WorldWideScience

Sample records for avert dangerous climate

  1. How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to "tipping points" with unacceptable consequences, especially ice sheet disintegration with sea level rise out of humanity's control, has a bright side. It implies an imperative: we must find a way to keep the CO2 amount so low that it will also avert other detrimental effects that had begun to seem inevitable, e.g., ocean acidification, loss of most alpine glaciers and thus the water supply for millions of people, and shifting of climatic zones with consequent extermination of species. Here I outline from a scientific perspective actions needed to achieve low limits on CO2 and global warming. These changes are technically feasible and have ancillary benefits. Achievement of needed changes requires overcoming t...

  2. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  3. Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m-2 yr-1) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  4. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Todd [Union of Concerned Scientists; Frumhoff, Peter [Union of Concerned Scientists; Luers, Amy [Skoll Global Threats Fund; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  5. Which Moral Foundations Predict Willingness to Make Lifestyle Changes to Avert Climate Change in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Janis L.; McLeod, Poppy; Bloomfield, Robert; Allred, Shorna

    2016-01-01

    Jonathan Haidt’s Moral Foundations Theory identifies five moral axes that can influence human motivation to take action on vital problems like climate change. The theory focuses on five moral foundations, including compassion, fairness, purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty; these have been found to differ between liberals and conservatives as well as Democrats and Republicans. Here we show, based on the Cornell National Social Survey (USA), that valuations of compassion and fairness were strong, positive predictors of willingness to act on climate change, whereas purity had a non-significant tendency in the positive direction (p = 0.07). Ingroup loyalty and authority were not supported as important predictor variables using model selection (ΔAICc__). Compassion and fairness were more highly valued by liberals, whereas purity, authority, and in-group loyalty were more highly valued by conservatives. As in previous studies, participants who were younger, more liberal, and reported greater belief in climate change, also showed increased willingness to act on climate change. Our research supports the potential importance of moral foundations as drivers of intentions with respect to climate change action, and suggests that compassion, fairness, and to a lesser extent, purity, are potential moral pathways for personal action on climate change in the USA. PMID:27760207

  6. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification - Supplementary Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp. -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Fire Danger across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kolden, C.; Brown, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the size and number of number of large wildfires have dramatically increased across the western United States. Large wildfires across much of the West preferentially occur during periods of extreme fire danger associated with critically low fuel moistures and limited relative humidity recovery. Anecdotal and analytical evidence suggests that fire danger and fire behavior have been unprecedented in recent years, therein contributing to the significant increase in wildland fire acres burned in recent years. Although fire danger, as a juxtaposition of climate and meteorological conditions, represents only a single determinant of wildfires, mounting evidence suggests that observed changes in climate have played a contributing role in increasing wildfire’s prevalence across the West and its subsequent effects on ecosystems and human infrastructure, Here, the impact of projected climate change on fire danger is examined across the western U.S. Projected changes in fire danger are assessed through a multimodel approach that uses downscaled daily meteorological fields. For a middle of the road climate change scenario results suggests an advance in the onset of fire season and an increase in the frequency of extreme fire danger conditions, with strong intermodel confidence across much of the desert southwest and intermountain western U.S. In addition, the alignment of climate change with low-frequency climate variability is projected to increase the likelihood of seasons that incur prolonged widespread fire danger. Such chronic and west-wide synchronous heightened wildfire potential is likely to tax fire suppression resources and reduce their efficacy, therein resulting in increased large catastrophic wildfires. Given the high degree of confidence regarding projected changes in fire danger and the increasing potential for anthropogenic ignitions, proactive efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of large wildfires are needed by land

  8. Climate-society feedbacks and the avoidance of dangerous climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, A. J.; Leedal, D. T.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2012-09-01

    The growth in anthropogenic CO2 emissions experienced since the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important disturbance operating on the Earth's climate system. To avoid dangerous climate change, future greenhouse-gas emissions will have to deviate from business-as-usual trajectories. This implies that feedback links need to exist between climate change and societal actions. Here, we show that, consciously or otherwise, these feedbacks can be represented by linking global mean temperature change to the growth dynamics of CO2 emissions. We show that the global growth of new renewable sources of energy post-1990 represents a climate-society feedback of ~0.25%yr-1 per degree increase in global mean temperature. We also show that to fulfil the outcomes negotiated in Durban in 2011, society will have to become ~ 50 times more responsive to global mean temperature change than it has been since 1990. If global energy use continues to grow as it has done historically then this would result in amplification of the long-term endogenous rate of decarbonization from -0.6%yr-1 to ~-13%yr-1. It is apparent that modest levels of feedback sensitivity pay large dividends in avoiding climate change but that the marginal return on this effort diminishes rapidly as the required feedback strength increases.

  9. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    The recent publication of the summary for policy makers by Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] has injected a renewed sense of urgency to address climate change. It is therefore timely to review the notion of preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' as put forward in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The article by Danny Harvey in this issue [2] offers a fresh perspective by rephrasing the concept of 'dangerous interference' as a problem of risk assessment. As Harvey points out, identification of 'dangerous interference' does not require us to know with certainty that future climate change will be dangerous—an impossible task given that our knowledge about future climate change includes uncertainty. Rather, it requires the assertion that interference would lead to a significant probability of dangerous climate change beyond some risk tolerance, and therefore would pose an unacceptable risk. In his article [2], Harvey puts this idea into operation by presenting a back-of-the-envelope calculation to identify allowable CO2 concentrations under uncertainty about climate sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing and the location of a temperature threshold beyond which dangerous climate change will occur. Conditional on his assumptions, Harvey delivers an interesting result. With the current atmospheric CO2 concentration exceeding 380 ppm, a forcing contribution from other greenhouse gases adding an approximate 100 110 ppm CO2 equivalent on top of it, and a global dimming effect of aerosols that roughly compensates for this contribution (albeit still subject to considerable uncertainty) ([1], figures SPM-1 and 2), we are on the verge of or even committed to dangerous interference with the climate system if we (1) set the risk tolerance for experiencing dangerous climate change to 1% and (2) allocate at least 5% probability to the belief that climate sensitivity is 4

  10. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: A GISS modelE study

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J; Bauer, S; Baum, E; Cairns, B; Canuto, V; Chandler, M; Cheng, Y; Cohen, A; Faluvegi, G; Fleming, E; Friend, A; Genio, A D; Hall, T; Jackman, C; Jonas, J; Kelley, M; Kharecha, P; Kiang, N Y; Koch, D; Labow, G; Lacis, A; Lerner, J; Lo, K; Menon, S; Miller, R; Nazarenko, L; Novakov, T; Oinas, V; Perlwitz, J; Rind, D; Romanou, A; Ruedy, R; Russell, G; Sato, M; Schmidt, G A; Schmunk, R; Shindell, D; Stone, P; Streets, D; Sun, S; Tausnev, N; Thresher, D; Unger, N; Yao, M; Zhang, S; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the 'alternative' scenario of Hansen and Sato. Identification of 'dangerous' effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1 degree C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1 degree C if climate sensitivity is \\~3 degrees C or less for doubled CO2. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2 emissions and decrease non-CO2 forcings are needed to achieve the low forcing of the alt...

  11. The impact of climate change on forest fire danger rating in China's boreal forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang; DI Xue-ying; GUO Qing-xi; SHU Zhan; ZENG Tao; YU Hong-zhou; WANG Chao

    2011-01-01

    The Great Xing'an Mountains boreal forests were focused on in the northeastern China.The simulated future climate scenarios of IPCC SRES A2a and B2a for both the baseline period of 1961-1990 and the future scenario periods were downscaled by the Delta Method and the Weather Generator to produce daily weather data.After the verification with local weather and fire data, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System was used to assess the forest fire weather situation under climate change in the study region.An increasing trend of fire weather severity was found over the 21st century in the study region under the both future climate change scenarios, compared to the 1961-1990 baseline period.The annual mean/maximum fire weather index was predicted to rise continuously during 2010-2099, and by the end of the 21st century it is predicted to rise by 22%-52% across much of China's boreal forest.The significant increases were predicted in the spring from of April to June and in the summer from July to August.In the summer, the fire weather index was predicted to be higher than the current index by as much as 148% by the end of the 21st century.Under the scenarios of SRES A2a and B2a, both the chance of extremely high fire danger occurrence and the number of days of extremely high fire danger occurrence was predieted to increase in the study region.It is anticipated that the number of extremely high fire danger days would increase from 44 days in 1980s to 53-75 days by the end of the 21st century.

  12. Future impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; SHU Li-fu; ZHAO Feng-jun; WANG Ming-yu; Douglas J. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming has a rapid and far-reaching impact on forest fire management in the boreal forests of China. Regional climate model outputs and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) Sys- tern were used to analyze changes to fire danger and the fire season for future periods under IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2, and the data will guide future fire management planning. We used regional climate in China (1961-1990) as our validation data, and the period (1991-2100) was modeled under SRES A2 and B2 through the weather simulated by the regional climate model system (PRECIS). Meteorological data and fire danger were interpolated to 1 km by using ANUSPLIN software. The average FWI value for future spring fire sea-sons under Scenarios A2 and B2 shows an increase over most of the region. Compared with the baseline, FWI averages of spring fire season will increase by -0.40, 0.26 and 1.32 under Scenario A2, and increase by 0.60, 1.54 and 2.56 under Scenario B2 in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, re-spectively. FWI averages of autumn fire season also show an increase over most of the region. FWI values increase more for Scenario B2 than for Scenario A2 in the same periods, particularly during the 2050s and 2080s. Average future FWI values will increase under both scenarios for autumn fire season. The potential burned areas are expected to increase by 10% and 18% in spring for 2080s under Scenario A2 and B2, respec- tively. Fire season will be prolonged by 21 and 26 days under Scenarios A2 and B2 in 2080s respectively.

  13. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.; Lacis, A.; Miller, R.; Schmidt, G.A.; Russell, G.; Canuto, V.; Del Genio, A.; Hall, T.; Kiang, N.Y.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Sun, S. [NASA, Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; Nazarenko, L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, S.; Chandler, M.; Faluvegi, G.; Jonas, J.; Koch, D.; Lerner, J.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Unger, N.; Zhang, S. [Columbia Univ, Earth Inst, New York, NY (United States); Ruedy, R.; Lo, K.; Cheng, Y.; Oinas, V.; Schmunk, R.; Tausnev, N.; Yao, M. [Sigma Space Partners LLC, New York, NY (United States); Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G.A.; Del Genio, A.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Thresher, D. [Columbia Univ, Dept Earth and Environm Sci, New York, NY (United States); Miller, R.; Cairns, B.; Hall, T.; Perlwitz, Ja. [Columbia Univ, Dept Appl Phys and Appl Math, New York, NY (United States); Baum, E.; Cohen, A. [Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA (United States); Fleming, E.; Jackman, C.; Labow, G. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Friend, A.; Kelley, M. [CEA Saclay, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the issue of 'dangerous human-made interference with climate' using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcing for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the 'alternative' scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of 'dangerous' effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1 degrees C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing similar to 1.5 W/m{sup 2} in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1 degrees C if climate sensitivity is similar to 3 degrees C or less for doubled CO{sub 2}. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2 {sigma} (standard deviations) of 20. century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5-10 {sigma}, i.e. mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We conclude that a CO{sub 2} level exceeding about 450 ppm is 'dangerous', but reduction of non-CO{sub 2} forcing can provide modest relief on the CO{sub 2} constraint. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O{sub 3}, its precursor CH{sub 4}, and soot) as by CO{sub 2}, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO{sub 2} growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs) may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non

  14. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880–2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004. Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5–10σ, i.e. mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We conclude that a CO2 level exceeding about 450 ppm is "dangerous", but reduction of non-CO2 forcings can provide modest relief on the CO2 constraint. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt

  15. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880–2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004. Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5–10σ, i.e., mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2 emissions and decrease non-CO2

  16. New Research Suggests That Emissions Reductions May Be a Risky and Very Expensive Way to Avoid Dangerous Global Climate Changes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of greenhouse gas emissions reductions have long assumed that such reductions are the best approach to global climate change control and sometimes argued that they are the least risky approach. It is now generally understood that to be effective such reductions would have to involve most of the world and be very extensive and rapidly implemented. This paper examines the question of whether it is feasible to use only this approach to control dangerous global climate changes, the mos...

  17. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  18. Valutazione economica dello studio AVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona De Portu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the AVERT study (“Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy compared with angioplasty in stable coronary artery disease” compared aggressive cholesterol-lowering (with the statin atorvastatin to angioplasty in patients with mild to moderate coronary artery disease. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs percutaneous coronary revascularization followed by standard therapy in Italian patients with stable coronary artery disease Methods: clinical information were taken from the AVERT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus angioplasty in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2006. Effects were measured in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction (number of deaths, life years gained and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 18 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. We also conducted a threshold analysis. Results: the cost of atorvastatin therapy or angioplasty over the 18 months period amounted to approximately 779 euro and 5.5 millions euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to angioplasty and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 18 months of follow-up was estimated at 1.8 millions euro in the atorvastatin group and 7.2 millions euro in the angioplasty group, resulting into a cost saving of 5.4 millions euro that is 74,9% of total costs occurred in the angioplasty group. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high does atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the

  19. Climate-related change of snow contribution in the development of dangerous hydrological phenomenon on rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Semenov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under current climate change the amount of snow plays a fundamental role in occurrence of hazardous hydrological events causing a steady growth in frequency of hazardous snow melt floods in mountain and piedmont areas in the south of Siberia and the Urals and coastal areas of the Far East. For these areas as well as for the Caucasus the following is also typical: greater influence of snow on occurrence of hazardous snow-rainfall floods, higher frequency of hazardous snowfalls and avalanching. Small amount of snow is one of the factors causing higher frequency of extreme lacks of water in summer low water periods on rivers of Asian Russia. On rivers of European Russia increased frequency of thaws and longer periods of snow melt reduce flood risk and enhance the role of snow in feeding underground waters to impede the growth in frequency of extreme lacks of water during low water periods.

  20. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    , the activities of international aid agencies and numerous lurid films, documentaries and novels. The article first establishes the tradition of inscribing danger to Central Asia, in both academic and policy discourse, from the colonial experience of the nineteenth century through to the post-Soviet transition......Western geopolitical discourse misrepresents and constructs Central Asia as an inherently and essentially dangerous place. This pervasive ‘discourse of danger’ obscures knowledge of the region, deforms scholarship and, because it has policy implications, actually endangers Central Asia....... This article identifies how the region is made knowable to a US–UK audience through three mutually reinforcing dimensions of endangerment: Central Asia as obscure, oriental, and fractious. This is evidenced in the writings of conflict resolution and security analysts, the practices of governments...

  1. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  2. [Dangerous aquaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland.

  3. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  4. Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M S; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliora...

  5. Looming Danger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuewen

    2003-01-01

    Is all well with the roaring Chinese economy now that severe acute respiratory syndrome has almost vanished? For beginners,SARS is still a looming danger, as Chinese leaders and medical professionals relentlessly try tobring across to a wider, more relaxed post-SARS public. Meanwhile, economistsand analysts struggle to make sense of various news, facts and figures from the frontlines of trade and industry. Early on, while acknowledging that SARS had some negative impact on the development of some industries and regions,President and Party General Secretary Hu Jintao acted as true leader. He saidthat the people and country would triumph over “these temporary difficulties”and would finally win the war against this nasty disease.

  6. Averting Canada's water Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrilli, J. F.

    2000-07-01

    Water conservation policies in Canada are examined in expectation of an imminent water crisis in the world, a crisis resulting from scarcity and aggravated by deteriorating quality. Despite Canada's seemingly abundant water resources, recent events, particularly in Ontario, give reason to be concerned that the province that spawned the common sense revolution is quite capable of sparking a national water crisis all by itself. Significant drop in water levels in the Great Lakes, the Walkerton debacle of E. coli contamination of the water supply which resulted in at least seven deaths and over 1000 serious illnesses, the massive housing development proposal that threatens the area known as the Oak Ridges Moraine, a source of groundwater that supplies much of southern Ontario, and the government's action (later reversed) to issue a licence to an Ontario company to withdraw 600 million litres of water annually from Lake Superior for export to Asia, are some of the examples cited as indicators of the fragile state of water supply and the many threats posed to both water quantity and quality. Having examined some of the dangers facing our water supply, the author provides some suggestions of how to resolve first, the issue of overlapping jurisdictions and the tangled constitutional framework for managing the nation's water resources and second, some steps that should be taken to stop mega-diversions and mega-consumptive use, and to make certain that even the most modest project in this area proceeds only after the fullest environmental and public scrutiny. Provincial laws must also link land use changes and development to protection of provincial waters, proactively encourage water conservation, repair past mistakes by requiring the restoration and enhancement of the water regime where it has been damaged by human activity, establish a water superfund to pay for effective water conservation planning, and recognize the public's right to a significant

  7. Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2C Global Warming Could Be Dangerous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    warmer than today. Ice melt cooling of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans increases atmospheric temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, thus driving more powerful storms. The modeling, paleoclimate evidence, and ongoing observations together imply that 2 C global warming above the preindustrial level could be dangerous. Continued high fossil fuel emissions this century are predicted to yield (1) cooling of the Southern Ocean, especially in the Western Hemisphere; (2) slowing of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation, warming of the ice shelves, and growing ice sheet mass loss; (3) slowdown and eventual shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation with cooling of the North Atlantic region; (4) increasingly powerful storms; and (5) nonlinearly growing sea level rise, reaching several meters over a timescale of 50-150 years. These predictions, especially the cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic with markedly reduced warming or even cooling in Europe, differ fundamentally from existing climate change assessments. We discuss observations and modeling studies needed to refute or clarify these assertions.

  8. Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-03-01

    C warmer than today. Ice melt cooling of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans increases atmospheric temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, thus driving more powerful storms. The modeling, paleoclimate evidence, and ongoing observations together imply that 2 °C global warming above the preindustrial level could be dangerous. Continued high fossil fuel emissions this century are predicted to yield (1) cooling of the Southern Ocean, especially in the Western Hemisphere; (2) slowing of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation, warming of the ice shelves, and growing ice sheet mass loss; (3) slowdown and eventual shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation with cooling of the North Atlantic region; (4) increasingly powerful storms; and (5) nonlinearly growing sea level rise, reaching several meters over a timescale of 50-150 years. These predictions, especially the cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic with markedly reduced warming or even cooling in Europe, differ fundamentally from existing climate change assessments. We discuss observations and modeling studies needed to refute or clarify these assertions.

  9. Danger signals in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  10. Averting group failures in collective-risk social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1209/0295-5075/99/68003

    2012-01-01

    Free-riding on a joint venture bears the risk of losing personal endowment as the group may fail to reach the collective target due to insufficient contributions. A collective-risk social dilemma emerges, which we here study in the realm of the spatial public goods game with group-performance-dependent risk levels. Instead of using an overall fixed value, we update the risk level in each group based on the difference between the actual contributions and the declared target. A single parameter interpolates between a step-like risk function and virtual irrelevance of the group's performance in averting the failure, thus bridging the two extremes constituting maximal and minimal feedback. We show that stronger feedback between group performance and risk level is in general more favorable for the successful evolution of public cooperation, yet only if the collective target to be reached is moderate. Paradoxically, if the goals are overambitious, intermediate feedback strengths yield optimal conditions for coopera...

  11. Bacterial danger sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor.

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  14. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    . That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of using unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems that could be avoided if we had better language tools...... at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations....

  15. Eye gaze as relational evaluation: averted eye gaze leads to feelings of ostracism and relational devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James H; Sacco, Donald F; Hugenberg, Kurt; Williams, Kipling D

    2010-07-01

    Eye gaze is often a signal of interest and, when noticed by others, leads to mutual and directional gaze. However, averting one's eye gaze toward an individual has the potential to convey a strong interpersonal evaluation. The averting of eye gaze is the most frequently used nonverbal cue to indicate the silent treatment, a form of ostracism. The authors argue that eye gaze can signal the relational value felt toward another person. In three studies, participants visualized interacting with an individual displaying averted or direct eye gaze. Compared to receiving direct eye contact, participants receiving averted eye gaze felt ostracized, signaled by thwarted basic need satisfaction, reduced explicit and implicit self-esteem, lowered relational value, and increased temptations to act aggressively toward the interaction partner.

  16. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  17. Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2{\\deg}C Global Warming is Dangerous

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    We use numerical climate simulations, paleoclimate data, and modern observations to study the effect of growing ice melt from Antarctica and Greenland. Meltwater tends to stabilize the ocean column, inducing amplifying feedbacks that increase subsurface ocean warming and ice shelf melting. Cold meltwater and induced dynamical effects cause ocean surface cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic, thus increasing Earth's energy imbalance and heat flux into most of the global ocean's surface. Southern Ocean surface cooling, while lower latitudes are warming, increases precipitation on the Southern Ocean, increasing ocean stratification, slowing deepwater formation, and increasing ice sheet mass loss. These feedbacks make ice sheets in contact with the ocean vulnerable to accelerating disintegration. We hypothesize that ice mass loss from the most vulnerable ice, sufficient to raise sea level several meters, is better approximated as exponential than by a more linear response. Doubling times of 10, 20 or 4...

