, which displaces bilirubin from serum albumin into tissues including brain, exacerbates acute toxicity. Minocycline administered prior to sulfa in jjs protects against BAEP abnormalities....

  12. Auditory-Visual System Interactions: Perinatal Visual Experience Affects Auditory Learning and Memory in Bobwhite Quail Chicks (Colinus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Columbus, Rebecca Foushee

    1998-01-01

    Early perceptual learning capacity has been shown to correspond with the relative status of emergent sensory systems throughout prenatal and postnatal development. It has also been shown that young infants can learn perceptual information during perinatal development. However, the exact nature of the relationship between prenatal and postnatal perceptual development and the role of early experience on learning ability have yet to be examined. The present study examined how auditory learnin...

  13. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    homogenous sounds such as rain, birds, or fire. It has been suggested that sound texture perception is mediated by time-averaged statistics measured from early auditory representations (McDermott et al., 2013). Changes to early auditory processing, such as broader “peripheral” filters or reduced compression...

  14. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built an Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System for identifying avian influenza disease and displaying the result of identification process. In this paper, we describe five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. We use chicken as research object. Research location is in the Lampung Province, South Sumatera. The researcher reason to choose Lampung Province in South Sumatera on the basis that has a high poultry population. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief as inference engine in expert system, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitat...

  15. Discovery of a lipid synthesising organ in the auditory system of an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Kathryn F; Greenwood, David R; Windmill, James F C; Jackson, Joseph C; Corfield, Jeremy; Parsons, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Weta possess typical Ensifera ears. Each ear comprises three functional parts: two equally sized tympanal membranes, an underlying system of modified tracheal chambers, and the auditory sensory organ, the crista acustica. This organ sits within an enclosed fluid-filled channel-previously presumed to be hemolymph. The role this channel plays in insect hearing is unknown. We discovered that the fluid within the channel is not actually hemolymph, but a medium composed principally of lipid from a new class. Three-dimensional imaging of this lipid channel revealed a previously undescribed tissue structure within the channel, which we refer to as the olivarius organ. Investigations into the function of the olivarius reveal de novo lipid synthesis indicating that it is producing these lipids in situ from acetate. The auditory role of this lipid channel was investigated using Laser Doppler vibrometry of the tympanal membrane, which shows that the displacement of the membrane is significantly increased when the lipid is removed from the auditory system. Neural sensitivity of the system, however, decreased upon removal of the lipid-a surprising result considering that in a typical auditory system both the mechanical and auditory sensitivity are positively correlated. These two results coupled with 3D modelling of the auditory system lead us to hypothesize a model for weta audition, relying strongly on the presence of the lipid channel. This is the first instance of lipids being associated with an auditory system outside of the Odentocete cetaceans, demonstrating convergence for the use of lipids in hearing. PMID:23251553

  16. Role of the auditory system in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Frank H; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews evidence regarding the role of auditory perception in shaping speech output. Evidence indicates that speech movements are planned to follow auditory trajectories. This in turn is followed by a description of the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, which provides a detailed account of the role of auditory feedback in speech motor development and control. A brief description of the higher-order brain areas involved in speech sequencing (including the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal sulcus) is then provided, followed by a description of the Hierarchical State Feedback Control (HSFC) model, which posits internal error detection and correction processes that can detect and correct speech production errors prior to articulation. The chapter closes with a treatment of promising future directions of research into auditory-motor interactions in speech, including the use of intracranial recording techniques such as electrocorticography in humans, the investigation of the potential roles of various large-scale brain rhythms in speech perception and production, and the development of brain-computer interfaces that use auditory feedback to allow profoundly paralyzed users to learn to produce speech using a speech synthesizer.

  17. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  18. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male-male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. PMID:25617467

  19. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male-male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the ascending stages of the auditory system in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jan-Peter; Lüpke, Matthias; Dziallas, Peter; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Seifert, Hermann; Nolte, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique able to localize neural activity in the brain by detecting associated changes in blood flow. It is an essential tool for studying human functional neuroanatomy including the auditory system. There are only a few studies, however, using fMRI to study canine brain functions. In the current study ten anesthetized dogs were scanned during auditory stimulation. Two functional sequences, each in combination with a suitable stimu...

  1. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  2. Animal models of spontaneous activity in the healthy and impaired auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J Eggermont

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous neural activity in the auditory nerve fibers and in auditory cortex in healthy animals is discussed with respect to the question: Is spontaneous activity noise or information carrier? The studies reviewed suggest strongly that spontaneous activity is a carrier of information. Subsequently, I review the numerous findings in the impaired auditory system, particularly with reference to noise trauma and tinnitus. Here the common assumption is that tinnitus reflects increased noise in the auditory system that among others affects temporal processing and interferes with the gap-startle reflex, which is frequently used as a behavioral assay for tinnitus. It is, however, more likely that the increased spontaneous activity in tinnitus, firing rate as well as neural synchrony, carries information that shapes the activity of downstream structures, including non-auditory ones, and leading to the tinnitus percept. The main drivers of that process are bursting and synchronous firing, which facilitates transfer of activity across synapses, and allows formation of auditory objects, such as tinnitus

  3. Discovery of a lipid synthesising organ in the auditory system of an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn F Lomas

    Full Text Available Weta possess typical Ensifera ears. Each ear comprises three functional parts: two equally sized tympanal membranes, an underlying system of modified tracheal chambers, and the auditory sensory organ, the crista acustica. This organ sits within an enclosed fluid-filled channel-previously presumed to be hemolymph. The role this channel plays in insect hearing is unknown. We discovered that the fluid within the channel is not actually hemolymph, but a medium composed principally of lipid from a new class. Three-dimensional imaging of this lipid channel revealed a previously undescribed tissue structure within the channel, which we refer to as the olivarius organ. Investigations into the function of the olivarius reveal de novo lipid synthesis indicating that it is producing these lipids in situ from acetate. The auditory role of this lipid channel was investigated using Laser Doppler vibrometry of the tympanal membrane, which shows that the displacement of the membrane is significantly increased when the lipid is removed from the auditory system. Neural sensitivity of the system, however, decreased upon removal of the lipid-a surprising result considering that in a typical auditory system both the mechanical and auditory sensitivity are positively correlated. These two results coupled with 3D modelling of the auditory system lead us to hypothesize a model for weta audition, relying strongly on the presence of the lipid channel. This is the first instance of lipids being associated with an auditory system outside of the Odentocete cetaceans, demonstrating convergence for the use of lipids in hearing.

  4. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Warning System using Dempster-Shafer Theory and Web Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built a Web Mapping and Dempster-Shafer theory as early warning system of avian influenza. Early warning is the provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare for effective response. In this paper as example we use five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. Research location is in the Lampung Province, South Sumatera. The researcher reason to choose Lampung Province in South Sumatera on the basis that has a high poultry population. Geographically, Lampung province is located at 103040' to 105050' East Lo...

  5. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  6. Neuronal connectivity and interactions between the auditory and limbic systems. Effects of noise and tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Kari Suzanne; Canlon, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic experience such as sound, noise, or absence of sound induces structural or functional changes in the central auditory system but can also affect limbic regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. The amygdala is particularly sensitive to sound with valence or meaning, such as vocalizations, crying or music. The amygdala plays a central role in auditory fear conditioning, regulation of the acoustic startle response and can modulate auditory cortex plasticity. A stressful acoustic stimulus, such as noise, causes amygdala-mediated release of stress hormones via the HPA-axis, which may have negative effects on health, as well as on the central nervous system. On the contrary, short-term exposure to stress hormones elicits positive effects such as hearing protection. The hippocampus can affect auditory processing by adding a temporal dimension, as well as being able to mediate novelty detection via theta wave phase-locking. Noise exposure affects hippocampal neurogenesis and LTP in a manner that affects structural plasticity, learning and memory. Tinnitus, typically induced by hearing malfunctions, is associated with emotional stress, depression and anatomical changes of the hippocampus. In turn, the limbic system may play a role in the generation as well as the suppression of tinnitus indicating that the limbic system may be essential for tinnitus treatment. A further understanding of auditory-limbic interactions will contribute to future treatment strategies of tinnitus and noise trauma. PMID:22440225

  7. Morphological and physiological regeneration in the auditory system of adult Mecopoda elongata (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Silke; Butler, Casey S; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Orthopterans are suitable model organisms for investigations of regeneration mechanisms in the auditory system. Regeneration has been described in the auditory systems of locusts (Caelifera) and of crickets (Ensifera). In this study, we comparatively investigate the neural regeneration in the auditory system in the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata. A crushing of the tympanal nerve in the foreleg of M. elongata results in a loss of auditory information transfer. Physiological recordings of the tympanal nerve suggest outgrowing fibers 5 days after crushing. An anatomical regeneration of the fibers within the central nervous system starts 10 days after crushing. The neuronal projection reaches the target area at day 20. Threshold values to low frequency airborne sound remain high after crushing, indicating a lower regeneration capability of this group of fibers. However, within the central target area the low frequency areas are also innervated. Recordings of auditory interneurons show that the regenerating fibers form new functional connections starting at day 20 after crushing.

  8. High-frequency ex vivo ultrasound imaging of the auditory system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; Torbatian, Z.; Adamson, R.B.; Wijhe, R. Van; Pennings, R.J.E.; Lockwood, G.R.; Bance, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    A 50MHz array-based imaging system was used to obtain high-resolution images of the ear and auditory system. This previously described custom built imaging system (Brown et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown and Lockwood 2005) is capable of 50 microm axial resolution, and lateral resolution varying from 80 mic

  9. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Mann

    Full Text Available A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx in the developing cochlea. Previous work has demonstrated an essential role for Scx in the differentiation and development of tendons, ligaments and cells of chondrogenic lineage. Expression in the cochlea has been shown previously, however the functional role for Scx in the cochlea is unknown. Using a Scx-GFP reporter mouse line we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of Scx expression in the developing cochlea between embryonic day 13.5 and postnatal day 25. Embryonically, Scx is expressed broadly throughout the cochlear duct and surrounding mesenchyme and at postnatal ages becomes restricted to the inner hair cells and the interdental cells of the spiral limbus. Deletion of Scx results in hearing impairment indicated by elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds and diminished distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes, across a range of frequencies. No changes in either gross cochlear morphology or expression of the Scx target genes Col2A, Bmp4 or Sox9 were observed in Scx(-/- mutants, suggesting that the auditory defects observed in these animals may be a result of unidentified Scx-dependent processes within the cochlea.

  10. Frequency Transformation in the Auditory Lemniscal Thalamocortical System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eImaizumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The auditory lemniscal thalamocortical (TC pathway conveys information from the ventral division of the medial geniculate body to the primary auditory cortex (A1. Although their general topographic organization has been well characterized, functional transformations at the lemniscal TC synapse still remain incompletely codified, largely due to the need for integration of functional anatomical results with the variability observed with various animal models and experimental techniques. In this review, we discuss these issues with classical approaches, such as in vivo extracellular recordings and tracer injections to physiologically identified areas in A1, and then compare these studies with modern approaches, such as in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, in vivo whole-cell recordings, optogenetic methods, and in vitro methods using slice preparations. A surprising finding from a comparison of classical and modern approaches is the similar degree of convergence from thalamic neurons to single A1 neurons and clusters of A1 neurons, although, thalamic convergence to single A1 neurons is more restricted areas within putative thalamic frequency lamina. These comparisons suggest that frequency convergence from thalamic input to A1 is functionally limited. Finally, we consider synaptic organization of TC projections and future directions for research.

  11. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  12. Temporal pattern recognition based on instantaneous spike rate coding in a simple auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabatiyan, A; Poulet, J F A; de Polavieja, G G; Hedwig, B

    2003-10-01

    Auditory pattern recognition by the CNS is a fundamental process in acoustic communication. Because crickets communicate with stereotyped patterns of constant frequency syllables, they are established models to investigate the neuronal mechanisms of auditory pattern recognition. Here we provide evidence that for the neural processing of amplitude-modulated sounds, the instantaneous spike rate rather than the time-averaged neural activity is the appropriate coding principle by comparing both coding parameters in a thoracic interneuron (Omega neuron ON1) of the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) auditory system. When stimulated with different temporal sound patterns, the analysis of the instantaneous spike rate demonstrates that the neuron acts as a low-pass filter for syllable patterns. The instantaneous spike rate is low at high syllable rates, but prominent peaks in the instantaneous spike rate are generated as the syllable rate resembles that of the species-specific pattern. The occurrence and repetition rate of these peaks in the neuronal discharge are sufficient to explain temporal filtering in the cricket auditory pathway as they closely match the tuning of phonotactic behavior to different sound patterns. Thus temporal filtering or "pattern recognition" occurs at an early stage in the auditory pathway.

  13. Distribution of SMI-32-immunoreactive neurons in the central auditory system of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Ladislav; Druga, Rastislav; Syka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    SMI-32 antibody recognizes a non-phosphorylated epitope of neurofilament proteins, which are thought to be necessary for the maintenance of large neurons with highly myelinated processes. We investigated the distribution and quantity of SMI-32-immunoreactive(-ir) neurons in individual parts of the rat auditory system. SMI-32-ir neurons were present in all auditory structures; however, in most regions they constituted only a minority of all neurons (10-30%). In the cochlear nuclei, a higher occurrence of SMI-32-ir neurons was found in the ventral cochlear nucleus. Within the superior olivary complex, SMI-32-ir cells were particularly abundant in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the only auditory region where SMI-32-ir neurons constituted an absolute majority of all neurons. In the inferior colliculus, a region with the highest total number of neurons among the rat auditory subcortical structures, the percentage of SMI-32-ir cells was, in contrast to the MNTB, very low. In the medial geniculate body, SMI-32-ir neurons were prevalent in the ventral division. At the cortical level, SMI-32-ir neurons were found mainly in layers III, V and VI. Within the auditory cortex, it was possible to distinguish the Te1, Te2 and Te3 areas on the basis of the variable numerical density and volumes of SMI-32-ir neurons, especially when the pyramidal cells of layer V were taken into account. SMI-32-ir neurons apparently form a representative subpopulation of neurons in all parts of the rat central auditory system and may belong to both the inhibitory and excitatory systems, depending on the particular brain region.

  14. Engineering development of avian influenza virus detection system in a patient's body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avian influenza virus detection equipment in a patient's body has been made. Currently, detection of avian influenza virus carried out by expensive laboratory equipment's, so only certain hospitals can perform this detection. This developing equipment is expected to be cheaper than existing equipment and the diagnosis can be known immediately. The sensing device is made using the principle of nuclear radiation detection. Radiation comes from a drunk labelled tamiflu (oseltamivir) which is drunk to the patient. Tamiflu is a drug to catch, H5N1 viruses in a patient's body. A labelled tamiflu is tamiflu which is labelled by I-131 radioisotopes. The presence of virus in the body is proportional to the amount of radiation captured by the detector. The equipment is composed of a Geiger-Mueller (GM) pancake detector type, a signal processor, a counter, and a data processor (computer). The GM detector converts the radiation that comes into electrical signals. Electrical signal is then converted into TTL level pulses by the signal processor. Pulse counting results are processed by data processor. The total count is proportional to the amount of virus captured by labelled tamiflu. The measurement threshold can be set by medical officer through software. At a certain threshold can be inferred identified patients infected with avian influenza virus. If the measurement below the threshold means that the patient is still within safe limits. This equipment is expected to create avian influenza virus detection system that cheaply and quickly so that more and more hospitals are using to detect the avian influenza virus. (author)

  15. Coding of communication calls in the subcortical and cortical structures of the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suta, D; Popelár, J; Syka, J

    2008-01-01

    The processing of species-specific communication signals in the auditory system represents an important aspect of animal behavior and is crucial for its social interactions, reproduction, and survival. In this article the neuronal mechanisms underlying the processing of communication signals in the higher centers of the auditory system--inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex (AC)--are reviewed, with particular attention to the guinea pig. The selectivity of neuronal responses for individual calls in these auditory centers in the guinea pig is usually low--most neurons respond to calls as well as to artificial sounds; the coding of complex sounds in the central auditory nuclei is apparently based on the representation of temporal and spectral features of acoustical stimuli in neural networks. Neuronal response patterns in the IC reliably match the sound envelope for calls characterized by one or more short impulses, but do not exactly fit the envelope for long calls. Also, the main spectral peaks are represented by neuronal firing rates in the IC. In comparison to the IC, response patterns in the MGB and AC demonstrate a less precise representation of the sound envelope, especially in the case of longer calls. The spectral representation is worse in the case of low-frequency calls, but not in the case of broad-band calls. The emotional content of the call may influence neuronal responses in the auditory pathway, which can be demonstrated by stimulation with time-reversed calls or by measurements performed under different levels of anesthesia. The investigation of the principles of the neural coding of species-specific vocalizations offers some keys for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying human speech perception.

  16. Bilateral consequences of chronic unilateral deafferentation in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, Hadley Wilson; Sheldon, Elizabeth; Cutting, Claire C; Williams, Claire R; Riker, Dana M; Peckler, Hannah R; Sangal, Rohit B

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system of the cricket has the unusual ability to respond to deafferentation by compensatory growth and synapse formation. Auditory interneurons such as ascending neuron 2 (AN-2) in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus possess a dendritic arbor that normally grows up to, but not over, the midline of the prothoracic ganglion. After chronic deafferentation throughout larval development, however, the AN-2 dendritic arbor changes dramatically, and medial dendrites sprout across the midline where they form compensatory synapses with the auditory afferents from the contralateral ear. We quantified the extent of the effects of chronic, unilateral deafferentation by measuring several cellular parameters of 3 different neuronal components of the auditory system: the deafferented AN-2, the contralateral (or nondeafferented) AN-2 and the contralateral auditory afferents. Neuronal tracers and confocal microscopy were used to visualize neurons, and double-label experiments were performed to examine the cellular relationship between pairs of cells. Dendritic complexity was quantified using a modified Sholl analysis, and the length and volume of processes and presynaptic varicosities were assessed under control and deafferented conditions. Chronic deafferentation significantly influenced the morphology of all 3 neuronal components examined. The overall dendritic complexity of the deafferented AN-2 dendritic arbor was reduced, while both the contralateral AN-2 dendritic arbor and the remaining, intact, auditory afferents grew longer. We found no significant changes in the volume or density of varicosities after deafferentation. These complex cellular changes after deafferentation are interpreted in the light of the reported differential regulation of vesicle-associated membrane protein and semaphorin 2a.

  17. Avian Bornaviruses Escape Recognition by the Innate Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Reuter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Like other pathogens that readily persist in animal hosts, members of the Bornaviridae family have evolved effective mechanisms to evade the innate immune response. The prototype of this virus family, Borna disease virus employs an unusual replication strategy that removes the triphosphates from the 5’ termini of the viral RNA genome. This strategy allows the virus to avoid activation of RIG-I and other innate immune response receptors in infected cells. Here we determined whether the newly discovered avian bornaviruses (ABV might use a similar strategy to evade the interferon response. We found that de novo infection of QM7 and CEC32 quail cells with two different ABV strains was efficiently inhibited by exogenous chicken IFN-α. IFN-α also reduced the viral load in QM7 and CEC32 cells persistently infected with both ABV strains, suggesting that ABV is highly sensitive to type I IFN. Although quail cells persistently infected with ABV contained high levels of viral RNA, the supernatants of infected cultures did not contain detectable levels of biologically active type I IFN. RNA from cells infected with ABV failed to induce IFN-β synthesis if transfected into human cells. Furthermore, genomic RNA of ABV was susceptible to 5’-monophosphate-specific RNase, suggesting that it lacks 5’-triphospates like BDV. These results indicate that bornaviruses of mammals and birds use similar strategies to evade the host immune response.

  18. Effects of asymmetry and learning on phonotaxis in a robot based on the lizard auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Hallam, J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    Lizards have strong directional hearing across a broad band of frequencies. The directionality can be attributed to the acoustical properties of the ear, especially the strong acoustical coupling of the two eardrums. The peripheral auditory system of the lizard has previously been modeled in bila...

  19. Evolution and diversity in avian vocal system: an Evo-Devo model from the morphological and behavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    Birds use various vocalizations to mark their territory and attract mates. Three groups of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) learn their vocalizations through imitation. In the brain of such vocal learners, there is a neural network called the song system specialized for vocal learning and production. In contrast, birds such as chickens and pigeons do not have such a neural network and can only produce innate sounds. Since each avian species shows distinct, genetically inherited vocal learning abilities that are related to its morphology, the avian vocal system is a good model for studying the evolution of functional neural circuits. Nevertheless, studies on avian vocalization from an evolutionary developmental-biological (Evo-Devo) perspective are scant. In the present review, we summarize the results of songbird studies and our recent work that used the Evo-Devo approach to understand the evolution of the avian vocal system.

  20. Design of a New Audio Watermarking System Based on Human Auditory System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, D.H. [Maqtech Co., Ltd., (Korea); Shin, S.W.; Kim, J.W.; Choi, J.U. [Markany Co., Ltd., (Korea); Kim, D.Y. [Bucheon College, Bucheon (Korea); Kim, S.H. [The University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust digital copyright-protection technique based on the concept of human auditory system. First, we propose a watermarking technique that accepts the various attacks such as, time scaling, pitch shift, add noise and a lot of lossy compression such as MP3, AAC, WMA. Second, we implement audio PD(portable device) for copyright protection using proposed method. The proposed watermarking technique is developed using digital filtering technique. Being designed according to critical band of HAS(human auditory system), the digital filters embed watermark without nearly affecting audio quality. Before processing of digital filtering, wavelet transform decomposes the input audio signal into several signals that are composed of specific frequencies. Then, we embed watermark in the decomposed signal (0kHz-11kHz) by designed band-stop digital filter. Watermarking detection algorithm is implemented on audio PD(portable device). Proposed watermarking technology embeds 2bits information per 15 seconds. If PD detects watermark '11', which means illegal song, PD displays 'Illegal Song' message on LCD, skips the song and plays the next song. The implemented detection algorithm in PD requires 19 MHz computational power, 7.9kBytes ROM and 10kBytes RAM. The suggested technique satisfies SDMI(secure digital music initiative) requirements of platform3 based on ARM9E core. (author). 9 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  2. A mechanical design for positioning of gm detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  3. Hearing and the round goby: Understanding the auditory system of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Andrea J.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), is an invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed. Adult round gobies show behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations but physiological investigations have not yet been conducted to quantify their hearing abilities. We have been examining the physiological and morphological development of the auditory system in the round goby. Various frequencies (100 Hz to 800 Hz and conspecific sounds), at various intensities (120 dB to 170 dB re 1 Pa) were presented to juveniles and adults and their auditory brain-stem responses (ABR) were recorded. Round gobies only respond physiologically to tones from 100-600 Hz, with threshold varying between 145 to 155 dB re 1 Pa. The response threshold to conspecific sounds was 140 dB re 1 Pa. There was no significant difference in auditory threshold between sizes of fish for either tones or conspecific sounds. Saccular epithelia were stained using phalloidin and there was a trend towards an increase in both hair cell number and density with an increase in fish size. These results represent a first attempt to quantify auditory abilities in this invasive species. This is an important step in understanding their reproductive physiology, which could potentially aid in their population control. [Funded by NSERC.

  4. Context-dependent coding and gain control in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jan; Rau, Florian; Hennig, R Matthias; Hildebrandt, K Jannis

    2015-10-01

    Sensory systems process stimuli that greatly vary in intensity and complexity. To maintain efficient information transmission, neural systems need to adjust their properties to these different sensory contexts, yielding adaptive or stimulus-dependent codes. Here, we demonstrated adaptive spectrotemporal tuning in a small neural network, i.e. the peripheral auditory system of the cricket. We found that tuning of cricket auditory neurons was sharper for complex multi-band than for simple single-band stimuli. Information theoretical considerations revealed that this sharpening improved information transmission by separating the neural representations of individual stimulus components. A network model inspired by the structure of the cricket auditory system suggested two putative mechanisms underlying this adaptive tuning: a saturating peripheral nonlinearity could change the spectral tuning, whereas broad feed-forward inhibition was able to reproduce the observed adaptive sharpening of temporal tuning. Our study revealed a surprisingly dynamic code usually found in more complex nervous systems and suggested that stimulus-dependent codes could be implemented using common neural computations.