  18. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  19. A Danger to Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  20. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  1. Dangers of peace journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of mission shared by some peace journalists is a dangerous attitude. All journalists can do to give peace a chance is to serve as mediators, helping conflict parties overcome the competitive misperceptions and societal beliefs that fuel conflict. If peace journalists try to promote and impose their own solutions, however, frustration is inevitable and will finally result in the search for an evildoer who can be made responsible. Thus by involving themselves in conflicts, journalists can become unintentional agents of conflict escalation.

  2. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  3. Early averted gaze processing in the right Fusiform Gyrus: An EEG source imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchio, Cristina; Rihs, Tonia A; Piguet, Camille; Dayer, Alexandre G; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Michel, Christoph M

    2016-09-01

    Humans are able to categorize face properties with impressively short latencies. Nevertheless, the latency at which gaze recognition occurs is still a matter of debate. Through spatio-temporal analysis of high-density event-related potentials (ERP), we investigated the brain activity underlying the ability to spontaneously and quickly process gaze. We presented neutral faces with direct and averted gaze in a matching picture paradigm, where subjects had to detect repetition of identical faces and gaze was implicitly manipulated. The results indicate that faces with averted gaze were better discriminated than faces with direct gaze, and evoked stronger P100 amplitudes localized to the right fusiform gyrus. In contrast, direct gaze induced stronger activation in the orbital frontal gyrus at this latency. Later in time, at the beginning of the N170 component, direct gaze induced changes in scalp topography with a stronger activation in the right medial temporal gyrus. The location of these differential activations of direct vs. averted gaze further support the view that faces with averted gaze are perceived as less rewarding than faces with direct gaze. We additionally found differential ERP responses between repeated and novel faces as early as 50ms, thereby replicating earlier studies of very fast detection of mnestic aspects of stimuli. Together, these results suggest an early dissociation between implicit gaze detection and explicit identity processing.

  4. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  5. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured.

  6. Dangers and Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha Maria; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of young people’s conceptions of illegal drug use as dangerous and/or pleasurable and an analysis of the relationship between attitudes to drugs, drinking, friends’ reported drug use and own experience with drug use and drinking. The article applies a mixed methods approach using...... both survey data and focus group interviews. The main statistical method is Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), which constructs a social space of young people’s attitudes to drugs and drug experiences relationally. We identify four interrelated positions on illegal drug use among 17 to 19-year......-old Danes: the anti-drug position, usually held by youths who do not use illegal drugs and do not have drug-using friends; the ambivalent position, occupied by non-users who report that they have drug-using friends; the transitory position, held by cannabis users, some of whom express positive attitudes...

  7. A dangerous mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old woman was admitted for fatigue and arm paresthesias with Trousseau sign. Her medical history included thyroidectomy and hypercholesterolemia recently treated with simvastatin. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia and hypocalcemia, severe increase in muscle enzymes, metabolic alkalosis; low plasma renin activity, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone, normal free thyroxine, increased parathyroid hormone, decreased vitamin D3; alterations in electrolyte urinary excretion, cortisol and aldosterone were excluded. Hypothesizing a statin-related myopathy, simvastatin was suspended; the patient reported use of laxatives containing licorice. Electrolytes normalized with intravenous supplementation. Among many biochemical alterations, none stands out as a major cause for muscular and electrolyte disorders. All co-factors are inter-connected, starting with statin-induced myopathy, worsened by hypothyroidism, secondary hyperaldosteronism and vitamin D deficiency, leading to hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, perpetrating muscular and electrolyte disorders. The importance of considering clinical conditions as a whole emerges with multiple co-factors involved. Another issue concerns herbal products and their potential dangerous effects.

  8. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J.; Thorat, Teja; Zhong, Yue; Anderson, Jordan; Farquhar, Megan; Salem, Mark; Sandberg, Eileen; Saret, Cayla J.; Wilkinson, Colby; Cohen, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. Methods We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases “disability-adjusted” or “DALY”. Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000–2009 and 2010–2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high), and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions. Results We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%), followed by non-communicable diseases (28%). A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%). Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32%) followed by immunizations (28%). Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied

  9. Implementing a complex rehabilitation intervention in a stroke trial: a qualitative process evaluation of AVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Luker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation interventions is challenging, even when the intervention is evidence-based. Very little is known about the implementation of complex interventions in rehabilitation clinical trials. The aim of study was to better understand how the implementation of a rehabilitation intervention in a clinical trial within acute stroke units is experienced by the staff involved. This qualitative process evaluation was part of a large Phase III stroke rehabilitation trial (AVERT. Methods A descriptive qualitative approach was used. We purposively sampled 53 allied health and nursing staff from 19 acute stroke units in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone, voice-internet, or face to face. Digitally recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by two researchers using rigorous thematic analysis. Results Our analysis uncovered ten important themes that provide insight into the challenges of implementing complex new rehabilitation practices within complex care settings, plus factors and strategies that assisted implementation. Themes were grouped into three main categories: staff experience of implementing the trial intervention, barriers to implementation, and overcoming the barriers. Participation in the trial was challenging but had personal rewards and improved teamwork at some sites. Over the years that the trial ran some staff perceived a change in usual care. Barriers to trial implementation at some sites included poor teamwork, inadequate staffing, various organisational barriers, staff attitudes and beliefs, and patient-related barriers. Participants described successful implementation strategies that were built on interdisciplinary teamwork, education and strong leadership to ‘get staff on board’, and developing different ways of working. Conclusions The AVERT stroke rehabilitation trial required commitment to deliver

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening Men in Maricopa County Jails for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea to Avert Infections in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Huang, Ya-Lin A.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Taylor, Melanie; Gales, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections can lead to serious and costly sequelae in women, but sequelae in men are rare. In accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, female jail inmates in Maricopa County (Phoenix area), Arizona, are screened for these infections. Owing to lack of evidence of screening benefits in men, male inmates are tested and treated based on symptoms only. Methods We developed a probabilistic simulation model to simulate chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in Maricopa County jail male inmates and transmissions to female partners per year. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening as the cost per infection averted. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health and the Correctional Health Services. Results Compared with symptom-based testing and treating strategy, screening male arrestees of all ages and only those 35 years or younger yielded the following results: averted approximately 556 and 491 cases of infection in women at a cost of approximately US $1240 and $860 per case averted, respectively, if screened during physical examination (between days 8 and 14 from entry to jail), and averted approximately 1100 and 995 cases of infections averted at a cost of US $1030 and $710 per infection averted, respectively, if screened early, within 2 to 3 days from entry to jail. Conclusions Screening of male inmates incurs a modest cost per infection averted in women compared with symptom-based testing. Screening in correctional settings can be used by public health programs to reduce disease burden, sequelae, and associated costs. PMID:24275727

  11. Default-all is dangerous!

    CERN Document Server

    Gatterbauer, Wolfgang; Suciu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We show that the default-all propagation scheme for database annotations is dangerous. Dangerous here means that it can propagate annotations to the query output which are semantically irrelevant to the query the user asked. This is the result of considering all relationally equivalent queries and returning the union of their where-provenance in an attempt to define a propagation scheme that is insensitive to query rewriting. We propose an alternative query-rewrite-insensitive (QRI) where-provenance called minimum propagation. It is analogous to the minimum witness basis for why-provenance, straight-forward to evaluate, and returns all relevant and only relevant annotations.

  12. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  13. Climate Change Education: Student Media Production to Educate and Engage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Brisk, A. A.; Ledley, T. S.; Shuldman, M.

    2011-12-01

    -depth scientific information to the broader public, we have found that they can be successful in conveying some of the key, basic concepts needed to understand anthropogenic climate change. Some of these concepts include the causal relationships between fossil fuel-based energy systems, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change; the distinction between natural and anthropogenic processes in the carbon cycle; impacts of climate change on ecosystem services; and transitioning to renewable energy systems that do not emit carbon dioxide is necessary to avert 'dangerous' climate change.

  14. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programs. I show how Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism can be art...... be articulated within the framework of an ethos of democratization. The article takes its empirical point of departure in debates over dangerous dogs....

  15. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent danger. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the enforcement...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  17. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  18. Climate modelling: IPCC gazes into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will report on the next set of future greenhouse-gas emission scenarios, offering a rational alternative pathway for avoiding dangerous climate change.

  19. Pro-sustainability choices and child deaths averted: from project experience to investment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriot, Eric G; Swedberg, Eric A; Ricca, James G

    2011-05-01

    The pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals and advancing the 'global health agenda' demand the achievement of health impact at scale through efficient investments. We have previously offered that sustainability-a necessary condition for successful expansion of programmes-can be addressed in practical terms. Based on benchmarks from actual child survival projects, we assess the expected impact of translating pro-sustainability choices into investment strategies. We review the experience of Save the Children US in Guinea in terms of investment, approach to sustainability and impact. It offers three benchmarks for impact: Entry project (21 lives saved of children under age five per US$100 000), Expansion project (37 LS/US$100k), and Continuation project (100 LS/US$100k). Extrapolating this experience, we model the impact of a traditional investment scenario against a pro-sustainability scenario and compare the deaths averted per dollar spent over five project cycles. The impact per dollar spent on a pro-sustainability strategy is 3.4 times that of a traditional one over the long run (range from 2.2 to 5.7 times in a sensitivity analysis). This large efficiency differential between two investment approaches offers a testable hypothesis for large-scale/long-term studies. The 'bang for the buck' of health programmes could be greatly increased by following a pro-sustainability investment strategy.

  20. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined.

  1. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  2. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  3. Matrix analysis and risk management to avert depression and suicide among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Takeaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide is among the most tragic outcomes of all mental disorders, and the prevalence of suicide has risen dramatically during the last decade, particularly among workers. This paper reviews and proposes strategies to avert suicide and depression with regard to the mind body medicine equation hypothesis, metrics analysis of mental health problems from a public health and clinical medicine view. In occupational fields, the mind body medicine hypothesis has to deal with working environment, working condition, and workers' health. These three factors chosen in this paper were based on the concept of risk control, called San-kanri, which has traditionally been used in Japanese companies, and the causation concepts of host, agent, and environment. Working environment and working condition were given special focus with regard to tackling suicide problems. Matrix analysis was conducted by dividing the problem of working conditions into nine cells: three prevention levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary were proposed for each of the three factors of the mind body medicine hypothesis (working environment, working condition, and workers' health. After using these main strategies (mind body medicine analysis and matrix analysis to tackle suicide problems, the paper talks about the versatility of case-method teaching, "Hiyari-Hat activity," routine inspections by professionals, risk assessment analysis, and mandatory health check-up focusing on sleep and depression. In the risk assessment analysis, an exact assessment model was suggested using a formula based on multiplication of the following three factors: (1 severity, (2 frequency, and (3 possibility. Mental health problems, including suicide, are rather tricky to deal with because they involve evaluation of individual cases. The mind body medicine hypothesis and matrix analysis would be appropriate tactics for suicide prevention because they would help the evaluation of this issue as a

  4. Drug-Related Hyponatremic Encephalopathy: Rapid Clinical Response Averts Life-Threatening Acute Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Arthur J.; Forte, Sophie S.; Bhatti, Nasir A.; Gelda, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 63 Final Diagnosis: Drug-induced hyponatremic encephalopathy Symptoms: Seizures • coma Medication: Hypertonic 3% saline infusion Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Drug-induced hyponatremia characteristically presents with subtle psychomotor symptoms due to its slow onset, which permits compensatory volume adjustment to hypo-osmolality in the central nervous system. Due mainly to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), this condition readily resolves following discontinuation of the responsible pharmacological agent. Here, we present an unusual case of life-threatening encephalopathy due to adverse drug-related effects, in which a rapid clinical response facilitated emergent treatment to avert life-threatening acute cerebral edema. Case Report: A 63-year-old woman with refractory depression was admitted for inpatient psychiatric care with a normal physical examination and laboratory values, including a serum sodium [Na+] of 144 mEq/L. She had a grand mal seizure and became unresponsive on the fourth day of treatment with the dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI] duloxetine while being continued on a thiazide-containing diuretic for a hypertensive disorder. Emergent infusion of intravenous hypertonic (3%) saline was initiated after determination of a serum sodium [Na+] of 103 mEq/L with a urine osmolality of 314 mOsm/kg H20 and urine [Na+] of 12 mEq/L. Correction of hyposmolality in accordance with current guidelines resulted in progressive improvement over several days, and she returned to her baseline mental status. Conclusions: Seizures with life-threatening hyponatremic encephalopathy in this case likely resulted from co-occurring SIADH and sodium depletion due to duloxetine and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. A rapid clinical response expedited diagnosis and emergent treatment to reverse life-threatening acute cerebral edema

  5. [Dangerous sharks in tropical seas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, J; Menard, G; Drouin, C; Pollet, L

    2000-01-01

    Sightseeing travel in tropical zones is a growing industry. The risks incurred by travelers depend on the destination, duration of stay, individual behavior, and type of leisure activity. Water sports expose visitors to encounters with dangerous marine animals. Shark attacks are rare but always serious occurrences. Divers should handle any shark, regardless of size, with due precaution. Prevention of shark attack depends on avoiding encounters by not attracting the attention of the shark and knowing the proper attitude to adopt in case an encounter should occur. Active and passive protection can be used, but each method has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Rescue operations are difficult due to the gravity of injuries and their occurrence in a marine environment. This along with the nature of the aggressor explain that many attacks are immediately fatal. Wounds are often deep with involvement of bone, blood vessels, and nerves. A possible source of complication in survivors is infection, which can involve uncommon microorganisms associated with bacteria in sharks mouth or marine environment.

  6. Dendritic Cells as Danger-Recognizing Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokmann Hong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells that are characterized by a potent capacity to initiate immune responses. DCs comprise several subsets with distinct phenotypes. After sensing any danger(s to the host via their innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors, DCs become mature and subsequently present antigens to CD4+ T cells. Since DCs possess the intrinsic capacity to polarize CD4+ helper cells, it is critical to understand the immunological roles of DCs for clinical applications. Here, we review the different DC subsets, their danger-sensing receptors and immunological functions. Furthermore, the cytokine reporter mouse model for studying DC activation is introduced.

  7. Opioids and Alcohol a Dangerous Cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken opioids previously. Oxycodone, an ingredient in the brand-name drugs OxyContin and Percocet, is widely prescribed ... in the journal Anesthesiology . "We hope to increase awareness regarding the dangers of prescription opioids, the increased ...

  8. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discuss...... whether some adherents of retributivism give a plausible rationale for punishing offenders more harshly if they, all else being equal, by means of predictions are believed to be more dangerous than other offenders. While consequentialism has no problem, at least in principle, with this use of predictions...... to be dangerous in the future more harshly than non-dangerous offenders. After having reconstructed their arguments in detail, it will be argued that both Duff's and Morse's attempts to give a retributivistic justification have several shortcomings....

  9. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  10. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  11. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  12. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  13. Cardiovascular disease and impoverishment averted due to a salt reduction policy in South Africa: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David A; Olson, Zachary D; Verguet, Stéphane; Nugent, Rachel A; Jamison, Dean T

    2016-02-01

    The South African Government recently set targets to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) by lowering salt consumption. We conducted an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to model the potential health and economic impacts of this salt policy. We used surveys and epidemiologic studies to estimate reductions in CVD resulting from lower salt intake. We calculated the average out-of-pocket (OOP) cost of CVD care, using facility fee schedules and drug prices. We estimated the reduction in OOP expenditures and government subsidies due to the policy. We estimated public and private sector costs of policy implementation. We estimated financial risk protection (FRP) from the policy as (1) cases of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) averted or (2) cases of poverty averted. We also performed a sensitivity analysis. We found that the salt policy could reduce CVD deaths by 11%, with similar health gains across income quintiles. The policy could save households US$ 4.06 million (2012) in OOP expenditures (US$ 0.29 per capita) and save the government US$ 51.25 million in healthcare subsidies (US$ 2.52 per capita) each year. The cost to the government would be only US$ 0.01 per capita; hence, the policy would be cost saving. If the private sector food reformulation costs were passed on to consumers, food expenditures would increase by salt reduction can have positive economic impacts-substantially reducing OOP expenditures and providing FRP, particularly for the middle class. The policy could also provide large government savings on health care.

  14. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Miguel B; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring in Natura 2000 areas. Protected areas are expected to retain climatic suitability for species better than unprotected areas (P<0.001), but Natura 2000 areas retain climate suitability for species no better and sometimes less effectively than unprotected areas. The risk is high that ongoing efforts to conserve Europe's biodiversity are jeopardized by climate change. New policies are required to avert this risk. PMID:21447141

  15. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  16. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula...

  17. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated danger marks. Isolated danger marks indicate an isolated danger which may be passed on all sides. As...

  18. 33 CFR 334.5 - Disestablishment of a danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disestablishment of a danger zone..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.5 Disestablishment of a danger zone. (a) Upon receipt of a request from any agency for the disestablishment of a danger zone, the...

  19. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorci, Guglielmo; Giovannini, Gloria; Riuzzi, Francesca; Bonifazi, Pierluigi; Zelante, Teresa; Zagarella, Silvia; Bistoni, Francesco; Donato, Rosario; Romani, Luigina

    2011-03-01

    Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  20. The danger model: questioning an unconvincing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowski, Szczepan

    2016-02-01

    Janeway's pattern recognition theory holds that the immune system detects infection through a limited number of the so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors bind specific chemical compounds expressed by entire groups of related pathogens, but not by host cells (pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In contrast, Matzinger's danger hypothesis postulates that products released from stressed or damaged cells have a more important role in the activation of immune system than the recognition of nonself. These products, named by analogy to PAMPs as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are proposed to act through the same receptors (PRRs) as PAMPs and, consequently, to stimulate largely similar responses. Herein, I review direct and indirect evidence that contradict the widely accepted danger theory, and suggest that it may be false.

  1. Keep away from danger: Dangerous objects in dynamic and static situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena eAnelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroscience studies have shown that objects observation evokes specific affordances (i.e., action possibilities and motor responses. Recent findings provide evidence that even dangerous objects can modulate the motor system evoking aversive affordances. This sounds intriguing since so far the majority of behavioral, brain imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies with painful and dangerous stimuli strictly concerned the domain of pain, excepted for evidence suggesting sensitivity to objects’ affordances when neutral objects are located in participants’ peripersonal space. This study investigates whether the observation of a neutral or dangerous object in a static or dynamic situation differently influences motor responses, and the time-course of the dangerous objects’ processing. In three experiments we manipulated: object dangerousness (neutral vs. dangerous; object category (artifact vs. natural; manual response typology (press vs. release a key; object presentation (Experiment 1: dynamic, Experiments 2 and 3: static; object movement direction (Experiment 1: away vs. toward the participant or size (Experiments 2 and 3: big vs. normal vs. small. The task required participants to decide whether the object was an artifact or a natural object, by pressing or releasing one key. Results showed a facilitation for neutral over dangerous objects in the static situation, probably due to an affordance effect. Instead, in the dynamic condition responses were modulated by the object movement direction, with a dynamic affordance effect of neutral objects and an escape-avoidance effect of dangerous objects (neutral objects were processed faster when they moved toward-approached the participant, whereas dangerous objects were processed faster when they moved away from the participant. Moreover, static stimuli influenced the manual response typology. These data indicate the emergence of dynamic affordance and escaping

  2. Transhumanism: projections of opportunities, risks and dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Kindras, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    The experience of recent decades reveals a special changeability of various aspects of human existence. The nomadic movement in space «trans» is especially typical. Modern philosophical thought for these processes uses the term «transhumanism». The paper considers scientifically oriented outlook of transhumanism, analyzes the opportunities, risks and dangers of biotechnological transformation of human into posthuman.

  3. Honeybee communication: a signal for danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2010-04-27

    Scout honeybees recruit other bees to visit a newly discovered food source through the famous 'waggle dance'. Now a new study reports that other nest mates can induce the dancer to stop advertising, if they have experienced danger at that location.

  4. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discu...

  5. Securing the dangerous UN convoys in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Albrecht, Peter; Ravnkilde, Signe Cold

    2017-01-01

    It has proven particularly challenging for the UN stabilization mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to transport fuel, food and water to military camps in Sector North on the frontline of the mission. Convoy escorts drain the UN mission of resources and is one of its most dangerous tasks, mainly carried ou...

  6. Augustine on the Dangers of Friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawar, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The philosophers of antiquity had much to say about the place of friendship in the good life and its role in helping us live virtuously. Augustine is unusual in giving substantial attention to the dangers of friendship and its potential to serve as an obstacle (rather than an aid) to virtue. Despite

  7. Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Lacroix, Didier; Amundsen, F.H.;

    1999-01-01

    A paper which describes the work of an OECD research group. The group has suggested a grouping of dangerous materials, a quantitative risk assessment model and a decision support model which should allow tunnel operators to determine if a given material should be allowed throug a given tunnel...

  8. The dangers of non-empirical confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In the book "String Theory and the Scientific Method", Richard Dawid describes a few of the many non-empirical arguments that motivate theoretical physicists' confidence in a theory, taking string theory as case study. I argue that excessive reliance on non-empirical evidence compromises the reliability of science, and that precisely the case of string theory well illustrates this danger.

  9. Climate risks phenomenology and options to cope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Fraedrich, K. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst; Block, A. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Humankind, in this cultural and economic settings, is largely adapted to climatic conditions but also permanently threatened by their instabilities. The dangers for the probably affected elements of civilization include a broad range of temporal and spatial impact scales. Most of them can be accessed as climate risks caused by the extremes of the natural climate variability connected with the undisturbed climate or the impacts of the climate currently on the move. (authors)

  10. Long-term temporal changes in the occurrence of a high forest fire danger in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mäkelä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate variation and change influence several ecosystem components including forest fires. To examine long-term temporal variations of forest fire danger, a fire danger day (FDD model was developed. Using mean temperature and total precipitation of the Finnish wildfire season (June–August, the model describes the climatological preconditions of fire occurrence and gives the number of fire danger days during the same time period. The performance of the model varied between different regions in Finland being best in south and west. In the study period 1908–2011, the year-to-year variation of FDD was large and no significant increasing or decreasing tendencies could be found. Negative slopes of linear regression lines for FDD could be explained by the simultaneous, mostly not significant increases in precipitation. Years with the largest wildfires did not stand out from the FDD time series. This indicates that intra-seasonal variations of FDD enable occurrence of large-scale fires, despite the whole season's fire danger is on an average level. Based on available monthly climate data, it is possible to estimate the general fire conditions of a summer. However, more detailed input data about weather conditions, land use, prevailing forestry conventions and socio-economical factors would be needed to gain more specific information about a season's fire risk.

  11. Net financial benefits of averting HIV infections among people who inject drugs in Urumqi, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China (2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Mingjian J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To quantify the contribution of locally implemented prevention programmes in contributing to reductions in treatment and care costs by averting HIV infections among those who inject drugs this study calculates net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes using information from services being implemented in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China ( between 2005 and 2010. Methods Information was collected to assess cost of providing methadone treatment (MMT and needle and syringe programmes (NSP. HIV incidence was estimated among people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV infections averted were calculated. Net benefit was assessed by estimating costs of providing prevention programmes and comparing these to the costs of providing care. Results An estimated 5678 (range 3982–7599 HIV infections were averted between 2005 and 2010 and the net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes compared to treatment and care costs for HIV infections averted was USD 4.383 million during the same time period. Conclusion These results demonstrate the net and accumulating benefit of investing in harm reduction programmes for PWID in Urumqi. The return on investment progressively increased during the time period studied and it is clear that these cost savings will continue to accrue with the continued implementation of HIV prevention interventions in the community that include harm reduction programmes targeted at PWID.

  12. Climate hotspots: key vulnerable regions, climate change and limits to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, W.; Cramer, W.; Schaeffer, M.; Battaglini, A.; Jaeger, C.

    2011-01-01

    Defining and operationalizing Article 2 of the UNFCCC remains a challenge. The question of what is dangerous climate change is not a purely scientific one, as danger necessarily has a subjective dimension and its definition requires judgment and precaution. The papers in this special issue of Region

  13. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...

  14. A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161005.html A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go' At least 14 crashes ... it remains imperative for people to understand the dangers of driving with that level of distraction. "This ...

  15. A danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruirui; Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times.

  16. Affective and Emotional Performances of Danger on Tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; van Hoven, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how danger is affectively and emotionally experienced and performed in different tourism contexts. We draw on Brian Massumi’s work on affect as intensity to show how danger is experienced and outlived to tell the story. The exact origin of danger is not the most important, t

  17. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  18. Modulation of Mitochondrial Complex I Activity Averts Cognitive Decline in Multiple Animal Models of Familial Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of therapeutic strategies to prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD is of great importance. We show that mild inhibition of mitochondrial complex I with small molecule CP2 reduces levels of amyloid beta and phospho-Tau and averts cognitive decline in three animal models of familial AD. Low-mass molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical studies confirmed that CP2 competes with flavin mononucleotide for binding to the redox center of complex I leading to elevated AMP/ATP ratio and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in neurons and mouse brain without inducing oxidative damage or inflammation. Furthermore, modulation of complex I activity augmented mitochondrial bioenergetics increasing coupling efficiency of respiratory chain and neuronal resistance to stress. Concomitant reduction of glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity and restoration of axonal trafficking resulted in elevated levels of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins in adult AD mice. Our results suggest that metabolic reprogramming induced by modulation of mitochondrial complex I activity represents promising therapeutic strategy for AD.

  19. Assessing the Danger: Validation of Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-ling

    2015-09-01

    The Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment (TIPVDA) is an IPV risk assessment instrument developed to assist front-line professionals with assessing victim's likelihood of experiencing lethal danger, and is also used to identify intervention strategies. The validation of TIPVDA with an independent sample of 543 female IPV victims in a program was examined in this study. The analysis results revealed the discriminant power of the TIPVDA. In addition, the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was strongly supportive of predictive effects of the TIPVDA. And the findings suggest that the TIPVDA had stronger predictive power for high dangerousness. Implications for future research and utilization of the TIPVDA are discussed.

  20. Comparisons and Assessment of Forest Fire Danger Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiao-rui; Douglas J Mcrae; Den Boychuk; Jin Ji-zhong; Gao Cheng-da; Shu Li-fu; Wang Ming-yu

    2005-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description about the current main forest fire danger rating systems in the world, which include forest fire danger rating system used in Canada, USA, Australia, and other countries. It shows the composition, structure and development of the main fire danger rating systems. The limitations of those systems are also discussed. Through a comparison of the three main forest fire danger rating systems the paper describes their differences on development, fuel complex descriptions, inputs and outputs, and their applications and finds that the technologies of the Canadian forest fire danger rating system can be adopted for China to develop a national forest fire danger rating system. Two steps are needed to develop our own national forest fire danger rating system. Firstly, we apply the CFFDRS directly. Then some studies should be done to calibrate the FDRS to local weather and fuel characteristics.

  1. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  2. STUDY ON FOREST FIRE DANGER MODEL WITHREMOTE SENSING BASED ON GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Forest fire is one of the main natural hazards because of its fierce destructiveness. Various researches on fire real-time monitoring, behavior simulation and loss assessment have been carried out in many countries. As fire prevention is probably the most efficient means for protecting forests, suitable methods should be developed for estimating the fire danger. Fire danger is composed of ecological, human and climatic factors. Therefore, the systematic analysis of the factors including forest characteristics, meteorological status, topographic condition causing forest fire is made in this paper at first. The relationships between biophysical factors and fire danger are paid more attention to. Then the parameters derived from remote sensing data are used to estimate the fire danger variables, According to the analysis, not only PVI (Perpendicular Vegetation Index) can classify different vegetation but also crown density is captured with PVI. Vegetation moisture content has high correlation with the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (LE) to potential ecapotranspiration (LEp). SI (Structural Index), which is the combination of TM band 4 and 5 data, is a good indicator of forest age. Finally, a fire dsnger prediction model, in which relative importance of each fire factor is taken into account, is built based on GIS.

  3. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  4. Dangerous situations in a synchronized flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

    2007-04-01

    This paper studies the dangerous situation (DS) in a synchronized flow model. The DS on the two branches of the fundamental diagram are investigated, respectively. It is shown that different relationship between DS probability and the density exists in the synchronized flow and in the jams. Moreover, we prove that there is no DS caused by non-stopped car although the model itself is a non-exclusion process. We classify the DS into four sub-types and study the probability of these four sub-types. The simulation result is consistent with the real traffic.

  5. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  6. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  7. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial.

  8. Boys Live Dangerously in the Womb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIKSSON, JOHAN G.; KAJANTIE, EERO; OSMOND, CLIVE; THORNBURG, KENT; BARKER, DAVID J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of every human fetus is constrained by the limited capacity of the mother and placenta to deliver nutrients to it. At birth, boys tend to be longer than girls at any placental weight. Boy’s placentas may therefore be more efficient than girls, but may have less reserve capacity. In the womb boys grow faster than girls and are therefore at greater risk of becoming undernourished. Fetal undernutrition leads to small size at birth and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, in later life. We studied 2003 men and women aged around 62 years who were born in Helsinki, Finland, of whom 644 had hypertension: we examined their body and placental size at birth. In both sexes, hypertension was associated with low birth weight. In men, hypertension was also associated with a long minor diameter of the placental surface. The dangerous growth strategy of boys may be compounded by the costs of compensatory placental enlargement in late gestation. In women, hypertension was associated with a small placental area, which may reduce nutrient delivery to the fetus. In men, hypertension was linked to the mothers’ socioeconomic status, an indicator of their diets: in women it was linked to the mothers’ heights, an indicator of their protein metabolism. Boys’ greater dependence on their mothers’ diets may enable them to capitalize on an improving food supply, but it makes them vulnerable to food shortages. The ultimate manifestation of their dangerous strategies may be that men have higher blood pressures and shorter lives than women. PMID:19844898

  9. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental

  10. “Coral Dominance”: A Dangerous Ecosystem Misnomer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Vroom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 100 years ago, before threats such as global climate change and ocean acidification were issues engrossing marine scientists, numerous tropical reef biologists began expressing concern that too much emphasis was being placed on coral dominance in reef systems. These researchers believed that the scientific community was beginning to lose sight of the overall mix of calcifying organisms necessary for the healthy function of reef ecosystems and demonstrated that some reefs were naturally coral dominated with corals being the main organisms responsible for reef accretion, yet other healthy reef ecosystems were found to rely almost entirely on calcified algae and foraminifera for calcium carbonate accumulation. Despite these historical cautionary messages, many agencies today have inherited a coral-centric approach to reef management, likely to the detriment of reef ecosystems worldwide. For example, recent research has shown that crustose coralline algae, a group of plants essential for building and cementing reef systems, are in greater danger of exhibiting decreased calcification rates and increased solubility than corals in warmer and more acidic ocean environments. A shift from coral-centric views to broader ecosystem views is imperative in order to protect endangered reef systems worldwide.

  11. Modelling avalanche danger and understanding snow depth variability

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the causes of avalanche danger at a regional scale. Modelled snow stratigraphy variables were linked to [1] forecasted avalanche danger and [2] observed snowpack stability. Spatial variability of snowpack parameters in a region is an additional important factor that influences the avalanche danger. Snow depth and its change during individual snow fall periods are snowpack parameters which can be measured at a high spatial resolution. Hence, the spatial distribution of sn...

  12. Averting a Moral Landslide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao said food safety scandals in China indicate serious moral degradation Incidents related to food safety indicate that"dishonesty and moral degradation"have become a very serious problem in the country,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said on April 14.Wen made the remark during a

  13. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind, but memories of the meltdown have barely faded. But what made the world’s economy so vulnerable, and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it?

  14. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind,but memories of the meltdown have barely faded.But what made the world's economy so vulnerable,and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it? Yi Gang,Deputy Governor of the People's Bank of China and Administrator of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange,discussed these issues in a speech at the Lujiazui Forum 2010 held in Shanghai on June 25-26.Edited excerpts follow:

  15. The danger of misunderstanding ‘culture’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most conservationists working in Madagascar recognise thatif conservation goals are to be achieved, conservation bodieshave to work together with, rather than against, local people.One important aspect of this is taking local ‘culture’ into account.However, what is understood by ‘culture’ in such contexts tendsto be extremely partial as ‘culture’ is almost always limited totaboos (fady. The article discusses the danger of such a narrowview suggesting that ‘culture’ is infinitely more complex andsubtle than its immediately apparent surface. I argue that if conservationists’ commitment to take ‘culture’ seriously is genuine, it must also apply to those cultural phenomena that are in conflict with conservation programmes. This applies in particular to rural Malagasy people’s desire to have many descendants; a desire which is linked to their fundamental understanding of what represents a meaningful life.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  17. Ethics consultation: a dangerous, antidemocratic charlatanry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Giles Scofield's argument indicates ethics consultants may need to better clarify what in fact they are and what they are not doing, claiming, and striving for. But we must not step back too far. We must neither engage in putting in envious professional claims for exclusive rights in the area of difficult and momentous decisions in healthcare nor get stuck in discussing normative ethics at the level of metaphysics, ontology, and dogmatics (as has happened in Germany for decades). We must not do so especially in view of the achievements of ethics consultation and the growing demand for it by all parties involved, conceded even by sceptics. Ethics consultation, according to Scofield, appears to be dangerous....Let us look more closely at the logic of the argument by discussing the presumed "antidemocratic" nature. The "new tyranny" of thoughts, and the "proper" role of bioethics consultation. Some considerations about the possibility of ethics expertise shall be left for the end.

  18. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  19. The European climate under a 2 degrees C global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Vautard, R.; A. Gobiet; S. Sobolowski; Kjellström, E; Stegehuis, A.; Watkiss, P.; Mendlik, T.; Landgren, O.; Nikulin, G.; Teichmann, C.; D. Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A global warming of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change. The possible changes in regional climate under this target level of global warming have so far not been investigated in detail. Using an ensemble of 15 regional climate simulations downscaling six transient global climate simulations, we identify the respective time periods corresp...

  20. Architecture, energy and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Architecture has always had to relate to climatic conditions while providing shelter from the sun, the rain, the winds or the cold. This is a main purpose of buildings: To establish an indoor climate different from the outdoor. In the Nordic countries fuels for heating buildings has been a vital...... necessity almost as basic as food and water, and lack of wood has caused illness and migration - scarcity of energy is not a new topic either [Kjærgaard]. The new aspects are that human civilization is in danger of causing severe global climate changes, secondly that we can foresee using up the global non......-renewable reserves of oil, gas and uranium, both aspects capable of pulling the carpet under human civilization itself as we know it. The huge energy consumption especially in the northern hemisphere is closely linked to industrialization, and the response from those aware of energy and climate problems has in some...

  1. Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs has been proposed in high-income countries to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to estimate the potential health effects of such a fiscal strategy in the middle-income country of India, where there is heterogeneity in SSB consumption, patterns of substitution between SSBs and other beverages after tax increases, and vast differences in chronic disease risk within the population.Using consumption and price variations data from a nationally representative survey of 100,855 Indian households, we first calculated how changes in SSB price alter per capita consumption of SSBs and substitution with other beverages. We then incorporated SSB sales trends, body mass index (BMI, and diabetes incidence data stratified by age, sex, income, and urban/rural residence into a validated microsimulation of caloric consumption, glycemic load, overweight/obesity prevalence, and type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian subpopulations facing a 20% SSB excise tax. The 20% SSB tax was anticipated to reduce overweight and obesity prevalence by 3.0% (95% CI 1.6%-5.9% and type 2 diabetes incidence by 1.6% (95% CI 1.2%-1.9% among various Indian subpopulations over the period 2014-2023, if SSB consumption continued to increase linearly in accordance with secular trends. However, acceleration in SSB consumption trends consistent with industry marketing models would be expected to increase the impact efficacy of taxation, averting 4.2% of prevalent overweight/obesity (95% CI 2.5-10.0% and 2.5% (95% CI 1.0-2.8% of incident type 2 diabetes from 2014-2023. Given current consumption and BMI distributions, our results suggest the largest relative effect would be expected among young rural men, refuting our a priori hypothesis that urban populations would be isolated beneficiaries of SSB taxation. Key limitations of this estimation approach include the assumption that consumer expenditure behavior from prior years, captured in price

  2. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  3. 48 CFR 245.7310-4 - Dangerous property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous property. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7310-4 Dangerous property. The following warning shall be included when it cannot be certified that the property...

  4. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and technologica

  5. The generic danger and the idiosyncratic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    This contribution argues two main points. First, that generic landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these generic landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-scale, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.

  6. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  7. Euthanasia--definition, dangers and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C

    1994-03-01

    There is as yet (1992) no law specifically allowing euthanasia, the active intervention to end a patient's life. The discussion has so far been restricted to such action as taking place at a patient's request, but evidence from the Netherlands appears to show that the move to involuntary euthanasia is a real danger. Palliative medicine offers appropriate treatment for relief and support where limits are set on interventions that would no longer be in a patient's best interests. It is possible to relieve distress by using the increasing knowledge in this field. It is important to distinguish this from euthanasia and the term "passive euthanasia" is confusing and unfortunate. Those with extensive experience in the treatment of advanced cancer have much to share with practitioners in other specialties, not least in the possible achievements of both patient and family at the end of life. Society has the responsibility for including them in its concern to the end of life and for supporting those who find it difficult to believe in any meaning in their existence.

  8. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  9. Modeling human-caused forest fire ignition for assessing forest fire danger in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have not been considered as a significant threat for mountain forests of the European Alpine Space so far. Climate change and its effects on nature, ecology, forest stand structure and composition, global changes according to demands of society and general trends in the provision of ecosystem services are potentially going to have a significant effect on fire ignition in the future. This makes the prediction of forest fire ignition essential for forest managers in order to establish an effective fire prevention system and to allocate fire fighting resources effectively, especially in alpine landscapes. This paper presents a modelling approach for predicting human-caused forest fire ignition by a range of socio-economic factors associated with an increasing forest fire danger in Austria. The relationship between touristic activities, infrastructure, agriculture and forestry and the spatial occurrence of forest fires have been studied over a 17-year period between 1993 and 2009 by means of logistic regression. 59 independent socio-economic variables have been analysed with different models and validated with heterogeneous subsets of forest fire records. The variables included in the final model indicate that railroad, forest road and hiking trail density together with agricultural and forestry developments may contribute significantly to fire danger. The final model explains 60.5% of the causes of the fire events in the validation set and allows a solid prediction. Maps showing the fire danger classification allow identifying the most vulnerable forest areas in Austria and are used to predict the fire danger classes on municipality level.

  10. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  11. Reinforcing a Dangerous Rock Mass Using the Flexible Network Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wendong; Xie Quanmin; Xia Yuanyou; Li Xinping

    2005-01-01

    Because the main failure type of a dangerous rock mass is collapse, the treatment of such a mass should focus on controlling collapse failure. When treating dangerous rock masses, disturbing the mass (e.g. by blasting) needs to be avoided, as this new damage could cause collapse. So the self-bearing capacity of the mountain mass must be used to treat the dangerous rock mass. This article is based on a practical example of the control of a dangerous rock mass at Banyan Mountain, Huangshi, Hubei Province. On the basis of an analysis of damage mechanism and the stability of the dangerous rock mass, a flexible network reinforcement method was designed to prevent the collapse of the rock mass. The deformations of section Ⅱw of the dangerous rock mass before and after the flexible network reinforcement were calculated using the two-dimensional finite element method. The results show that the maximum deformation reduced by 55 % after the application of the flexible network reinforcement, from 45.99 to 20.75 mm, which demonstrates that the flexible network method is effective, and can provide some scientific basis for the treatment of dangerous rock masses.

  12. Rural Tanzanian women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the danger signs of obstetric complications is the essential first step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric and newborn care. The objectives of this study were to assess women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications and to identify associated factors in a rural district in Tanzania. Methods A total of 1118 women who had been pregnant in the past two years were interviewed. A list of medically recognized potentially life threatening obstetric signs was obtained from the responses given. Chi- square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with awareness of obstetric danger signs. Results More than 98% of the women attended antenatal care at least once. Half of the women knew at least one obstetric danger sign. The percentage of women who knew at least one danger sign during pregnancy was 26%, during delivery 23% and after delivery 40%. Few women knew three or more danger signs. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis having secondary education or more increased the likelihood of awareness of obstetric danger signs six-fold (OR = 5.8; 95% CI: 1.8–19 in comparison with no education at all. The likelihood to have more awareness increased significantly by increasing age of the mother, number of deliveries, number of antenatal visits, whether the delivery took place at a health institution and whether the mother was informed of having a risks/complications during antenatal care. Conclusion Women had low awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications. We recommend the following in order to increase awareness of danger signs of obstetrical complications: to improve quality of counseling and involving other family members in antenatal and postnatal care, to use radio messages and educational sessions targeting the whole community and to intensify

  13. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  14. Traffic danger detection by visual attention model of sparse sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏利民; 刘涛; 谭论正

    2015-01-01

    A method to detect traffic dangers based on visual attention model of sparse sampling was proposed. The hemispherical sparse sampling model was used to decrease the amount of calculation which increases the detection speed. Bayesian probability model and Gaussian kernel function were applied to calculate the saliency of traffic videos. The method of multiscale saliency was used and the final saliency was the average of all scales, which increased the detection rates extraordinarily. The detection results of several typical traffic dangers show that the proposed method has higher detection rates and speed, which meets the requirement of real-time detection of traffic dangers.

  15. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  16. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) 24th Panel Meeting. The agenda for the Working Group is...

  17. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) Working Group of the Whole...

  18. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  19. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism differentiates danger- and non-danger-based traumas in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Amy E; Litz, Brett T; Resick, Patricia A; Woolsey, Mary D; Dondanville, Katherine A; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Adam M; Borah, Elisa V; Peterson, Alan L; Fox, Peter T

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presumably the result of life threats and conditioned fear. However, the neurobiology of fear fails to explain the impact of traumas that do not entail threats. Neuronal function, assessed as glucose metabolism with (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, was contrasted in active duty, treatment-seeking US Army Soldiers with PTSD endorsing either danger- (n = 19) or non-danger-based (n = 26) traumas, and was compared with soldiers without PTSD (Combat Controls, n = 26) and Civilian Controls (n = 24). Prior meta-analyses of regions associated with fear or trauma script imagery in PTSD were used to compare glucose metabolism across groups. Danger-based traumas were associated with higher metabolism in the right amygdala than the control groups, while non-danger-based traumas associated with heightened precuneus metabolism relative to the danger group. In the danger group, PTSD severity was associated with higher metabolism in precuneus and dorsal anterior cingulate and lower metabolism in left amygdala (R(2 )= 0.61). In the non-danger group, PTSD symptom severity was associated with higher precuneus metabolism and lower right amygdala metabolism (R(2 )= 0.64). These findings suggest a biological basis to consider subtyping PTSD according to the nature of the traumatic context.