  5. Multimodal Diffusion-MRI and MEG Assessment of Auditory and Language System Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I Berman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory processing and language impairments are prominent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study integrated diffusion MR measures of white-matter microstructure and magnetoencephalography (MEG measures of cortical dynamics to investigate associations between brain structure and function within auditory and language systems in ASD. Based on previous findings, abnormal structure-function relationships in auditory and language systems in ASD were hypothesized. Methods: Evaluable neuroimaging data was obtained from 44 typically developing (TD children (mean age 10.4±2.4years and 95 children with ASD (mean age 10.2±2.6years. Diffusion MR tractography was used to delineate and quantitatively assess the auditory radiation and arcuate fasciculus segments of the auditory and language systems. MEG was used to measure (1 superior temporal gyrus auditory evoked M100 latency in response to pure-tone stimuli as an indicator of auditory system conduction velocity, and (2 auditory vowel-contrast mismatch field (MMF latency as a passive probe of early linguistic processes. Results: Atypical development of white matter and cortical function, along with atypical lateralization, were present in ASD. In both auditory and language systems, white matter integrity and cortical electrophysiology were found to be coupled in typically developing children, with white matter microstructural features contributing significantly to electrophysiological response latencies. However, in ASD, we observed uncoupled structure-function relationships in both auditory and language systems. Regression analyses in ASD indicated that factors other than white-matter microstructure additionally contribute to the latency of neural evoked responses and ultimately behavior. Results also indicated that whereas delayed M100 is a marker for ASD severity, MMF delay is more associated with language impairment. Conclusion: Present findings suggest atypical

  6. SoundView: an auditory guidance system based on environment understanding for the visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Ren, Jie; Li, Zhengjun; Niu, Jinhai; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2009-01-01

    Without visual information, the blind people live in various hardships with shopping, reading, finding objects and etc. Therefore, we developed a portable auditory guide system, called SoundView, for visually impaired people. This prototype system consists of a mini-CCD camera, a digital signal processing unit and an earphone, working with built-in customizable auditory coding algorithms. Employing environment understanding techniques, SoundView processes the images from a camera and detects objects tagged with barcodes. The recognized objects in the environment are then encoded into stereo speech signals for the blind though an earphone. The user would be able to recognize the type, motion state and location of the interested objects with the help of SoundView. Compared with other visual assistant techniques, SoundView is object-oriented and has the advantages of cheap cost, smaller size, light weight, low power consumption and easy customization. PMID:19965094

  7. Otoacoustic emission (OAE)-based measurement of the functioning of the human cochlea and the efferent auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Srikanta Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) has advanced our understanding of cochlear mechanics and the efferent auditory system. OAE are sounds generated within normal cochlea either spontaneously or in response to stimulation. The ability to measure OAE non-invasively, objectively and quickly makes a powerful tool to probe cochlear mechanics. Stimulation of the efferent auditory system causes changes in cochlear amplification processes and hence changes characteristics of OAE. Contrala...

  8. Motor-auditory-visual integration: The role of the human mirror neuron system in communication and communication disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bel, Ronald M.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a trimodal system composed of neuronal populations that respond to motor, visual, and auditory stimulation, such as when an action is performed, observed, heard or read about. In humans, the MNS has been identified using neuro-imaging techniques (such as fMRI and mu suppression in the EEG). It reflects an integration of motor-auditory-visual information processing related to aspects of language learning including action understanding and recognition. Such int...

  9. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage.

  10. Multiple benefits of personal FM system use by children with auditory processing disorder (APD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristin N; John, Andrew B; Kreisman, Nicole V; Hall, James W; Crandell, Carl C

    2009-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorders (APD) were fitted with Phonak EduLink FM devices for home and classroom use. Baseline measures of the children with APD, prior to FM use, documented significantly lower speech-perception scores, evidence of decreased academic performance, and psychosocial problems in comparison to an age- and gender-matched control group. Repeated measures during the school year demonstrated speech-perception improvement in noisy classroom environments as well as significant academic and psychosocial benefits. Compared with the control group, the children with APD showed greater speech-perception advantage with FM technology. Notably, after prolonged FM use, even unaided (no FM device) speech-perception performance was improved in the children with APD, suggesting the possibility of fundamentally enhanced auditory system function. PMID:19925345

  11. Spectro-temporal analysis of complex sounds in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Most sounds encountered in our everyday life carry information in terms of temporal variations of their envelopes. These envelope variations, or amplitude modulations, shape the basic building blocks for speech, music, and other complex sounds. Often a mixture of such sounds occurs in natural...... their audibility when embedded in similar background interferers, a phenomenon referred to as comodulation masking release (CMR). Knowledge of the auditory processing of amplitude modulations provides therefore crucial information for a better understanding of how the auditory system analyses acoustic scenes...... chapter introduces a processing stage, in which information from different peripheral frequency channels is combined. This so-called across-channel processing is assumed to take place at the output of a modulation filterbank, and is crucial in order to account for CMR conditions where the frequency...

  12. Differential maturation of brain signal complexity in the human auditory and visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lippe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain development carries with it a large number of structural changes at the local level which impact on the functional interactions of distributed neuronal networks for perceptual processing. Such changes enhance information processing capacity, which can be indexed by estimation of neural signal complexity. Here, we show that during development, EEG signal complexity increases from one month to 5 years of age in response to auditory and visual stimulation. However, the rates of change in complexity were not equivalent for the two responses. Infants’ signal complexity for the visual condition was greater than auditory signal complexity, whereas adults showed the same level of complexity to both types of stimuli. The differential rates of complexity change may reflect a combination of innate and experiential factors on the structure and function of the two sensory systems.

  13. Long-term exposure to music enhances the sensitivity of the auditory system in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Elmer, Stefan; Ringli, Maya; Oechslin, Mathias S; Baumann, Simon; Jancke, Lutz

    2011-09-01

    This event-related brain potential study aims to contribute to the present debate regarding the effect of musical training on the maturation of the human auditory nervous system. To address this issue, we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) evoked by violin and pure sine-wave tones in a group of 7.5- to 12-year-old children who had either several years of musical experience with Suzuki violin lessons, or no musical training. The strength of the MMN responses to violin tones evident in the Suzuki students clearly surpassed responses in controls; the reverse pattern was observed for sine-wave tones. Suzuki students showed significantly shorter MMN latencies to violin tones than to pure tones; the MMN latency did not differ significantly between pure tones and violin sounds in the control group. Thus, our data provide general evidence of how and to what extent extensive musical experience affects the maturation of human auditory function at multiple levels, namely, accuracy and speed of auditory discrimination processing. Our findings add to the present understanding of neuroplastic organization and function of the mammalian nervous system. Furthermore, behavioural recordings obtained from the participating children provide corroborating evidence for a relationship between the duration and intensity of training, the specific sensitivity to instrumental timbre, and pitch recognition abilities. PMID:21848923

  14. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  15. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  16. Do male and female cowbirds see their world differently? Implications for sex differences in the sensory system of an avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning of brown-headed cowbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception. Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.

  17. A novel 9-class auditory ERP paradigm driving a predictive text entry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eHöhne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs based on Event Related Potentials (ERPs strive for offering communication pathways which are independent of muscle activity. While most visual ERP-based BCI paradigms require good control of the user's gaze direction, auditory BCI paradigms overcome this restriction. The present work proposes a novel approach using Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP for the example of a multiclass text spelling application. To control the ERP speller, BCI users focus their attention to two-dimensional auditory stimuli that vary in both, pitch (high/medium/low and direction (left/middle/right and that are presented via headphones. The resulting nine different control signals are exploited to drive a predictive text entry system. It enables the user to spell a letter by a single 9-class decision plus two additional decisions to confirm a spelled word.This paradigm - called PASS2D - was investigated in an online study with twelve healthy participants. Users spelled with more than 0.8 characters per minute on average (3.4 bits per minute which makes PASS2D a competitive method. It could enrich the toolbox of existing ERP paradigms for BCI end users like late-stage ALS patients.

  18. Arousal recognition system based on heartbeat dynamics during auditory elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Mimma; Valenza, Gaetano; Greco, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on the recognition of different arousal levels, elicited by affective sounds, performed using estimates of autonomic nervous system dynamics. Specifically, as a part of the circumplex model of affect, arousal levels were recognized by properly combining information gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis of heartbeat dynamics, which was derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Affective sounds were gathered from the International Affective Digitized Sound System and grouped into four different levels of arousal. A group of 27 healthy volunteers underwent such elicitation while ECG signals were continuously recorded. Results showed that a quadratic discriminant classifier, as applied implementing a leave-one-subject-out procedure, achieved a recognition accuracy of 84.26%. Moreover, this study confirms the crucial role of heartbeat nonlinear dynamics for emotion recognition, hereby estimated through lagged Poincare plots. PMID:26737686

  19. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer van Belle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called “bird strikes,” can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  20. Neurophysiological aspects of musical auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lima Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature has shown that musical stimulation can influence the cardiovascular system, however, the neurophysiological aspects of this influence are not yet fully elucidated. Objective: This study describes the influence of music on the neurophysiological mechanisms in the human body, specifically the variable blood pressure, as well as the neural mechanisms of music processing. Methods: Searches were conducted in Medline, PEDro, Lilacs and SciELO using the intersection of the keyword “music” with the keyword descriptors “blood pressure” and “neurophysiology”. Results: There were selected 11 articles, which indicated that music interferes in some aspects of physiological variables. Conclusion: Studies have indicated that music interferes on the control of blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate, through possible involvement of limbic brain areas which modulate hypothalamic-pituitary functions. Further studies are needed in order to identify the mechanisms by which this influence occurs.

  1. At the interface of the auditory and vocal motor systems: NIf and its role in vocal processing, production and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian; Vyssotski, Alexei; Hahnloser, Richard H R; Schmidt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Communication between auditory and vocal motor nuclei is essential for vocal learning. In songbirds, the nucleus interfacialis of the nidopallium (NIf) is part of a sensorimotor loop, along with auditory nucleus avalanche (Av) and song system nucleus HVC, that links the auditory and song systems. Most of the auditory information comes through this sensorimotor loop, with the projection from NIf to HVC representing the largest single source of auditory information to the song system. In addition to providing the majority of HVC's auditory input, NIf is also the primary driver of spontaneous activity and premotor-like bursting during sleep in HVC. Like HVC and RA, two nuclei critical for song learning and production, NIf exhibits behavioral-state dependent auditory responses and strong motor bursts that precede song output. NIf also exhibits extended periods of fast gamma oscillations following vocal production. Based on the converging evidence from studies of physiology and functional connectivity it would be reasonable to expect NIf to play an important role in the learning, maintenance, and production of song. Surprisingly, however, lesions of NIf in adult zebra finches have no effect on song production or maintenance. Only the plastic song produced by juvenile zebra finches during the sensorimotor phase of song learning is affected by NIf lesions. In this review, we carefully examine what is known about NIf at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels. We reexamine conclusions drawn from previous studies in the light of our current understanding of the song system, and establish what can be said with certainty about NIf's involvement in song learning, maintenance, and production. Finally, we review recent theories of song learning integrating possible roles for NIf within these frameworks and suggest possible parallels between NIf and sensorimotor areas that form part of the neural circuitry for speech processing in humans.

  2. Firing-rate resonances in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Florian; Clemens, Jan; Naumov, Victor; Hennig, R Matthias; Schreiber, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    In many communication systems, information is encoded in the temporal pattern of signals. For rhythmic signals that carry information in specific frequency bands, a neuronal system may profit from tuning its inherent filtering properties towards a peak sensitivity in the respective frequency range. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus evaluates acoustic communication signals of both conspecifics and predators. The song signals of conspecifics exhibit a characteristic pulse pattern that contains only a narrow range of modulation frequencies. We examined individual neurons (AN1, AN2, ON1) in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket for tuning towards specific modulation frequencies by assessing their firing-rate resonance. Acoustic stimuli with a swept-frequency envelope allowed an efficient characterization of the cells' modulation transfer functions. Some of the examined cells exhibited tuned band-pass properties. Using simple computational models, we demonstrate how different, cell-intrinsic or network-based mechanisms such as subthreshold resonances, spike-triggered adaptation, as well as an interplay of excitation and inhibition can account for the experimentally observed firing-rate resonances. Therefore, basic neuronal mechanisms that share negative feedback as a common theme may contribute to selectivity in the peripheral auditory pathway of crickets that is designed towards mate recognition and predator avoidance.

  3. A brain-computer interface controlled auditory event-related potential (p300) spelling system for locked-in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Andrea; Furdea, Adrian; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Nijboer, Femke; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2009-03-01

    Using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) humans can select letters or other targets on a computer screen without any muscular involvement. An intensively investigated kind of BCI is based on the recording of visual event-related brain potentials (ERP). However, some severely paralyzed patients who need a BCI for communication have impaired vision or lack control of gaze movement, thus making a BCI depending on visual input no longer feasible. In an effort to render the ERP-BCI usable for this group of patients, the ERP-BCI was adapted to auditory stimulation. Letters of the alphabet were assigned to cells in a 5 x 5 matrix. Rows of the matrix were coded with numbers 1 to 5, and columns with numbers 6 to 10, and the numbers were presented auditorily. To select a letter, users had to first select the row and then the column containing the desired letter. Four severely paralyzed patients in the end-stage of a neurodegenerative disease were examined. All patients performed above chance level. Spelling accuracy was significantly lower with the auditory system as compared with a similar visual system. Patients reported difficulties in concentrating on the task when presented with the auditory system. In future studies, the auditory ERP-BCI should be adjusted by taking into consideration specific features of severely paralyzed patients, such as reduced attention span. This adjustment in combination with more intensive training will show whether an auditory ERP-BCI can become an option for visually impaired patients. PMID:19351359

  4. Motor-Auditory-Visual Integration: The Role of the Human Mirror Neuron System in Communication and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bel, Ronald M.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a trimodal system composed of neuronal populations that respond to motor, visual, and auditory stimulation, such as when an action is performed, observed, heard or read about. In humans, the MNS has been identified using neuroimaging techniques (such as fMRI and mu suppression in the EEG). It reflects an…

  5. Asymmetric lateral inhibitory neural activity in the auditory system: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunji Atsuko

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decrements of auditory evoked responses elicited by repeatedly presented sounds with similar frequencies have been well investigated by means of electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (MEG. However the possible inhibitory interactions between different neuronal populations remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of proceeding notch-filtered noises (NFNs with different frequency spectra on a following test tone using MEG. Results Three-second exposure to the NFNs resulted in significantly different N1m responses to a 1000 Hz test tone presented 500 ms after the offset of the NFNs. The NFN with a lower spectral edge closest to the test tone mostly decreased the N1m amplitude. Conclusion The decrement of the N1m component after exposure to the NFNs could be explained partly in terms of lateral inhibition. The results demonstrated that the amplitude of the N1m was more effectively influenced by inhibitory lateral connections originating from neurons corresponding to lower rather than higher frequencies. We interpret this effect of asymmetric lateral inhibition in the auditory system as an important contribution to reduce the asymmetric neural activity profiles originating from the cochlea.

  6. Use of a highly transparent zebrafish mutant for investigations in the development of the vertebrate auditory system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniowiecki, Anna M.; Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Sangmin; Riley, Bruce; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-03-01

    Zebrafish, an auditory specialist among fish, offer analogous auditory structures to vertebrates and is a model for hearing and deafness in vertebrates, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain on the basic mechanics of the auditory pathway. Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography has been proven as valuable technique for functional vibrometric measurements in the murine ear. Such measurements are key to building a complete understanding of auditory mechanics. The application of such techniques in the zebrafish is impeded by the high level of pigmentation, which develops superior to the transverse plane and envelops the auditory system superficially. A zebrafish double mutant for nacre and roy (mitfa-/- ;roya-/- [casper]), which exhibits defects for neural-crest derived melanocytes and iridophores, at all stages of development, is pursued to improve image quality and sensitivity for functional imaging. So far our investigations with the casper mutants have enabled the identification of the specialized hearing organs, fluid-filled canal connecting the ears, and sub-structures of the semicircular canals. In our previous work with wild-type zebrafish, we were only able to identify and observe stimulated vibration of the largest structures, specifically the anterior swim bladder and tripus ossicle, even among small, larval specimen, with fully developed inner ears. In conclusion, this genetic mutant will enable the study of the dynamics of the zebrafish ear from the early larval stages all the way into adulthood.

  7. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saborni Roy; Tapas C Nag; Ashish Datt Upadhyay; Rashmi Mathur; Suman Jain

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and visual perceptual learning and synaptic plasticity, as evident by synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, were done at posthatch days (PH) 1, 2 and 3. The number of responders was significantly higher in the music stimulated group as compared to controls at PH1 in both auditory and visual preference tests. The stimulated chicks took significantly lesser time to enter and spent more time in the maternal area in both preference tests. A significantly higher expression of synaptophysin and PSD-95 was observed in the stimulated group in comparison to control at PH1-3 both in the auditory cortex and visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest facilitation of postnatal perceptual behaviour and synaptic plasticity in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal stimulation with complex rhythmic music.

  8. Differential gene expression during compensatory sprouting of dendrites in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, H W; McCarthy, S S; Johansen, S L; Harris, J M

    2009-08-01

    Neurones that lose their presynaptic partners because of injury usually retract or die. However, when the auditory interneurones of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are denervated, dendrites respond by growing across the midline and forming novel synapses with the opposite auditory afferents. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect transcriptional changes 3 days after denervation. This is a stage at which we demonstrate robust compensatory dendritic sprouting. Whereas 49 unique candidates were down-regulated, no sufficiently up-regulated candidates were identified at this time point. Several candidates identified in this study are known to influence the translation and degradation of proteins in other systems. The potential role of these factors in the compensatory sprouting of cricket auditory interneurones in response to denervation is discussed.

  9. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. E.; Brain, J D; Wang, N.

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our ...

  10. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2016-09-01

    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient’s state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R – the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments.

  11. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  12. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system. PMID:20533362

  13. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system.

  14. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds of ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  15. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  16. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  17. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  18. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  19. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  20. Nonlinear Statistical Data Assimilation for HVC RA Neurons in the Avian Song System

    CERN Document Server

    Kadakia, Nirag; Breen, Daniel; Morone, Uriel; Daou, Arij; Margoliash, Daniel; DI Abarbanel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of building a model of the HVC nucleus in the avian song system, we discuss in detail a model of HVC\\textsubscript{RA} projection neurons comprised of a somatic compartment with fast Na$^+$ and K$^+$ currents and a dendritic compartment with slower Ca$^{2+}$ dynamics. We show this model qualitatively exhibits many observed electrophysiological behaviors. We then show in numerical procedures how one can design and analyze feasible laboratory experiments that allow the estimation of all of the many parameters and unmeasured dynamical variables, give observations of the somatic voltage $V_s(t)$ alone. A key to this procedure is to initially estimate the slow dynamics associated with Ca, blocking the fast Na and K variations, and then with the Ca parameters fixed, estimate the fast Na and K dynamics. This separation of time scales provides a numerically robust method for completing the full neuron model, and the efficacy of the method is tested by prediction when observations are complete. The simul...

  1. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were...... that the use of spectral cues remained plausible. Simulations of auditory-nerve representations of the complex tones further suggested that a spectrotemporal mechanism combining precise timing information across auditory channels might best account for the behavioral data. Overall, this work provides insights...

  2. Emergent auditory feature tuning in a real-time neuromorphic VLSI system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadique eSheik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sounds of ecological importance, such as communication calls, are characterised by time-varying spectra. However, most neuromorphic auditory models to date have focused on distinguishing mainly static patterns, under the assumption that dynamic patterns can be learned as sequences of static ones. In contrast, the emergence of dynamic feature sensitivity through exposure to formative stimuli has been recently modeled in a network of spiking neurons based on the thalamocortical architecture. The proposed network models the effect of lateral and recurrent connections between cortical layers, distance-dependent axonal transmission delays, and learning in the form of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP, which effects stimulus-driven changes in the pattern of network connectivity. In this paper we demonstrate how these principles can be efficiently implemented in neuromorphic hardware. In doing so we address two principle problems in the design of neuromorphic systems: real-time event-based asynchronous communication in multi-chip systems, and the realization in hybrid analog/digital VLSI technology of neural computational principles that we propose underlie plasticity in neural processing of dynamic stimuli. The result is a hardware neural network that learns in real-time and shows preferential responses, after exposure, to stimuli exhibiting particular spectrotemporal patterns. The availability of hardware on which the model can be implemented, makes this a significant step towards the development of adaptive, neurobiologically plausible, spike-based, artificial sensory systems.

  3. A Novel 9-Class Auditory ERP Paradigm Driving a Predictive Text Entry System

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes eHöhne; Martijn eSchreuder; Benjamin eBlankertz; Michael eTangermann

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event related potentials (ERPs) strive for offering communication pathways which are independent of muscle activity. While most visual ERP-based BCI paradigms require good control of the user's gaze direction, auditory BCI paradigms overcome this restriction. The present work proposes a novel approach using auditory evoked potentials for the example of a multiclass text spelling application. To control the ERP speller, BCI users focus their attention ...

  4. Using gene expression and systems biology to interrogate auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    López-Campos, Guillermo; Gilabert Juan, Javier; Sebastiá Ortega, Noelia; González Martínez, Rocío; Nácher Roselló, Juan Salvador; Sanjuán Arias, Julio; Moltó Ruiz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting around 1% of the opulation. This disease presents a complex aetiology that has not been completely unveiled yet. Auditory hallucinations are a very significant and disruptive symptom of schizophrenia affecting between 60% and 80% of schizophrenic patients. In this paper we have used a network-based transcriptomic analysis aiming to identify differences in gene expression between schizophrenic patients with and without auditory hallucinations...

  5. Biased relevance filtering in the auditory system: A test of confidence-weighted first-impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, D; Winkler, I; Damaso, K; Heathcote, A; Whitson, L; Provost, A; Todd, J

    2016-03-01

    Although first-impressions are known to impact decision-making and to have prolonged effects on reasoning, it is less well known that the same type of rapidly formed assumptions can explain biases in automatic relevance filtering outside of deliberate behavior. This paper features two studies in which participants have been asked to ignore sequences of sound while focusing attention on a silent movie. The sequences consisted of blocks, each with a high-probability repetition interrupted by rare acoustic deviations (i.e., a sound of different pitch or duration). The probabilities of the two different sounds alternated across the concatenated blocks within the sequence (i.e., short-to-long and long-to-short). The sound probabilities are rapidly and automatically learned for each block and a perceptual inference is formed predicting the most likely characteristics of the upcoming sound. Deviations elicit a prediction-error signal known as mismatch negativity (MMN). Computational models of MMN generally assume that its elicitation is governed by transition statistics that define what sound attributes are most likely to follow the current sound. MMN amplitude reflects prediction confidence, which is derived from the stability of the current transition statistics. However, our prior research showed that MMN amplitude is modulated by a strong first-impression bias that outweighs transition statistics. Here we test the hypothesis that this bias can be attributed to assumptions about predictable vs. unpredictable nature of each tone within the first encountered context, which is weighted by the stability of that context. The results of Study 1 show that this bias is initially prevented if there is no 1:1 mapping between sound attributes and probability, but it returns once the auditory system determines which properties provide the highest predictive value. The results of Study 2 show that confidence in the first-impression bias drops if assumptions about the temporal

  6. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  7. Keeping returns optimal: gain control exerted through sensitivity adjustments in the harbour porpoise auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Beedholm, Kristian; Wahlberg, Magnus; Højer-Kristensen, Jakob; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2012-06-01

    Animals that use echolocation (biosonar) listen to acoustic signals with a large range of intensities, because echo levels vary with the fourth power of the animal's distance to the target. In man-made sonar, engineers apply automatic gain control to stabilize the echo energy levels, thereby rendering them independent of distance to the target. Both toothed whales and bats vary the level of their echolocation clicks to compensate for the distance-related energy loss. By monitoring the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during a psychophysical task, we found that a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in addition to adjusting the sound level of the outgoing signals up to 5.4 dB, also reduces its ABR threshold by 6 dB when the target distance doubles. This self-induced threshold shift increases the dynamic range of the biosonar system and compensates for half of the variation of energy that is caused by changes in the distance to the target. In combination with an increased source level as a function of target range, this helps the porpoise to maintain a stable echo-evoked ABR amplitude irrespective of target range, and is therefore probably an important tool enabling porpoises to efficiently analyse and classify received echoes. PMID:22279169

  8. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  9. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  10. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  11. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  12. Dynamic range compression in the honey bee auditory system toward waggle dance sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Tsujiuchi

    auditory system.