  20. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  1. How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161150.html How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions Taking multiple ... serious drug interactions are a daily threat to older people who take multiple medications and supplements, according to ...

  2. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  3. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  4. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  5. A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtczuk, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    University of Nottingham “A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.” Kamil Wojtczuk MSc Logistics and Supply Chain Management   “A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.” by Kamil Wojtczuk 2011   Summary of dissertation This dissertation comprises five chapters and three appendixes. The dissertation starts with an introduction where all research objectives are placed. In the first...

  6. Thermal instability and runaway criteria: the dangers of disregarding dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Two exemplary exothermic processes, synthesis of nitroglycerine in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and synthesis of the explosive RDX in a CSTR, are used to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the system dynamics when defining criteria for thermal criticality or runaway. Stability analyses are necessary to prescribe such criteria, and for these systems prove the presence of dangerous oscillatory thermal instability which cannot be detected using the steady state thermal balances.

  7. Climate change and paths to sustainability. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, B. (ed.); Welp, M. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the conference was to bring together international business and NGO representatives, leading scientists, climate negotiators and other experts on climate change and energy technology to discuss some of the major issues related to climate change and sustainability transition. Four main issues were on the agenda of the ECF Autumn Conference 2002. These were: (a) What is dangerous climate change?; (b) Emission targets and timing; (c) Technological transitions; (d) Policy perspectives: Europe, US and developing countries. (orig.)

  8. The semantic distinction between "risk" and "danger": a linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max

    2012-02-01

    The analysis combines frame semantic and corpus linguistic approaches in analyzing the role of agency and decision making in the semantics of the words "risk" and "danger" (both nominal and verbal uses). In frame semantics, the meanings of "risk" and of related words, such as "danger," are analyzed against the background of a specific cognitive-semantic structure (a frame) comprising frame elements such as Protagonist, Bad Outcome, Decision, Possession, and Source. Empirical data derive from the British National Corpus (100 million words). Results indicate both similarities and differences in use. First, both "risk" and "danger" are commonly used to represent situations having potential negative consequences as the result of agency. Second, "risk" and "danger," especially their verbal uses (to risk, to endanger), differ in agent-victim structure, i.e., "risk" is used to express that a person affected by an action is also the agent of the action, while "endanger" is used to express that the one affected is not the agent. Third, "risk," but not "danger," tends to be used to represent rational and goal-directed action. The results therefore to some extent confirm the analysis of "risk" and "danger" suggested by German sociologist Niklas Luhmann. As a point of discussion, the present findings arguably have implications for risk communication.

  9. Ancient origin of the new developmental superfamily DANGER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Nikolaidis

    Full Text Available Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER, which originated before the emergence of animals (approximately 850 million years ago and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution. Sequence analysis demonstrates that DANGER proteins diverged via multiple mechanisms, including amino acid substitution, intron gain and/or loss, and recombination. Divergence for DANGER proteins is substantially greater than for the prototypic member of the superfamily (Mab-21 family and other developmental protein families (e.g., WNT proteins. DANGER proteins are widely expressed and display species-dependent tissue expression patterns, with many members having roles in development. DANGER1A, which regulates the inositol trisphosphate receptor, promotes the differentiation and outgrowth of neuronal processes. Regulation of development may be a universal function of DANGER family members. This family provides a model system to investigate how rapid protein divergence contributes to morphological complexity.

  10. Geoethics in the Years of Living Dangerously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences lag behind the ecologic and atmospheric sciences in addressing the major scientific and societal ethical issues facing the inhabitants of planet Earth. Regardless, major emerging ethical issues at the interface of the earth system with society demand geoscientist engagement. These include climate change, extinction and biodiversity decline, transformation of terrestrial landscapes and related impacts on ocean ecosystems, and the consequential resonance of these changes on human health, economic and environmental justice, and political stability. The societal factors driving these issues derive from a world view founded on speciesism (human dominion), utilitarian use of resources, unquestioned population and economic growth, and human difficulty in perceiving deep time and large spatial scale. Accommodation of the supernatural, mythical, and political realms with science has led to widespread conflation of scientific consensus with opinion, driving denial of both climate change and evolution. Future success in rationally addressing these ethical conundrums requires geoscientist engagement across the social, political, economic, ethical, philosophical, and historical realms of inquiry. Geoscientists must be well-versed in earth system science principles and the major geologic concepts relevant to understanding anthropogenic change including deep time, the fossil record of evolution, and changes across multiple spatial and temporal scales that transcend human experience. They must also: 1) confront the global population issue, using the archaeological and historical record of its recent rapidly accelerated growth, especially as it impacts resource consumption and earth system function, 2) forcefully address the effects of agriculture on the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, disease, urbanization, and political instability, 3) apply the synthetic principles of conservation biology, including ecosystem science, geoecology, and major advances

  11. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  12. Danger-associated molecular patterns and danger signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Christian D; Dunmore, Rebecca; Hogaboam, Cory M; Sleeman, Matthew A; Murray, Lynne A

    2014-08-01

    The chronic debilitating lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, with a median mortality rate of 2-3 years after diagnosis. IPF is a disease of unknown cause and progression, and multiple pathways have been demonstrated to be activated in the lungs of these patients. A recent genome-wide association study of more than 1,000 patients with IPF identified genes linked to host defense, cell-cell adhesion, and DNA repair being altered due to fibrosis (Fingerlin, et al. Nat Genet 2013;45:613-620). Further emerging data suggest that the respiratory system may not be a truly sterile environment, and it exhibits an altered microbiome during fibrotic disease (Molyneaux and Maher. Eur Respir Rev 2013;22:376-381). These altered host defense mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of patients with IPF to microbial- and viral-induced exacerbations. Moreover, chronic epithelial injury and apoptosis are key features in IPF, which might be mediated, in part, by both pathogen-associated (PA) and danger-associated molecular patterns (MPs). Emerging data indicate that both PAMPs and danger-associated MPs contribute to apoptosis, but not necessarily in a manner that allows for the removal of dying cells, without further exacerbating inflammation. In contrast, both types of MPs drive cellular necrosis, leading to an exacerbation of lung injury and/or infection as the debris promotes a proinflammatory response. Thus, this Review focuses on the impact of MPs resulting from infection-driven apoptosis and necrosis during chronic fibrotic lung disease.

  13. Cultivating success: the need to climate-proof Tanzanian agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; MacGregor, James

    2009-09-15

    All farming is a gamble with nature. The impacts of climate change, however, can pit farmers against impossible odds – particularly in poor, geographically vulnerable nations with largely agrarian economies. Tanzania is one such country. Some 80 per cent of its workforce is in agriculture and, with climate change set to lower yields in key crops, the implications for its economy are serious. Where, how and when climate impacts will hit is key – as is an action plan for averting the highest costs. Policy needs to focus immediately on helping farmers adapt to climate impacts by addressing both food production and marketing efficiencies. This is crucial: Tanzania is a test case for economic impacts predicted throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Replicating this policy approach in other low-income countries is essential if low-carbon growth and other development priorities are to become realities.

  14. The sounds of safety: Stress and danger in music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1 there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2 any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3 in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the

  15. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment.

  16. Averting HIV infections in New York City: a modeling approach estimating the future impact of additional behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. METHODS: A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. RESULTS: Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted. An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average. The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lell Bertrand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT and the according to protocol (ATP trial analyses. Specifically, ATP was statistically significant, while ITT analysis was borderline. The main reason for the difference between ITT and ATP populations was migration. Methods This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of IPTi on the reduction of anaemia in Gabon, comparing results of the ITT and the ATP clinical trial analyses. Threshold analysis was conducted to identify when the intervention costs and protective efficacy of IPTi for the ATP cohort equalled the ITT cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Based on IPTi intervention costs, the cost per episode of moderate anaemia averted was US$12.88 (CI 95% 4.19, 30.48 using the ITT analysis and US$11.30 (CI 95% 4.56, 26.66 using the ATP analysis. In order for the ATP results to equal the cost-effectiveness of ITT, total ATP intervention costs should rise from 118.38 to 134 US$ ATP or the protective efficacy should fall from 27% to 18.1%. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio using ITT trial results was higher than using ATP results. Conclusions Migration implies great challenges in the organization of health interventions that require repeat visits in Gabon. This was apparent in the study as the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP worsened when drop out from the prevention was taken into account. Despite such challenges, IPTi was both inexpensive and efficacious in averting cases of moderate anaemia in infants.

  18. EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF RADIONUCLIDE DETECTORS FOR CONDUCTING A MARITIME ON-BOARD SEARCH USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION IMPLEMENTED IN AVERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S; Dave Dunn, D

    2009-03-01

    The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation implemented in AVERT{reg_sign}. AVERT{reg_sign}, short for the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risk of Terrorism, is personal computer based vulnerability assessment software developed by the ARES Corporation. The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The detectors, a RadPack and also a Personal Radiation Detector (PRD), were chosen from the class of Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS). Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS) serve multiple purposes. In the maritime environment, there is a need to detect, localize, characterize, and identify radiological/nuclear (RN) material or weapons. The RadPack is a commercially available broad-area search device used for gamma and also for neutron detection. The PRD is chiefly used as a personal radiation protection device. It is also used to detect contraband radionuclides and to localize radionuclide sources. Neither device has the capacity to characterize or identify radionuclides. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of both the RadPack and the PRD while being used under controlled conditions in a simulated maritime environment for detecting hidden RN contraband. The detection distance varies by the source strength and the shielding present. The characterization parameters of the source are not indicated in this report so the results summarized are relative. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicate the probability of detection of the RN source at certain distances from the detector which is a function of transverse speed and instrument sensitivity for the specified RN source.

  19. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  20. The Liability of European States for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger H J Cox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to climate science and the 195 signatory States to the UN Climate Convention, every emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributes to climate change. Furthermore, they hold that a two degree Celsius rise of Earth’s average temperature is to be considered as a dangerous climate change to mankind and all of the world’s ecosystems. Using the climate proceedings of Dutch citizens against the Dutch state as a starting point, the author of this case note explains why each European Member State’s contribution to dangerous climate change as a result of inadequate emission reduction policies constitutes a tort of negligence against its citizens and poses a real threat for its citizens’ effective enjoyment of human rights. The author argues that this makes individual European Nations severally liable for dangerous climate change and gives European citizens and non-governmental organisations the possibility to request their Nation State’s competent court to compel the Nation’s government to implement stricter emission reductions in accordance with what is deemed necessary to help avoid dangerous climate change and to protect their human rights.

  1. Market-oriented management method of coalmine accident hidden dangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-xia; LI Xing-dong; LU Ying; REN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the problems which exist currently in the accident hidden dangers management of the coal mine, this paper proposed a new kind of management method-"simulating the market", in which an operation pattern of simulating the market to transact hidden troubles was constructed. This method introduces "Market Mechanism"into safe management, and adopts measurable value to describe the hidden dangers such as" human behavior, technique, environment, equipments etc.". It regards the hidden dangers as "the goods produced by labor" which are found out by the safety managers and the security inspectors, then sells as "commodity". By the process of disposing, counterchecking, re-selling, and redisposing. It forms a set of market-oriented closed-form management pattern of coalmine accident hidden dangers. This kind of management method changes the past traditional methods in which the wageworkers treat safety management passively, but to encourage and restrict them to participate in the check-up and improvement of the hidden dangers.

  2. Traffic crash liability determination: Danger and Dodge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sikui; Huang, Helai

    2016-10-01

    By proposing a systematic set of rules for traffic crash liability determination, this paper attempts to prove the feasibility and practicability of legal liability in handling traffic crashes. Two sequential elements are identified for crash occurrence, i.e., the occurrence of a dangerous situation and failure in dodging the dangerous situation. A Danger and Dodge model is subsequently established for liability determination in a traffic crash. By investigating the basic mechanism of a crash occurrence, the specific contents of causalties and the effect of the parties' acts in traffic crashes are specified. Based on the theories of social adequancy, the principle of reliance and the duty of care, the study further proposes to use the "peril" of a dangerous situation and the "possibility" of dodging the dangerous situation to appraise the effect of the parties' acts upon a crash occurrence, with the rule of the "pattern deciding effect". The proposed approach would be very helpful to the concreteness of the determination of liability in a traffic crash. Two case studies are presented for demonstration.

  3. Differing types of cellular phone conversations and dangerous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Chris S; Martin, Benjamin A; Fox, Russell T; Leonard, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between cell phone conversation type and dangerous driving behaviors. It was hypothesized that more emotional phone conversations engaged in while driving would produce greater frequencies of dangerous driving behaviors in a simulated environment than more mundane conversation or no phone conversation at all. Participants were semi-randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) no call, (2) mundane call, and, (3) emotional call. While driving in a simulated environment, participants in the experimental groups received a phone call from a research confederate who either engaged them in innocuous conversation (mundane call) or arguing the opposite position of a deeply held belief of the participant (emotional call). Participants in the no call and mundane call groups differed significantly only on percent time spent speeding and center line crossings, though the mundane call group consistently engaged in more of all dangerous driving behaviors than did the no call participants. Participants in the emotional call group engaged in significantly more dangerous driving behaviors than participants in both the no call and mundane call groups, with the exception of traffic light infractions, where there were no significant group differences. Though there is need for replication, the authors concluded that whereas talking on a cell phone while driving is risky to begin with, having emotionally intense conversations is considerably more dangerous.

  4. 33 CFR 334.350 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Va.; firing range danger zone. 334.350 Section 334.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.350 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. (a) The danger zone. All of...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350 Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has... protective device for any lighting circuit that is in a gas-dangerous space must open each conductor of...

  9. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  10. Threats and Dangers in Activity of the Tourism Sector Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markina Iryna А.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the threats and dangers that affect not only the management system of the tourism sector enterprises, but their safety as well. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the essence of the concepts of “danger” and “threat” has been considered, and the classification of dangers and threats faced by tourism enterprises in an unstable environment has been carried out. As a result of the research there have been identified the main threats and dangers peculiar for subjects of tourist activity that occur in the process of operation of tourism enterprises and deficiencies in the management of material, information, human, financial and other resources of tourism enterprises. The main prospect for further research in this area is to identify the potential directions for minimizing the risks and threats that ensure not only the appropriate level of the tourism enterprise competitiveness, but its development as well.

  11. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt...... itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  12. Assessing Danger Degree of Soil Erosion in Rikaze Prefecture, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuehua; ZHOU Jianzhong; ZHOU Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    Ten indicators were selected in the present paper concerns current status of soil erosion and its driving forces. Synthesized evaluation model on danger degree of soil erosion (DDSE) was built and estimation on DDSE in Rikaze was carried out by analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This evaluation model selected indicators scientifically and reasonably, which are easy to be caught, and played well in application. Results showed that a light erosion danger degree exists in Nanmulin, Xietongmen and Angren; Dingri, Sajia, Saga, Zhongba; Nielamu, Gangba, Kangma and Rikaze County share a moderate danger degree, while other counties own severe erosion, especially Dingjie and Lazi County. Ecological environment in Rikaze is frangible. Therefore, eco-restoration and corresponding countermeasures are urgently needed in this region to guarantee a regional eco-environment healthy.

  13. The return of the dangerous man. Reflections on the idea of dangerousness and its uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Kaluszynski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, the re-emergence of the notion of dangerousness in the process of law making has rendered it necessary to elaborate on the objectives of political actors. (Act on the Retention of Safety and the Declaration of Criminal Irresponsibility Due to Mental Disorder, 25 February 2008., Act of August 10, 2007 Strengthening the Fight Against Recidivism in Adults and Minors  The aim of this article is to analyse the social construction of this notion through the criminological discourse prevalent at the end of the XIXth century. The Third Republic was preoccupied with the question of recidivism, fearing degeneration and a declining birth rate, and was seduced by another notion emerging at this time: eugenism. Contemporary law making has reactivated a historical heritage based on extreme measures that have derived from these concepts. Based on a socio-historical approach, this article attempts to understand the mechanisms of governance in a republican society, as well as the influence of these mechanisms in the production of legal, political, moral and societal norms.

  14. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  15. 2012 drug packaging review: many dangerous, reportable flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Drug packaging plays an important role in protecting and providing information to patients. The packaging examined by Prescrire in 2012, on the whole, still fails to perform all of these functions effectively. Two issues are especially worrisome. First, packaging too often poses a danger to children. In addition, too many patient leaflets provide incomplete information about adverse effects, thus failing to properly protect the most vulnerable patients. Yet, the method Prescrire used to analyse drug packaging shows that it is not difficult to detect and anticipate risks. It is up to healthcare professionals to take advantage of the method, to protect patients from, and report, dangerous packaging.

  16. Averting a Disaster with Groundwater Depletion in India: The General Case of Water Management Principles and Development (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    Many countries, including the USA, China, and India are experiencing chronic groundwater depletion. In part this unsustainable water use results from climatic factors that reduce surface water availability and also the recharge to the aquifer system. However, a more critical factor is uncontrolled use for agriculture and energy and mineral processing. Interestingly in places such as India endowments have been politically created that lead to ever increasing use, through the provision of free energy for pumping. Reversing the situation is considered politically challenging, and the concept of metering and payment for what is essentially economic use of water is also considered difficult to apply. In this talk I use the Indian situation as a general example and discuss the role central planning strategies for demand and resource management can play recognizing the private action by millions of users as an inevitable tool that needs to be leveraged without necessarily the high transaction costs that come with monitoring and fee collection for monitored use. Specifically, targeting and stimulating potential cropping strategies and on farm water and energy management emerge as a choice in a difficult management environment. In a broader development context, I argue that the role of private sector aggregators in developing farm to market procurement strategies can play a role in both improving rural economies and providing a trajectory for more efficient water use through technology and crop choice.

  17. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  18. Dangerous Events, Risk Communications and Evolutionary Governance Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, M.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conceptualizes and categorizes the various relationships between dangerous events, the emergence of risk communications and the effects on governance (the taking of collectively binding decisions in a community by a diversity of actors, inside and outside government) from Evolution

  19. Teens Share Sexually Explicit Messages: Simple Rebellion or Dangerous Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…

  20. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Results...

  1. Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Page Content ... be strong indicators of serious mental health issues. Mental Health “Red Flags” Parents Should Be Alert For: Excessive ...

  2. Cancer immunogenicity, danger signals, and DAMPs: what, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhishek D; Dudek, Aleksandra M; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Cancer immunosurvelliance usually leads to formation of cancer cells that have been "immunoedited" to resist anti-tumor immunity. One of the consequences of immunoediting that is, reduced immunogenicity, is an important roadblock in revival of stable and long-lasting anti-tumor immune responses. Research done during the last decade has shown that emission by the dying cancer cells of immunomodulatory factors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can act as danger signals, is a critical event in accentuating the immunogenicity of cancer cells, in response to a subset of anticancer treatments. Recent evidence has defined that an apoptotic cell death subroutine and its underlying biochemistry, which has been termed as "immunogenic cell death (ICD)" or "immunogenic apoptosis," is required for the efficient emission of DAMPs and inciting anti-tumor immunity. Here, we review the basic concepts of ICD, like cancer immunogenicity, danger signals, and DAMPs. Moreover, we discuss the emerging molecular links between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, induction of a viral response-like gene expression, danger signals, and anti-tumor immunity. We envisage that along with ER stress-based trafficking of DAMPs (which is a "short-range communicator" of danger), the accompanying induction of a viral response-like gene expression and the secretion of anti-tumorigenic cytokines may become a crucial signature of ICD induction by anticancer therapy.

  3. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences.

  4. Danger-signaler og inflammasomer ved autoinflammatoriske og autoimmune sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inflammasomes are formed through activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system. Endogenous and exogenous danger signals, e.g. DNA- and RNA-fragments, urate- and cholesterol crystals, silica and asbestos, ß-amyloid, UV-light and skin irritants, may induce...

  5. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  6. Climate Science: A Journalist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosevelt, M.

    2011-12-01

    U.S. public opinion polls show that concern over global warming has dropped precipitously in the wake of economic turmoil. With a dearth of climate change coverage on network news, and in large newspapers and magazines, the public largely gets its climate news--and science news generally--from local TV weathermen. At the same time, many local weathercasters have little time to educate themselves about climate change--although the National Science Foundation is funding an effort to inform them. The Heartland Institute and other climate-skeptic organizations are reaching out to TV weathermen, and some prominent weathercasters have embraced the skeptics' arguments, but websites such as Climate Central, and blogs such as DotEarth are seeking to fill the void. The innate caution of climate scientists, most of whom are reluctant to extrapolate from a narrow study on, say, carbon flux or sea ice, to talk about why the planet is in danger is another challenge. For the most part, they don't want to stick their necks out for fear of professional retribution. When scientists limit themselves to talking about narrow results, journalists' eyes glaze over and no one connects the dots. Much attention is devoted to whether or not the media is doing a good job in covering climate change, when energy might better be spent on applying pressure to decision makers? The media can't make legislators vote for progressive climate change policies--only constituents can do that.

  7. “危险物品型”危险驾驶罪的准抽象危险犯定位%Orientation on Quasi Abstract Dangerous Criminal of the Dangerous Articles Type Crime of Dangerous Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文昊

    2016-01-01

    《刑法修正案(九)》新设“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪,系准抽象危险犯。抽象危险犯与具体危险犯不能仅凭语词做形式判断,应当参照德日刑法理论,根据危险的程度,从实质上区分抽象危险犯与具体危险犯,而准抽象危险犯是介于两者中间的形态。“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪不能理解为具体危险犯,否则会违反罪刑均衡的原则。将“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪视为准抽象危险犯,是风险社会提前规制危险行为的必然要求。危险驾驶罪的解释应当考察可罚性,运用目的解释,将其认定为准抽象危险犯。%A new "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime is set up in the Criminal Law Amendment (9), namely quasi abstract dangerous criminal .Abstract dangerous crime and concrete dangerous crime cannot be judged only by words , but by the reference of theory of criminal law in Germany and Japan , and according to de-gree of danger , they can be judged essentially .While the quasi abstract dangerous crime is just a form in the mid-dle of these two crimes .The "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime cannot be simply understood as concrete dangerous crime;otherwise it will violate the principle of balance between crime and punishment .Regard-ing the "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime as quasi abstract dangerous crime is an inevitable re-quirement for the risk society to regulate the dangerous behavior in advance .The interpretation of the dangerous driving crime shall be subject to the investigation of the penalty , and by the use of teleological interpretation , the dangerous driving crime can be identified as quasi abstract dangerous crime .

  8. Advancing climate justice and the right to health through procedural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaux J

    2014-06-14

    Scholars have increasingly recognized the ways in which climate change threatens the human rights of people around the world, with a disproportionate burden on the rights of already vulnerable persons. At particular risk to these populations is the right to health, as well as to interconnected human rights. Yet, scholars have generally not provided a thorough assessment of precisely how human rights law can catalyze a response to climate change to effectively avert health harms. This article suggests that human rights law is better suited to guide procedural responses to climate change and its health harms than it is to guide substantive decision-making. This article describes the ways in which climate change implicates the right to health and then analyzes human rights law's response. While acknowledging the intrinsic value of human rights in prompting climate change action, the article focuses its analysis on human rights' instrumental value in this arena.

  9. Antioxidant activity of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and hydroxyl radical averting capacity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Ogawa, Shinya; Fukuda, Kyoko; Nagatsuka, Norie; Nagao, Keiko; Ueno, Shunshiro

    2011-01-01

    The giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (reaching sizes of up to 2 m diameter and 150 kg), which forms dense blooms, has caused extensive damage to fisheries by overloading trawl nets, while its toxic nematocysts cause dermatological symptoms. Giant jellyfish are currently discarded on the grounds of pest control. However, the giant jellyfish is considered to be edible and is part of Chinese cuisine. Therefore, we investigated whether any benefits for human health may be derived from consumption of the jellyfish in order to formulate medicated diets. Antioxidant activity of Nemopilema nomurai was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) methods. Based on the results, the ORAC value of the giant jellyfish freeze-dried sample was 541 µmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and the HORAC value was 3,687 µmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g. On the other hand, the IC50 value of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measured by using the electron spin resonance method was 3.3%. In conclusion, the results suggest that the freeze-dried powder of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is a potentially beneficial food for humans.

  10. Taming the Climate Emergency: Geoengineering and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Oksanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shed some light into two questions with regard to te idea of climate emergency and dangerous climate change: Presuming that the negative effects of climate change can occur abruptly we want to investigate, in particular, whether there is any kind of rational basis to the conclusion that a state of climate emergency would require geoengineering implementations such as solar radiation management (SRM. Related to this, we will pose the question whether there can be exemptions from conventional morality justified by climate emergency for instance to use such largely untested geoengineering methods like SRM. We will take a look at SRM from an ethical point of view and analyze the concept of climate emergency and its policy relevance in order to assess the moral justification for the implementation of SRM.

  11. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  12. Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials to improve the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience......Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience...

  13. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as th...

  14. A Protection plan of wildlife in a danger of extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don; Park, Yong Ha; Suh, Jung Soo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This report collected data on the present situation of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, insects, invertebrates, and 43 kinds of plants, which is in a danger of extinction, and their habitat, by the article 2 of 1998 Natural Environmental Conservation Act, as a part of 'Establishment of Biological diversity strategy'. This will utilize as a basic data for protection management to establish the recovery plan for each species. 358 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  16. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity.

  17. 9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dangerous, or harmful biological products. 105.3 Section 105.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. (a) If at any time it...-Serum-Toxin Act, of any biological product by any person holding a license or permit may be dangerous...

  18. 76 FR 46351 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) to be held October 11-21, 2011, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada... Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel (ICAO DGP) Meeting. Proposals that are approved by the...

  19. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina. Establishment of this danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control...

  20. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is amending its regulations to establish a new danger zone. This danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control access and movement of persons, vessels and...

  1. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  2. 75 FR 69032 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense. ACTION... amend an existing permanent danger zone in the waters of the Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River... River Test Range. Many of the tests are hazardous operations presenting a danger to persons or...

  3. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...

  4. 32 CFR 644.531 - Warning to public of danger in handling explosive missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Warning to public of danger in handling explosive... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.531 Warning to public of danger in handling... of contaminants remaining on the land and the inherent danger of handling explosives or...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  6. DMPD: Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18161744 Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Zhang X, Mosser DM. J ...Pathol. 2008 Jan;214(2):161-78. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation by endogenous dange...r signals. PubmedID 18161744 Title Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Authors Zhang X, Moss

  7. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

  8. Technological Dangers and the Potential of Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The ethical debate on social robotics has become one of the cutting edge topics of our time. When it comes to both academic and non-academic debates, the methodological framework is, with few exceptions, typically and tacitly grounded in an us-versus-them perspective. It is as though we were...... technological dangers and opportunities. Finally, aiming for the very limits of the theory, I discuss the contours of a praxis facilitating being-with-robots beyond conceptualization. Basically, this mode of being, pertaining to non-technological HRI, bypasses Heidegger’s warnings, and potentially facilitates...

  9. Self/not self, innate immunity, danger, cancer potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    Self/not self is an important hypothesis that has guided research in immunology. It is closely connected to adaptive immunity (restricted to vertebrates) and innate immunity (found in vertebrates and invertebrates). Self/not self is now being challenged and investigators are turning to the danger hypothesis to guide and open new areas of research. Emerging information suggests that genes involved in development of cancer are present in Drosophila and C. elegans. Short life span may not preclude the presence of genes that are related to the development of cancer.

  10. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    this issue, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency published the Advisory Self-classification List /5/. This report describes the updating of this list. The Advisory Self-Classification list is created by the use of (Q)SARs ((Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships) to predict the effects......, it is the manufacturer's or importer's responsibility to carry out an appropriate classification of the dangerous intrinsic properties (“self-classification”). In most cases, no test data (from animal testing, etc.) is available on their hazardous properties in relation to human health or the environment. To address...

  11. USGS Fire Science: Fire Danger Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has advanced the use of moderate-resolution satellite data in a decision support system for assessing national fire potential. Weekly updated digital images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), based on data acquired at 1-kilometer (km) resolution (about 0.6 mi), have been used for the past 19 years as a means to assess live vegetation conditions for the purpose of rating fire danger. These images, produced and monitored through the growing season, portray the approximate time of greenup and senescence, as well as the relative amount and condition of growing plants.

  12. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  13. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  14. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Constanze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.

  15. Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Lissner, Tabea K.; Fischer, Erich M.; Wohland, Jan; Perrette, Mahé; Golly, Antonius; Rogelj, Joeri; Childers, Katelin; Schewe, Jacob; Frieler, Katja; Mengel, Matthias; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Robust appraisals of climate impacts at different levels of global-mean temperature increase are vital to guide assessments of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The 2015 Paris Agreement includes a two-headed temperature goal: "holding the increase in the global average

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  17. "Ego-dystonic" delusions as a predictor of dangerous behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Zislin; Victor, Kuperman; Rimona, Durst

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to report a possible warning sign for dangerous behavior in delusional psychotic patients. We demonstrate an association between aggressive or auto-aggressive ideation and "ego-dystonic" grandiose delusions, where the patient believes to possess unique qualities but finds them unbearable. The study is based on the sample of seven interviews with five psychotic in-patients at the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem, Israel. All patients experienced an acute psychotic episode, and committed acts of aggression or suicidality. The research method is narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Patients report ideas of grandiose self-identification with deities, Biblical figures or celebrities, yet report their reluctance to be in these high positions due to feelings of unworthiness, withdrawal, and social isolation. Resulting frustration arguably leads to aggressive and suicidal ideation or actions. Contrary to the established view, grandiose delusions are not free of association with (auto-)aggression. The patient's ego-dystonic attitude towards his/her delusional identity may serve as the warning sign for dangerous behavior and, as such, should be searched for and recognized by the mental health professionals.

  18. Intravascular foreign bodies: danger of unretrieved fragmented medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Minori; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    A warning on the danger of unretrieved device fragments and recommendations to mitigate the danger were issued by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2008. The causes of intravascular foreign bodies are classified into three main categories: improper manipulation and usage, device defects, and others, such as patient and anatomical factors. Device failure after long-term use is rarely predicted at the time of approval, since device abnormality is rarely experienced in animal studies and clinical trials conducted during development of the device. Stent fracture due to metal fatigue is one example. Complex complications could occur from simultaneous use of two or more devices with diverse characteristics. The success rate of percutaneous retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies has improved with the advances in commercially available devices. However, the procedure is not always successful and sometimes surgical removal becomes necessary. Appropriate device selection and acquisition of experience in using the device are important. When an intravascular foreign body cannot be retrieved, the risk of complication could be high. Magnetic resonance imaging examination sometimes causes adverse events, including burns due to the heat generated by metal movement. Such information should be correctly recorded. Furthermore, it is necessary to provide patients with adequate information about the characteristics of implanted devices and unretrieved fragments. We reviewed the literature on unretrieved medical device fragments and include articles that describe the Japanese experience.

  19. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  20. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  1. Danger, diversity and priming in innate antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Mossman, Karen L

    2014-10-01

    The prototypic response to viral infection involves the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of transcription factors such as IRF3 and NFkB and production of type 1 IFN. While this response can lead to the induction of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and recruitment and activation of immune cells, such a comprehensive response is likely inappropriate for routine low level virus exposure. Moreover, viruses have evolved a plethora of immune evasion strategies to subvert antiviral signalling. There is emerging evidence that cells have developed very sensitive methods of detecting not only specific viral PAMPS, but also more general danger or stress signals associated with viral entry and replication. Such stress-induced cellular responses likely serve to prime cells to respond to further PAMP stimulation or allow for a rapid and localized intracellular response independent of IFN production and its potential immune sequelae. This review discusses diversity in innate antiviral players and pathways, the role of "danger" sensing, and how alternative pathways, such as the IFN-independent pathway, may serve to prime cells for further pathogen attack.

  2. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  3. Interactions of Mean Climate Change and Climate Variability on Food Security Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alexander C.; McDermid, Sonali; Mavromatis, Theodoros; Hudson, Nicholas; Morales, Monica; Simmons, John; Prabodha, Agalawatte; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahuja, Laj R.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that climate change will affect agricultural systems both through mean changes and through shifts in climate variability and associated extreme events, we present preliminary analyses of climate impacts from a network of 1137 crop modeling sites contributed to the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP). At each site sensitivity tests were run according to a common protocol, which enables the fitting of crop model emulators across a range of carbon dioxide, temperature, and water (CTW) changes. C3MP can elucidate several aspects of these changes and quantify crop responses across a wide diversity of farming systems. Here we test the hypothesis that climate change and variability interact in three main ways. First, mean climate changes can affect yields across an entire time period. Second, extreme events (when they do occur) may be more sensitive to climate changes than a year with normal climate. Third, mean climate changes can alter the likelihood of climate extremes, leading to more frequent seasons with anomalies outside of the expected conditions for which management was designed. In this way, shifts in climate variability can result in an increase or reduction of mean yield, as extreme climate events tend to have lower yield than years with normal climate.C3MP maize simulations across 126 farms reveal a clear indication and quantification (as response functions) of mean climate impacts on mean yield and clearly show that mean climate changes will directly affect the variability of yield. Yield reductions from increased climate variability are not as clear as crop models tend to be less sensitive to dangers on the cool and wet extremes of climate variability, likely underestimating losses from water-logging, floods, and frosts.

  4. Hantaviruses and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempa, B

    2009-06-01

    Most hantaviruses are rodent-borne emerging viruses. They cause two significant human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. Very recently, several novel hantaviruses with unknown pathogenic potential have been identified in Africa and in a variety of insectivores (shrews and a mole). Because there is very limited information available on the possible impact of climate change on all of these highly dangerous pathogens, it is timely to review this aspect of their epidemiology. It can reasonably be concluded that climate change should influence hantaviruses through impacts on the hantavirus reservoir host populations. We can anticipate changes in the size and frequency of hantavirus outbreaks, the spectrum of hantavirus species and geographical distribution (mediated by changes in population densities), and species composition and geographical distribution of their reservoir hosts. The early effects of global warming have already been observed in different geographical areas of Europe. Elevated average temperatures in West-Central Europe have been associated with more frequent Puumala hantavirus outbreaks, through high seed production (mast year) and high bank vole densities. On the other hand, warm winters in Scandinavia have led to a decline in vole populations as a result of the missing protective snow cover. Additional effects can be caused by increased intensity and frequency of extreme climatic events, or by changes in human behaviour leading to higher risk of human virus exposure. Regardless of the extent of climate change, it is difficult to predict the impact on hantavirus survival, emergence and epidemiology. Nevertheless, hantaviruses will undoubtedly remain a significant public health threat for several decades to come.

  5. Climate change, water resources and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistin, Elizabeth J; Fogarty, John; Pokrasso, Ryan Shaening; McCally, Michael; McCornick, Peter G

    2010-07-01

    Climate change is occurring and has tremendous consequences for children's health worldwide. This article describes how the rise in temperature, precipitation, droughts, floods, glacier melt and sea levels resulting from human-induced climate change is affecting the quantity, quality and flow of water resources worldwide and impacting child health through dangerous effects on water supply and sanitation, food production and human migration. It argues that paediatricians and healthcare professionals have a critical leadership role to play in motivating and sustaining efforts for policy change and programme implementation at the local, national and international level.

  6. Heme as a danger molecule in pathogen recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hauser, Carl J; Otterbein, Leo E

    2015-12-01

    Appropriate control of redox mechanisms are critical for and effective innate immune response, which employs multiple cell types, receptors and molecules that recognize danger signals when they reach the host. Recognition of pathogen-associated pattern molecules (PAMPs) is a fundamental host survival mechanism for efficient elimination of invading pathogens and resolution of the infection and inflammation. In addition to PAMPs, eukaryotic cells contain a plethora of intracellular molecules that are normally secured within the confines of the plasma membrane, but if liberated and encountered in the extracellular milieu can provoke rapid cell activation. These are known as Alarmins or Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) and can be released actively by cells or passively as a result of sterile cellular injury after trauma, ischemia, or toxin-induced cell rupture. Both PAMPs and DAMPs are recognized by a series of cognate receptors that increase the generation of free radicals and activate specific signaling pathways that result in regulation of a variety of stress response, redox sensitive genes. Multiple mediators released, as cells die include, but are not limited to ATP, hydrogen peroxide, heme, formyl peptides, DNA or mitochondria provide the second signal to amplify immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how sterile and infective stimuli activate the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1, HO-1), a master gene critical to an appropriate host response that is now recognized as one with enormous therapeutic potential. HO-1 gene expression is regulated in large part by redox-sensitive proteins including but not limited to nrf2. Both PAMPs and DAMPs increase the activation of nrf2 and HO-1. Heme is a powerful pro-oxidant and as such should be qualified as a DAMP. With its degradation by HO-1a molecule of carbon monoxide (CO) is generated that in turn serves as a bioactive signaling molecule. PAMPs such as bacterial endotoxin activate HO-1

  7. Climate change and trace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; Russell, Gary; Lea, David W; Siddall, Mark

    2007-07-15

    Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia of ice sheet and ocean provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest human-made climate forcing, but other trace constituents are also important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. The most important of the non-CO2 forcings is methane (CH4), as it causes the second largest human-made GHG climate forcing and is the principal cause of increased tropospheric ozone (O3), which is the third largest GHG forcing. Nitrous oxide (N2O) should also be a focus of climate mitigation efforts. Black carbon ('black soot') has a high global warming potential (approx. 2000, 500 and 200 for 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively) and deserves greater attention. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could preserve Arctic ice, while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity and the global environment.

  8. Climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Previdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the sensitivity of Earth's climate to an imposed external forcing is one of the great challenges in science and a critical component of efforts to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Climate sensitivity (or equilibrium global surface warming to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 has long been estimated to be about 3 °C, considering only fast climate feedbacks associated with increases in water vapor, decreases in sea ice, and changes in clouds. However, evidence from Earth's history suggests that slower surface albedo feedbacks due to vegetation change and melting of Greenland and Antarctica can come into play on the timescales of interest to humans, which could increase the sensitivity to significantly higher values, as much as 6 °C. Even higher sensitivity may result as present-day land and ocean carbon sinks begin to lose their ability to sequester anthropogenic CO2 in the coming decades. The evolving view of climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene is therefore one in which a wider array of Earth system feedbacks are recognized as important. Since these feedbacks are overwhelmingly positive, the sensitivity is likely to be higher than has traditionally been assumed.

  9. Bougie insertion: A common practice with underestimated dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, D.; Doulami, G.; Larentzakis, A.; Almpanopoulos, K.; Stamou, K.; Zografos, G.; Menenakos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal perforation after bariatric operations is rare. We report two cases of esophageal perforation after bariatric operations indicating the dangers of a common practice – like insertion of esophageal tubes – and we describe our management of that complication. Presentation of case A 56 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a 41 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding respectively. In both operations a bougie has been used and led to esophageal perforation. Discussion The insertion of bougie and especially of inflated bougie is a common practice. It is an invasive procedure that in most cases is performed by the anesthesiologist team. Conclusion Bougie insertion is an invasive procedure with risks and should always be attempted under direct supervision of surgical team or should be inserted by a surgeon. PMID:22288051

  10. CLP Regulation and the transport of dangerous goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Benassai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulations concerning different modes of transport of dangerous goods are well harmonized at global level: they were then looked at as a model for developing Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS, (on which CLP Regulations is based. Transport regulations do not cover some hazard classes, such as germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, having been evaluated that such hazards are not relevant in transport because in general, in case of accident, no repeated and prolonged exposure takes place. Other differences with CLP Regulation are related to the use of "building block approach". Transport labels, which were used as a basis for GHS, can be used, instead of CLP pictograms, on packages during transport.

  11. Swallowed magnets and batteries: a dangerous but not unexpected attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Warwick Jonathan; Vaughan, Elizabeth Mary; McHoney, Merrill; McCabe, Amanda Jayne

    2013-04-10

    An 18-month-old boy was witnessed swallowing a cluster of five magnetic toy balls. He was coincidentally noted on plain x-rays to have also recently swallowed a watch battery and a small screw. Initial outpatient management with serial review and x-rays was unsuccessful, and delayed inpatient surgical care by 9 days. Although the child never manifested features of systemic or gastrointestinal upset, emergency laparotomy confirmed a resultant jejunocolic fistula. This case demonstrates how clinical assessment of children who have swallowed magnets separately from each other can be falsely reassuring, and highlights the potential dangers of outpatient management. We recommend children who have swallowed separately >1 magnetic objects (or >1 objects capable of magnetic attraction) be managed as inpatients with active observation and timely foreign body removal.

  12. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  13. A Cable-tunnel Inspecting Robot for Dangerous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of mobile robot used for inspecting the cable tunnel online in the dangerous environment. Usually, the calble tunnel is full of poisonous gases after fire, such as CO,CH4, CO2 and so on. Then, the mobile robot is able to tell us whether the tunnel environment is safe or not. In this paper the architecture of the robot is designed at first to meet the motion requirement in the tunnel. These characteristics distinguish the mobile robot from others like compact structure,small size,little weight and easily being carried. Next, the moving mechanism and its kinematics are described. And thus, the operating procedure and experiments are introuduced to validate its reliablity.

  14. Nutritional rehabilitation of anorexia nervosa. Goals and dangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Meyer, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional rehabilitation of adolescents with anorexia nervosa is both a science and an art. The goals are to promote metabolic recovery; restore a healthy body weight; reverse the medical complications of the disorder and to improve eating behaviors and psychological functioning. Most, but not all of the medical complications are reversible with nutritional rehabilitation. Refeeding patients with anorexia nervosa results in deposition of lean body mass initially, followed by restoration of adipose tissue as treatment goal weight is approached. The major danger of nutritional rehabilitation is the refeeding syndrome, characterized by fluid and electrolyte, cardiac, hematological and neurological complications, the most serious of which is sudden unexpected death. The refeeding syndrome is most likely to occur in those who are severely malnourished. In such patients, this complication can be avoided by slow refeeding with careful monitoring of body weight, heart rate and rhythm and serum electrolytes, especially serum phosphorus. This paper reviews our clinical experience.