  13. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL and complex velocity level (CVL, which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  14. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise.

  15. Psycho-physiological assessment of a prosthetic hand sensory feedback system based on an auditory display: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Jose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user’s mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting. Methods 10 male subjects (26+/-years old, participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF, Visual Feedback only control (VF, and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF. For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject’s EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA, and respiration rate were measured. Results The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback. Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality. Conclusions The performance

  16. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  17. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  18. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Alexandra; Johnson, Amy; Ellers, Olaf; Horch, Hadley W

    2013-01-01

    Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2) send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5). Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 h, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  19. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ePfister

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2 send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5. Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 hours, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14 and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  20. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Buchholz, Jörg; Wouters, Jan; Andrew J Oxenham

    2011-01-01

    Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were investigated using psychophysical methods. First, hearing loss was found to affect the perception of binaural pitch, a pitch sensation created by the binaural interaction of noise stimuli. Specifica...

  1. How can the auditory efferent system protect our ears from noise-induced hearing loss? Let us count the ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lynne; Miller, Judi A. Lapsley

    2015-12-01

    It is a cause for some debate as to how the auditory olivocochlear (OC) efferent system could protect hearing from noise trauma. In this review, we examined physiological research to find mechanisms that could effectively attenuate the response to sound. For each purported mechanism, we indicate which part of the OC-efferent system is responsible for the function and the site of action. These mechanisms include basilar-membrane phase shifts at high stimulus levels; changes in outer-hair-cell stiffness and phase lag associated with efferent slow effects; small decreases in endocochlear potentials causing small decreases in outer- and inner-hair-cell output; low-spontaneous-rate and medium-spontaneous-rate fibers showing OC-induced decrements at high levels; auditory-nerve initial-peak reduction; OC effect increasing over minutes; cholinergic activation of anti-apoptotic pathways; and anti-excitotoxicity. There are clearly multiple opportunities for the OC-efferent system to protect the inner ear from noise trauma. From further exploration into the mechanisms outlined here, as well as to-be-discovered mechanisms, we will gain a greater understanding of the protective nature of the OC-efferent system. These findings could aid our ability to design better predictive tests for people at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  3. Early host responses to avian influenza A virus are prolonged and enhanced at transcriptional level depending on maturation of the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemers, Sylvia S.; van Leenen, Dik; Koerkamp, Marian J. Groot; van Haarlem, Daphne; van de Haar, Peter; van Eden, Willem; Vervelde, Lonneke

    2010-01-01

    Newly hatched chickens are more susceptible to infectious diseases than older birds because of an immature immune system. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent host responses to avian influenza virus (AIV) inoculation are affected by age. Therefore, 1- and 4-week (wk) old birds were

  4. The stability of source localization in a whole-head magnetoencephalography system demonstrated by auditory evoked field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Lin; Yang, Hong-Chang; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Horng, Herng-Er; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kwon, Hyukchan

    2011-10-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which is a very sensitive magnetic sensor, has been widely used to detect the ultra-small magnetic signals in many different territories, especially in the biomagnetic measurement. In this study, a 128-channel SQUID first-order axial gradiometer system for whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements was setup to characterize the auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs). A 500 Hz monaural pure tone persisting 425 ms with the sound pressure level of 80 dB was randomly applied to the left ear of subject with the inter-stimulus interval of 1.5 ˜ 2.8 s to prevent fatigue of nerves. We demonstrated the characteristic waveforms of AEFs can be accurately recorded and analyzed. Using source localization processes, the origins of AEFs were successfully calculated to be at the auditory cortices which are brain areas known for responsive to sound stimulus. A phantom experiment also proved the good localization accuracy of the established MEG system and measurement procedures. The validated performance of the SQUID system suggests that this technique can also be employed in other brain research.

  5. Down-regulation of msrb3 and destruction of normal auditory system development through hair cell apoptosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaofang; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yingzhi; Wang, Huijun; Ma, Jing; Xia, Wenjun; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Nan; Sun, Shaoyang; Wang, Xu; Ma, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Hearing defects can significantly influence quality of life for those who experience them. At this time, 177 deafness genes have been cloned, including 134 non-syndromic hearing-loss genes. The methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (Ahmed et al., 2011) gene (also called DFNB74) is one such newly discovered hearing-loss gene. Within this gene c.265 T>G and c.55 T>C mutations are associated with autosomal recessive hearing loss. However, the biological role and mechanism underlying how it contributes to deafness is unclear. Thus, to better understand this mutation, we designed splicing morpholinos for the purpose of down-regulating msrb3 in zebrafish. Morphants exhibited small, tiny, fused, or misplaced otoliths and abnormal numbers of otoliths. Down-regulation of msrb3 also caused shorter, thinner, and more crowded cilia. Furthermore, L1-8 neuromasts were reduced and disordered in the lateral line system; hair cells in each neuromast underwent apoptosis. Co-injection with human MSRB3 mRNA partially rescued auditory system defects, but mutant MSRB3 mRNA could not. Thus, msrb3 is instrumental for auditory system development in zebrafish and MSRB3-related deafness may be caused by promotion of hair cell apoptosis.

  6. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  7. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  8. A software module for implementing auditory and visual feedback on a video-based eye tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanlall, Bharat; Gertner, Izidor; Geri, George A.; Arrington, Karl F.

    2016-05-01

    We describe here the design and implementation of a software module that provides both auditory and visual feedback of the eye position measured by a commercially available eye tracking system. The present audio-visual feedback module (AVFM) serves as an extension to the Arrington Research ViewPoint EyeTracker, but it can be easily modified for use with other similar systems. Two modes of audio feedback and one mode of visual feedback are provided in reference to a circular area-of-interest (AOI). Auditory feedback can be either a click tone emitted when the user's gaze point enters or leaves the AOI, or a sinusoidal waveform with frequency inversely proportional to the distance from the gaze point to the center of the AOI. Visual feedback is in the form of a small circular light patch that is presented whenever the gaze-point is within the AOI. The AVFM processes data that are sent to a dynamic-link library by the EyeTracker. The AVFM's multithreaded implementation also allows real-time data collection (1 kHz sampling rate) and graphics processing that allow display of the current/past gaze-points as well as the AOI. The feedback provided by the AVFM described here has applications in military target acquisition and personnel training, as well as in visual experimentation, clinical research, marketing research, and sports training.

  9. Modelling neuronal mechanisms of the processing of tones and phonemes in the higher auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Johan P

    2012-01-01

    S'ha investigat molt tant els mecanismes neuronals bàsics de l'audició com l'organització psicològica de la percepció de la parla. Tanmateix, en ambdós temes n'hi ha una relativa escassetat en quant a modelització. Aquí describim dos treballs de modelització. Un d'ells proposa un nou mecanisme de millora de selectivitat de freqüències que explica resultats de experiments neurofisiològics investigant manifestacions de forward masking y sobretot auditory streaming en l'esco...

  10. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Badcock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95 in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74. There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and their MMN ERP component.

  11. Auditory evoked potentials in young patients with Down syndrome. Event-related potentials (P3) and histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R; Hauser, E; Bernert, G; Marx, M; Freilinger, M; Lubec, G

    1997-06-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome exhibit various types of cognitive impairment. Besides abnormalities in a number of neurotransmitter systems (e.g. cholinergic), histaminergic deficits have recently been identified. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs), were recorded from 10 children (aged 11-20 years) with Down syndrome and from 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In Down subjects, BAEPs revealed shortened latencies for peaks III and V with shortened interpeak latencies I-III and I-V. ERPs showed a delay of components N1, P2, N2 and P3. In addition, subjects with Down syndrome failed to show P3 amplitude reduction during repeated stimulation. To evaluate the cognitive effects of histaminergic dysfunction, ERPs were recorded from 12 healthy adults (aged 20-28 years) before and after antihistaminergic intervention (pheniramine) compared to placebo. Whereas components N1, P2, N2 remained unchanged after H1-receptor antagonism, P3 latency increased and P3 amplitude showed no habituation in response to repeated stimulation. The results suggest that the characteristic neurofunctional abnormalities present in children with Down syndrome must be the consequence of a combination of structural and neurochemical aberrations. The second finding was that antihistaminergic treatment affects information processing tested by ERPs similar to that seen with anticholinergic treatment.

  12. Identifying the threshold of iron deficiency in the central nervous system of the rat by the auditory brainstem response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greminger, Allison R; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and severity of ABR latency defects. To generate various levels of ID, female Long-Evans rats were exposed to diets containing sufficient, borderline, or deficient iron (Fe) concentrations throughout gestation and offspring lifetime. We measured hematological indices of whole body iron stores in dams and offspring to assess the degree of ID. Progression of AN ID in the offspring was measured as ferritin protein levels at different times during postnatal development to complement ABR functional measurements. The severity of ABR deficits correlated with the level of Fe restriction in each diet. The sufficient Fe diet did not induce AN ID and consequently did not show an impaired ABR latency response. The borderline Fe diet, which depleted AN Fe stores but did not cause systemic anemia resulted in significantly increased ABR latency isolated to Peak I.The low Fe diet, which induced anemia and growth retardation, significantly increased ABR latencies of Peaks I to IV. Our findings indicate that changes in the ABR could be related to various degrees of ID experienced throughout development. PMID:25732706

  13. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Parbery-Clark

    Full Text Available Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30, we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65, potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory. Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.

  14. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  15. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  16. Temporal resolution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David A; Colbert, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Casper, Brandon M; Cook, Mandy L H; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B

    2005-10-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were measured in response to amplitude modulated tones. The AEP measurements showed weak responses to test stimuli from 4 kHz to 40 kHz. The manatee modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) is maximally sensitive to 150 and 600 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) rates. The 600 Hz AM rate is midway between the AM sensitivities of terrestrial mammals (chinchillas, gerbils, and humans) (80-150 Hz) and dolphins (1,000-1,200 Hz). Audiograms estimated from the input-output functions of the EPs greatly underestimate behavioral hearing thresholds measured in two other manatees. This underestimation is probably due to the electrodes being located several centimeters from the brain. PMID:16001184

  17. Diversity in Fish Auditory Systems: One of the Riddles of Sensory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich eLadich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An astonishing diversity of inner ears and accessory hearing structures (AHS that can enhance hearing has evolved in fishes. Inner ears mainly differ in the size of the otolith end organs, the shape and orientation of the sensory epithelia, and the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of sensory hair cells. Despite our profound morphological knowledge of inner ear variation, two main questions remain widely unanswered. (i What selective forces and/or constraints led to the evolution of this inner ear diversity? (ii How is the morphological variability linked to hearing abilities? Improved hearing is mainly based on the ability of many fish species to transmit oscillations of swim bladder walls or other gas-filled bladders to the inner ears. Swim bladders may be linked to the inner ears via a chain of ossicles (in otophysans, anterior extensions (e.g. some cichlids, squirrelfishes, or the gas bladders may touch the inner ears directly (labyrinth fishes. Studies on catfishes and cichlids demonstrate that larger swim bladders and more pronounced linkages to the inner ears positively affect both auditory sensitivities and the detectable frequency range, but lack of a connection does not exclude hearing enhancement. This diversity of auditory structures and hearing abilities is one of the main riddles in fish bioacoustics research. Hearing enhancement might have evolved to facilitate intraspecific acoustic communication. A comparison of sound-producing species, however, indicates that acoustic communication is widespread in taxa lacking AHS. Eco-acoustical constraints are a more likely explanation for the diversity in fish hearing sensitivities. Low ambient noise levels may have facilitated the evolution of AHS, enabling fish to detect low-level abiotic noise and sounds from con- and heterospecifics, including predators and prey. Aquatic habitats differ in ambient noise regimes, and preliminary data indicate that hearing sensitivities of fishes

  18. Ecological Classification of Avian Mating System%鸟类婚配制度的生态学分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪喜军; 郑光美; 张正旺

    2001-01-01

    Basing on the Emlen-Oring ecological classification of avian mating system and the recent results of avi-behavior ecology researches, we presented a complementary classification. Birds of cooperative monogamy must keep close cooperation to ensure breeding success. For critical monogamy birds, both males and females have the tendency of polygamy, but it is still necessary to foster offspring together by the ecology force. The male-female proportions of female-defense monogamy birds are large, and to ensure breeding success, one male defend one female not to be possessed by other males. Poly-territory polygyny male birds copulate with multiple female birds by occupying multiple territories. Three or more birds of social breeding system participate or partly participate breeding, and all the participants foster offspring together. Existing avian mating system can be classed into 5 main types: monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, rapid-multiple-clutch polygamy and social breeding system. Additional ecological types of avian mating system include cooperative monogamy, critical monogamy, female defense monogamy, poly-territory polygyny and social breeding system.%在Emlen和Oring鸟类婚配制度生态学分类系统[1]的基础上,根据近年来鸟类行为生态学研究的成果,对鸟类的婚配制度进行了补充分类,并强调了应以进化稳定策略的观念来认识鸟类的婚配制度。补充的鸟类婚配制度生态类型包括:合作型一雄一雌制(cooperative monogamy)、临界型一雄一雌制(critical monogamy)、保卫雌性型一雄一雌制(female defense monogamy)、多领域型一雄多雌制(poly-territory polygyny)和社群繁殖制。合作型一雄一雌制的鸟类雌雄个体必须通力合作才能保证繁殖的成功;临界型一雄一雌制鸟类雌雄个体都有多配倾向,但迫于生态压力必须共同抚育后代才能繁殖成功;保卫雌性型一雄一雌制的鸟类雄鸟通过保卫一

  19. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  20. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  2. Auditory Neuropathy - A Case of Auditory Neuropathy after Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Mazaher Yazdi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy is an hearing disorder in which peripheral hearing is normal, but the eighth nerve and brainstem are abnormal. By clinical definition, patient with this disorder have normal OAE, but exhibit an absent or severely abnormal ABR. Auditory neuropathy was first reported in the late 1970s as different methods could identify discrepancy between absent ABR and present hearing threshold. Speech understanding difficulties are worse than can be predicted from other tests of hearing function. Auditory neuropathy may also affect vestibular function. Case Report: This article presents electrophysiological and behavioral data from a case of auditory neuropathy in a child with normal hearing after bilirubinemia in a 5 years follow-up. Audiological findings demonstrate remarkable changes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Conclusion: auditory neuropathy may involve damage to the inner hair cells-specialized sensory cells in the inner ear that transmit information about sound through the nervous system to the brain. Other causes may include faulty connections between the inner hair cells and the nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain or damage to the nerve itself. People with auditory neuropathy have OAEs response but absent ABR and hearing loss threshold that can be permanent, get worse or get better.

  3. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  4. Tectothalamic inhibitory projection neurons in the avian torus semicircularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Atoji, Yasuro

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory feedforward projection is one of key features of the organization of the central auditory system. In mammals, the inferior colliculus (IC) is the origin of a substantial inhibitory feedforward projection as well as an excitatory projection to the auditory thalamus. This inhibitory feedforward projection is provided by large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic (LG) neurons, which are characterized by their receipt of dense excitatory axosomatic terminals positive for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2. In the avian torus semicircularis (TS), which is the homolog of the IC, neither the homology of cell types nor the presence of inhibitory feedforward inhibition have been established. In this study, we tested the presence of LG neurons in pigeon and chicken by neuroanatomical techniques. The TS contained two types of GABAergic neurons of different soma size. Of these, larger GABA + cells were encircled by dense VGLUT2 + axosomatic terminals. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that more than 30% of the perimeter of a large GABA+, but not small GABA + or GABA-, soma was covered by presumptive excitatory axosomatic terminals, suggesting that large GABA + cells are the sole recipient of dense excitatory axosomatic synapses. After injection of a retrograde tracer into the auditory thalamus, many retrogradely labeled neurons were found bilaterally in the TS, a few of which were GABA+. Almost all tectothalamic GABA + neurons had large somata, and received dense VGLUT2 + axosomatic terminals. These results clearly demonstrated the presence of LG neurons in birds. The similar morphology of LG neurons implies that the function of tectothalamic inhibition is similar among amniotes. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2604-2622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850847

  5. On the Physical Development and Plasticity of Auditory Neuro System%听觉体验的神经生理发展及可塑性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宇; 黄玲玲

    2011-01-01

    人脑的许多重要功能(如感知、学习、记忆、语言、意识、情绪、运动控制等)都与听觉体验紧密相关,人有高度进化的听觉体验系统,能够全方位帮助人们检测、快速地加工并体验有生物意义的声信号(语言),指导特殊的行为(如言语辨知和交流)。听觉体验的神经生理机制在听觉的可塑性中具有举足轻重的作用。%A number of important functions of hu man brain (such as perception, learning, memory, language, consciousness,emotion,motion control,etc.) are closely related with auditory perception. People have highly evolved auditory perception system, which is capable of all-round testing, rapid processing and perception to be biologically significant acoustic signals (language) and to guide specific behaviors (such as verbal identified knowledge and communication) . Auditory experience nervous system development is the important route and plays a significant role in rebuilding auditory experience.

  6. Investigation into the response of the auditory and acoustic communications systems in the Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of the St. Lawrence River Estuary to noise, using vocal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter Martin

    2003-06-01

    Noise pollution has only recently become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. These small gregarious Odontocetes make extensive use of sound for social communication and pod cohesion. The St. Lawrence River Estuary is habitat to a small, critically endangered population of about 700 Beluga whales who congregate in four different sites in its upper estuary. The population is believed to be threatened by the stress of high-intensity, low frequency noise. One way to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animal's auditory ability might be to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard Vocal Response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. In this research this population of Beluga Whales was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using Hidden Markhov "classified" vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard Vocal Response in the Beluga.

  7. Avian brood parasitism and ectoparasite richness-scale-dependent diversity interactions in a three-level host-parasite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Zoltán; Fuisz, Tibor I; Fehérvári, Péter; Reiczigel, Jenő; Rózsa, Lajos

    2013-04-01

    Brood parasitic birds, their foster species and their ectoparasites form a complex coevolving system composed of three hierarchical levels. However, effects of hosts' brood parasitic life-style on the evolution of their louse (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) lineages have never been tested. We present two phylogenetic analyses of ectoparasite richness of brood parasitic clades. Our hypothesis was that brood parasitic life-style affects louse richness negatively across all avian clades due to the lack of vertical transmission routes. Then, narrowing our scope to brood parasitic cuckoos, we explored macroevolutionary factors responsible for the variability of their louse richness. Our results show that taxonomic richness of lice is lower on brood parasitic clades than on their nonparasitic sister clades. However, we found a positive covariation between the richness of cuckoos' Ischnoceran lice and the number of their foster species, possibly due to the complex and dynamic subpopulation structure of cuckoo species that utilize several host species. We documented diversity interactions across a three-level host parasite system and we found evidence that brood parasitism has opposing effects on louse richness at two slightly differing macroevolutionary scales, namely the species richness and the genera richness. PMID:23550748

  8. Serotonin 2B receptor: upregulated with age and hearing loss in mouse auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Sherif F; D'Souza, Mary; Zettel, Martha L; Zhu, XiaoXia; Lynch-Erhardt, Martha; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Serotonin may modulate afferent fiber discharges in the cochlea, inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex. Specific functions of serotonin are exerted upon its interaction with specific receptors; one of those receptors is the serotonin 2B receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression of serotonin 2B receptors with age in cochlea and IC, and the possible correlation between gene expression and functional hearing measurements in CBA/CaJ mice. Immunohistochemical examinations of protein expression of IC in mice of different age groups were also performed. Gene expression results showed that serotonin 2B receptor gene was upregulated with age in both cochlea and IC. A significant correlation between gene expression and functional hearing results was established. Immunohistochemical protein expression studies of IC showed more serotonin 2B receptor cells in old mice relative to young adult mice, particularly in the external nucleus. We conclude that serotonin 2B receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss.

  9. Efficient inhibition of bursts by bursts in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, G; Pollack, G S

    2007-06-01

    In crickets, auditory information about ultrasound is carried bilaterally to the brain by the AN2 neurons. The ON1 neuron provides contralateral inhibitory input to AN2, thereby enhancing bilateral contrast between the left and right AN2s, an important cue for sound localization. We examine how the structures of the spike trains of these neurons affect this inhibitory interaction. As previously shown for AN2, ON1 responds to salient peaks in stimulus amplitude with bursts of spikes. Spike bursts, but not isolated spikes, reliably signal the occurrence of specific features of the stimulus. ON1 and AN2 burst at similar times relative to the amplitude envelope of the stimulus, and bursts are more tightly time-locked to stimulus feature than the isolated spikes. As a consequence, spikes that, in the absence of contralateral inhibition, would occur within AN2 bursts are more likely to be preceded by spikes in ON1 (mainly also in bursts) than are isolated AN2 spikes. This leads to a large decrease in the burst rate of the inhibited AN2. We conclude that the match in coding properties of ON1 and AN2 allows contralateral inhibition to be most efficient for those portions of the response that carry the behaviourally relevant information, i.e. for bursts.

  10. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  11. Expression of hemagglutinin protein from the avian influenza virus H5N1 in a baculovirus/insect cell system significantly enhanced by suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Lynn

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of a possible avian influenza pandemic necessitates the development of rapid diagnostic tests and the eventual production of a vaccine. Results For vaccine production, hemagglutinin (HA1 from avian influenza H5N1 was expressed from a recombinant baculovirus. Recombinant HA1 was expressed in monolayer or suspension culture insect cells by infection with the recombinant baculovirus. The yield of rHA1 from the suspension culture was 68 mg/l, compared to 6 mg/l from the monolayer culture. Immunization of guinea pigs with 50 μg of rHA1 yielded hemagglutinin inhibition and virus neutralization titers of 1:160 after two times vaccination with rHA1 protein. Conclusion Thus, the production of rHA1 using an insect suspension cell system provides a promising basis for economical production of a H5 antigen.

  12. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  13. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  14. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  15. Identifying the Threshold of Iron Deficiency in the Central Nervous System of the Rat by the Auditory Brainstem Response

    OpenAIRE

    Greminger, Allison R.; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and...

  16. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  17. The auditory organ: active amplifier and highly sensitive measuring system; Das Hoerorgan: Aktiver Schallverstaerker und hochempfindliches Messsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka-Luetzow, A. [Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Vergleichende Physiologie

    1997-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief review on topical issues of auditory physiology. Recent data on transduction mechanism and adaptation in hair cells as well as on the possible role of outer hair cells in amplifying basilar membrane motion are presented. Strategies of present physiological research in dealing with sensorineural deafness are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Neuere Erkenntnisse der Hoerphysiologie haben einige der Mechanismen aufgezeigt, welche fuer die hohe Empfindlichkeit, die gute Frequenzdiskrimination und das bei Lautstaerkenerhoehung nicht lineare Verhalten dieses Sinnessystems verantwortlich sein duerften. Demnach haben die 2 Typen akustischer Sinneszellen voellig unterschiedliche Funktionen. Nur ein Typ, die Inneren Haarzellen, duerften Sensoren im engeren Sinn sein, indem sie die wesentliche akustische Information an das Zentralnervensystem liefern. Der zweite Typ, die Aeusseren Haarzellen scheinen vornehmlich als Eingangsverstaerker zu fungieren. Sie setzen die bei Schalleinwirkung auf das Ohr an ihrer Membran auftretende Potentialaenderung in rasche Laengskontraktionen um. Damit verstaerken sie die durch die Schalleinwirkung ausgeloesten Basilarmembranschwingungen. Ausserdem duerften die von den Aeusseren Haarzellen aktiv erzeugten Schwingungen die Quelle der im aeusseren Gehoergang messbaren `otoakustischen Emissionen` sein. Die gegenstaendliche Uebersicht fasst den aktuellen Wissensstand ueber den Transduktionsmechanismus und die Elektromotilitaet der Haarzellen zusammen. Darueber hinaus wird die moegliche auditive Funktion von Haarzellen im Gleichgewichtssystem sowie Befunde aus der in den letzten Jahren entbrannten Diskussion um eine allfaellige Regeneration von Haarzellen aus dem vestibulocochleaeren System von adulten Saeugern diskutiert. Im Zusammenhang mit der Druckausbreitung im Innenohr werden einige morphologische Besonderheiten insbesonders der cochleaeren Fluessigkeitsraeume und ihrer Verbindungen sowie deren funktionelle

  18. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  19. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  20. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  1. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  2. The influence of aging on the number of neurons and levels of non-phosporylated neurofilament proteins in the central auditory system of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eBurianová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an unbiased stereological method was used to determine the number of all neurons in Nissl stained sections of the inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate body (MGB and auditory cortex (AC in rats (strains Long Evans and Fischer 344 and their changes with aging. In addition, using the optical fractionator and western blot technique, we also evaluated the number of SMI-32-immunoreactive(-ir neurons and levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins in the IC, MGB, AC, and visual cortex (VC of young and old rats of the two strains. The SMI-32 positive neuronal population comprises about 10% of all neurons in the rat IC, MGB and AC and represents a prevalent population of large neurons with highly myelinated and projecting processes. In both Long Evans and Fischer 344 rats, the total number of neurons in the IC was roughly similar to that in the AC. With aging, we found a rather mild and statistically non-significant decline in the total number of neurons in all three analyzed auditory regions in both rat strains. In contrast to this, the absolute number of SMI-32-ir neurons in both Long Evans and Fischer 344 rats significantly decreased with aging in all the examined structures. The western blot technique also revealed a significant age-related decline in the levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments in the auditory brain structures, 30-35%. Our results demonstrate that presbycusis in rats is not likely to be primarily associated with changes in the total number of neurons. On the other hand, the pronounced age-related decline in the number of neurons containing non-phosphorylated neurofilaments as well as their protein levels in the central auditory system may contribute to age-related deterioration of hearing function.

  3. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  4. Avian response to tidal freshwater habitat creation by controlled reduced tide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchard, Olivier; Jacobs, Sander; Ysebaert, Tom; Meire, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have caused extensive loss of estuarine wetlands, and the restoration of functional habitats remains a challenging task given several physical constraints in strongly embanked estuaries. In the Schelde estuary (Belgium), a new tidal marsh restoration technique, Controlled Reduced Tide system (CRT), is being implemented in the freshwater zone. A polder area of 8.2 ha was equipped with a CRT to test the system functionality. Among different ecological compartments that are studied for assessing the CRT restoration success, avifauna was monitored over three years. The tidal regime generated a habitat gradient typical of tidal freshwater wetlands along which the distributions of bird and ecological groups were studied. 103 bird species were recorded over the three years. In addition to many generalist bird species, several specialist species typical of the North Sea coast were present. Thirty-nine species of local and/or international conservation interest were encountered, emphasising the importance of this habitat for certain species. Species communities and ecological groups were strongly habitat specific and non-randomly organized across habitats. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted a rapid habitat colonization, and a subsequent stable habitat community structure across seasons in spite of strong seasonal species turnovers. Hence, these findings advocate CRT implementation as a means to effectively compensate for wetland habitat loss.

  5. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  6. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  7. Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyu; Klepp, Anne; Schnitzler, Alfons; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain. PMID:27324193

  8. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  9. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  10. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  11. The effect of Aquablend Avian probiotic ® including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium on systemic antibody response against Newcastle and Influenza disease vaccine in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production is very important because there are increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance. So, researchers have been directed to the research back to natural antimicrobial products. Some researchers stated that probiotics can stimulate the immune system and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a commercial probiotic mixture (Aquablend Avian® supplementation to the drinking water of broiler chickens on the immune response against Newcastle and influenza diseases vaccines. Materials and Methods In this study, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 60 for each group. Chickens in groups A and B received 300 mg of the probiotic in drinking water for first 3 days and first 7 days, respectively. Chickens in group C were kept as a control group and did not receive probiotic. All groups were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain intraocularly on 8th day, and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 subcutaneously at the back of the neck on 8th day. Two mL of blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 postimmunization. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and an antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Results The results of the present study showed that oral administration of the probiotic for 7 days significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine compared to the control group (0.75 - 1.6 log, based on log2, while the probiotic administration had no significant effect on antibody productions against avian influenza vaccine as compared to the control group. Conclusions Oral administration of Aquablend Avian® probiotic strains including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium

  12. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  13. Telefones celulares: influência nos sistemas auditivo e vestibular Mobile phones: influence on auditory and vestibular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2008-02-01

    review. METHODS: We reviewed papers on the influence of mobile phones on auditory and vestibular systems from Lilacs and Medline databases, published from 2000 to 2005, and also materials available in the Internet. RESULTS: Studies concerning mobile phone radiation and risk of developing an acoustic neuroma have controversial results. Some authors did not see evidences of a higher risk of tumor development in mobile phone users, while others report that usage of analog cellular phones for ten or more years increase the risk of developing the tumor. Acute exposure to mobile phone microwaves do not influence the cochlear outer hair cells function in vivo and in vitro, the cochlear nerve electrical properties nor the vestibular system physiology in humans. Analog hearing aids are more susceptible to the electromagnetic interference caused by digital mobile phones. CONCLUSION: there is no evidence of cochleo-vestibular lesion caused by cellular phones.

  14. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  15. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  16. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  17. Speech Perception Within an Auditory Cognitive Science Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of the acoustic speech signal pose many significant challenges for listeners. Although perceiving speech begins with auditory processing, investigation of speech perception has progressed mostly independently of study of the auditory system. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that cross-fertilization between the two areas of research can be productive. We briefly describe research bridging the study of general auditory processing and speech perception, show...

  18. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  19. Functional asymmetry and effective connectivity of the auditory system during speech perception is modulated by the place of articulation of the consonant- A 7T fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eSpecht

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate between stop-consonants, the auditory system has to detect subtle place of articulation (PoA and voice onset time (VOT differences between stop-consonants. How this differential processing is represented on the cortical level remains unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance (fMRI study takes advantage of the superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity of ultra high field 7T MRI. Subjects were attentively listening to consonant-vowel syllables with an alveolar or bilabial stop-consonant and either a short or long voice-onset time. The results showed an overall bilateral activation pattern in the posterior temporal lobe during the processing of the consonant-vowel syllables. This was however modulated strongest by place of articulation such that syllables with an alveolar stop-consonant showed stronger left lateralized activation. In addition, analysis of underlying functional and effective connectivity revealed an inhibitory effect of the left planum temporale onto the right auditory cortex during the processing of alveolar consonant-vowel syllables. Further, the connectivity result indicated also a directed information flow from the right to the left auditory cortex, and further to the left planum temporale for all syllables. These results indicate that auditory speech perception relies on an interplay between the left and right auditory cortex, with the left planum temporale as modulator. Furthermore, the degree of functional asymmetry is determined by the acoustic properties of the consonant-vowel syllables.

  20. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  1. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  2. Perceptual Wavelet packet transform based Wavelet Filter Banks Modeling of Human Auditory system for improving the intelligibility of voiced and unvoiced speech: A Case Study of a system development

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project is to discuss a versatile speech enhancement method based on the human auditory model. In this project a speech enhancement scheme is being described which meets the demand for quality noise reduction algorithms which are capable of operating at a very low signal to noise ratio. We will be discussing how proposed speech enhancement system is capable of reducing noise with little speech degradation in diverse noise environments. In this model to reduce the resi...

  3. Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason T.; Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The chicken auditory brainstem is a well-established model system that has been widely used to study the anatomy and physiology of auditory processing at discreet periods of development 1-4 as well as mechanisms for temporal coding in the central nervous system 5-7.

  4. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  5. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of variou...

  6. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  7. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  8. A quiet NICU for improved infants' health, development and well-being: a systems approach to reducing noise and auditory alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, A.; Van Stuijvenberg, M.; Van Goudoever, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a direct cause of health problems, long-lasting auditory problems and development problems. Preterm infants are, especially, at risk for auditory and neurocognitive development. Sound levels are very high at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and may contribute to the frequently observ

  9. A quiet NICU for improved infants’ health, development and well-being: a systems approach to reducing noise and auditory alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, A.; Van Stuijvenberg, M.; Van Goudoever, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a direct cause of health problems, long-lasting auditory problems and development problems. Preterm infants are, especially, at risk for auditory and neurocognitive development. Sound levels are very high at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and may contribute to the frequently observ

  10. Loudspeaker-based room auralization in auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    , and aided-impaired auditory system in realistic environments and (ii) a framework to evaluate the effect of different room modeling and auralisation methods on auditory perception. The applicability of such environment is demonstrated using different objective room acoustic measures. Different experimental...... results are presented, including measures of distance perception and the effect of early reflections on speech intelligibility....

  11. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  12. Medial Auditory Thalamus Is Necessary for Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning to Cochlear Nucleus Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning tasks commonly involve an auditory stimulus, which must be projected through the auditory system to the sites of memory induction for learning to occur. The cochlear nucleus (CN) projection to the pontine nuclei has been posited as the necessary auditory pathway for cerebellar learning, including eyeblink conditioning.…

  13. Effects of Patterned Sound Deprivation on Short- and Long-Term Plasticity in the Rat Thalamocortical Auditory System In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe N. Soutar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal sensory experience plays a significant role in the maturation and synaptic stabilization of sensory cortices, such as the primary auditory cortex (A1. Here, we examined the effects of patterned sound deprivation (by rearing in continuous white noise, WN during early postnatal life on short- and long-term plasticity of adult male rats using an in vivo preparation (urethane anesthesia. Relative to age-matched control animals reared under unaltered sound conditions, rats raised in WN (from postnatal day 5 to 50–60 showed greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP of field potentials in A1 induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN. In contrast, analyses of short-term plasticity using paired-pulse stimulation (interstimulus intervals of 25–1000 ms did not reveal any significant effects of WN rearing. However, LTP induction resulted in a significant enhancement of paired-pulse depression (PPD for both rearing conditions. We conclude that patterned sound deprivation during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of heightened, juvenile-like long-term plasticity (LTP into adulthood. Further, the enhanced PPD following LTP induction provides novel evidence that presynaptic mechanisms contribute to thalamocortical LTP in A1 under in vivo conditions.

  14. Prosthetic avian vocal organ controlled by a freely behaving bird based on a low dimensional model of the biomechanical periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Arneodo

    Full Text Available Because of the parallels found with human language production and acquisition, birdsong is an ideal animal model to study general mechanisms underlying complex, learned motor behavior. The rich and diverse vocalizations of songbirds emerge as a result of the interaction between a pattern generator in the brain and a highly nontrivial nonlinear periphery. Much of the complexity of this vocal behavior has been understood by studying the physics of the avian vocal organ, particularly the syrinx. A mathematical model describing the complex periphery as a nonlinear dynamical system leads to the conclusion that nontrivial behavior emerges even when the organ is commanded by simple motor instructions: smooth paths in a low dimensional parameter space. An analysis of the model provides insight into which parameters are responsible for generating a rich variety of diverse vocalizations, and what the physiological meaning of these parameters is. By recording the physiological motor instructions elicited by a spontaneously singing muted bird and computing the model on a Digital Signal Processor in real-time, we produce realistic synthetic vocalizations that replace the bird's own auditory feedback. In this way, we build a bio-prosthetic avian vocal organ driven by a freely behaving bird via its physiologically coded motor commands. Since it is based on a low-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model of the peripheral effector, the emulation of the motor behavior requires light computation, in such a way that our bio-prosthetic device can be implemented on a portable platform.

  15. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  16. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  17. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  18. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  19. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  20. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  1. A rapid form of activity-dependent recovery from short-term synaptic depression in the intensity pathway of the auditory brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Katrina M.; Horiuchi, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity acts as a time- and firing rate-dependent filter that mediates the transmission of information across synapses. In the avian auditory brainstem, specific forms of plasticity are expressed at different terminals of the same auditory nerve fibers and contribute to the divergence of acoustic timing and intensity information. To identify key differences in the plasticity properties, we made patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the cochlear nucleus responsible for ...

  2. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  3. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  4. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  5. Evaluation of the DTBird video-system at the Smoela wind-power plant. Detection capabilities for capturing near-turbine avian behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roel, May; Hamre, Oeyvind; Vang, Roald; Nygaard, Torgeir

    2012-07-01

    Collisions between birds and wind turbines can be a problem at wind-power plants both onshore and offshore, and the presence of endangered bird species or proximity to key functional bird areas can have major impact on the choice of site or location wind turbines. There is international consensus that one of the mail challenges in the development of measures to reduce bird collisions is the lack of good methods for assessment of the efficacy of inventions. In order to be better abe to assess the efficacy of mortality-reducing measures Statkraft wishes to find a system that can be operated under Norwegian conditions and that renders objective and quantitative information on collisions and near-flying birds. DTbird developed by Liquen Consultoria Ambiental S.L. is such a system, which is based on video-recording bird flights near turbines during the daylight period (light levels>200 lux). DTBird is a self-working system developed to detect flying birds and to take programmed actions (i.e. warming, dissuasion, collision registration, and turbine stop control) linked to real-time bird detection. This report evaluates how well the DTBird system is able to detect birds in the vicinity of a wind turbine, and assess to which extent it can be utilized to study near-turbine bird flight behaviour and possible deterrence. The evaluation was based on the video sequence recorded with the DTBird systems installed at turbine 21 and turbine 42 at the Smoela wind-power plant between March 2 2012 and September 30 2012, together with GPS telemetry data on white-tailed eagles and avian radar data. The average number of falsely triggered video sequences (false positive rate) was 1.2 per day, and during daytime the DTBird system recorded between 76% and 96% of all bird flights in the vicinity of the turbines. Visually estimated distances of recorded bird flights in the video sequences were in general assessed to be farther from the turbines com pared to the distance settings used within

  6. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function. PMID:23988583

  7. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function.

  8. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  9. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  10. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  11. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Codd, Jonathan R.; Phillip L. Manning; Mark A Norell; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in th...

  12. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Han, Shui'Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  13. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    Full Text Available Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  14. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  15. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  16. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate sour...

  17. Autosomal recessive hereditary auditory neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 顾瑞; 曹菊阳

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Three Chinese pedigrees with familial AN are presented herein to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in AN etiology. Methods: Probands of the above - mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with AN, were evaluated and followed up in the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, China PLA General Hospital. Their family members were studied and the pedigree diagrams were established. History of illness, physical examination,pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, ABRs and transient evoked and distortion- product otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and DPOAEs) were obtained from members of these families. DPOAE changes under the influence of contralateral sound stimuli were observed by presenting a set of continuous white noise to the non - recording ear to exam the function of auditory efferent system. Some subjects received vestibular caloric test, computed tomography (CT)scan of the temporal bone and electrocardiography (ECG) to exclude other possible neuropathy disorders. Results: In most affected subjects, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and ABRs. As expected in AN, these subjects exhibited near normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in TEOAE & DPOAE recordings. Pure- tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to severe in these patients. Autosomal recessive inheritance patterns were observed in the three families. In Pedigree Ⅰ and Ⅱ, two affected brothers were found respectively, while in pedigree Ⅲ, 2 sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without

  18. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  19. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  20. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  1. Perceptual Wavelet packet transform based Wavelet Filter Banks Modeling of Human Auditory system for improving the intelligibility of voiced and unvoiced speech: A Case Study of a system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to discuss a versatile speech enhancement method based on the human auditory model. In this project a speech enhancement scheme is being described which meets the demand for quality noise reduction algorithms which are capable of operating at a very low signal to noise ratio. We will be discussing how proposed speech enhancement system is capable of reducing noise with little speech degradation in diverse noise environments. In this model to reduce the residual noise and improve the intelligibility of speech a psychoacoustic model is incorporated into the generalized perceptual wavelet denoising method to reduce the residual noise. This is a generalized time frequency subtraction algorithm which advantageously exploits the wavelet multirate signal representation to preserve the critical transient information. Simultaneous masking and temporal masking of the human auditory system are modeled by the perceptual wavelet packet transform via the frequency and temporal localization of speech components. To calculate the bark spreading energy and temporal spreading energy the wavelet coefficients are used from which a time frequency masking threshold is deduced to adaptively adjust the subtraction parameters of the discussed method. To increase the intelligibility of speech an unvoiced speech enhancement algorithm also integrated into the system.

  2. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  3. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based training can improve these biological signals. These findings of biological plasticity, in a variety of subject populations, relate to attention and auditory memory, and represent an integrated auditory system influenced by both sensation and cognition. Learning outcomes The reader will (1) understand that the auditory system is malleable to experience and training, (2) learn the ingredients necessary for auditory learning to successfully be applied to communication, (3) learn that the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) is a window into the integrated auditory system, and (4) see examples of how cABR can be used to track the outcome of experience and training. PMID:22789822

  4. Prevalence of avian influenza and host ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Møller, Anders Pape

    2007-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are common reservoirs of the low pathogenic subtypes of avian influenza (LPAI), which are easily transmitted to poultry and become highly pathogenic. As the risk of virus transmission depends on the prevalence of LPAI in host-reservoir systems, there is an urgent need for understanding how host ecology, life history and behaviour can affect virus prevalence in the wild. To test for the most important ecological correlates of LPAI virus prevalence at the interspecific ...

  5. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly...... presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept...

  6. Sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to visual and auditory affect across social and non-social domains in Williams syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.

  7. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raja Kumar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  8. Music and the auditory brain: where is the connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel eNelken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing by the auditory system is understood in unprecedented details, even compared with sensory coding in the visual system. Nevertheless, we don't understand yet the way in which some of the simplest perceptual properties of sounds are coded in neuronal activity. This poses serious difficulties for linking neuronal responses in the auditory system and music processing, since music operates on abstract representations of sounds. Paradoxically, although perceptual representations of sounds most probably occur high in auditory system or even beyond it, neuronal responses are strongly affected by the temporal organization of sound streams even in subcortical stations. Thus, to the extent that music is organized sound, it is the organization, rather than the sound, which is represented first in the auditory brain.

  9. Systemic Virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic and high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Burt, D.W.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Broks, V.C.M.; Zoelen, van D.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP) and high pathogenic ( HP), based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host r

  10. Electrochemical label-free and reagentless genosensor based on an ion barrier switch-off system for DNA sequence-specific detection of the avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzątkowska, Katarzyna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Dehaen, Wim; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    This paper concerns the development of genosensors based on redox-active monolayers incorporating (dipyrromethene)2Cu(II) and (dipyrromethene)2Co(II) complexes formed step by step on a gold electrode surface. They were applied for electrochemical determination of oligonucleotide sequences related to avian influenza virus (AIV) type H5N1. A 20-mer probe (NH2-NC3) was covalently attached to the gold electrode surface via a reaction performed in the presence of ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide / N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) between the amine group present in the probe and carboxylic groups present on the surface of the redox-active layer. Each modification step has been controlled with Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry. The genosensor incorporating the (dipyrromethene)2Cu(II) complex was able to detect a fully complementary single-stranded DNA target with a detection limit of 1.39 pM. A linear dynamic range was observed from 1 to 10 pM. This genosensor displays good discrimination between three single-stranded DNA targets studied: fully complementary, partially complementary (with only six complementary bases), and totally noncomplementary to the probe. When the (dipyrromethene)2Co(II) complex was applied, a detection limit of 1.28 pM for the fully complementary target was obtained. However, this genosensor was not able to discriminate partially complementary and totally noncomplementary oligonucleotide sequences to the probe. Electrochemical measurements, using both types of genosensors in the presence of different supporting electrolytes, were performed in order to elaborate a new mechanism of analytical signal generation based on an ion barrier "switch-off" system. PMID:26359972

  11. Systemic virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic or high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Post Jacob

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP and high pathogenic (HP, based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host responses. Methods To study differences in disease development between HPAIV and LPAIV, we examined the first appearance and eventual load of viral RNA in multiple organs as well as host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with two closely related H7N1 HPAIV or LPAIV strains. Results Both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV spread systemically in chickens after a combined intranasal/intratracheal inoculation. In brain, large differences in viral RNA load and host gene expression were found between H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Chicken embryo brain cell culture studies revealed that both HPAIV and LPAIV could infect cultivated embryonic brain cells, but in accordance with the absence of the necessary proteases, replication of LPAIV was limited. Furthermore, TUNEL assay indicated apoptosis in brain of HPAIV infected chickens only. In intestine, where endoproteases that cleave HA of LPAIV are available, we found minimal differences in the amount of viral RNA and a large overlap in the transcriptional responses between HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Interestingly, brain and ileum differed clearly in the cellular pathways that were regulated upon an AI infection. Conclusions Although both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV RNA was detected in a broad range of tissues beyond the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, our observations indicate that differences in pathogenicity and mortality between HPAIV and LPAIV could originate from differences in virus replication and the resulting host responses in vital organs like the brain.

  12. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2002-08-22

    Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

  13. Differential patterns of histone methylase EHMT2 and its catalyzed histone modifications H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 during maturation of central auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Lena; Runge, Karen; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Histone methylation is an important epigenetic mark leading to changes in DNA accessibility and transcription. Here, we investigate immunoreactivity against the euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT2 and its catalyzed mono- and dimethylation marks at histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) during postnatal differentiation of the mouse central auditory system. In the brainstem, expression of EHMT2 was high in the first postnatal week and down-regulated thereafter. In contrast, immunoreactivity in the auditory cortex (AC) remained high during the first year of life. This difference might be related to distinct demands for adult plasticity. Analyses of two deaf mouse models, namely Cldn14 (-/-) and Cacna1d (-/-), demonstrated that sound-driven or spontaneous activity had no influence on EHMT2 immunoreactivity. The methylation marks H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 were high throughout the auditory system up to 1 year. Young auditory neurons showed immunoreactivity against both methylations at similar intensities, whereas many mature neurons showed stronger labeling for either H3K9me1 or H3K9me2. These differences were only poorly correlated with cell types. To identify methyltransferases contributing to the persistent H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 marks in the adult brainstem, EHMT1 and the retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein RIZ1 were analyzed. Both were down-regulated during brainstem development, similar to EHMT2. Contrary to EHMT2, EHMT1 was also down-regulated in adult cortical areas. Together, our data reveal a marked difference in EHMT2 levels between mature brainstem and cortical areas and a decoupling between EHMT2 abundance and histone 3 lysine 9 methylations during brainstem differentiation. Furthermore, EHMT1 and EHMT2 are differentially expressed in cortical areas. PMID:27083448

  14. Toward a neurobiology of auditory object perception: What can we learn from the songbird forebrain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai LU, David S. VICARIO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the acoustic world, no sounds occur entirely in isolation; they always reach the ears in combination with other sounds. How any given sound is discriminated and perceived as an independent auditory object is a challenging question in neuroscience. Although our knowledge of neural processing in the auditory pathway has expanded over the years, no good theory exists to explain how perception of auditory objects is achieved. A growing body of evidence suggests that the selectivity of neurons in the auditory forebrain is under dynamic modulation, and this plasticity may contribute to auditory object perception. We propose that stimulus-specific adaptation in the auditory forebrain of the songbird (and perhaps in other systems may play an important role in modulating sensitivity in a way that aids discrimination, and thus can potentially contribute to auditory object perception [Current Zoology 57 (6: 671–683, 2011].