  15. Insidious dangers of benevolent sexism: consequences for women's performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardenne, Benoit; Dumont, Muriel; Bollier, Thierry

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments found benevolent sexism to be worse than hostile sexism for women's cognitive performance. Experiments 1-2 showed effects of paternalist benevolent sexism and ruled out explanations of perceived sexism, context pleasantness, and performance motivation. Experiment 3 showed effects of both paternalist and complementary gender differentiation components of benevolent sexism. Benevolent sexism per se (rather than the provision of unsolicited help involved in paternalism) worsened performance. Experiment 4 showed that impaired performance due to benevolent sexism was fully mediated by the mental intrusions women experienced about their sense of competence. Additionally, Experiment 4 showed that gender identification protected against hostile but not benevolent sexism. Despite the apparently positive and inoffensive tone of benevolent sexism, our research emphasizes its insidious dangers.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  17. Distributed Danger Assessment Model for the Internet of Things Based on Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Run Chen; Jiliu Zhou; Caiming Liu

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) confronts complicated and changeful security threats. It harms IoT and brings IoT potential danger. However, the research achievements of the danger assessment technology for IoT are rare. To calculate the danger value of IoT with many dispersive sense nodes, the theoretical model of distributed danger assessment for IoT is explored in this paper. The principles and mechanisms of Artificial Immune System (AIS) are introduced into the proposed model. Data packets i...

  18. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E [V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: Amber.J.Soja@nasa.go [National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), NASA Langley Research Center, Climate Sciences, 21 Langley Boulevard, Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  19. Managing Climate Change Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, PMB1 Aspendale, Victoria 3195 (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Issues of uncertainty, scale and delay between action and response mean that 'dangerous' climate change is best managed within a risk assessment framework that evolves as new information is gathered. Risk can be broadly defined as the combination of likelihood and consequence; the latter measured as vulnerability to greenhouse-induced climate change. The most robust way to assess climate change damages in a probabilistic framework is as the likelihood of critical threshold exceedance. Because vulnerability is dominated by local factors, global vulnerability is the aggregation of many local impacts being forced beyond their coping ranges. Several case studies, generic sea level rise and temperature, coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef and water supply in an Australian catchment, are used to show how local risk assessments can be assessed then expressed as a function of global warming. Impacts treated thus can be aggregated to assess global risks consistent with Article 2 of the UNFCCC. A 'proof of concept' example is then used to show how the stabilisation of greenhouse gases can constrain the likelihood of exceeding critical thresholds at both the both local and global scale. This analysis suggests that even if the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the benefits of avoiding climate damages can be estimated, the likelihood of being able to meet a cost-benefit target is limited by both physical and socio-economic uncertainties. In terms of managing climate change risks, adaptation will be most effective at reducing vulnerability likely to occur at low levels of warming. Successive efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases will reduce the likelihood of reaching levels of global warming from the top down, with the highest potential temperatures being avoided first, irrespective of contributing scientific uncertainties. This implies that the first cuts in emissions will always produce the largest economic benefits in terms of avoided

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN RISK-TAKING AND RISK-AVERTING BEHAVIOR DURING THE WHITE-COLLAR CRIME PERPETRATING: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia GÎRLA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes an independent scientific research in Criminology. Especially, authors have done their best to explain and to prove the correlation between risk-taking and risk averting behavior during the white-collar perpetrating. Authors have demonstrated that risk is not only a probability of losses but also forms a threat of unpredictable development of events. As a consequence, when a person avoids risking it is also a risk because there appears a great likelihood of undesirable expansion of events outside the risk. New theoretical concepts are formulated on the base of empirical findings obtained from the correlation of the personality traits (Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness and Consciousness in male and female white-collar offenders predisposed to risky decisions in business administration because such decisions are based on intuition and there is detected a deficiency of reasonability.By means of empirical research based on psychological experiment and sociological interview of the white-collar offenders and the control groups there have been proved that inclination to risk being a quality of a person (a personality trait which is expressed in a permanent tendency to use new possibilities in some cases can indicate to a propensity of a person to commit white-collar crimes.Corelaţia dintre comportamentul centrat pe risc şi cel bazat pe evitarea riscului în procesul comiterii infracţiunii „gulerelor albe”: DATE EMPIRICE PENTRU MOLDOVA ŞI ISRAELAcest articol constituie un studiu ştiinţific independent în materia de criminologie. În special, autorii au încercat să explice şi să demonstreze corelaţia dintre comportamentul centrat pe risc şi cel bazat pe evitarea riscului în procesul comiterii infracţiunii gulerelor albe. Autorii au demonstrat că riscul reprezintă nu doar o probabilitate de pierderi, dar şi constituie o ameninţare prin evoluţia imprevizibilă a evenimentelor

  1. Managing Climate Risk. Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obersteiner, M.; Mechler, R.; Nilsson, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Azar, C. [Department of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kossmeier, S. [Department of Economics and Finance, Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna (Austria); Moellersten, K.; Yan, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Read, P. [Economics Department, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Yamagata, Y. [Climate Change Research Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies NIES, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    At the heart of the traditional approach to strategy in the climate change dilemma lies the assumption that the global community, by applying a set of powerful analytical tools, can predict the future of climate change accurately enough to choose a clear strategic direction for it. We claim that this approach might involve underestimating uncertainty in order to lay out a vision of future events sufficiently precise to be captured in a discounted cost flow analysis in integrated assessment models. However, since the future of climate change is truly uncertain, this approach might at best be marginally helpful and at worst downright dangerous: underestimating uncertainty can lead to strategies that do not defend the world against unexpected and sometimes even catastrophic threats. Another danger lies on the other extreme: if the global community can not find a strategy that works under traditional analysis or if uncertainties are too large that clear messages are absent, they may abandon the analytical rigor of their planning process altogether and base their decisions on good instinct and consensus of some future process that is easy to agree upon. In this paper, we try to outline a system to derive strategic decisions under uncertainty for the climate change dilemma. What follows is a framework for determining the level of uncertainty surrounding strategic decisions and for tailoring strategy to that uncertainty. Our core argument is that a robust strategy towards climate change involves the building of a technological portfolio of mitigation and adaptation measures that includes sufficient opposite technological positions to the underlying baseline emission scenarios given the uncertainties of the entire physical and socioeconomic system in place. In the case of mitigation, opposite technological positions with the highest leverage are particular types of sinks. A robust climate risk management portfolio can only work when the opposite technological positions are

  2. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Kücük

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1 creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2 evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Bülent; Bilgili, Ertuğrul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinç; Kadıoğulları, Ali İhsan; Küçük, Ömer

    2008-01-01

    Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%. PMID:27879918

  4. 77 FR 28488 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries and Other Dangerous Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the Universal Postal Union (UPU), and the Postal Service anticipates that.... The UPU Convention and regulations are consistent with the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe... Transport of Dangerous Goods by Post do not permit ``dangerous goods'' as defined by the ICAO...

  5. 42 CFR 35.10 - Destruction of effects dangerous to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.10 Destruction of effects dangerous to... or hospital area by patients which, in the judgement of such officer, are dangerous as a source of disease to the health or life of patients or personnel of the station or hospital or visitors therein...

  6. 46 CFR 32.02-15 - Guards at dangerous places-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards at dangerous places-TB/ALL. 32.02-15 Section 32.02-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY... rails in order that the danger of accidents may be minimized. On vessels equipped with...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1010 - Electrical equipment in gas-dangerous space or zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical equipment in gas-dangerous space or zone. 154.1010 Section 154.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK..., Construction and Equipment Electrical § 154.1010 Electrical equipment in gas-dangerous space or zone....

  8. Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqer, Haneen; de Visser, Ewart; Strohl, Jonathan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of portable communication and entertainment devices has introduced new dangers to the driving environment, particularly for young and inexperienced drivers. Graduate students from George Mason University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating these drivers on the dangers of texting while driving, which can easily be adapted and implemented in other communities.

  9. 33 CFR 6.14-2 - Condition of waterfront facility a danger to vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of waterfront facility a danger to vessel. 6.14-2 Section 6.14-2 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... of Waterfront Facilities and Vessels in Port § 6.14-2 Condition of waterfront facility a danger...

  10. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  11. Development of dangerous geological processes in the Hankaisky Region of Primorskiy Krai (Russian Far East)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V. Selivanova

    2006-01-01

    Hankaisky Region is the most densely populated and economic developed part of the Primorskiy Krai. It is promoting development of dangerous geological processes there. In the article the reasons of formation and intensive development in Hankaisky Region of the following dangerous geological processes lateral, winder and ground erosive, sill, floods, taluses, bogging, slope wash, karts, rebound of ground are considered.

  12. Abrupt climate change: can society cope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Mike

    2003-09-15

    anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation.

  13. Model for improving safety in transporting dangerous goods for the Serbian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Kostadinović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design and improvement of the safety of transport of dangerous goods is a multidimensional and dynamic process which can be implemented using several different methods and techniques. In defining the model of improving the safety of transport of dangerous goods for the purposes of the Serbian Army, the Deming's approach to quality management system has been used. The analysis of the existing organization of transport of dangerous goods in the Army of Serbia has established the basic causes that affect the reduction in security as well as specific measures to be taken to improve the safety of transport of dangerous goods in the Serbian Army. The benchmark concept, widely used in the world, especially among organizations dealing with the same kind of logistic services, has been applied to indentify measures to improve the safety of transport of dangerous goods in the Serbian Army.

  14. Perceived danger and offending: exploring the links between violent victimization and street crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Tyler J; McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions of the danger of crime are typically discussed in the context of people's fear that they will be harmed by offenders. We shift the focus and examine the association between perceived danger and offending and the contribution of these perceptions to the well-established relationship between violent victimization and crime. We hypothesize that violence may embolden some victims and contribute to their perception that offending is not dangerous. We examine the mediating effects of these perceptions alongside two other potential links between violent victimization and crime: deviant definitions and risk seeking. Our analyses of data from a sample of homeless youth find that violent victimization is strongly associated with four types of offending--theft, drug use, drug selling, and prostitution--and that perceived danger significantly mediates several of these relationships. Our results suggest that perceived danger may be an important mechanism connecting victimization and crime.

  15. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Dangerous Waste Training Plan (DWTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-03-29

    This Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) Dangerous Waste Training Plan (DWTP) applies to personnel who perform work at, or in support of WESF. The plan, along with the names of personnel, may be given to a regulatory agency inspector upon request. General workers, subcontractors, or visiting personnel who have not been trained in the management of dangerous wastes must be accompanied by an individual who meets the requirements of this training plan. Dangerous waste management includes handling, treatment, storage, and/or disposal of dangerous and/or mixed waste. Dangerous waste management units covered by this plan include: less-than-90-day accumulation area(s); pool cells 1-8 and 12 storage units; and process cells A-G storage units. This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the WESF permitted miscellaneous storage units and the Less-than-90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  16. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate......This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...

  17. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  18. Opioid equianalgesic tables: are they all equally dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Philip E; Walsh, Declan; Lasheen, Wael; Davis, Mellar P; Lagman, Ruth L

    2009-09-01

    Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients. Opioids are widely prescribed for this and other purposes. Properly used, they are safe, but they have serious and potentially lethal side effects. Successful use of opioids to manage cancer pain requires adequate knowledge about opioid pharmacology and equianalgesia for the purpose of both drug rotation and route conversion. The aim of this study was to demonstrate variations in equianalgesic ratios, as quoted in equianalgesic tables and various educational materials widely available to practicing physicians. We surveyed commercially available educational materials in package inserts, teaching materials provided by pharmaceutical companies, and the Physicians' Desk Reference for equianalgesic tables of commonly used opioids. We found inconsistent and variable equianalgesic ratios recommended for both opioid rotation and conversion. Multiple factors like inter- and intraindividual differences in opioid pharmacology may influence the accuracy of dose calculations, as does the heterogeneity of study design used to derive equianalgesic ratios. Equianalgesic tables should only serve as a general guideline to estimate equivalent opioid doses. Clinical judgment should be used and individual patient characteristics considered when applying any table. Professional organizations and regulators should establish a rotation and conversion consensus concerning opioid equianalgesic ratios. Systematic research on equianalgesic opioid dose calculation is recommended to avoid adverse public health consequences of incorrect or inappropriate dosing. Current information in equianalgesic tables is confusing for physicians, and dangerous to the public.

  19. IP Telephony Based Danger Alert Communication System and Its Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of a web application allowing to deliver pre-recorded voice messages by using SIP generator. The developed application is a part of complex system, which has been evolved in Dpt. of Telecommunications, Technical University of Ostrava for last three years. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transormation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations. The advantage of this aproach lies in controlled delivery and finally the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users are informed via SMS. In the paper, the core of the danger alert system is described including algorithms of the voice message delivery.

  20. Nuclear energy. Danger only in case of accidents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina; Kusmierz, Ralf [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. of Computational Biology

    2014-07-01

    The environmental impacts of nuclear energy are highly underestimated. Nuclear weapons, atomic bomb tests, and nuclear accidents are considered a danger for the environment and a human cancer risk. However, childhood leukemia is consistently elevated near nuclear power plants and the Chernobyl accident entailed elevated human birth sex ratios across Europe. We studied the annual sex ratio near nuclear facilities in Germany, France, and Switzerland at the municipality level. We will demonstrate that low doses of ionizing radiation cause effects in human beings. This is shown by strongly consistent spatial-temporal shifts in the human sex ratio trends in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. In the chosen countries complete official data on over 70 million gender specific annual births at the municipality level are available. By Lambert-93 coordinates (France) and GK3 coordinates (Germany, Switzerland) we determined the minimum distances of municipalities from major nuclear facilities. Spatial-temporal trend analyses of the annual sex ratio depending on municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities were carried out. Applying ordinary linear logistic regression (jump or broken-stick functions) and non-linear logistic regression (Rayleigh functions) we demonstrate that the sex ratio at birth shows the influence of mutagenic ionizing radiation on human health. As important environmental chemical contaminants are also mutagenic, the usefulness of the sex ratio at birth as a genetic health indicator can be inferred by analogy.

  1. Are there dangers in biologic dose reduction strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher K Y; Holroyd, Christopher R; Mason, Alice; Zarroug, Jalaa; Edwards, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Biologic dose reduction strategies, for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have been assessed in multiple studies to assess outcomes compared to ongoing maintenance dosing. Whilst cessation in established disease usually leads to disease flare, dose tapering approaches for those achieving low disease activity often appear to be successful in the short term. However, tapering can be associated with a higher risk of losing disease control and rates of recapture of disease control using the original biologic dose vary between studies. Over relatively short periods of follow-up, a number of studies have shown no statistical difference in radiographic progression in patients tapering or discontinuing biologics. However, a Cochrane review found that radiographic and functional outcomes may be worse after TNF inhibitor discontinuation, and over long-term disease follow-up flares have been associated with radiographic progression and worse patient reported outcomes. To date, no studies of biological therapy dose reduction have specifically investigated the risk of increased immunogenicity or the effects on cardiovascular risk and other co-morbidities, although these remain important potential risks. In addition, whether there are greater dangers in certain dose reduction approaches such as a reduction in dose at the same frequency or a spacing of doses is not established.

  2. Driving and Multitasking: the Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Nijboer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver’s ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver’s lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  3. [Failure to assist persons in danger in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutoul, J H

    1992-01-01

    From 1949 to 1990, the authors gathered 120 files relating to 181 decisions, most of which are unpublished, and analyzed the teachings provided by case law about physicians faced with failure to assist persons in danger. This long series, extending over 30 years of application of article 63, paragraph 2, of the Penal Code--repressing failure to assist-, describes the most various conditions in which general practitioners or specialists were prosecuted, and most often charged and judged, by various criminal courts. In a number of cases, the appeals that were lodged enabled the Criminal Chamber of the Supreme Court to dram up Law rules taking primarily into account the strict application of the Penal Code article in cause, since its first decision in 1949. This article may involve surgeons as specialists, but also as "medical citizens" who are always regarded as having a particular mission of assistance, because of their vocation to rescue victims of accidents or patients in a pathological condition requiring assistance. The effectiveness of assistance is not considered in this legal requirement, which all representatives of the medical profession regard as a permanent sword of Damocles that must never be ignored whatever the circumstances and the practitioner's specialty.

  4. Securing MANETs with BITSI: danger theory and mission continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marco; Ford, Richard; Allen, William; Marin, Gerald

    2008-03-01

    MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Network) environments are becoming increasingly important as potential users recognize the benefits of being able to create a functional network using little or no fixed infrastructure. Unfortunately, the very properties that provide such flexibility also cause significant complications in terms of security. The collaborative nature of the system combined with its continual state of flux requires solutions that are highly dynamic, and that can adapt to massive changes in system resources, traffic patterns and network topology. In this paper, we outline a new approach to MANET security called BITSI (the Biologically-Inspired Tactical Security Infrastructure). BITSI is based upon the concepts of Artificial Immune Systems and Danger Theory. After introducing the motivations for BITSI we provide a brief description of its underlying theories and proposed architecture. Two experiments conducted within our MANET simulator are described, and we demonstrate that BITSI can detect and respond to certain classes of Denial of Service attacks. Finally, we describe our future plans for BITSI, and how its approach can be combined with other, more traditional, security solutions.

  5. Agenesis of the gallbladder: A dangerously misdiagnosed malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas Peloponissios; Michel Gillet; René Cavin; Nermin Halkic

    2005-01-01

    Isolated agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly,often asymptomatic. However, one patient out of four presented with right upper abdominal pain, nausea, and fatty food intolerance. The condition is frequently mistaken with an excluded or sclero-atrophic gallbladder, regardless of the imaging modality used. Consequently, AG often leads to unnecessary and potentially dangerous laparoscopic surgery as described in a few case reports over the last10 years. The aim of this study is to clarify the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of this unusual pathology. Two cases seen in our institutions were retrospectively reviewed, together with a review of the American and European literature. During laparoscopy, the absence of normal anatomical structures and the impossibility of pulling on the gallbladder to expose and dissect the triangle of Callot increases the risk of iatrogenic injury to biliary or portal structures. Depending on the experiment of the surgeon in laparoscopic procedure, this has to be taken into account to decide a conversion to laparotomy.A high index of suspicion is necessary when interpreting the radiological images. In case of doubt, a MRJ-cholangiography is mandatory. Because of possible inherited transmission,relatives with a history of biliary symptoms should be investigated.

  6. Searching for a dangerous host: randomized vs. deterministic

    CERN Document Server

    Nitto, Igor

    2007-01-01

    A Black Hole is an harmful host in a network that destroys incoming agents without leaving any trace of such event. The problem of locating the black hole in a network through a team of agent coordinated by a common protocol is usually referred in literature as the Black Hole Search problem (or BHS for brevity) and it is a consolidated research topic in the area of distributed algorithms. The aim of this paper is to extend the results for BHS by considering more general (and hence harder) classes of dangerous host. In particular we introduce rB-hole as a probabilistic generalization of the Black Hole, in which the destruction of an incoming agent is a purely random event happening with some fixed probability (like flipping a biased coin). The main result we present is that if we tolerate an arbitrarily small error probability in the result then the rB-hole Search problem, or RBS, is not harder than the usual BHS. We establish this result in two different communication model, specifically both in presence or a...

  7. Quality of antenatal care in rural Tanzania: counselling on pregnancy danger signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high rate of antenatal care attendance in sub-Saharan Africa, should facilitate provision of information on signs of potential pregnancy complications. The aim of this study was to assess quality of antenatal care with respect to providers' counselling of pregnancy danger signs in Rufiji district, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 primary health facilities. Thirty two providers were observed providing antenatal care to 438 pregnant women. Information on counselling on pregnancy danger signs was collected by an observer. Exit interviews were conducted to 435 women. Results One hundred and eighty five (42% clients were not informed of any pregnancy danger signs. The most common pregnancy danger sign informed on was vaginal bleeding 50% followed by severe headache/blurred vision 45%. Nurse auxiliaries were three times more likely to inform a client of a danger sign than registered/enrolled nurses (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.1-6.5 and Maternal Child Health Aides (OR = 2.3: 95% CI: 1.3-4.3 and public health nurses (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.4-4.2 were two times more likely to provide information on danger signs than registered/enrolled nurses. The clients recalled less than half of the pregnancy danger signs they had been informed during the interaction. Conclusion Two out of five clients were not counselled on pregnancy danger signs. The higher trained cadre, registered/enrolled nurses were not informing majority of clients pregnancy danger signs compared to the lower cadres. Supportive supervision should be made to enhance counselling of pregnancy danger signs. Nurse auxiliaries should be encouraged and given chance for further training and upgrading to improve their performance and increase human resource for health.

  8. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  9. A dangerous twist of the ‘T’ wave: A case of Wellens’ Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Balasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wellens’ syndrome is a condition in which electrocardiographic (ECG changes indicate critical proximal left anterior descending artery narrowing occurring during the chest pain-free period. Due to the severity of the obstruction, if such cases are managed by early invasive revascularisation therapy, a major threat in the form of a massive myocardial infarction or sudden death may be averted. We present the case of a patient with previous chest pain, whose ECG showing subtle ischemic changes was initially overlooked. A repeat ECG taken during the painless period showed a biphasic T wave, suggestive of Wellen’s’ syndrome. This was confirmed by an immediate coronary angiogram.