  15. Toward a neurobiology of auditory object perception: What can we learn from the songbird forebrain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai LU; David S. VICARIO

    2011-01-01

    In the acoustic world,no sounds occur entirely in isolation; they always reach the ears in combination with other sounds.How any given sound is discriminated and perceived as an independent auditory object is a challenging question in neuroscience.Although our knowledge of neural processing in the auditory pathway has expanded over the years,no good theory exists to explain how perception of auditory objects is achieved.A growing body of evidence suggests that the selectivity of neurons in the auditory forebrain is under dynamic modulation,and this plasticity may contribute to auditory object perception.We propose that stimulus-specific adaptation in the auditory forebrain of the songbird (and perhaps in other systems) may play an important role in modulating sensitivity in a way that aids discrimination,and thus can potentially contribute to auditory object perception [Current Zoology 57 (6):671-683,2011].

  16. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  17. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-03-12

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  18. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  19. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  20. Formation of associations in auditory cortex by slow changes of tonic firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We review event-related slow firing changes in the auditory cortex and related brain structures. Two types of changes can be distinguished, namely increases and decreases of firing, lasting in the order of seconds. Triggering events can be auditory stimuli, reinforcers, and behavioral responses. Slow firing changes terminate with reinforcers and possibly with auditory stimuli and behavioral responses. A necessary condition for the emergence of slow firing changes seems to be that subjects have learnt that consecutive sensory or behavioral events are contingent on reinforcement. They disappear when the contingencies are no longer present. Slow firing changes in auditory cortex bear similarities with slow changes of neuronal activity that have been observed in subcortical parts of the auditory system and in other non-sensory brain structures. We propose that slow firing changes in auditory cortex provide a neuronal mechanism for anticipating, memorizing, and associating events that are related to hearing and of behavioral relevance. This may complement the representation of the timing and types of auditory and auditory-related events which may be provided by phasic responses in auditory cortex. The presence of slow firing changes indicates that many more auditory-related aspects of a behavioral procedure are reflected in the neuronal activity of auditory cortex than previously assumed. PMID:20488230

  1. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  2. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  3. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  4. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  5. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  6. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  7. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  8. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  9. Auditory-model-based Feature Extraction Method for Mechanical Faults Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yungong; ZHANG Jinping; DAI Li; ZHANG Zhanyi; LIU Jie

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the human auditory system possesses remarkable capabilities to analyze and identify signals. Therefore, it would be significant to build an auditory model based on the mechanism of human auditory systems, which may improve the effects of mechanical signal analysis and enrich the methods of mechanical faults features extraction. However the existing methods are all based on explicit senses of mathematics or physics, and have some shortages on distinguishing different faults, stability, and suppressing the disturbance noise, etc. For the purpose of improving the performances of the work of feature extraction, an auditory model, early auditory(EA) model, is introduced for the first time. This auditory model transforms time domain signal into auditory spectrum via bandpass filtering, nonlinear compressing, and lateral inhibiting by simulating the principle of the human auditory system. The EA model is developed with the Gammatone filterbank as the basilar membrane. According to the characteristics of vibration signals, a method is proposed for determining the parameter of inner hair cells model of EA model. The performance of EA model is evaluated through experiments on four rotor faults, including misalignment, rotor-to-stator rubbing, oil film whirl, and pedestal looseness. The results show that the auditory spectrum, output of EA model, can effectively distinguish different faults with satisfactory stability and has the ability to suppress the disturbance noise. Then, it is feasible to apply auditory model, as a new method, to the feature extraction for mechanical faults diagnosis with effect.

  10. A baculovirus dual expression system-based vaccine confers complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 avian influenza virus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype have become highly prevalent in avian species. Although these viruses generally cause only mild to moderate disease, they can infect a wide variety of species, including chickens, quail, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasant, partridge, and pigeon, even transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. Results The results showed that stronger immune responses were induced in a mouse model immunized with BV-Dual-HA than in those vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the same antigen. Moreover, complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 virus was observed in mice. Conclusion BV-Dual-HA could be utilized as a vaccine candidate against H9N2 virus infection.

  11. Auditory excitation patterns : the significance of the pulsation threshold method for the measurement of auditory nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verschuure (Hans)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractThe auditory system is the toto[ of organs that translates an acoustical signal into the perception of a sound. An acoustic signal is a vibration. It is decribed by physical parameters. The perception of sound is the awareness of a signal being present and the attribution of certain qual

  12. Age-related decline in Kv3.1b expression in the mouse auditory brainstem correlates with functional deficits in the medial olivocochlear efferent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Martha L; Zhu, Xiaoxia; O'Neill, William E; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-06-01

    Kv3.1b channel protein is widely distributed in the mammalian auditory brainstem, but studies have focused mainly on regions critical for temporal processing, including the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Because temporal processing declines with age, this study was undertaken to determine if the expression of Kv3.1b likewise declines, and if changes are specific to these nuclei. Immunocytochemistry using an anti-Kv3.1b antibody was performed, and the relative optical density of cells and neuropil was determined from CBA/CaJ mice of four age groups. Declines in expression in AVCN, MNTB, and lateral superior olive (35, 26, and 23%) were found, but changes were limited to neuropil. Interestingly, cellular optical density declines were found in superior paraolivary nucleus, ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, and lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (24, 29, and 26%), which comprise the medial olivocochlear (MOC) feedback system. All declines occurred by middle age (15 months old). No age-related changes were found in the remaining regions of cochlear nucleus or in the inferior colliculus. Contralateral suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emission amplitudes of age-matched littermates also declined by middle age, suggesting a correlation between Kv3.1 expression and MOC function. In search of more direct evidence for such a correlation, Kv3.1b knockout mice were examined. Knockouts show poor MOC function as compared to +/+ and +/- genotypes. Thus, Kv3.1b expression declines in MOC neurons by middle age, and these changes appear to correlate with functional declines in efferent activity in both middle-aged CBA mice and Kv3.1b knockout mice.

  13. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  14. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  15. Prospects for Replacement of Auditory Neurons by Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regene...

  16. Auditory efferent feedback system deficits precede age-related hearing loss: contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Kim, Sunghee; Jacobson, Michael; Romney, Joshua; Waterman, Marjorie S; Tuttle, David; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-08-10

    The C57BL/6J mouse has been a useful model of presbycusis, as it displays an accelerated age-related peripheral hearing loss. The medial olivocochlear efferent feedback (MOC) system plays a role in suppressing cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) responses, particularly for background noise. Neurons of the MOC system are located in the superior olivary complex, particularly in the dorsomedial periolivary nucleus (DMPO) and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB). We previously discovered that the function of the MOC system declines with age prior to OHC degeneration, as measured by contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in humans and CBA mice. The present study aimed to determine the time course of age changes in MOC function in C57s. DPOAE amplitudes and CS of DPOAEs were collected for C57s from 6 to 40 weeks of age. MOC responses were observed at 6 weeks but were gone at middle (15-30 kHz) and high (30-45 kHz) frequencies by 8 weeks. Quantitative stereological analyses of Nissl sections revealed smaller neurons in the DMPO and VNTB of young adult C57s compared with CBAs. These findings suggest that reduced neuron size may underlie part of the noteworthy rapid decline of the C57 efferent system. In conclusion, the C57 mouse has MOC function at 6 weeks, but it declines quickly, preceding the progression of peripheral age-related sensitivity deficits and hearing loss in this mouse strain.

  17. Testing an auditory illusion in frogs: Perceptual restoration or sensory bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Seeba, Folkert; Schwartz, Joshua J.; Bee, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The human auditory system perceptually restores short deleted segments of speech and other sounds (e.g. tones) when the resulting silent gaps are filled by a potential masking noise. When this phenomenon, known as ‘auditory induction’, occurs, listeners experience the illusion of hearing an ongoing sound continuing through the interrupting noise even though the perceived sound is not physically present. Such illusions suggest that a key function of the auditory system is to allow listeners to...

  18. Effects of Hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of Neonates Treated with Phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Negin; Bagheri, Fereshte; Ramezani Farkhani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common pathologies in neonates is hyperbilirubinemia, which is a good marker for damage to the central nervous system. The sensitivity of the auditory system to bilirubin has been previously documented, with much discrepancy in its effects on Auditory Brainstem Response results. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of neonates treated with phototherapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-two t...

  19. Auditory training during development mitigates a hearing loss-induced perceptual deficit.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Sarro; Dan Sanes

    2014-01-01

    Sensory experience during early development can shape the central nervous system and this is thought to influence adult perceptual skills. In the auditory system, early induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) leads to deficits in central auditory coding properties in adult animals, and this is accompanied by diminished perceptual thresholds. In contrast, a brief regimen of auditory training during development can enhance the perceptual skills of animals when tested in adulthood. Here, we a...

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Berns, Gregory S.; Cook, Peter F.; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L.; Marino, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this...

  1. Prospects for replacement of auditory neurons by stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S B

    2013-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. PMID:23370457

  2. Retinoic Acid Stimulates Regeneration of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Malgrange, Brigitte; Staecker, Hinrich; Moonen, Gustave; van de Water, Thomas R.

    1993-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the loss of auditory hair cells is thought to be irreversible in mammals. This study provides evidence that retinoic acid can stimulate the regeneration in vitro of mammalian auditory hair cells in ototoxic-poisoned organ of Corti explants in the rat. In contrast, treatment with retinoic acid does not stimulate the formation of extra hair cells in control cultures of Corti's organ. Retinoic acid-stimulated hair cell regeneration can be blocked by cytosine arabinoside, which suggests that a period of mitosis is required for the regeneration of auditory hair cells in this system. These results provide hope for a recovery of hearing function in mammals after auditory hair cell damage.

  3. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  4. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  5. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  6. 'O sibling, where art thou?'--a review of avian sibling recognition with respect to the mammalian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Waas, Joseph R

    2004-02-01

    Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where 'mixing potential' of dependent young is high; research on a wider range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through 'direct familiarisation' (commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for 'indirect familiarisation' (commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic. PMID:15005175

  7. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  8. Modified areal cartography in auditory cortex following early- and late-onset deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen; Chabot, Nicole; Kok, Melanie A; Lomber, Stephen G

    2014-07-01

    Cross-modal plasticity following peripheral sensory loss enables deprived cortex to provide enhanced abilities in remaining sensory systems. These functional adaptations have been demonstrated in cat auditory cortex following early-onset deafness in electrophysiological and psychophysical studies. However, little information is available concerning any accompanying structural compensations. To examine the influence of sound experience on areal cartography, auditory cytoarchitecture was examined in hearing cats, early-deaf cats, and cats with late-onset deafness. Cats were deafened shortly after hearing onset or in adulthood. Cerebral cytoarchitecture was revealed immunohistochemically using SMI-32, a monoclonal antibody used to distinguish auditory areas in many species. Auditory areas were delineated in coronal sections and their volumes measured. Staining profiles observed in hearing cats were conserved in early- and late-deaf cats. In all deaf cats, dorsal auditory areas were the most mutable. Early-deaf cats showed further modifications, with significant expansions in second auditory cortex and ventral auditory field. Borders between dorsal auditory areas and adjacent visual and somatosensory areas were shifted ventrally, suggesting expanded visual and somatosensory cortical representation. Overall, this study shows the influence of acoustic experience in cortical development, and suggests that the age of auditory deprivation may significantly affect auditory areal cartography.

  9. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  10. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  11. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  12. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  14. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  15. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  16. An overview on avian influenza

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    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  17. Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, NS; Willmore, BDB; Schnupp, JWH; King, AJ; Schoppe, O

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently- heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet, current standard models of the response properties of auditory neurons do not incorporate such adaptation. Here, we present a model of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the I...

  18. The efficacy of the Berard Auditory Integration Training method for learners with attention difficulties / Hannelie Kemp

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Johanna Jacoba

    2010-01-01

    Research on the Berard Auditory Integration Training method has shown improvement in the regulation of attention, activity and impulsivity of children whose auditory system have been re-trained. Anecdotal reports have found improvements in sleeping patterns, balance, allergies, eyesight, eating patterns, depression and other seemingly unrelated physiological states. During the Auditory Integration Training (AIT) procedure dynamic music, with a wide range of frequencies, is processed through a...

  19. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  20. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation.

  1. An Overview of the Studies on Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation of Auditory System%听觉系统的复合电声刺激研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关添; 朱子俨; 叶大田

    2009-01-01

    探讨了复合电声刺激技术,也称为保护残余听力的电子耳蜗植入术.该技术将声音信号划分为低频和高频两部分,分别采用助听器的放大技术和电子耳蜗语音信号处理技术同时传递给患者,由患者大脑皮层综合两种信息得出最终的声音感知.该技术既可以很好地保留患者的低频残余听力,又可以结合电子耳蜗提供的高频信息提高言语识别能力,取得更理想的听力恢复效果.应用该技术必将扩大电子耳蜗的适应人群,使更多适合电子耳蜗植入的中重度聋患者更好地恢复听觉.%This paper discusses the technology of combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) of the auditory system,which is a new therapy for the patients suffering from severe to profound high-and mid-frequency hearing loss but still having their low-frequency hearing. EAS uses hearing aid and cochlear implant technology together in the same ear. The hearing aid acoustically amplifies at low-frequencies,while the cochlear implant electrically stimulates at mid-and high-frequencies. The inner ear processes acoustic and electric stimuli simultaneously. This technique can provide substantial benefit in speech understanding for individuals with severe high-frequency hearing loss and can maintain their residual lower-frequency acoustic hearing. The study of EAS would significantly enhance the conventional cochlear implant therapy and benefit the patients afflicted with severe to profound hearing loss.

  2. Left hemispheric dominance during auditory processing in a noisy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the present study, we investigated neural interactions elicited by masker and amplitude-modulated test stimulus in primary and non-primary human auditory cortex during ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral masking by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results We observed significant decrements of auditory evoked responses and a significant inter-hemispheric difference for the N1m response during both ipsi- and contra-lateral masking. Conclusion The decrements of auditory evoked neural activities during simultaneous masking can be explained by neural interactions evoked by masker and test stimulus in peripheral and central auditory systems. The inter-hemispheric differences of N1m decrements during ipsi- and contra-lateral masking reflect a basic hemispheric specialization contributing to the processing of complex auditory stimuli such as speech signals in noisy environments.

  3. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  4. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  5. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected.

  6. A hardware model of the auditory periphery to transduce acoustic signals into neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTateno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of cochlear implants, we have integrated a microdevice into a model of the auditory periphery with the goal of creating a microprocessor. We constructed an artificial peripheral auditory system using a hybrid model in which polyvinylidene difluoride was used as a piezoelectric sensor to convert mechanical stimuli into electric signals. To produce frequency selectivity, the slit on a stainless steel base plate was designed such that the local resonance frequency of the membrane over the slit reflected the transfer function. In the acoustic sensor, electric signals were generated based on the piezoelectric effect from local stress in the membrane. The electrodes on the resonating plate produced relatively large electric output signals. The signals were fed into a computer model that mimicked some functions of inner hair cells, inner hair cell–auditory nerve synapses, and auditory nerve fibers. In general, the responses of the model to pure-tone burst and complex stimuli accurately represented the discharge rates of high-spontaneous-rate auditory nerve fibers across a range of frequencies greater than 1 kHz and middle to high sound pressure levels. Thus, the model provides a tool to understand information processing in the peripheral auditory system and a basic design for connecting artificial acoustic sensors to the peripheral auditory nervous system. Finally, we discuss the need for stimulus control with an appropriate model of the auditory periphery based on auditory brainstem responses that were electrically evoked by different temporal pulse patterns with the same pulse number.

  7. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  8. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  9. Developmental Profile of Ion Channel Specializations in the Avian Nucleus Magnocellularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eHong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV and sodium (NaV ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM. We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21 generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19 contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.

  10. Subcortical neural coding mechanisms for auditory temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, R D

    2001-08-01

    Biologically relevant sounds such as speech, animal vocalizations and music have distinguishing temporal features that are utilized for effective auditory perception. Common temporal features include sound envelope fluctuations, often modeled in the laboratory by amplitude modulation (AM), and starts and stops in ongoing sounds, which are frequently approximated by hearing researchers as gaps between two sounds or are investigated in forward masking experiments. The auditory system has evolved many neural processing mechanisms for encoding important temporal features of sound. Due to rapid progress made in the field of auditory neuroscience in the past three decades, it is not possible to review all progress in this field in a single article. The goal of the present report is to focus on single-unit mechanisms in the mammalian brainstem auditory system for encoding AM and gaps as illustrative examples of how the system encodes key temporal features of sound. This report, following a systems analysis approach, starts with findings in the auditory nerve and proceeds centrally through the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex and inferior colliculus. Some general principles can be seen when reviewing this entire field. For example, as one ascends the central auditory system, a neural encoding shift occurs. An emphasis on synchronous responses for temporal coding exists in the auditory periphery, and more reliance on rate coding occurs as one moves centrally. In addition, for AM, modulation transfer functions become more bandpass as the sound level of the signal is raised, but become more lowpass in shape as background noise is added. In many cases, AM coding can actually increase in the presence of background noise. For gap processing or forward masking, coding for gaps changes from a decrease in spike firing rate for neurons of the peripheral auditory system that have sustained response patterns, to an increase in firing rate for more central neurons with

  11. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  12. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  13. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  14. Enhanced representation of spectral contrasts in the primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eCatz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of early auditory processing may be to extract some elementary features from an acoustic mixture in order to organize the auditory scene. To accomplish this task, the central auditory system may rely on the fact that sensory objects are often composed of spectral edges, i.e. regions where the stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency. The processing of acoustic stimuli may benefit from a mechanism enhancing the internal representation of spectral edges. While the visual system is thought to rely heavily on this mechanism (enhancing spatial edges, it is still unclear whether a related process plays a significant role in audition. We investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges, using acoustic stimuli composed of multi-tone pips whose time-averaged spectral envelope contained suppressed or enhanced regions. Importantly, the stimuli were designed such that neural responses properties could be assessed as a function of stimulus frequency during stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that the representation of acoustic spectral edges is enhanced in the auditory cortex, and that this enhancement is sensitive to the characteristics of the spectral contrast profile, such as depth, sharpness and width. Spectral edges are maximally enhanced for sharp contrast and large depth. Cortical activity was also suppressed at frequencies within the suppressed region. To note, the suppression of firing was larger at frequencies nearby the lower edge of the suppressed region than at the upper edge. Overall, the present study gives critical insights into the processing of spectral contrasts in the auditory system.

  15. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  16. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  17. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  18. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  19. Adaptation of Specialized Auditory System to Echolocation in CF-FM Bat%恒频-调频蝙蝠特化的听觉系统对回声定位的适应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娜; 付子英; 陈其才

    2014-01-01

    在漫长的生物演化过程中,蝙蝠演化出了能飞行和高度适应生存环境的生物声纳系统和行为.蝙蝠属于哺乳动物纲的翼手目(Chiroptera),是唯一能真正飞行的哺乳动物,其种类超过1000种,位列哺乳类动物的第二大目.根据其体型大小和形态特征将其分成大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera)和小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera).对蝙蝠的研究具有重要的科学意义和实际应用价值,如在听感觉方面与人类共享听觉的某些基本原理,研究结果有助于认识人类听觉.它们发出的回声定位信号规整,便于模拟后用于研究听觉系统对声信号加工的机制,尤其是在听中枢对复杂声信号处理方面,认识其细胞和分子机制才刚开始,它们是极好的模型动物.另外,在仿生学方面也具有极其重要的价值,回声定位蝙蝠的生物声纳系统具有极高的时间和空间分辨率,是极具诱惑力的研究课题.有关恒频-调频蝙蝠听觉结构和功能的研究,已有相当的时日,获得了不少新的认识,窥探到敏锐的听觉与回声定位行为之间的某些适应性的机制,本文对这方面的研究进展做了简要介绍和评述.%The evolution makes bats have abilities of flying,echolocating and highly adaptating to living surroundings.Bats,as the only true flying mammals,belong to the Chiroptera,ranking the second order of the mammals with more than 1000 species.They are classified into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera according to their size and morphological characteristics of the body.Because bats share some basic principles with human in auditory perception,the researches of bats can provide helpful information to understand the hearing of human.The echolocation signals emitted by bats are regular and can be easily imitated to study the mechanism of the signal processing in the central auditory system,especially in the processing of complex acoustic signals,bats is an excellent model animal

  20. Increased whole-body auditory startle reflex and autonomic reactivity in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van der Meer, Johan N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Boer, Frits

    2009-01-01

    Background: Young patients with anxiety disorders are thought to have a hypersensitive fear system, including alterations of the early sensorimotor processing of threatening information. However, there is equivocal support in auditory blink response studies for an enlarged auditory startle reflex (A

  1. Auditory processing in the brainstem and audiovisual integration in humans studied with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabu, Lavinia Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful technique because of the high spatial resolution and the noninvasiveness. The applications of the fMRI to the auditory pathway remain a challenge due to the intense acoustic scanner noise of approximately 110 dB SPL. The auditory system cons

  2. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  3. The role of auditory feedback in sustaining vocal vibratoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Ciara; Bauer, Jay J.; Larson, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Vocal vibrato and tremor are characterized by oscillations in voice fundamental frequency (F0). These oscillations may be sustained by a control loop within the auditory system. One component of the control loop is the pitch-shift reflex (PSR). The PSR is a closed loop negative feedback reflex that is triggered in response to discrepancies between intended and perceived pitch with a latency of ~ 100 ms. Consecutive compensatory reflexive responses lead to oscillations in pitch every ~200 ms, resulting in ~5-Hz modulation of F0. Pitch-shift reflexes were elicited experimentally in six subjects while they sustained /u/ vowels at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Auditory feedback was sinusoidally modulated at discrete integer frequencies (1 to 10 Hz) with ±25 cents amplitude. Modulated auditory feedback induced oscillations in voice F0 output of all subjects at rates consistent with vocal vibrato and tremor. Transfer functions revealed peak gains at 4 to 7 Hz in all subjects, with an average peak gain at 5 Hz. These gains occurred in the modulation frequency region where the voice output and auditory feedback signals were in phase. A control loop in the auditory system may sustain vocal vibrato and tremorlike oscillations in voice F0. PMID:14514211

  4. The role of auditory feedback in sustaining vocal vibrato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Ciara; Bauer, Jay J.; Larson, Charles R.

    2003-09-01

    Vocal vibrato and tremor are characterized by oscillations in voice fundamental frequency (F0). These oscillations may be sustained by a control loop within the auditory system. One component of the control loop is the pitch-shift reflex (PSR). The PSR is a closed loop negative feedback reflex that is triggered in response to discrepancies between intended and perceived pitch with a latency of ~100 ms. Consecutive compensatory reflexive responses lead to oscillations in pitch every ~200 ms, resulting in ~5-Hz modulation of F0. Pitch-shift reflexes were elicited experimentally in six subjects while they sustained /you/ vowels at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Auditory feedback was sinusoidally modulated at discrete integer frequencies (1 to 10 Hz) with +/-25 cents amplitude. Modulated auditory feedback induced oscillations in voice F0 output of all subjects at rates consistent with vocal vibrato and tremor. Transfer functions revealed peak gains at 4 to 7 Hz in all subjects, with an average peak gain at 5 Hz. These gains occurred in the modulation frequency region where the voice output and auditory feedback signals were in phase. A control loop in the auditory system may sustain vocal vibrato and tremorlike oscillations in voice F0.

  5. Compression of auditory space during forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Teramoto

    shifts in the auditory receptive field locations driven by afferent signals from vestibular system.

  6. Distribution of synapses on two ascending interneurones carrying frequency-specific information in the auditory system of the cricket: evidence for GABAergic inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, M; Watson, A H

    1994-07-22

    Two identified cricket auditory interneurones, AN1 and AN2, were intracellularly labelled with horseradish peroxidase following physiological characterisation. The neurones, which have some structural similarities, have their somata in the prothoracic ganglion and axons that project to the brain. Although both carry auditory information, they have different response properties and participate in different types of phonotactic behaviour. Ultrathin sections from selected regions of their prothoracic arborisations were examined in the electron microscope after postembedding immunostaining for the inhibitory transmitter GABA. In the prothoracic ganglion AN1 branches only in the medial ventral association centre (mVAC) contralateral to the soma, and receives only iput synapses. Twenty-seven percent of these were made by processes immunoreactive for GABA. AN2 branches not only in mVAC on both sides of the ganglion but also in several other areas. It makes output synapses from large diameter neurites in mVAC on both sides of the ganglion as well as from neurites in more posterior regions of the neuropile. Most input synapses are received onto branches in the contralateral mVAC where about 19% were made from GABA-immunoreactive processes.

  7. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  8. Robust speech features representation based on computational auditory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xugang; JIA Chuan; DANG Jianwu

    2004-01-01

    A speech signal processing and features extracting method based on computational auditory model is proposed. The computational model is based on psychological, physiological knowledge and digital signal processing methods. In each stage of a hearing perception system, there is a corresponding computational model to simulate its function. Based on this model, speech features are extracted. In each stage, the features in different kinds of level are extracted. A further processing for primary auditory spectrum based on lateral inhibition is proposed to extract much more robust speech features. All these features can be regarded as the internal representations of speech stimulation in hearing system. The robust speech recognition experiments are conducted to test the robustness of the features. Results show that the representations based on the proposed computational auditory model are robust representations for speech signals.

  9. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U Voss

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  10. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  11. Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9 subtype isolated from desi and zoo birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Saleem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. Efforts made for the isolation and identification of avian influenza virus from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. These results guided us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry.

  12. Avian cytokines - the natural approach to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, J W; Lambrecht, B; van den Berg, T P; Andrew, M E; Strom, A D; Bean, A G

    2000-01-01

    While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant bacteria that appear impervious to even the most powerful antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the use of chemical antimicrobials has led to concerns involving environmental contamination and unwanted residues in food products. The imminent banning of antibiotic usage in livestock feed has intensified the search for environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators and regulators of the immune response, offer exciting new alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible, particularly in poultry, with the recent cloning of a number of avian cytokine genes. Chickens offer an attractive small animal model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review the status of avian cytokines and focus on our recent studies involving the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10717298

  13. Characterisation and germline transmission of cultured avian primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs have significant potential to be used as a cell-based system for the study and preservation of avian germplasm, and the genetic modification of the avian genome. It was previously reported that PGCs from chicken embryos can be propagated in culture and contribute to the germ cell lineage of host birds. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirm these results by demonstrating that PGCs from a different layer breed of chickens can be propagated for extended periods in vitro. We demonstrate that intracellular signalling through PI3K and MEK is necessary for PGC growth. We carried out an initial characterisation of these cells. We find that cultured PGCs contain large lipid vacuoles, are glycogen rich, and express the stem cell marker, SSEA-1. These cells also express the germ cell-specific proteins CVH and CDH. Unexpectedly, using RT-PCR we show that cultured PGCs express the pluripotency genes c-Myc, cKlf4, cPouV, cSox2, and cNanog. Finally, we demonstrate that the cultured PGCs will migrate to and colonise the forming gonad of host embryos. Male PGCs will colonise the female gonad and enter meiosis, but are lost from the gonad during sexual development. In male hosts, cultured PGCs form functional gametes as demonstrated by the generation of viable offspring. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of in vitro cultures of germline competent avian PGCs offers a unique system for the study of early germ cell differentiation and also a comparative system for mammalian germ cell development. Primary PGC lines will form the basis of an alternative technique for the preservation of avian germplasm and will be a valuable tool for transgenic technology, with both research and industrial applications.

  14. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Yakunina, Natalia; Nam, Eui-Cheol [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Su [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  15. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  16. Evaluating the Perceptual and Pathophysiological Consequences of Auditory Deprivation in Early Postnatal Life: A Comparison of Basic and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Jonathon P.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of clinical and basic research in visual system development have shown that degraded or imbalanced visual inputs can induce a long-lasting visual impairment called amblyopia. In the auditory domain, it is well established that inducing a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in young laboratory animals is associated with a panoply of central auditory system irregularities, ranging from cellular morphology to behavior. Human auditory deprivation, in the form of otitis media (OM), is tremendous...

  17. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  18. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  19. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  20. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  1. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  2. Spatial organization of tettigoniid auditory receptors: insights from neuronal tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lehmann, Gerlind U C; Lehmann, Arne W; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2012-11-01

    The auditory sense organ of Tettigoniidae (Insecta, Orthoptera) is located in the foreleg tibia and consists of scolopidial sensilla which form a row termed crista acustica. The crista acustica is associated with the tympana and the auditory trachea. This ear is a highly ordered, tonotopic sensory system. As the neuroanatomy of the crista acustica has been documented for several species, the most distal somata and dendrites of receptor neurons have occasionally been described as forming an alternating or double row. We investigate the spatial arrangement of receptor cell bodies and dendrites by retrograde tracing with cobalt chloride solution. In six tettigoniid species studied, distal receptor neurons are consistently arranged in double-rows of somata rather than a linear sequence. This arrangement of neurons is shown to affect 30-50% of the overall auditory receptors. No strict correlation of somata positions between the anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral axis was evident within the distal crista acustica. Dendrites of distal receptors occasionally also occur in a double row or are even massed without clear order. Thus, a substantial part of auditory receptors can deviate from a strictly straight organization into a more complex morphology. The linear organization of dendrites is not a morphological criterion that allows hearing organs to be distinguished from nonhearing sense organs serially homologous to ears in all species. Both the crowded arrangement of receptor somata and dendrites may result from functional constraints relating to frequency discrimination, or from developmental constraints of auditory morphogenesis in postembryonic development. PMID:22807283

  3. Training-induced plasticity of auditory localization in adult mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kacelnik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate auditory localization relies on neural computations based on spatial cues present in the sound waves at each ear. The values of these cues depend on the size, shape, and separation of the two ears and can therefore vary from one individual to another. As with other perceptual skills, the neural circuits involved in spatial hearing are shaped by experience during development and retain some capacity for plasticity in later life. However, the factors that enable and promote plasticity of auditory localization in the adult brain are unknown. Here we show that mature ferrets can rapidly relearn to localize sounds after having their spatial cues altered by reversibly occluding one ear, but only if they are trained to use these cues in a behaviorally relevant task, with greater and more rapid improvement occurring with more frequent training. We also found that auditory adaptation is possible in the absence of vision or error feedback. Finally, we show that this process involves a shift in sensitivity away from the abnormal auditory spatial cues to other cues that are less affected by the earplug. The mature auditory system is therefore capable of adapting to abnormal spatial information by reweighting different localization cues. These results suggest that training should facilitate acclimatization to hearing aids in the hearing impaired.

  4. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z.; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged. PMID:27790111

  5. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  6. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  7. Suppression Measured from Chinchilla Auditory-Nerve-Fiber Responses Following Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Adaptive-Tracking and Systems-Identification Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Walls, Michael K; Heinz, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    The compressive nonlinearity of cochlear signal transduction, reflecting outer-hair-cell function, manifests as suppressive spectral interactions; e.g., two-tone suppression. Moreover, for broadband sounds, there are multiple interactions between frequency components. These frequency-dependent nonlinearities are important for neural coding of complex sounds, such as speech. Acoustic-trauma-induced outer-hair-cell damage is associated with loss of nonlinearity, which auditory prostheses attempt to restore with, e.g., "multi-channel dynamic compression" algorithms.Neurophysiological data on suppression in hearing-impaired (HI) mammals are limited. We present data on firing-rate suppression measured in auditory-nerve-fiber responses in a chinchilla model of noise-induced hearing loss, and in normal-hearing (NH) controls at equal sensation level. Hearing-impaired (HI) animals had elevated single-fiber excitatory thresholds (by ~ 20-40 dB), broadened frequency tuning, and reduced-magnitude distortion-product otoacoustic emissions; consistent with mixed inner- and outer-hair-cell pathology. We characterized suppression using two approaches: adaptive tracking of two-tone-suppression threshold (62 NH, and 35 HI fibers), and Wiener-kernel analyses of responses to broadband noise (91 NH, and 148 HI fibers). Suppression-threshold tuning curves showed sensitive low-side suppression for NH and HI animals. High-side suppression thresholds were elevated in HI animals, to the same extent as excitatory thresholds. We factored second-order Wiener-kernels into excitatory and suppressive sub-kernels to quantify the relative strength of suppression. We found a small decrease in suppression in HI fibers, which correlated with broadened tuning. These data will help guide novel amplification strategies, particularly for complex listening situations (e.g., speech in noise), in which current hearing aids struggle to restore intelligibility. PMID:27080669

  8. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  9. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  10. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  11. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  12. Germinoma in the Internal Auditory Canal Mimicking a Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Martín-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a primary germinoma in the central nervous system but not on or near the midline or within the brain is exceptional. It may occur at any age; however, it is rare in patients over 50 years old. Only a handful of cases of germinomas located in the cerebellopontine angle were presented, but to our knowledge, there has been no description of an isolated germinoma in the internal auditory canal. We report a case of germinoma in the internal auditory canal in a 51-year-old man simulating the clinical and radiological characteristics of a vestibular schwannoma.

  13. Field detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds: evaluation of a portable rRT-PCR system and freeze-dried reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Schultz, Annie K.; Hill, Nichola J.; Cardona, Carol J.; Boyce, Walter M.; Dudley, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of limited local analytical capabilities, difficulties with sample transportation and permitting, or problems keeping samples cold in the field. In response to these challenges, the performance of a portable real-time, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) unit (RAPID(Registered), Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employed lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies) was compared to virus isolation combined with real-time RT-PCR conducted in a laboratory. This study included both field and experimental-based sampling. Field samples were collected from migratory shorebirds captured in northern California, while experimental samples were prepared by spiking fecal material with an H6N2 AIV isolate. Results indicated that the portable rRT-PCR unit had equivalent specificity to virus isolation with no false positives, but sensitivity was compromised at low viral titers. Use of portable rRT-PCR with lyophilized reagents may expedite surveillance results, paving the way to a better understanding of wild bird involvement in HPAIV H5N1 transmission.

  14. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  15. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  16. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  17. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement. PMID:26132703

  18. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  19. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  20. Quantum Zeno Effect Underpinning the Radical-Ion-Pair Mechanism of Avian Magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, I K

    2008-01-01

    The intricate biochemical processes underlying avian magnetoreception, the sensory ability of migratory birds to navigate using earths magnetic field, have been narrowed down to spin-dependent recombination of radical-ion pairs to be found in avian species retinal proteins. The avian magnetic field detection is governed by the interplay between magnetic interactions of the radicals unpaired electrons and the radicals recombination dynamics. Critical to this mechanism is the long lifetime of the radical-pair spin coherence, so that the weak geomagnetic field will have a chance to signal its presence. It is here shown that a fundamental quantum phenomenon, the quantum Zeno effect, is at the basis of the radical-ion-pair magnetoreception mechanism. The quantum Zeno effect naturally leads to long spin coherence lifetimes, without any constraints on the systems physical parameters, ensuring the robustness of this sensory mechanism. Basic experimental observations regarding avian magnetic sensitivity are seamlessly...

  1. Auditory-Visual Coordination in the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Harry; MacDonald, John

    1978-01-01

    Outlines two competing hypotheses concerning the nature of inter-modal sensory development. Research on auditory-visual coordination in young human infants is reviewed. It is concluded that the data support the notion of ontogenetic development being a process of intergration between sensory systems that are initially relatively independent.…

  2. Listener Agreement for Auditory-Perceptual Ratings of Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, Kate; Kent, Raymond D.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Rosenbek, John C.; Kent, Jane F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Darley, Aronson, and Brown (1969a, 1969b) detailed methods and results of auditory-perceptual assessment for speakers with dysarthrias of varying etiology. They reported adequate listener reliability for use of the rating system as a tool for differential diagnosis, but several more recent studies have raised concerns about listener…

  3. Dynamic plasticity in coupled avian midbrain maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Gurinder Singh

    2004-12-01

    Internal mapping of the external environment is carried out using the receptive fields of topographic neurons in the brain, and in a normal barn owl the aural and visual subcortical maps are aligned from early experiences. However, instantaneous misalignment of the aural and visual stimuli has been observed to result in adaptive behavior, manifested by functional and anatomical changes of the auditory processing system. Using methods of information theory and statistical mechanics a model of the adaptive dynamics of the aural receptive field is presented and analyzed. The dynamics is determined by maximizing the mutual information between the neural output and the weighted sensory neural inputs, admixed with noise, subject to biophysical constraints. The reduced costs of neural rewiring, as in the case of young barn owls, reveal two qualitatively different types of receptive field adaptation depending on the magnitude of the audiovisual misalignment. By letting the misalignment increase with time, it is shown that the ability to adapt can be increased even when neural rewiring costs are high, in agreement with recent experimental reports of the increased plasticity of the auditory space map in adult barn owls due to incremental learning. Finally, a critical speed of misalignment is identified, demarcating the crossover from adaptive to nonadaptive behavior.

  4. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  5. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  6. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  7. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  8. 基于听觉掩蔽效应的多频带谱减语音增强方法%Multi-band spectral subtraction method for speech enhancement based on masking property of human auditory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亮; 张天骐; 高洪兴; 易琛

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the music noise introduced by conventional spectral subtraction method for speech enhancement, a speech enhancement algorithm is put forward based on the combination of multi-band spectral subtraction and the masking properties of human auditory system. Firstly, the weighted recursive averaging method is used to estimate the noise power spectrum, exert subtraction of multi-band on the noise-corrupted speech signal; then, auditory masking threshold is computed using the estimated speech signal, adjust the subtraction factor according to the threshold masking; finally, we obtain the spectrum of enhanced speech through computing the gain faction according to the subtraction factor. The simulation shows that, at low SNR, compared with conventional spectral subtraction, background noise and residual music noise are effectively suppressed, and the clarity and intelligibility of speech signal are dramatically improved.%为了减小传统谱减法引入的音乐噪声,提出了一种将多频带谱减和听觉掩蔽效应相结合的语音增强算法.用加权递归平滑的方法估计噪声的功率谱,对带噪的语音信号进行多频带谱减,计算听觉掩蔽阈值,再根据掩蔽阈值动态地调节谱减因子,通过增益函数得到增强后语音信号的频谱.仿真实验结果表明,与传统的谱减法相比,该算法在信噪比较低情况下,背景噪声和残余噪声得到了有效的抑制,语音信号的清晰度和可懂度也有了明显提升.

  9. Systems-level comparison of host-responses elicited by avian H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki M Y Lee

    Full Text Available Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is increasing evidence from clinical, animal models and in vitro data, which suggests a role for virus-induced cytokine dysregulation in contributing to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. The key target cells for the virus in the lung are the alveolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages, and we have shown that, compared to seasonal human influenza viruses, equivalent infecting doses of H5N1 viruses markedly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in both primary cell types in vitro. Whether this H5N1-induced dysregulation of host responses is driven by qualitative (i.e activation of unique host pathways in response to H5N1 or quantitative differences between seasonal influenza viruses is unclear. Here we used microarrays to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles in primary human macrophages at 1, 3, and 6 h after infection with H5N1 virus or low-pathogenic seasonal influenza A (H1N1 virus. We found that host responses to both viruses are qualitatively similar with the activation of nearly identical biological processes and pathways. However, in comparison to seasonal H1N1 virus, H5N1 infection elicits a quantitatively stronger host inflammatory response including type I interferon (IFN and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha genes. A network-based analysis suggests that the synergy between IFN-beta and TNF-alpha results in an enhanced and sustained IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine response at the early stage of viral infection that may contribute to the viral pathogenesis and this is of relevance to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for H5N1 induced respiratory disease.

  10. Recombination Rate Variation Modulates Gene Sequence Evolution Mainly via GC-Biased Gene Conversion, Not Hill-Robertson Interference, in an Avian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Paulina; Mugal, Carina F; Nater, Alexander; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) is often used to measure the strength of natural selection. However, ω may be influenced by linkage among different targets of selection, that is, Hill-Robertson interference (HRI), which reduces the efficacy of selection. Recombination modulates the extent of HRI but may also affect ω by means of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a process leading to a preferential fixation of G:C ("strong," S) over A:T ("weak," W) alleles. As HRI and gBGC can have opposing effects on ω, it is essential to understand their relative impact to make proper inferences of ω. We used a model that separately estimated S-to-S, S-to-W, W-to-S, and W-to-W substitution rates in 8,423 avian genes in the Ficedula flycatcher lineage. We found that the W-to-S substitution rate was positively, and the S-to-W rate negatively, correlated with recombination rate, in accordance with gBGC but not predicted by HRI. The W-to-S rate further showed the strongest impact on both dN and dS. However, since the effects were stronger at 4-fold than at 0-fold degenerated sites, likely because the GC content of these sites is farther away from its equilibrium, ω slightly decreases with increasing recombination rate, which could falsely be interpreted as a consequence of HRI. We corroborated this hypothesis analytically and demonstrate that under particular conditions, ω can decrease with increasing recombination rate. Analyses of the site-frequency spectrum showed that W-to-S mutations were skewed toward high, and S-to-W mutations toward low, frequencies, consistent with a prevalent gBGC-driven fixation bias.

  11. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and non-learners (quail and ring dove reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eMatsunaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and a non-learner (quail and ring dove. The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. 

  12. Auditory Scene Analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36 performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  13. Auditory complaints in scuba divers: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Rachel A; Bardsley, Barry; C Manchaiah, Vinaya K

    2012-03-01

    Pre-1970s, diving was seen as a predominantly male working occupation. Since then it has become a popular hobby, with increasing access to SCUBA diving while on holiday. For a leisure activity, diving puts the auditory system at the risk of a wide variety of complaints. However, there is still insufficient consensus on the frequency of these conditions, which ultimately would require more attention from hearing-healthcare professionals. A literature search of epidemiology studies of eight auditory complaints was conducted, using both individual and large-scale diving studies, with some reference to large-scale non-diving populations . A higher incidence was found for middle ear barotrauma, eustachian tube dysfunction, and alternobaric vertigo with a high correlation among females. Comparing these findings with a non-diving population found no statistically significant difference for hearing loss or tinnitus. Increased awareness of health professionals is required, training, and implementation of the Frenzel technique would help resolve the ambiguities of the Valsalva technique underwater. PMID:23448900

  14. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  15. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  16. Auditory distraction and serial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D M; Hughes, Rob; Macken, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the seria...

  17. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Raij TT; Valkonen-Korhonen M; Holi M; Therman S; Lehtonen J; Hari R

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation st...

  18. Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student′s unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.

  19. Measuring the performance of visual to auditory information conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shern Shiou Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. METHODOLOGY: Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID and inter sound distance (ISD whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. CONCLUSIONS: With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives.

  20. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  1. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  2. On Optimality in Auditory Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, M

    2000-01-01

    We study limits for the detection and estimation of weak sinusoidal signals in the primary part of the mammalian auditory system using a stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) model and an action-reaction model for synaptic plasticity. Our overall model covers the chain from a hair cell to a point just after the synaptic connection with a cell in the cochlear nucleus. The information processing performance of the system is evaluated using so called phi-divergences from statistics which quantify a dissimilarity between probability measures and are intimately related to a number of fundamental limits in statistics and information theory (IT). We show that there exists a set of parameters that can optimize several important phi-divergences simultaneously and that this set corresponds to a constant quiescent firing rate (QFR) of the spiral ganglion neuron. The optimal value of the QFR is frequency dependent but is essentially independent of the amplitude of the signal (for small amplitudes). Consequently, optimal proce...

  3. Speech distortion measure based on auditory properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo; HU Xiulin; ZHANG Yunyu; ZHU Yaoting

    2000-01-01

    The Perceptual Spectrum Distortion (PSD), based on auditory properties of human being, is presented to measure speech distortion. The PSD measure calculates the speech distortion distance by simulating the auditory properties of human being and converting short-time speech power spectrum to auditory perceptual spectrum. Preliminary simulative experiments in comparison with the Itakura measure have been done. The results show that the PSD measure is a perferable speech distortion measure and more consistent with subjective assessment of speech quality.

  4. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond eCho; Wayne eWu

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two...

  5. Neurofilament heavy chain expression and neuroplasticity in rat auditory cortex after unilateral and bilateral deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Song, Jae-Jin; Lee, Ho Sun; Oh, Seung Ha

    2016-09-01

    Deafness induces many plastic changes in the auditory neural system. For instance, dendritic changes cause synaptic changes in neural cells. SMI-32, a monoclonal antibody reveals auditory areas and recognizes non-phosphorylated epitopes on medium- and high-molecular-weight subunits of neurofilament proteins in cortical pyramidal neuron dendrites. We investigated SMI-32-immunoreactive (-ir) protein levels in the auditory cortices of rats with induced unilateral and bilateral deafness. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into unilateral deafness (UD), bilateral deafness (BD), and control groups. Deafness was induced by cochlear ablation. All rats were sacrificed, and the auditory cortices were harvested for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analyses at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks after deafness was induced. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the location of SMI-32-ir neurons. Neurofilament heavy chain (NEFH) mRNA expression and SMI-32-ir protein levels were increased in the BD group. In particular, SMI-32-ir protein levels increased significantly 6 and 12 weeks after deafness was induced. In contrast, no significant changes in protein level were detected in the right or left auditory cortices at any time point in the UD group. NEFH mRNA level decreased at 4 weeks after deafness was induced in the UD group, but recovered thereafter. Taken together, BD induced plastic changes in the auditory cortex, whereas UD did not affect the auditory neural system sufficiently to show plastic changes, as measured by neurofilament protein level.

  6. Auditory cortical processing: Binaural interaction in healthy and ROBO1-deficient subjects

    OpenAIRE

    LamminmÀki, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Two functioning ears provide clear advantages over monaural listening. During natural binaural listening, robust brain-level interaction occurs between the slightly different inputs from the left and the right ear. Binaural interaction requires convergence of inputs from the two ears somewhere in the auditory system, and it therefore relies on midline crossing of auditory pathways, a fundamental property of the mammalian central nervous system. Binaural interaction plays a significant ro...

  7. Auditory Training and Its Effects upon the Auditory Discrimination and Reading Readiness of Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Minga Mustard

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a systematic auditory training program on the auditory discrimination ability and reading readiness of 55 white, middle/upper middle class kindergarten students. Following pretesting with the "Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test,""The Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery," and the…

  8. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  9. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  10. Vocal control area-related expression of neuropilin-1, plexin-A4, and the ligand semaphorin-3A has implications for the evolution of the avian vocal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The avian vocal system is a good model for exploring the molecular basis of neural circuit evolution related to behavioral diversity. Previously, we conducted a comparative gene expression analysis among two different families of vocal learner, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica), a songbird, and the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot; and a non-learner, the quail (Coturnix coturnix), to identify various axon guidance molecules such as cadherin and neuropilin-1 as vocal control area-related genes. Here, we continue with this study and examine the expression of neuropilin and related genes in these species in more detail. We found that neuropilin-1 and its coreceptor, plexin-A4, were expressed in several vocal control areas in both Bengalese finch and budgerigar brains. In addition, semaphorin-3A, the ligand of neuropilin-1, expression was not detected in vocal control areas in both species. Furthermore, there was some similar gene expression in the quail brain. These results suggest the possibility that a change in the expression of a combination of semaphorin/neuropilin/plexin was involved in the acquisition of vocal learning ability during evolution.

  11. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  12. Dynamic Range Adaptation to Sound Level Statistics in the Auditory Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo; Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    The auditory system operates over a vast range of sound pressure levels (100–120 dB) with nearly constant discrimination ability across most of the range, well exceeding the dynamic range of most auditory neurons (20–40 dB). Dean et al. (Nat. Neurosci. 8:1684, 2005) have reported that the dynamic range of midbrain auditory neurons adapts to the distribution of sound levels in a continuous, dynamic stimulus by shifting towards the most frequently occurring level. Here we show that dynamic rang...

  13. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8-4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity.