  10. Climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, V.; Dellink, R.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Clapp, C.; Chateau, J.; Magné, B.; Lanzi, E.; Vliet, J. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter analyses the policy implications of the climate change challenge. Are current emission reduction pledges made in Copenhagen/Cancun enough to stabilise the climate and limit global average temperature increase to 2 oC? If not, what will the consequences be? What alternative growth pathwa

  11. Climate Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250 higher education leaders from campuses across the U.S. met last week in Boston for the 2014 Presidential Summit on Climate Leadership. The summit was organized by Second Nature, the supporting organization for the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). Almost 700 colleges and universities have…

  12. Staphylococcal Superantigens Spark Host-Mediated Danger Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry eKrakauer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB of Staphylococcus aureus, and related superantigenic toxins produced by myriad microbes, are potent stimulators of the immune system causing a variety of human diseases from transient food poisoning to lethal toxic shock. These protein toxins bind directly to specific V regions of T-cell receptors (TCR and major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II on antigen-presenting cells, resulting in hyperactivation of T lymphocytes and monocytes / macrophages. Activated host cells produce excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-2, interferon γ (IFNγ, and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 causing clinical symptoms of fever, hypotension, and shock. Because of superantigen-induced T cells skewed towards TH1 helper cells, and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines, superantigens can exacerbate autoimmune diseases. Upon TCR / MHC ligation, pathways induced by superantigens include the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and cytokine receptor signaling, resulting in activation of NFκB and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase / mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Various mouse models exist to study SEB-induced shock including those with potentiating agents, transgenic mice and an SEB-only model. However, therapeutics to treat toxic shock remain elusive as host response genes central to pathogenesis of superantigens have only been identified recently. Gene profiling of a murine model for SEB-induced shock reveals novel molecules upregulated in multiple organs not previously associated with SEB-induced responses. The pivotal genes include intracellular DNA / RNA sensors, apoptosis / DNA damage-related molecules, immunoproteasome components, as well as anti-viral and IFN-stimulated genes. The host-wide induction of these, and other, anti-microbial defense genes provide evidence that SEB elicits danger signals resulting in multi

  13. Washington, Moscow Ponder Y2K Nuclear Danger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam; Tanner; 董仲谷

    1999-01-01

    本文见2月22日清晨的Yahoo News,南昌市的读者董仲谷在当日就用Email发给了本刊。董先生说,他正在利用寒假潜心翻译本刊举办的翻译竞赛的文章,他说参加翻译竞赛使他的寒假生活充实起来,而且对“千年虫”的问题有了新的认识。同时,董先生对Internet上的有关Y2K的文章也变得爱读了。他来信说,初读文章的标题,疑虑丛生,甚至有点担心:小小“千年虫”竟有可能导致世界核战争?因为Y2K Nuclear Danger几个字实在“触目惊心”!然而,读罢全文,才觉得“未雨绸缪”之必要性。 董先生认为下句最值得细读。 But he downplayed(轻描淡写)the threat of accidental nuclear war from Y2K woes."I’m not of the opinion either on a day-to-day routine basis today or even at the time of Y2K that there is a high danger of the launch-on-falsewarning kind of problem," Warner, an expert on the Russian military. said in the interview.

  14. Danger and Dignity: Immigrant Day Laborers and Occupational Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Jayesh M

    2016-01-01

    The plight of immigrant workers in the United States has captured significant scholarly attention in recent years. Despite the prevalence of discourses regarding this population, one set of issues has received relatively little attention: immigrant workers' exposure to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions, and their corresponding susceptibility to workplace injuries and illnesses. Researchers have consistently found that immigrant workers suffer disproportionately from occupational injuries and fatalities, even when controlling for industry and occupation. Why, then, are foreign-born workers at greater risk for workplace injuries and fatalities, when compared with their native-born counterparts? This Article seeks to develop answers to that question with the aid of empirical research and to build upon a growing interdisciplinary literature. This Article presents findings from a qualitative research study designed to explore the factors that shape occupational risks for immigrants. The study, conducted over several months in 2014, centered on in-depth interviews of eighty-four immigrant day laborers seeking employment in different parts of Northern Virginia. The workers' responses present a complex picture of the immigrant worker experience, reflecting persistent dangers alongside powerful expressions of worker dignity: while the Virginia day laborers continue to encounter significant occupational risks, many comfortably asserted their rights, complicating standard narratives of immigrant worker subordination and vulnerability. The results of the study also point to ongoing economic insecurities, and regulatory failures relating to the provision of training, use of protective equipment, and oversight of smaller worksites. The findings also signal the need for a more holistic approach to workplace regulation that concomitantly examines a range of workplace concerns, including wage violations, hostile work environments, and health and safety risks. Finally, the day

  15. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.

  16. Danger Signs of Childhood Pneumonia: Caregiver Awareness and Care Seeking Behavior in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikenna K. Ndu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Efforts to reduce child mortality especially in Africa must as a necessity aim to decrease mortality due to pneumonia. To achieve this, preventive strategies such as expanding vaccination coverage are key. However once a child develops pneumonia prompt treatment which is essential to survival is dependent on mothers and caregiver recognition of the symptoms and danger signs of pneumonia. Methods. This community based cross-sectional study enrolled four hundred and sixty-six caregivers in Enugu state. It aimed to determine knowledge of caregivers about danger signs of pneumonia and the sociodemographic factors that influence knowledge and care seeking behaviour of caregivers. Results. There is poor knowledge of the aetiology and danger signs of pneumonia among caregivers. Higher maternal educational attainment and residence in semiurban area were significantly associated with knowledge of aetiology, danger signs, and vaccination of their children against pneumonia. Fast breathing and difficulty in breathing were the commonest known and experienced WHO recognized danger signs while fever was the commonest perceived danger sign among caregivers. Conclusion. Knowledge of danger signs and health seeking behaviour among caregivers is inadequate. There is need for intensified public and hospital based interventions targeted at mothers to improve their knowledge about pneumonia.

  17. Danger Signs of Childhood Pneumonia: Caregiver Awareness and Care Seeking Behavior in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndu, Ikenna K; Ekwochi, Uchenna; Osuorah, Chidiebere D I; Onah, Kenechi S; Obuoha, Ejike; Odetunde, Odutola I; Nwokoye, Ikenna; Obumneme-Anyim, Nnenne I; Okeke, Ifeyinwa B; Amadi, Ogechukwu F

    2015-01-01

    Background. Efforts to reduce child mortality especially in Africa must as a necessity aim to decrease mortality due to pneumonia. To achieve this, preventive strategies such as expanding vaccination coverage are key. However once a child develops pneumonia prompt treatment which is essential to survival is dependent on mothers and caregiver recognition of the symptoms and danger signs of pneumonia. Methods. This community based cross-sectional study enrolled four hundred and sixty-six caregivers in Enugu state. It aimed to determine knowledge of caregivers about danger signs of pneumonia and the sociodemographic factors that influence knowledge and care seeking behaviour of caregivers. Results. There is poor knowledge of the aetiology and danger signs of pneumonia among caregivers. Higher maternal educational attainment and residence in semiurban area were significantly associated with knowledge of aetiology, danger signs, and vaccination of their children against pneumonia. Fast breathing and difficulty in breathing were the commonest known and experienced WHO recognized danger signs while fever was the commonest perceived danger sign among caregivers. Conclusion. Knowledge of danger signs and health seeking behaviour among caregivers is inadequate. There is need for intensified public and hospital based interventions targeted at mothers to improve their knowledge about pneumonia.

  18. Danger signals activating innate immunity in graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiser, Robert; Penack, Olaf; Holler, Ernst; Idzko, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Extensive cell death with consecutive release of danger signals can cause immune-mediated tissue destruction. The abundance of cell death is likely to determine the relevance of the danger signals as physiological mechanisms that counteract immune activation may be overruled. Such constellation is conceivable in chemo-/radiotherapy-induced tissue damage, reperfusion injury, trauma, and severe infection. Studies on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) development have to consider the effects of chemo-/radiotherapy-related tissue damage leading to the release of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Our previous work has demonstrated a role for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as an endogenous danger signal in GvHD. Besides ATP, uric acid or soluble extracellular matrix components are functional danger signals that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome when released from dying cells or from extracellular matrix. In contrast to sterile inflammation, GvHD is more complex since bacterial components that leak through damaged intestinal barriers and the skin can activate pattern recognition receptors and directly contribute to GvHD pathogenesis. These exogenous danger signals transmit immune activation via toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors of the innate immune system. This review covers both the impact of endogenous and exogenous danger signals activating innate immunity in GvHD.

  19. Danger signals in the initiation of the inflammatory response after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, J J; Smeets, M B; Pasterkamp, G; Arslan, F

    2013-01-01

    During myocardial infarction, sterile inflammation occurs. The danger model is a solid theoretic framework that explains this inflammation as danger associated molecular patterns activate the immune system. The innate immune system can sense danger signals through different pathogen recognition receptors (PRR) such as toll-like receptors, nod-like receptors and receptors for advanced glycation endproducts. Activation of a PRR results in the production of cytokines and the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of injury. Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells, danger signals such as extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown products, mitochondrial DNA, heat shock proteins and high mobility box 1 are released. Matricellular proteins are non-structural proteins expressed in the ECM and are upregulated upon injury. Some members of the matricellular protein family (like tenascin-C, osteopontin, CCN1 and the galectins) have been implicated in the inflammatory and reparative responses following myocardial infarction and may function as danger signals. In a clinical setting, danger signals can function as prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarkers and for drug targeting. In this review we will provide an overview of the established knowledge on the role of danger signals in myocardial infarction and we will discuss areas of interest for future research.

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  1. 33 CFR 334.370 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base. 334.370 Section 334.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.370 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base....

  2. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. 334.960 Section 334.960 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a)...

  3. 78 FR 27124 - Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... amend its regulations to establish a new danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kekaha Range... INFORMATION: Executive Summary The purpose of this regulatory action is to establish a new danger zone...

  4. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. 334.420 Section 334.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations....

  5. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. 334.1130 Section 334.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND..., Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  6. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. 334.961 Section 334.961 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone...

  7. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. 334.410 Section 334.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE...; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  8. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. 334.500 Section 334.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE... areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. (a) The areas. (1) The St. Johns River...

  9. 78 FR 57323 - York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown-Cheatham Annex, Yorktown, Virginia; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...-Cheatham Annex, Yorktown, Virginia; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice... establish a danger zone in the waters of the York River off Cheatham Annex, in York County, Virginia. The... Marine Corps units. The proposed danger zone is necessary to protect the public from hazards...

  10. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County, Virginia..., and expands the boundaries of a portion of the danger zone. The amendment is necessary to protect...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.255 - How must occupant evacuation or relocation be accomplished when there is immediate danger to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evacuation or relocation be accomplished when there is immediate danger to persons or property, such as fire... danger to persons or property, such as fire, explosion or the discovery of an explosive device (not... immediate danger to persons or property, such as fire, explosion or the discovery of an explosive...

  12. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  13. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  14. Identification of dangerous fibers: some examples in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Giovanna; Marini, Paola; Giorgis, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    , 2007; Addison and McConnel, 2007) may show inhalable elements with width less than 3 micron, length more than 5 micron and width length ratio 1:3, whose dangerousness (fiber coming from fibrous tremolite or the cleavage fragments coming from prismatic tremolite) could be different and it is object of epidemiologic studies.

  15. Tropical deforestation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, P.; Schwartzman, S. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This book represents the effort of a group of contributors that believes that finding the means to promote large-scale reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions produced by tropical deforestation and forest fires, within the parameters of the UNFCCC, is an urgent necessity, both in order to prevent dangerous interference in the climate system, and to achieve sustainable development in the tropics. Part 1 contains 3 chapters on the subject Tropical deforestation, fires and emissions: measurement and monitoring. Part 2 contains 6 chapters on the subject How to reduce deforestation emissions for carbon credit: Compensated Reduction. Part 3 contains 4 chapters on the subject Policy and legal frameworks for reducing deforestation emissions. Separate abstracts were prepared for the chapters in this book.

  16. Cosmic rays and other space phenomena dangerous for the Earth's civilization: Foundation of cosmic ray warning system and beginning steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    This report is an example how fundamental research in Cosmic Ray (CR) Astrophysics and Geophysics can be applied to very important modern practical problem: monitoring by CR space weather and prediction by using on-line CR data space phenomena dangerous for satellites electronics and astronauts health in the space, for crew and passengers health on commercial jets in atmosphere (altitude about 10 km and higher), and in some rare cases for technology and people health on the ground, prediction on the role of CR and other space weather factors in climate change and influence on agriculture production. It is well known that in periods of great SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) events, the fluxes can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be destroyed, satellites and spaceships became dead (each year Insurance Companies paid billions dollars for these failures (if will be event as February 23, 1956, will be destroyed about all satellites in few hours, the price of this will be more than 10-20 billion dollars, will be total destroying satellite communications and a rose a lot of other problems). In periods of great SEP events is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for short time to protect computer memories. These periods are also dangerous for astronauts on space-ships, and International Space Station (ISS), passengers and crew in commercial jets (especially during S5-S7 radiation storms). The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecast can be made by using high-energy particles (about 2-10 GeV/nucleon and higher) which transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coefficient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore high energy particles came from the Sun much more early (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into solar wind) than main part of smaller energy particles caused dangerous situation for electronics and people health (about 60

  17. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  18. Danger Zones and Restricted Areas in the United States as of July 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the location of Danger Zones and Restricted Areas within coastal and marine waters, as outlined by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and the...

  19. A Danger Theory Based Mobile Virus Detection Model and Its Application in Inhibiting Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Lu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the propagation and destruction characteristics of mobile phone viruses, a virus detection model based on the Danger Theory is proposed. This model includes four phases: danger capture, antigen presentation, antibody generation and antibody distribution. In this model, local knowledge of mobile phones is exploited by the agents that are running in mobile phones to discover danger caused by viruses. The Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs present the antigen from mobile phones in the danger zone, and the Decision Center confirms the infection of viruses. After the antibody is generated by self-tolerating using the negative selection algorithm, the Decision Center distributes the antibody to mobile phones. Due to the distributed and cooperative mechanism of artificial immune system, the proposed model lowers the storage and computing consumption of mobile phones. The simulation results show that based on the mobile phone virus detection model, the proposed virus immunization strategy can effectively inhibit the propagation of mobile phone viruses.

  20. 77 FR 61721 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... capabilities have been expanded to accommodate larger classes of orbital rockets. This amendment increases the... regulatory action is to amend an existing danger zone to accommodate larger classes of orbital rockets. This.... BILLING CODE 3720-58-P...

  1. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  2. Burns Interagency Fire Zone : Fire Danger Operating and Preparedness Plan 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fire Danger Operating and Preparedness Plan for the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. This plan provides a method to calculate the preparedness and dispatch...

  3. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts

  4. Focused sunlight factor of forest fire danger assessment using Web-GIS and RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Sherstnyov, Vladislav S.; Yankovich, Elena P.; Engel, Marina V.; Belov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Timiryazevskiy forestry of Tomsk region (Siberia, Russia) is a study area elaborated in current research. Forest fire danger assessment is based on unique technology using probabilistic criterion, statistical data on forest fires, meteorological conditions, forest sites classification and remote sensing data. MODIS products are used for estimating some meteorological conditions and current forest fire situation. Geonformation technologies are used for geospatial analysis of forest fire danger situation on controlled forested territories. GIS-engine provides opportunities to construct electronic maps with different levels of forest fire probability and support raster layer for satellite remote sensing data on current forest fires. Web-interface is used for data loading on specific web-site and for forest fire danger data representation via World Wide Web. Special web-forms provide interface for choosing of relevant input data in order to process the forest fire danger data and assess the forest fire probability.

  5. Values in Fritz Perls's Gestalt Therapy: On the Dangers of Half-Truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Eva H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines some of the values in Perls's theory of psychotherapy, which his Gestalt Prayer epitomizes. Argues that at least five of the major value claims presupposed by his psychotherapeutic theory and practice are in fact dangerous half-truths. (JAC)

  6. Pyrethroid pesticide effects on behavioral responses of aquatic isopods to danger cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Carolyn K; Poquette, Signe R; Whitlow, W Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the behavioral responses of non-target organisms in order to determine whether phototactic responses of isopods to danger cues are altered as a function of exposure to the pyrethroid pesticides λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Experiments conducted on Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis identified sublethal behavioral responses to pyrethroids, λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin at concentrations 0.15 ng/mL, 0.025 ng/mL, and 0.005 ng/mL. Experimental setup tested isopod phototactic responses across six treatments: control, pyrethroid, hemolymph, predator, hemolymph + pyrethroid, and predator + pyrethroid. Isopods exhibited no preference for phototactic responses in the control and pyrethroid treatments. When exposed to danger cues (hemolymph or predator), isopods exhibited significant negative phototaxis, as expected. When exposure to danger cues was combined with pyrethroids, isopods again exhibited no preference for phototactic response. Experiments indicate that pyrethroids diminish isopod's negatively phototactic response to danger cues.

  7. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  8. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events, such as hurricanes and wildfires. These can cause death, injuries, stress, and mental health problems. Researchers are studying the best ways to lessen climate change and reduce its impact on our health. NIH: ...

  9. TRACKING AND TRACING SOLUTION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS CARRIED BY INTERMODAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kvet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of designing a complex tracking and tracing solution for dangerous goods transportation with the support of modern information technologies. This research activity presents a part of the “ChemLogTT” [2] project solved at the University of Žilina. The main goal of our contribution is to present basic conception of a complex developed software tool for monitoring and analyzing mentioned dangerous goods transportation.

  10. Avoiding the "danger zones" when injecting dermal fillers and volume enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic providers need to be aware of the serious potential complications that can result from occlusion of specific facial arterial and venous structures. This article focuses on the anatomical "danger zones" to avoid during dermal filler and volume enhancer injection procedures. Clinical pearls are provided on how to avoid these "danger zones" and what to do if a rare complication (e.g., skin necrosis or vision loss) does occur.

  11. Danger signal-dependent activation of human dendritic cells by plasma-derived factor VIII products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Weissmüller, S; Ringler, E; Crauwels, P; van Zandbergen, G; Seitz, R; Waibler, Z

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A by infusions of the clotting factor VIII (FVIII) results in the development of inhibitors/anti-drug antibodies in up to 25 % of patients. Mechanisms leading to immunogenicity of FVIII products are not yet fully understood. Amongst other factors, danger signals as elicited upon infection or surgery have been proposed to play a role. In the present study, we focused on effects of danger signals on maturation and activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the context of FVIII application. Human monocyte-derived DC were treated with FVIII alone, with a danger signal alone or a combination of both. By testing more than 60 different healthy donors, we show that FVIII and the bacterial danger signal lipopolysaccharide synergise in increasing DC activation, as characterised by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The degree and frequency of this synergistic activation correlate with CD86 expression levels on immature DC prior to stimulation. In our assay system, plasma-derived but not recombinant FVIII products activate human DC in a danger signal-dependent manner. Further tested danger signals, such as R848 also induced DC activation in combination with FVIII, albeit not in every tested donor. In our hands, human DC but not human B cells or macrophages could be activated by FVIII in a danger signal-dependent manner. Our results suggest that immunogenicity of FVIII is a result of multiple factors including the presence of danger, predisposition of the patient, and the choice of a FVIII product for treatment.

  12. GREY CLASSIFICATION FOR EVALUATING THE STABILITY OF DANGEROUS ROCK-BLOCK MASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a grey classification method for evaluating the stability of dangerous rockblock masses according to the Grey System Theory. This method is applied to the stability of the V# dangerous rockblock masses of Qingjiang water conservancy project, and better results are abtained. The method which is advanced in the article is very single and practical, and it can meet all kinds of project′s demands.

  13. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  14. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account.

  15. Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of dangerous and harmless predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators.

  16. Earth as Humans’ Habitat: Global Climate Change and the Health of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J McMichael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth’s life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet’s bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- and weather-associated changes is now evident in many regions of the world. The risks impinge unevenly, especially on poorer and vulnerable regions, and are amplified by pre-existing high rates of climate-sensitive diseases and conditions. If, as now appears likely, the world warms by 3-5oC by 2100, the health consequences, directly and via massive social and economic disruption, will be severe. The health sector has an important message to convey, comparing the health risks and benefits of enlightened action to avert climate change and to achieve sustainable ways of living versus the self-interested or complacent inaction.

  17. Earth as humans' habitat: global climate change and the health of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth's life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet's bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- and weather-associated changes is now evident in many regions of the world. The risks impinge unevenly, especially on poorer and vulnerable regions, and are amplified by pre-existing high rates of climate-sensitive diseases and conditions. If, as now appears likely, the world warms by 3-5oC by 2100, the health consequences, directly and via massive social and economic disruption, will be severe. The health sector has an important message to convey, comparing the health risks and benefits of enlightened action to avert climate change and to achieve sustainable ways of living versus the self-interested or complacent inaction.