  14. Neural Representation of Concurrent Vowels in Macaque Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I; Micheyl, Christophe; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception in real-world environments requires that the auditory system segregate competing voices that overlap in frequency and time into separate streams. Vowels are major constituents of speech and are comprised of frequencies (harmonics) that are integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency (F0). The pitch and identity of a vowel are determined by its F0 and spectral envelope (formant structure), respectively. When two spectrally overlapping vowels differing in F0 are presented concurrently, they can be readily perceived as two separate "auditory objects" with pitches at their respective F0s. A difference in pitch between two simultaneous vowels provides a powerful cue for their segregation, which in turn, facilitates their individual identification. The neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent vowels based on pitch differences are poorly understood. Here, we examine neural population responses in macaque primary auditory cortex (A1) to single and double concurrent vowels (/a/ and /i/) that differ in F0 such that they are heard as two separate auditory objects with distinct pitches. We find that neural population responses in A1 can resolve, via a rate-place code, lower harmonics of both single and double concurrent vowels. Furthermore, we show that the formant structures, and hence the identities, of single vowels can be reliably recovered from the neural representation of double concurrent vowels. We conclude that A1 contains sufficient spectral information to enable concurrent vowel segregation and identification by downstream cortical areas.

  15. Implications of blast exposure for central auditory function: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Gallun, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory system functions, from peripheral sensitivity to central processing capacities, are all at risk from a blast event. Accurate encoding of auditory patterns in time, frequency, and space are required for a clear understanding of speech and accurate localization of sound sources in environments with background noise, multiple sound sources, and/or reverberation. Further work is needed to refine the battery of clinical tests sensitive to the sorts of central auditory dysfunction observed in individuals with blast exposure. Treatment options include low-gain hearing aids, remote-microphone technology, and auditory-training regimens, but clinical evidence does not yet exist for recommending one or more of these options. As this population ages, the natural aging process and other potential brain injuries (such as stroke and blunt trauma may combine with blast-related brain changes to produce a population for which the current clinical diagnostic and treatment tools may prove inadequate. It is important to maintain an updated understanding of the scope of the issues present in this population and to continue to identify those solutions that can provide measurable improvements in the lives of Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blasts during the course of their military service.

  16. Subcortical correlates of auditory perceptual organization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Shimpei; Otsuka, Sho; Furukawa, Shigeto; Kashino, Makio

    2016-09-01

    To make sense of complex auditory scenes, the auditory system sequentially organizes auditory components into perceptual objects or streams. In the conventional view of this process, the cortex plays a major role in perceptual organization, and subcortical mechanisms merely provide the cortex with acoustical features. Here, we show that the neural activities of the brainstem are linked to perceptual organization, which alternates spontaneously for human listeners without any stimulus change. The stimulus used in the experiment was an unchanging sequence of repeated triplet tones, which can be interpreted as either one or two streams. Listeners were instructed to report the perceptual states whenever they experienced perceptual switching between one and two streams throughout the stimulus presentation. Simultaneously, we recorded event related potentials with scalp electrodes. We measured the frequency-following response (FFR), which is considered to originate from the brainstem. We also assessed thalamo-cortical activity through the middle-latency response (MLR). The results demonstrate that the FFR and MLR varied with the state of auditory stream perception. In addition, we found that the MLR change precedes the FFR change with perceptual switching from a one-stream to a two-stream percept. This suggests that there are top-down influences on brainstem activity from the thalamo-cortical pathway. These findings are consistent with the idea of a distributed, hierarchical neural network for perceptual organization and suggest that the network extends to the brainstem level. PMID:27371867

  17. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michael Cassone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence that the central clock has effects is piecemeal. Second, selection acting on characters that are linked to the circadian clock should influence aspects of the clock mechanism itself. Little evidence exists for this in birds, but there have been few attempts to assess this idea. At its core, the avian circadian clock is a multi-oscillator system comprising the pineal gland, the retinae and the avian homologues of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, whose mutual interactions ensure coordinated physiological functions, which are in turn synchronized to ambient light cycles via encephalic, pineal and retinal photoreceptors. At the molecular level, avian biological clocks comprise a genetic network of positive elements clock and bmal1 whose interactions with the negative elements period2, period3 and the cryptochromes form an oscillatory feedback loop that circumnavigates the 24 hrs of the day. We assess the possibilities for dual integration of the clock with time-dependent cognitive processes. Closer examination of the molecular, physiological, and behavioral elements of the circadian system would place birds at a very interesting fulcrum in the neurobiology of time in learning, memory and navigation. 

  18. Behavioral semantics of learning and crossmodal processing in auditory cortex: the semantic processor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André; Brosch, Michael; Budinger, Eike; Ohl, Frank W; Selezneva, Elena; Stark, Holger; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Two phenomena of auditory cortex activity have recently attracted attention, namely that the primary field can show different types of learning-related changes of sound representation and that during learning even this early auditory cortex is under strong multimodal influence. Based on neuronal recordings in animal auditory cortex during instrumental tasks, in this review we put forward the hypothesis that these two phenomena serve to derive the task-specific meaning of sounds by associative learning. To understand the implications of this tenet, it is helpful to realize how a behavioral meaning is usually derived for novel environmental sounds. For this purpose, associations with other sensory, e.g. visual, information are mandatory to develop a connection between a sound and its behaviorally relevant cause and/or the context of sound occurrence. This makes it plausible that in instrumental tasks various non-auditory sensory and procedural contingencies of sound generation become co-represented by neuronal firing in auditory cortex. Information related to reward or to avoidance of discomfort during task learning, that is essentially non-auditory, is also co-represented. The reinforcement influence points to the dopaminergic internal reward system, the local role of which for memory consolidation in auditory cortex is well-established. Thus, during a trial of task performance, the neuronal responses to the sounds are embedded in a sequence of representations of such non-auditory information. The embedded auditory responses show task-related modulations of auditory responses falling into types that correspond to three basic logical classifications that may be performed with a perceptual item, i.e. from simple detection to discrimination, and categorization. This hierarchy of classifications determine the semantic "same-different" relationships among sounds. Different cognitive classifications appear to be a consequence of learning task and lead to a recruitment of

  19. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  20. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2012-11-16

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), a similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al., 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al., 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, and 40 ms), and greater suppression at 20 ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience

  1. Demonstration of prosthetic activation of central auditory pathways using ( sup 14 C)-2-deoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.A.; Niparko, J.K.; Altschuler, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Miller, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The cochlear prosthesis is not applicable to patients who lack an implantable cochlea or an intact vestibulocochlear nerve. Direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the brain stem might provide a method for auditory rehabilitation of these patients. A penetrating CN electrode has been developed and tissue tolerance to this device demonstrated. This study was undertaken to evaluate metabolic activation of central nervous system (CNS) auditory tracts produced by such implants. Regional cerebral glucose use resulting from CN stimulation was estimated in a series of chronically implanted guinea pigs with the use of ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Enhanced 2-DG uptake was observed in structures of the auditory tract. The activation of central auditory structures achieved with CN stimulation was similar to that produced by acoustic stimulation and by electrical stimulation of the modiolar portion of the auditory nerve in control groups. An interesting banding pattern was observed in the inferior colliculus following CN stimulation, as previously described with acoustic stimulation. This study demonstrates that functional metabolic activation of central auditory pathways can be achieved with a penetrating CNS auditory prosthesis.

  2. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  3. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  4. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    . PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000...... MEASURE: Recurrence rate. RESULTS: Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirteen of the patients had stage I tumor (65%), 2 had stage II (10%), 2 had stage III (10%), and 3 had stage IV tumor (15%). Twelve patients were cured. All patients with stage I or II cancers were cured except 1...

  5. Changes of brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the characteristics and clinical value of evoked potentials in late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Methods: Brainstem auditory, and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 6 patients, and compared with the results of CT scan. Results: All of the 6 patients had abnormal results of BAEP and MNSEP. The main abnormal parameters in BAEP were latency prolongation in wave I, inter-peak latency prolongation in Ⅰ-Ⅲ and Ⅰ-Ⅴ. The abnormal features of MNSEP were low amplitude and absence of wave N9, inter-Peak latency prolongation in Ng-N13 and N13-N20, but no significant change of N20 amplitude. The results also revealed that abnormal changes in BAEP and MNSEP were earlier than that in CT. Conclusion: The detection of BAEP and MNSEP in late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy might early reveal the abnormality of conductive function in nervous system and might be a useful method in diagnosis.

  6. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  7. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  8. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry, like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and pala­table insects mimicking distasteful ones, involve signals directed at the eyes of birds. Despite this, studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare, particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade. Defensive visual mimicry, which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators. Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object, such as a leaf, stick, or pebble. In this paper, I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds. The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey, but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators. Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds, I show how quantitative models of avian color, luminance, and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals. Overall, I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2, Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4, and masquerade (5 as follows: 1 Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2 Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3 Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4 Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5 Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids [Current Zoology 58 (4: 630–648, 2012].

  9. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-01-01

    Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry,like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and palatable insects mimicking distasteful ones,involve signals directed at the eyes of birds.Despite this,studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare,particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade.Defensive visual mimicry,which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry,occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators.Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object,such as a leaf,stick,or pebble.In this paper,I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds.The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey,but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators.Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds,I show how quantitative models of avian color,luminance,and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals.Overall,I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2),Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4),and masquerade (5) as follows:1) Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2) Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3) Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4) Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5) Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids.

  10. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  11. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gch; Wong, Ty; Cheong, Sk; Koh, Dsq

    2008-11-13

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919-1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  12. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  13. Cortical contributions to the auditory frequency-following response revealed by MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Emily B J; Herholz, Sibylle C; Chepesiuk, Alexander M P; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The auditory frequency-following response (FFR) to complex periodic sounds is used to study the subcortical auditory system, and has been proposed as a biomarker for disorders that feature abnormal sound processing. Despite its value in fundamental and clinical research, the neural origins of the FFR are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography, we observe a strong, right-asymmetric contribution to the FFR from the human auditory cortex at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus, in addition to signal from cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate. This finding is highly relevant for our understanding of plasticity and pathology in the auditory system, as well as higher-level cognition such as speech and music processing. It suggests that previous interpretations of the FFR may need re-examination using methods that allow for source separation. PMID:27009409

  14. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  15. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  16. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  17. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  18. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  19. Avian protection plan : Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (LNWR) initiated this Avian Protection Plan (APP) in 2003 to protect birds from potential electrocution hazards on the...

  20. Electrostimulation mapping of comprehension of auditory and visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Miskin, Krasimir; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Sacko, Oumar; Réhault, Emilie; Tanova, Rositsa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    In order to spare functional areas during the removal of brain tumours, electrical stimulation mapping was used in 90 patients (77 in the left hemisphere and 13 in the right; 2754 cortical sites tested). Language functions were studied with a special focus on comprehension of auditory and visual words and the semantic system. In addition to naming, patients were asked to perform pointing tasks from auditory and visual stimuli (using sets of 4 different images controlled for familiarity), and also auditory object (sound recognition) and Token test tasks. Ninety-two auditory comprehension interference sites were observed. We found that the process of auditory comprehension involved a few, fine-grained, sub-centimetre cortical territories. Early stages of speech comprehension seem to relate to two posterior regions in the left superior temporal gyrus. Downstream lexical-semantic speech processing and sound analysis involved 2 pathways, along the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, and posteriorly around the supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. Electrostimulation experimentally dissociated perceptual consciousness attached to speech comprehension. The initial word discrimination process can be considered as an "automatic" stage, the attention feedback not being impaired by stimulation as would be the case at the lexical-semantic stage. Multimodal organization of the superior temporal gyrus was also detected since some neurones could be involved in comprehension of visual material and naming. These findings demonstrate a fine graded, sub-centimetre, cortical representation of speech comprehension processing mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus and are in line with those described in dual stream models of language comprehension processing. PMID:26332785

  1. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  2. Electrostimulation mapping of comprehension of auditory and visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Miskin, Krasimir; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Sacko, Oumar; Réhault, Emilie; Tanova, Rositsa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    In order to spare functional areas during the removal of brain tumours, electrical stimulation mapping was used in 90 patients (77 in the left hemisphere and 13 in the right; 2754 cortical sites tested). Language functions were studied with a special focus on comprehension of auditory and visual words and the semantic system. In addition to naming, patients were asked to perform pointing tasks from auditory and visual stimuli (using sets of 4 different images controlled for familiarity), and also auditory object (sound recognition) and Token test tasks. Ninety-two auditory comprehension interference sites were observed. We found that the process of auditory comprehension involved a few, fine-grained, sub-centimetre cortical territories. Early stages of speech comprehension seem to relate to two posterior regions in the left superior temporal gyrus. Downstream lexical-semantic speech processing and sound analysis involved 2 pathways, along the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, and posteriorly around the supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. Electrostimulation experimentally dissociated perceptual consciousness attached to speech comprehension. The initial word discrimination process can be considered as an "automatic" stage, the attention feedback not being impaired by stimulation as would be the case at the lexical-semantic stage. Multimodal organization of the superior temporal gyrus was also detected since some neurones could be involved in comprehension of visual material and naming. These findings demonstrate a fine graded, sub-centimetre, cortical representation of speech comprehension processing mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus and are in line with those described in dual stream models of language comprehension processing.

  3. Music perception and cognition following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, M J; Bharucha, J J; Musiek, F E

    1990-01-01

    during music perception do not rely on the integrity of primary auditory cortex; and (4) musical priming may be mediated by broadly tuned subcomponents of the thala-mocortical auditory system. PMID:23972044

  4. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  5. Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R M; Moore, BCJ; Patterson, RD; Winter, IM; Carlyon, RP; Gockel, HE

    2013-01-01

    Tonotopy is arguably the most prominent organizational principle in the auditory pathway. Nevertheless, the layout of tonotopic maps in humans is still debated. We present neuroimaging data that robustly identify multiple tonotopic maps in the bilateral auditory cortex. In contrast with some earlier

  6. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  7. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  8. Modelling the emergence and dynamics of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Robert W; Bőhm, Tamás M; Bendixen, Alexandra; Winkler, István; Denham, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives-a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the dynamics

  9. Modelling the emergence and dynamics of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Mill

    Full Text Available Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives-a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual

  10. Leftward lateralization of auditory cortex underlies holistic sound perception in Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Wengenroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with the rare genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS are known for their characteristic auditory phenotype including strong affinity to music and sounds. In this work we attempted to pinpoint a neural substrate for the characteristic musicality in WS individuals by studying the structure-function relationship of their auditory cortex. Since WS subjects had only minor musical training due to psychomotor constraints we hypothesized that any changes compared to the control group would reflect the contribution of genetic factors to auditory processing and musicality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using psychoacoustics, magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging, we show that WS individuals exhibit extreme and almost exclusive holistic sound perception, which stands in marked contrast to the even distribution of this trait in the general population. Functionally, this was reflected by increased amplitudes of left auditory evoked fields. On the structural level, volume of the left auditory cortex was 2.2-fold increased in WS subjects as compared to control subjects. Equivalent volumes of the auditory cortex have been previously reported for professional musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There has been an ongoing debate in the neuroscience community as to whether increased gray matter of the auditory cortex in musicians is attributable to the amount of training or innate disposition. In this study musical education of WS subjects was negligible and control subjects were carefully matched for this parameter. Therefore our results not only unravel the neural substrate for this particular auditory phenotype, but in addition propose WS as a unique genetic model for training-independent auditory system properties.

  11. A review of avian probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  12. Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act sy...

  13. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  14. Source analysis of bimodal event-related potentials with auditory-visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, H; Xie, X.; Yan, H; Feng, L; Xu, S; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Dipole source analysis is applied to model brain generators of surface-recorded evoked potentials, epileptiform activity, and event-related potentials (ERP). The aim of this study was to explore brain activity of interaction between bimodal sensory cognition. Seven healthy volunteers were recruited in the study and ERP to these stimuli were recorded by 64 electrodes EEG recording system. Subjects were exposed to either the auditory and the visual stimulus alone or the combined auditory-visual...

  15. Discrimination of Communication Vocalizations by Single Neurons and Groups of Neurons in the Auditory Midbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David M.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic...

  16. The Olivocochlear Reflex Strength and Cochlear Sensitivity are Independently Modulated by Auditory Cortex Microstimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Constantino D.; Aedo, Cristian; León, Alex; Bowen, Macarena; Jara, Natalia; Terreros, Gonzalo; Robles, Luis; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, efferent projections to the cochlear receptor are constituted by olivocochlear (OC) fibers that originate in the superior olivary complex. Medial and lateral OC neurons make synapses with outer hair cells and with auditory nerve fibers, respectively. In addition to the OC system, there are also descending projections from the auditory cortex that are directed towards the thalamus, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus, and superior olivary complex. Olivocochlear function can be as...

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Cook, Peter F; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L; Marino, Lori

    2015-07-22

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of 'associative' regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  18. Neural Representations of Complex Temporal Modulations in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Nai; Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2009-01-01

    Natural sounds such as speech contain multiple levels and multiple types of temporal modulations. Because of nonlinearities of the auditory system, however, the neural response to multiple, simultaneous temporal modulations cannot be predicted from the neural responses to single modulations. Here we show the cortical neural representation of an auditory stimulus simultaneously frequency modulated (FM) at a high rate, fFM ≈ 40 Hz, and amplitude modulation (AM) at a slow rate, fAM

  19. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  1. A Clinical Analysis of 36 Nervous System Disease Patients Acompanying Auditory Neuropathy%伴发神经系统疾病的听神经病36例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦玲; 王剑; 石力; 薛飞; 吴保仁; 高磊; 谢娟; 韩丽萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析一组神经系统疾病伴听神经病(auditory neuropathy,AN)患者的临床特点及两者间的关系.方法 回顾性分析36例神经系统疾病伴AN患者的临床资料,并报告10例典型病例.结果 36例伴发AN患者的神经系统疾病包括:弗雷德赖希(Friedreich)共济失调5例,腓骨肌萎缩症(charcot- marie- tooth,CMT病)4例,植烷酸储积病(Refsum病)1例,视神经萎缩9例,下肢周围神经病9例,多发性硬化2例,慢性炎症性脱髓鞘性多发性神经病(CIDP)1例,脊髓亚急性联合变性2例,运动神经元病1例,缺血缺氧性脑病1例,红斑性肢痛症1例,其中23例同时伴发其他1种或2种神经系统疾病.本组患者中14例(38.89%)首先出现双下肢无力、走路不稳、行走困难或视力减退,其余22例(61.11%)为首先出现听力减退,辨不清说话;有行走困难及耳聋家族史5例,视力减退家族史2例,新生儿黄疸史1例.神经系统检查:14例视诱发电位出现视觉径路传导障碍,16例胫神经运动传导速度减慢(12-30m/s)和/或潜伏期延长(4.1-5.8ms),6例腓肠神经感觉传导速度减慢(0-35m/s)及/或5例波幅下降(0-0.85μV);颞骨HRCT及MRI多未见异常;冷热试验26例中半规管麻痹14例;前庭诱发肌源性电位(VEMP)检测13例中9例未引出,引出的4例均幅值降低,2例潜伏期延长;纯音听力图呈低频上升型37耳(54.41%,37/68);听力损失呈中重、重及极重度共47耳(69.12%,47/68);言语识别率不成比例差于纯音听阈;ABR自波I起均未引出;DPOAE除个别频率外,全部可引出.结论 AN可伴发于多种神经系统疾病,多为周围性、遗传性神经病,多表现为下肢无力、行走困难、听话不清或视力减退一组综合征,听力障碍在病程中可先后出现,听力检测呈现AN的听力学特征,影响原发神经系统疾病的病理过程也可能影响听神经.%Objective To analyze the clinical features of nervous system disease patients with auditory

  2. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  3. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  4. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  5. Effects of auditory feedback during gait training on hemiplegic patients' weight bearing and dynamic balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Kyong-Il; Kim, Mi-Sun; Moon, Young; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of auditory feedback during gait on the weight bearing of patients with hemiplegia resulting from a stroke. [Subjects] Thirty hemiplegic patients participated in this experiment and they were randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] Both groups received neuro-developmental treatment for four weeks and the experimental group additionally received auditory feedback during gait training. In order to examine auditory feedback effects on weight bearing during gait, a motion analysis system GAITRite was used to measure the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of the subjects. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of the paretic side and the results of the Timed Up and Go Test after the training. [Conclusion] Auditory feedback during gait training significantly improved the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of hemiplegic stroke patients.

  6. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  7. Effects of auditory feedback consistency on vowel production

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, M.; McQueen, J.; Hagoort, P.; Acheson, D.

    2015-01-01

    In investigations of feedback control during speech production, researchers have focused on two different kinds of responses to erroneous or unexpected auditory feedback. Compensation refers to online, feedback-based corrections of articulations. In contrast, adaptation refers to long-term changes in the speech production system after exposure to erroneous/unexpected feedback, which may last even after feedback is normal again. In the current study, we aimed to compare both types of feedback ...

  8. Auditory and Vestibular Issues Related to Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Richard W.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Human spaceflight provides unique opportunities to study human vestibular and auditory systems. This session will discuss 1) vestibular adaptive processes reflected by pronounced perceptual and motor coordination problems during, and after, space missions; 2) vestibular diagnostic and rehabilitative techniques (used to promote recovery after living in altered gravity environments) that may be relevant to treatment of vestibular disorders on earth; and 3) unique acoustical challenges to hearing loss prevention and crew performance during spaceflight missions.

  9. An Auditory Model of Improved Adaptive ZCPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An improved ZCAP auditory model with adaptability is proposed in this paper, and the  adaptive method designed for ZCPA model is suitable for other auditory model with inner-hair-cell sub-model. The first step in the implement process of the proposed ZCPA model is to carry out the calculation of inner product between signal and complex Gammatone filters to obtain important frequency components  of signal. And then, according to  the result of the first step, the parameters of the basilar membrane sub-model and frequency box are automatically adjusted, such as the number of the basilar membrane filters, center frequency and bandwith of each basilar membrane filter, position of each frequency box, and so on. Lastly  an auditory model is built, and the final output is auditory spectrum.The results of numerical simulation and experiments have showed that the proposed model could realize accurate frequency selection, and the auditory spectrum is more distinctly than that of conventional ZCPA model. Moreover, the proposed model can completely avoided the influence of the number of filter on the shape of auditory spectrum existing in conventional ZCPA model so that the shape of auditory spectrum is steady, and the data quantity is small.

  10. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  11. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eGiret

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM, while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird’s own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of

  12. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Firszt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g. cochlear implants, less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and three and nine months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction, degree and type

  13. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  14. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  15. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  16. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of low-frequency noise problems requires information about the auditory filter characteristics at low-frequencies. Unfortunately, data at low-frequencies is scarce and practically no results have been published for frequencies below 100 Hz. Extrapolation of ERB results......-ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...

  17. Can you hear me now? Musical training shapes functional brain networks for selective auditory attention and hearing speech in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Strait

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in the quietest of rooms, our senses are perpetually inundated by a barrage of sounds, requiring the auditory system to adapt to a variety of listening conditions in order to extract signals of interest (e.g., one speaker’s voice amidst others. Brain networks that promote selective attention are thought to sharpen the neural encoding of a target signal, suppressing competing sounds and enhancing perceptual performance. Here, we ask: does musical training benefit cortical mechanisms that underlie selective attention to speech? To answer this question, we assessed the impact of selective auditory attention on cortical auditory-evoked response variability in musicians and nonmusicians. Outcomes indicate strengthened brain networks for selective auditory attention in musicians in that musicians but not nonmusicians demonstrate decreased prefrontal response variability with auditory attention. Results are interpreted in the context of previous work from our laboratory documenting perceptual and subcortical advantages in musicians for the hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. Musicians’ neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language indicates a potential benefit of music for auditory training. Given the importance of auditory attention for the development of language-related skills, musical training may aid in the prevention, habilitation and remediation of children with a wide range of attention-based language and learning impairments.

  18. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  19. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  20. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, i...

  1. Sensitivity of the auditory system to differences in intensity : temporal transfer and difference limen studied in psychophysical experiments : recording and analysis of evoked potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rodenburg (Marius)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractAn important property of the auditorv system is the way this system processes changes in stimulus intensitv. Although this problem has been discussed manv times since Weber, it is rather surprising that no generally accepted hypothesis about the underlying mechanism has emerged. In the n

  2. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  3. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  4. Reversible induction of phantom auditory sensations through simulated unilateral hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schaette

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, a phantom auditory sensation, is associated with hearing loss in most cases, but it is unclear if hearing loss causes tinnitus. Phantom auditory sensations can be induced in normal hearing listeners when they experience severe auditory deprivation such as confinement in an anechoic chamber, which can be regarded as somewhat analogous to a profound bilateral hearing loss. As this condition is relatively uncommon among tinnitus patients, induction of phantom sounds by a lesser degree of auditory deprivation could advance our understanding of the mechanisms of tinnitus. In this study, we therefore investigated the reporting of phantom sounds after continuous use of an earplug. 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing wore a silicone earplug continuously in one ear for 7 days. The attenuation provided by the earplugs simulated a mild high-frequency hearing loss, mean attenuation increased from 30 dB at 3 and 4 kHz. 14 out of 18 participants reported phantom sounds during earplug use. 11 participants presented with stable phantom sounds on day 7 and underwent tinnitus spectrum characterization with the earplug still in place. The spectra showed that the phantom sounds were perceived predominantly as high-pitched, corresponding to the frequency range most affected by the earplug. In all cases, the auditory phantom disappeared when the earplug was removed, indicating a causal relation between auditory deprivation and phantom sounds. This relation matches the predictions of our computational model of tinnitus development, which proposes a possible mechanism by which a stabilization of neuronal activity through homeostatic plasticity in the central auditory system could lead to the development of a neuronal correlate of tinnitus when auditory nerve activity is reduced due to the earplug.

  5. Polarity-specific transcranial direct current stimulation disrupts auditory pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Reiko; Andoh, Jamila; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is attracting increasing interest because of its potential for therapeutic use. While its effects have been investigated mainly with motor and visual tasks, less is known in the auditory domain. Past tDCS studies with auditory tasks demonstrated various behavioral outcomes, possibly due to differences in stimulation parameters, task-induced brain activity, or task measurements used in each study. Further research, using well-validated tasks is therefore required for clarification of behavioral effects of tDCS on the auditory system. Here, we took advantage of findings from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study, which demonstrated that the right auditory cortex is modulated during fine-grained pitch learning of microtonal melodic patterns. Targeting the right auditory cortex with tDCS using this same task thus allowed us to test the hypothesis that this region is causally involved in pitch learning. Participants in the current study were trained for 3 days while we measured pitch discrimination thresholds using microtonal melodies on each day using a psychophysical staircase procedure. We administered anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS to three groups of participants over the right auditory cortex on the second day of training during performance of the task. Both the sham and the cathodal groups showed the expected significant learning effect (decreased pitch threshold) over the 3 days of training; in contrast we observed a blocking effect of anodal tDCS on auditory pitch learning, such that this group showed no significant change in thresholds over the 3 days. The results support a causal role for the right auditory cortex in pitch discrimination learning. PMID:26041982

  6. Polarity-Specific Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Disrupts Auditory Pitch Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko eMatsushita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is attracting increasing interest because of its potential for therapeutic use. While its effects have been investigated mainly with motor and visual tasks, less is known in the auditory domain. Past tDCS studies with auditory tasks demonstrated various behavioural outcomes, possibly due to differences in stimulation parameters or task measurements used in each study. Further research using well-validated tasks are therefore required for clarification of behavioural effects of tDCS on the auditory system. Here, we took advantage of findings from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study, which demonstrated that the right auditory cortex is modulated during fine-grained pitch learning of microtonal melodic patterns. Targeting the right auditory cortex with tDCS using this same task thus allowed us to test the hypothesis that this region is causally involved in pitch learning. Participants in the current study were trained for three days while we measured pitch discrimination thresholds using microtonal melodies on each day using a psychophysical staircase procedure. We administered anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS to three groups of participants over the right auditory cortex on the second day of training during performance of the task. Both the sham and the cathodal groups showed the expected significant learning effect (decreased pitch threshold over the three days of training; in contrast we observed a blocking effect of anodal tDCS on auditory pitch learning, such that this group showed no significant change in thresholds over the three days. The results support a causal role for the right auditory cortex in pitch discrimination learning.

  7. Auditory Neuropathy in Two Patients with Generalized Neuropathic Disorder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is not a new disorder, in recent times we have attained a greater understanding of auditory neuropathy (AN. In this type of hearing impairment, cochlear hair cells function but AN victims suffer from disordered neural transmission in the auditory pathway. The auditory neuropathy result profile often occurs as a part of that of the generalized neuropathic disorders, indicated in approximately 30-40% of all reported auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD cases, with approximately 80% of patients reporting symptom onset over the age of 15 years. In the present report, the results of audiologic tests (behavioral, physiologic and evoked potentials on two young patients with generalized neuropathy are discussed.Case report: Two brothers, 26 and 17 years old, presented with speech perception weakness and movement difficulties that started at 12 years of age and progressed as time passed. In their last examination, there was a moderate to severe flat audiogram in the older patient and mild low tone loss in the younger one. The major difficulty of the patients was severe speech perception impairment that was not compatible with their hearing thresholds. Paresthesia, sural muscle contraction and pain, and balance disorder were the first symptoms of the older brother. Now he can only move with crutches and his finger muscle tonicity has decreased remarkably, with marked fatigue after a short period of walking. Increasing movement difficulties were noted in his last visit. Visual neuropathy had been reported in repeated visual system examinations for the older brother, with similar, albeit less severe, symptoms in the younger brother.In the present study of these patients, behavioral investigations included pure-tone audiometry and speech discrimination scoring. Physiologic studies consisted Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE and acoustic reflexes. Electrophysiologic auditory tests were also performed to determine

  8. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations. PMID:27310812

  9. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  10. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  11. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  12. Norepinephrine is necessary for experience-dependent plasticity in the developing mouse auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kathryn N; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David; Liu, Robert C

    2015-02-11

    Critical periods are developmental windows during which the stimuli an animal encounters can reshape response properties in the affected system to a profound degree. Despite this window's importance, the neural mechanisms that regulate it are not completely understood. Pioneering studies in visual cortex initially indicated that norepinephrine (NE) permits ocular dominance column plasticity during the critical period, but later research has suggested otherwise. More recent work implicating NE in experience-dependent plasticity in the adult auditory cortex led us to re-examine the role of NE in critical period plasticity. Here, we exposed dopamine β-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice, which lack NE completely from birth, to a biased acoustic environment during the auditory cortical critical period. This manipulation led to a redistribution of best frequencies (BFs) across auditory cortex in our control mice, consistent with prior work. By contrast, Dbh(-/-) mice failed to exhibit the expected redistribution of BFs, even though NE-deficient and NE-competent mice showed comparable auditory cortical organization when reared in a quiet colony environment. These data suggest that while intrinsic tonotopic patterning of auditory cortical circuitry occurs independently from NE, NE is required for critical period plasticity in auditory cortex. PMID:25673838

  13. Neural biomarkers for dyslexia, ADHD and ADD in the auditory cortex of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Serrallach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and attention deficit disorder (ADD show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N=147 using neuroimaging, magnet-encephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only a clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD, a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  14. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  15. [Approaches to therapy of auditory agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtelpeter, A; Göddenhenrich, S; Huber, W; Springer, L

    1990-01-01

    In a 41-year-old stroke patient with bitemporal brain damage, we found severe signs of auditory agnosia 6 months after onset. Recognition of environmental sounds was extremely impaired when tested in a multiple choice sound-picture matching task, whereas auditory discrimination between sounds and picture identifications by written names was almost undisturbed. In a therapy experiment, we tried to enhance sound recognition via semantic categorization and association, imitation of sound and analysis of auditory features, respectively. The stimulation of conscious auditory analysis proved to be increasingly effective over a 4-week period of therapy. We were able to show that the patient's improvement was not only a simple effect of practicing, but it was stable and carried over to nontrained items.

  16. Auditory-visual spatial interaction and modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeau, M

    1994-02-01

    The results of dealing with the conditions for pairing visual and auditory data coming from spatially separate locations argue for cognitive impenetrability and computational autonomy, the pairing rules being the Gestalt principles of common fate and proximity. Other data provide evidence for pairing with several properties of modular functioning. Arguments for domain specificity are inferred from comparison with audio-visual speech. Suggestion of innate specification can be found in developmental data indicating that the grouping of visual and auditory signals is supported very early in life by the same principles that operate in adults. Support for a specific neural architecture comes from neurophysiological studies of the bimodal (auditory-visual) neurons of the cat superior colliculus. Auditory-visual pairing thus seems to present the four main properties of the Fodorian module.

  17. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  18. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between ...

  19. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  20. Estradiol-dependent catecholaminergic innervation of auditory areas in a seasonally breeding songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matragrano, Lisa L; Sanford, Sara E; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Maney, Donna L

    2011-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that gonadal steroids such as estradiol (E2) alter neural responses not only in brain regions associated with reproductive behavior but also in sensory areas. Because catecholamine systems are involved in sensory processing and selective attention, and because they are sensitive to E2 in many species, they may mediate the neural effects of E2 in sensory areas. Here, we tested the effects of E2 on catecholaminergic innervation, synthesis and activity in the auditory system of white-throated sparrows, a seasonally breeding songbird in which E2 promotes selective auditory responses to song. Non-breeding females with regressed ovaries were held on a winter-like photoperiod and implanted with silastic capsules containing either no hormone or E2. In one hemisphere of the brain, we used immunohistochemistry to quantify fibers immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the auditory forebrain, thalamus and midbrain. E2 treatment increased catecholaminergic innervation in the same areas of the auditory system in which E2 promotes selectivity for song. In the contralateral hemisphere we quantified dopamine, norepinephrine and their metabolites in tissue punches using HPLC. Norepinephrine increased in the auditory forebrain, but not the midbrain, after E2 treatment. We found that evidence of interhemispheric differences, both in immunoreactivity and catecholamine content that did not depend on E2 treatment. Overall, our results show that increases in plasma E2 typical of the breeding season enhanced catecholaminergic innervation and synthesis in some parts of the auditory system, raising the possibility that catecholamines play a role in E2-dependent auditory plasticity in songbirds.

  1. Auditory model inversion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Heming; WANG Yongqi; CHEN Xueqin

    2005-01-01

    Auditory model has been applied to several aspects of speech signal processing field, and appears to be effective in performance. This paper presents the inverse transform of each stage of one widely used auditory model. First of all it is necessary to invert correlogram and reconstruct phase information by repetitious iterations in order to get auditory-nerve firing rate. The next step is to obtain the negative parts of the signal via the reverse process of the HWR (Half Wave Rectification). Finally the functions of inner hair cell/synapse model and Gammatone filters have to be inverted. Thus the whole auditory model inversion has been achieved. An application of noisy speech enhancement based on auditory model inversion algorithm is proposed. Many experiments show that this method is effective in reducing noise.Especially when SNR of noisy speech is low it is more effective than other methods. Thus this auditory model inversion method given in this paper is applicable to speech enhancement field.

  2. Cochlear injury and adaptive plasticity of the auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA R. eFETONI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug- or age-related injury. The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage.

  3. Practical Gammatone-Like Filters for Auditory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon RF

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with continuous-time filter transfer functions that resemble tuning curves at particular set of places on the basilar membrane of the biological cochlea and that are suitable for practical VLSI implementations. The resulting filters can be used in a filterbank architecture to realize cochlea implants or auditory processors of increased biorealism. To put the reader into context, the paper starts with a short review on the gammatone filter and then exposes two of its variants, namely, the differentiated all-pole gammatone filter (DAPGF and one-zero gammatone filter (OZGF, filter responses that provide a robust foundation for modeling cochlea transfer functions. The DAPGF and OZGF responses are attractive because they exhibit certain characteristics suitable for modeling a variety of auditory data: level-dependent gain, linear tail for frequencies well below the center frequency, asymmetry, and so forth. In addition, their form suggests their implementation by means of cascades of N identical two-pole systems which render them as excellent candidates for efficient analog or digital VLSI realizations. We provide results that shed light on their characteristics and attributes and which can also serve as "design curves" for fitting these responses to frequency-domain physiological data. The DAPGF and OZGF responses are essentially a "missing link" between physiological, electrical, and mechanical models for auditory filtering.

  4. Practical Gammatone-Like Filters for Auditory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Lyon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with continuous-time filter transfer functions that resemble tuning curves at particular set of places on the basilar membrane of the biological cochlea and that are suitable for practical VLSI implementations. The resulting filters can be used in a filterbank architecture to realize cochlea implants or auditory processors of increased biorealism. To put the reader into context, the paper starts with a short review on the gammatone filter and then exposes two of its variants, namely, the differentiated all-pole gammatone filter (DAPGF and one-zero gammatone filter (OZGF, filter responses that provide a robust foundation for modeling cochlea transfer functions. The DAPGF and OZGF responses are attractive because they exhibit certain characteristics suitable for modeling a variety of auditory data: level-dependent gain, linear tail for frequencies well below the center frequency, asymmetry, and so forth. In addition, their form suggests their implementation by means of cascades of N identical two-pole systems which render them as excellent candidates for efficient analog or digital VLSI realizations. We provide results that shed light on their characteristics and attributes and which can also serve as “design curves” for fitting these responses to frequency-domain physiological data. The DAPGF and OZGF responses are essentially a “missing link” between physiological, electrical, and mechanical models for auditory filtering.

  5. Acoustic trauma-induced auditory cortex enhancement and tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Laundrie; Wei Sun

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggests that noise-induced cochlear damage may lead to hyperexcitability in the central auditory system (CAS) which may give rise to tinnitus. However, the correlation between the onset of the neurophysiological changes in the CAS and the onset of tinnitus has not been well studied. To investigate this relationship, chronic electrodes were implanted into the auditory cortex (AC) and sound evoked activities were measured from awake rats before and after noise exposure. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to assess the degree of noise-induced hearing loss. Tinnitus was evaluated by measuring gap-induced prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI). Rats were exposed monaurally to a high-intensity narrowband noise centered at 12 kHz at a level of 120 dB SPL for 1 h. After the noise exposure, all the rats developed either permanent (>2 weeks) or temporary (<3 days) hearing loss in the exposed ear(s). The AC amplitudes increased significantly 4 h after the noise exposure. Most of the exposed rats also showed decreased gap-PPI. The post-exposure AC enhancement showed a positive correlation with the amount of hearing loss. The onset of tinnitus-like behavior was happened after the onset of AC enhancement.

  6. Moving Objects in the Barn Owl's Auditory World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Ulrike; Krumm, Bianca; Liebner, Katharina; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2016-01-01

    Barn owls are keen hunters of moving prey. They have evolved an auditory system with impressive anatomical and physiological specializations for localizing their prey. Here we present behavioural data on the owl's sensitivity for discriminating acoustic motion direction in azimuth that, for the first time, allow a direct comparison of neuronal and perceptual sensitivity for acoustic motion in the same model species. We trained two birds to report a change in motion direction within a series of repeating wideband noise stimuli. For any trial the starting point, motion direction, velocity (53-2400°/s), duration (30-225 ms) and angular range (12-72°) of the noise sweeps were randomized. Each test stimulus had a motion direction being opposite to that of the reference stimuli. Stimuli were presented in the frontal or the lateral auditory space. The angular extent of the motion had a large effect on the owl's discrimination sensitivity allowing a better discrimination for a larger angular range of the motion. In contrast, stimulus velocity or stimulus duration had a smaller, although significant effect. Overall there was no difference in the owls' behavioural performance between "inward" noise sweeps (moving from lateral to frontal) compared to "outward" noise sweeps (moving from frontal to lateral). The owls did, however, respond more often to stimuli with changing motion direction in the frontal compared to the lateral space. The results of the behavioural experiments are discussed in relation to the neuronal representation of motion cues in the barn owl auditory midbrain. PMID:27080662

  7. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  8. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  9. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while b...

  10. Avian Influenza: Should China Be Alarmed?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhaoliang; Xu, Huaxi; Chen, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Influenza strain H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have been transmitted from poultry to humans (by direct or indirect contact with infected birds) in several provinces of Mainland China, which has resulted in 22 cases of human infection and has created repercussions for the Chinese ec...

  11. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    OpenAIRE

    Lüschow Dörte; Lierz Peter; Jansen Andreas; Harder Timm; Hafez Hafez; Kohls Andrea; Schweiger Brunhilde; Lierz Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their ...

  12. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder: Auditory-evoked response in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G) subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD. PMID:27551667

  13. Development and function of lateralization in the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-06-15

    The avian brain is functionally lateralized. Different strategies of choice (within and between modalities) are adopted by each hemisphere. Visual lateralization has been studied most but attention to auditory, olfactory and magnetic cues is also lateralized. The left hemisphere (LH) focuses on cues that reliably separate pertinent stimuli from distracting stimuli (e.g. food from pebbles, odour cues from attractive visual cues, magnetic cues from other cues indicating location), whereas the right hemisphere (RH) has broad attention and is easily distracted by novel stimuli. The RH also controls fear and escape responses, as in reaction to predators. Exposure of the embryo to light just before hatching, when the posture adopted occludes the left eye (LE) but not the right eye (RE), leads to the development of asymmetry in the visual projections to the pallium and enhances the ability of the RE/LH to inhibit attention to distracting visual cues and of the LH to inhibit the RH, but has no effect on the RH's interest in novelty. Exposure to light before hatching has both short- and long-term consequences that are important for species-typical behaviour and survival. For example, on a food search task with a predator presented overhead, dark-incubated chicks perform poorly on both aspects of the task, whereas light-exposed chicks have no difficulty. Steroid hormone levels prior to hatching modulate light-dependent development of asymmetry in the visual projections and consequently affect neural competence for parallel processing and response inhibition. Differences between lateralization in the chick and pigeon are discussed. PMID:18498936

  14. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  15. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. PMID:27033033

  16. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Demircan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to previous levels, farms experienced significantly reduced incomes during the avian influenza episode. While net income and profit margin were found to be negative in all three farm groups during the avian influenza period, only group I showed economic loss prior to avian influenza. Average net income per group was -19,576.14, -39,810.11, and -112,035.33 YTL respectively during the avian influenza outbreak, compared with prior incomes of -5,665.51, 8,422.92, and 16,3873.71 YTL (1 USD=1.43 YTL. The profit margin per egg during avian influenza was -0.029, -0.016, -0.010 YTL in group I, II, III, respectively, as compared to -0.007, 0.003, and 0.014 YTL/egg before avian influenza. It was found that, whereas larger farms were more profitable than small farms prior to the avian influenza period, larger farms suffered greater economic losses than small farms during avian influenza outbreak in the participating farms.

  17. Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

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    Paul M Forlano

    Full Text Available In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic

  18. Entropical Aspects in Auditory Processes and Psychoacoustical Law of Weber-Fechner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, I.; Popescu, D. I.

    For hearing sense, the mechanoreceptors fire action potentials when their membranes are physically stretched. Based on the statistical physics, we analyzed the entropical aspects in auditory processes of hearing. We develop a model that connects the logarithm of relative intensity of sound (loudness) to the level of energy disorder within the system of cellular sensory system. The increasing of entropy and disorder in the system is connected to the free energy available to signal the production of action potentials in inner hair cells of the vestibulocochlear auditory organ.

  19. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

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    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  20. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

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    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  1. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  2. Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview

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    Priscilla Augusta Monteiro Ferronato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on early auditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation, head turning and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can be observed displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity for intentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those born preterm may display increasing central auditory processing disorders, negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting in long-term consequences on gesturing, language development and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications

  3. Theory of Auditory Thresholds in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations at the tympanic membrane has been previously investigated as a possible determinant of the threshold of hearing in humans (L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. IV, 4;288(1933).). More recent work has focussed more precisely on the relation between statistical mechanics and sensory signal processing by biological means in creatures' brains (W. Bialek, in ``Physics of Biological Systems: from molecules to species'', H. Flyvberg et al, (Eds), p. 252; Springer 1997.). Clinical data on the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in humans and other primates (W.C. Stebbins, ``The Acoustic Sense of Animals'', Harvard 1983.) has long been available. I have derived an expression for the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in primates, including humans, by first calculating the frequency dependence of thermal pressure fluctuations at eardrums from damped normal modes excited in model ear canals of given simple geometry. I then show that most of the features of the clinical data are directly related to the frequency dependence of the ratio of thermal noise pressure arising from without to that arising from within the masking bandwidth which signals must dominate in order to be sensed. The higher intensity of threshold signals in primates smaller than humans, which is clinically observed over much but not all of the human auditory spectrum is shown to arise from their smaller meatus dimensions. note

  4. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

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    Koji Inui

    Full Text Available Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observed by inserting a weak (5 dB increase for 1 ms prepulse. The time course of the inhibition evaluated by prepulses presented at 10-800 ms before the test stimulus showed at least two temporally distinct inhibitions peaking at approximately 20-60 and 600 ms that presumably reflected IPSPs by fast spiking, parvalbumin-positive cells and somatostatin-positive, Martinotti cells, respectively. In another experiment, we confirmed that the degree of the inhibition depended on the strength of the prepulse, but not on the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked cortical response, indicating that the prepulse-evoked excitatory response and prepulse-evoked inhibition reflected activation in two different pathways. Although many diseases such as schizophrenia may involve deficits in the inhibitory system, we do not have appropriate methods to evaluate them; therefore, the easy and non-invasive method described herein may be clinically useful.

  5. The Wellcome Prize Lecture. A map of auditory space in the mammalian brain: neural computation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A J

    1993-09-01

    The experiments described in this review have demonstrated that the SC contains a two-dimensional map of auditory space, which is synthesized within the brain using a combination of monaural and binaural localization cues. There is also an adaptive fusion of auditory and visual space in this midbrain nucleus, providing for a common access to the motor pathways that control orientation behaviour. This necessitates a highly plastic relationship between the visual and auditory systems, both during postnatal development and in adult life. Because of the independent mobility of difference sense organs, gating mechanisms are incorporated into the auditory representation to provide up-to-date information about the spatial orientation of the eyes and ears. The SC therefore provides a valuable model system for studying a number of important issues in brain function, including the neural coding of sound location, the co-ordination of spatial information between different sensory systems, and the integration of sensory signals with motor outputs. PMID:8240794

  6. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  7. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  8. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  9. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  10. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Europe and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Elam, Gillian; Aro, Arja R; Abraham, Thomas; Bishop, George D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    During autumn 2005, we conducted 3,436 interviews in European and Asian countries. We found risk perceptions of avian influenza to be at an intermediate level and beliefs of efficacy to be slightly lower. Risk perceptions were higher in Asia than Europe; efficacy beliefs were lower in Europe than Asia.

  11. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  12. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of human and avian metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); E.C. Holmes (Edward)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman (HMPV) and avian (AMPV) metapneumoviruses are closely related viruses that cause respiratory tract illnesses in humans and birds, respectively. Although HMPV was first discovered in 2001, retrospective studies have shown that HMPV has been circulating in humans for at least 50 year

  14. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create? PMID:16485802

  15. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    manifestations or from the cloacae of a healthy chicken. The virulence potential of the strains were evaluated in an avian experimental model for ascending infections, and experiments were conducted in both layers and broiler breeders. The clinical outcome of infection was highly depending on the challenge...

  16. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  17. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  18. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Cumming, Graeme S

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG) concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV) in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks) and charadriiforms (waders) drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology. PMID:23101696

  19. Dichotic auditory-verbal memory in adults with cerebro-vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yekta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cerebrovascular accident is a neurological disorder involves central nervous system. Studies have shown that it affects the outputs of behavioral auditory tests such as dichotic auditory verbal memory test. The purpose of this study was to compare this memory test results between patients with cerebrovascular accident and normal subjects.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident aged 50-70 years and 20 controls matched for age and gender in Emam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Dichotic auditory verbal memory test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean score in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.0001. The results indicated that the right-ear score was significantly greater than the left-ear score in normal subjects (p<0.0001 and in patients with right hemisphere lesion (p<0.0001. The right-ear and left-ear scores were not significantly different in patients with left hemisphere lesion (p=0.0860.Conclusion: Among other methods, Dichotic auditory verbal memory test is a beneficial test in assessing the central auditory nervous system of patients with cerebrovascular accident. It seems that it is sensitive to the damages occur following temporal lobe strokes.

  20. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Riekki, Tapani J J

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739