  18. Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  19. Sensitivity of water scarcity events to ENSO-driven climate variability at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Eisner, S.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consum

  20. Citizenship for a Changing Global Climate: Learning from New Zealand and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Bronwyn; Selboe, Elin; Plew, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young citizens under the age of 25?years make up just under half of the world's population. Globally, they face new, interrelated problems of dangerous environmental change, including increasing incidence of severe storms associated with a changing climate, and related new threats to human security. Addressing the complex challenge of climate…

  1. Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

  2. Climatic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    According to Cleo Paskal climatic changes are environmental changes. They are global, but their impact is local, and manifests them selves in the landscape, in our cities, in open urban spaces, and in everyday life. The landscape and open public spaces will in many cases be the sites where...... measurements to handle climatic changes will be positioned and enacted. Measurements taken are mostly adaptive or aimed to secure and protect existing values, buildings, infrastructure etc., but will in many cases also affects functions, meaning and peoples identification with the landscape and the open urban...... be addressed in order to develop and support social sustainability and identification. This paper explore and discuss how the handling of climatic changes in landscape and open urban spaces might hold a potential for them to become common goods....

  3. Frontiere pericolose: l’adattamento Dangerous frontiers: adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Volpe

    2011-04-01

    riscrittura di un testo, una sua continuazione, una sua variazione. Se la traduzione cerca riparo nei confortevoli territori della somiglianza, l’adattamento – un buon adattamento – deve spingersi oltre, osare sul terreno della diversità. Partire da un testo significa ripartire, viaggiare, attraversare una frontiera per approdare altrove. E qualche volta, come auspicava Truffaut, fare «un’altra cosa, migliore».Discourses on adaptation revolve incessantly around a succession of deep-rooted clichés: at opposite ends the imaginary illusions of disappointed readers and the programmatic indifference of hardened film lovers. Theory should tenaciously oppose itself to common sense, but it's been bogged down in jargon and self-references: experts read each other's works, they position and reposition themselves, modify and revise their taxonomical grids, almost always triadic, engaged in endlessly redefining the continuum that goes from fidelity to originality. They simply ask that each adaptation fit into related compartments. With the only purpose of finding their bearings. But their terminology almost always reflects the same concern: an obsession with translatability. Doggedly formalizing a concept based on a wrong premise: because an adaptation is not a translation, it's an interpretation. Or, better, it isn't only an interpretation but certainly implies one. Of all the misunderstandings this is the most dangerous one because it doesn't have the alibi of ingenuousness. The whole exhausting debate on fidelity, even in its most recent declensions, falls through when the erroneousness of the premise is uncovered. If it's legitimate to judge a translation based on the principle of fidelity, this becomes entirely devoid of relevance when one considers an adaptation as something new, a re-writing of a text, its continuation, its variation. While a translation seeks refuge in the comfortable territories of similarity, an adaptation – a

  4. Distributed Danger Assessment Model for the Internet of Things Based on Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT confronts complicated and changeful security threats. It harms IoT and brings IoT potential danger. However, the research achievements of the danger assessment technology for IoT are rare. To calculate the danger value of IoT with many dispersive sense nodes, the theoretical model of distributed danger assessment for IoT is explored in this paper. The principles and mechanisms of Artificial Immune System (AIS are introduced into the proposed model. Data packets in IoT are captured in each gateway and converted into antigens in the simulated immune environment. Detectors use self-learning and self-adaptation mechanisms in AIS to evolve themselves to adapt the local IoT environment and detect security threats. The mechanism of antibody density is simulated to reflect the intensity of security threats which are happening. Through the detected security threats and their intensity, the values of IoT property and security threats’ harm are combined to assess the quantitative value of danger for IoT. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed model is significative of theory and practice.

  5. Web-GIS platform for forest fire danger prediction in Ukraine: prospects of RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, N. V.; Zharikova, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    There are many different statistical and empirical methods of forest fire danger use at present time. All systems have not physical basis. Last decade deterministic-probabilistic method is rapidly developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University. Forest sites classification is one way to estimate forest fire danger. We used this method in present work. Forest fire danger estimation depends on forest vegetation condition, forest fire retrospective, precipitation and air temperature. In fact, we use modified Nesterov Criterion. Lightning activity is under consideration as a high temperature source in present work. We use Web-GIS platform for program realization of this method. The program realization of the fire danger assessment system is the Web-oriented geoinformation system developed by the Django platform in the programming language Python. The GeoDjango framework was used for realization of cartographic functions. We suggest using of Terra/Aqua MODIS products for hot spot monitoring. Typical territory for forest fire danger estimation is Proletarskoe forestry of Kherson region (Ukraine).

  6. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ann T; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2014-01-20

    Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers', fathers', and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1,282) and fathers (n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers' and fathers' reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

  7. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann T. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children’s perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = 0.66; 51% girls and their mothers (n = 1282 and fathers (n = 1075 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children’s reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

  8. The dendritic cell response to classic, emerging, and homeostatic danger signals. Implications for autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Paul M; Gallucci, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and control immune responses, participate in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and are pivotal players in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In patients with autoimmune disease and in experimental animal models of autoimmunity, DCs show abnormalities in both numbers and activation state, expressing immunogenic levels of costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Exogenous and endogenous danger signals activate DCs to stimulate the immune response. Classic endogenous danger signals are released, activated, or secreted by host cells and tissues experiencing stress, damage, and non-physiologic cell death; and are therefore referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Some DAMPs are released from cells, where they are normally sequestered, during necrosis (e.g., heat shock proteins, uric acid, ATP, HMGB1, mitochondria-derived molecules). Others are actively secreted, like Type I Interferons. Here we discuss important DAMPs in the context of autoimmunity. For some, there is a clear pathogenic link (e.g., nucleic acids and lupus). For others, there is less evidence. Additionally, we explore emerging danger signals. These include inorganic materials and man-made technologies (e.g., nanomaterials) developed as novel therapeutic approaches. Some nanomaterials can activate DCs and may trigger unintended inflammatory responses. Finally, we will review "homeostatic danger signals," danger signals that do not derive directly from pathogens or dying cells but are associated with perturbations of tissue/cell homeostasis and may signal pathological stress. These signals, like acidosis, hypoxia, and changes in osmolarity, also play a role in inflammation and autoimmunity.

  9. Fire and Climate Change in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, M. D.; Logan, K. A.; Stocks, S. J.; Wotton, B. M.; Amiro, B. D.

    2004-12-01

    Fire is the major stand-renewing agent for much of the circumboreal forest, and greatly influences the structure and function of boreal ecosystems from regeneration through mortality. Current estimates are that an average of 5-15 million hectares burn annually in boreal forests, almost exclusively in Siberia, Canada and Alaska. There is a growing global awareness of the importance and vulnerability of the boreal region to projected future climate change. Fire activity is strongly influenced by four factors - weather/climate, vegetation \\(fuels\\), natural ignition agents and humans. Climate and weather are strongly linked to fire activity which suggests that the fire regime will respond rapidly to changes in climate. Recent results suggest that area burned by fire is related to temperature and fuel moisture. The climate of the northern hemisphere has been warming due to an influx of radiatively active gases \\(carbon dioxide, methane etc.\\) as a result of human activities. This altered climate, modelled by General Circulation Models \\(GCMs\\), indicates a profound impact on fire activity in the circumboreal forest. Recent results using GCMs suggest that in many regions fire weather/fire danger conditions will be more severe, area burned will increase, people-caused and lightning-caused ignitions will increase, fire seasons will be longer and the intensity and severity of fires will increase. This increase in fire activity may lead to a positive feedback cycle with the increased release of greenhouse gases. Although a run away scenario is unlikely as changes in vegetation would limit the positive feedback cycle. Changes in fire activity as a result of climate change could have a greater and more immediate impact on vegetation distribution and abundance as compared to the direct impact of climate change.

  10. Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center

  11. Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future climate. The empirical evidence presented for a cross-country time series of factors associated with past natural disaster fatalities since 1980 in 125 countries confirms this overriding importance of education in reducing impacts. We also present new projections of populations by age, sex, and level of educational attainment to 2050, thus providing an appropriate tool for anticipating societies' future adaptive capacities based on alternative education scenarios associated with different policies.

  12. Dangerous intimate partner relationships and women's mental health and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-DiLorenzo, Aya; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between dangerousness in intimate partner relationships and victims' mental health and/or health behavior problems. Health records of 387 women residents in a domestic violence shelter in an urban city on the East coast were reviewed. Of these, 177 women were eligible for this study. Dangerousness was determined by Danger Assessment Score (DA). Higher DA scores were significantly associated with mental health symptoms and health behaviors, including anxiety (p = 0.0024), depression (p = 0.017), difficulty concentrating (p = 0.001), memory loss (p = 0.008), suicidal attempts (p = 0.013), weight gain (p = 0.014), past history of smoking (p = 0.027), and past history of illicit drug use (p = 0.047).

  13. The dangerous role of silence in the relationship between trauma and violence: a group response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Suzanne B

    2015-01-01

    This article considers that somewhere in the space between violence and trauma is dangerous silence. Silence intensifies the impact of trauma, and trauma that goes unspoken, un-witnessed, and unclaimed too often "outs itself" as more violence to self or others. Relevant empirical evidence on the impact of civilian interpersonal violence, combat trauma, school shootings, bullying, and domestic violence confirms this tragic cycle. Crucial to addressing the danger of silence in this cycle, the article examines the centrality of silence existentially, neuropsychologically, psychologically, developmentally, interpersonally, and culturally in relation to violence. The bridge to voicing and assimilating the unspeakable is empathic connection with others. Drawing upon two different types of group programs, the article demonstrates that group can serve as that bridge. Group process has the potential to undo the dangerous role of silence in the relationship of trauma and violence.

  14. High Incidence of Neonatal Danger Signs and Its Implications for Postnatal Care in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiyo Okawa

    Full Text Available Reducing neonatal mortality is a major public health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous studies have examined the determinants of neonatal mortality, but few have explored neonatal danger signs which potentially cause morbidity. This study assessed danger signs observed in neonates at birth, determined the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and identified factors associated with neonatal danger signs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in three sites across Ghana between July and September in 2013. Using two-stage random sampling, we recruited 1,500 pairs of neonates and their mothers who had given birth within the preceding two years. We collected data on their socio-demographic characteristics, utilization of maternal and neonatal health services, and experiences with neonatal danger signs and maternal complications. We calculated the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and performed multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with neonatal danger signs.More than 25% of the neonates were born with danger signs. At-birth danger signs in neonates were correlated with maternal delivery complications (r = 0.20, p < 0.001, and neonatal complications within the first six weeks of life (r = 0.19, p < 0.001. However, only 29.1% of neonates with danger signs received postnatal care in the first two days, and 52.4% at two weeks of life. In addition to maternal complications during delivery, maternal age less than 20 years, maternal education level lower than secondary school, and fewer than four antenatal care visits significantly predicted neonatal danger signs.Over a quarter of neonates are born with danger signs. Maternal factors can be used to predict neonatal health condition at birth. Management of maternal health and close medical attention to high-risk neonates are crucial to reduce neonatal morbidity

  15. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  16. High-resolution mass spectrometry driven discovery of peptidic danger signals in insect immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Arton; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard; Römpp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The 'danger model' is an alternative concept for immune response postulating that the immune system reacts to entities that do damage (danger associated molecular patterns, DAMP) and not only to entities that are foreign (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMP) as proposed by classical immunology concepts. In this study we used Galleria mellonella to validate the danger model in insects. Hemolymph of G. mellonella was digested with thermolysin (as a representative for virulence-associated metalloproteinases produced by humanpathogens) followed by chromatographic fractionation. Immune-stimulatory activity was tested by measuring lysozyme activity with the lytic zone assays against Micrococcus luteus cell wall components. Peptides were analyzed by nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometers. Addressing the lack of a genome sequence we complemented the rudimentary NCBI protein database with a recently established transcriptome and de novo sequencing methods for peptide identification. This approach led to identification of 127 peptides, 9 of which were identified in bioactive fractions. Detailed MS/MS experiments in comparison with synthetic analogues confirmed the amino acid sequence of all 9 peptides. To test the potential of these putative danger signals to induce immune responses we injected the synthetic analogues into G. mellonella and monitored the anti-bacterial activity against living Micrococcus luteus. Six out of 9 peptides identified in the bioactive fractions exhibited immune-stimulatory activity when injected. Hence, we provide evidence that small peptides resulting from thermolysin-mediated digestion of hemolymph proteins function as endogenous danger signals which can set the immune system into alarm. Consequently, our study indicates that the danger model also plays a role in insect immunity.

  17. "Danger" conditions increase sulfamethoxazole-protein adduct formation in human antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, S N; Wang, H; Callan, H E; Park, B K; Naisbitt, D J

    2009-11-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced immune reactions. Various pathological factors can activate APC and therefore influence the immune equilibrium. It is interesting that several diseases have been associated with an increased rate of drug allergy. The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of such "danger signals" on sulfamethoxazole (SMX) metabolism in human APC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Epstein-Barr virus-modified B lymphocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and two cell lines). APC were incubated with SMX (100 microM-2 mM; 5 min-24 h), in the presence of pathological factors: bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B), flu viral proteins, cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; interferon-gamma; and transforming growth factor-beta], inflammatory molecules (prostaglandin E2, human serum complement, and activated protein C), oxidants (buthionine sulfoximine and H(2)O(2)), and hyperthermia (37.5-39.5 degrees C). Adduct formation was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confocal microscopy. SMX-protein adduct formation was time- and concentration-dependent for each cell type tested, in both physiological and danger conditions. A danger environment significantly increased the formation of SMX-protein adducts and significantly shortened the delay for their detection. An additive effect was observed with a combination of danger signals. Dimedone (chemical selectively binding cysteine sulfenic acid) and antioxidants decreased both baseline and danger-enhanced SMX-adduct formation. Various enzyme inhibitors were associated with a significant decrease in SMX-adduct levels, with a pattern varying depending on the cell type and the culture conditions. These results illustrate that danger signals enhance the formation of intracellular SMX-protein adducts in human APC. These findings might be relevant

  18. Climate and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the existing knowledge on the inter-relationships between climate and patterns of development; the impact variables on water and agricultural development; and the effects of climate on human health. A case study is also given of the effect of climatic fluctuations on human population in Mesopotamia. Contents: Climate and Development; Climate and Agriculture; Climate and Water Management; Climate and Health; Effects of Climate Fluctation on Human Populations; Study of Mesopotamian Society.

  19. Improved genetic algorithm freely searching for dangerous slip surface of slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Wen; CAO Ping; FENG Tao; YUAN Hai-ping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the slice method of the non-circular slip surface for the calculation of integral stability of slope, an improved genetic algorithm was proposed, which can freely search for the most dangerous slip surface of slope and the corresponding minimum safety factor without supposing the geometric shape of the most dangerous slip surface. This improved genetic algorithm can simulate the genetic evolution process of organisms and avoid the local minimum value compared with the classical methods. The results of engineering cases show that it is a global optimal algorithm and has many advantages, such as higher efficiency and shorter time than the simple genetic algorithm.

  20. Joint processing of RS and WWLLN data for forest fire danger estimation: new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Krechetova, Svetlana Yu.; Belikova, Marina Yu.; Kocheeva, Nina A.; Yankovich, Elena P.

    2016-10-01

    The present article describes a new concept of lightning-caused forest fire danger using a probabilistic criterion. The assessment of forest fire danger is made on the basis of the algorithm that classifies the forest territory by vegetation conditions. Lightning activity is processed by the MODIS spectroradiometer according to the World Wide Lightning Location Network data and remote sensing data for the Timiryazevskiy forestry in the Tomsk Region. The cluster analysis of the WWLLN and MOD06_L2 product data are used in the present paper.

  1. Perception of dangers related to privacy on the web and social networks by Spanish university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Herrero Gutiérrez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article collects data from an experiment conducted with a group of students from the University of Salamanca. The aims are focused on inquiring about several variables relating to information posted on social networks, the potential vulnerability of users and the degree of awareness of potential dangers. From an experiment where participants are involved, the results and conclusions lead to reject the hypothesis, because of the increasing assumption of the social networks´ dangers by users. The case study could be an important starting point for further work on the subject in the same generations, close to the native digital, and other generations away from this concept.

  2. A Sense of Security: Carpentry Apprentices Handling Uncertain and Dangerous Work Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, Regine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how carpentry apprentices learn to handle uncertain and potentially dangerous situations in the working environment at construction sites. The analysis focuses on how these situations are negotiated at the workplaces in relation to bodily sensations of pain, relations...... with their co-workers and the importance placed on ‘getting the work done’. It shows that instead of working to eliminate potentially dangerous situations through the use of precautionary measures such as lifting equipment or personal protection gear, the apprentices learn to understand risk and uncertainties...... as a part of the job through general learning processes at the workplace....

  3. Effect Blasting Excavation of Yujiapeng Tunnel on Stability of Nearby Giant Dangerous Rock Masses (DRM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the interpretation of engineering geology of the tunnel and of its adjacent dangerous rock masses (DRM), this paper presents the energy and vibration parameters of the explosion that propagates in different blasting modes according to the experimental formulas now usually employed. Then the stability checking computation of T8-T12 area, the most dangerous area of DRM, is conducted under the limited blasting condition and with the limited equilibrium method. The result shows that the effect on the stability is only 5.5 % and that this area also contains certain safety reserves.

  4. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  5. Uncertainty in climate science and climate policy

    CERN Document Server

    Rougier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinction will become clearer in what follows. In a nutshell, we do not think that academic climate science equips climate scientists to be as helpful as they might be, when involved in climate policy assessment. Partly, we attribute this to an over-investment in high resolution climate simulators, and partly to a culture that is uncomfortable with the inherently subjective nature of climate uncertainty.

  6. Climate Change: Ethics and Collective Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Brown, M. B.; Mann, M. E.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change poses grave risks for societies and people all around the earth. Though details of the risks remain uncertain, they include accelerating sea level rise and ocean acidification, regional drought, floods and heat waves, crop failures and more: dangerous changes are already occurring, while GHG emissions continue to grow, ice melts, water expands, temperature rises, and weather patterns shift. Our roles as individuals and nations in producing the emissions of GHGs responsible for this episode of climate change, and the actions that could be taken to mitigate it, raise difficult ethical questions. When we are responsible for putting others in danger, we have a duty to mitigate that danger. But our sense of responsibility is diluted here: each individual act contributes only minutely to the overall risks, and the links between individual acts and the harms they produce are complex, indirect and involve many other agents. In these circumstances, our sense of personal responsibility is diminished and uncoordinated, individual responses to the risks become ineffective. We propose a view of the ethics of climate change that begins with the tragedy of the commons: Free use of a shared, indispensable resource can lead to catastrophe as the resource is overrun, and the destruction of the commons arises from choices that are individuallyrational, if each person's choice is made independently of others'. Finally, individuals often fail to make ethical choices when the links between individual actions and their negative outcomes are obscure, when individual choices are made separately and privately, and when special interests stand to gain from actions that are generally harmful. Philosophical work in ethics has emphasized the role of ethics in enabling cooperation between individuals and coordinating group responses to problems, while recent work on social rules has modeled them as generalized forbiddings, taught and enforced by 'blocking' behaviours which

  7. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  8. Climate - Options for broadening climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts JCJH; Asselt H van; Bakker SJA; Bayangos V; Beers C van; Berk MM; Biermann F; Bouwer LM; Bree L van; Coninck HC de; Dorland K; Elzen ME den; Gupta J; Heemst J van; Jansen JC; Kok MTJ; Nabuurs GJ; Veraert J; Verhagen A; Kok MTJ; Coninck HC de; ECN; KMD

    2005-01-01

    In this study ways are explored to increase the policy coherence between the climate regime and a selected number of climate relevant policy areas, by adding a non-climate policy track to national and international climate strategies. The report assesses first the potential, synergies and trade-offs

  9. Cardiac anxiety - when the heart is thought to be in danger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H.C.T. van

    2016-01-01

    When the heart is (thought to be) in danger - like after a myocardial infarction (MI) or in patients with Non Cardiac Chest Pain (NCCP)- , this may provoke specific fears related to the heart: cardiac anxiety. This anxiety is often not acknowledged nor treated. The present thesis showed that cardiac

  10. Multimodal presentation of local danger warnings for drivers: A situation-dependent assessment of usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Müller, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses how advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) should communicate with drivers, focusing on the local danger warning function. To achieve high-quality assistance, the communication mode needs to be adaptive to changes in driving situation (driver's state, workload and environment

  11. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  12. 75 FR 26100 - Danger Zone, Pacific Ocean, Naval Base Coronado, Coronado, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... exit from it. To assist mariners, updated nautical charts will be published by the National Oceanic and.... These nautical charts are used by mariners internationally and should provide danger zone awareness... locations of the SAR's flag poles and flashing red lights will be mapped on the nautical charts. The...

  13. Useful and Dangerous Discourse: Deconstructing Racialized Knowledge about African-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from Michel Foucault's notion of "useful" and "dangerous" discourse coupled with the theory of racial knowledge, this article examines how two common counter-discourses about African-American students operate and create racial knowledge in education practice. By "counter-discourse", the authors refer to knowledge, theories, and histories…

  14. The Encounter With Life-Threatening Danger: Its Nature and Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Russell, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A factor analysis of questionnaire responses from (N=189) victims of life-threatening accidents identified three dimensions of the altered state of consciousness produced by dangerous circumstances. These dimensions, included depersonalization, hyperalertness, and mystical consciousness, appeared meaningful in terms of the endangered personality's…

  15. Remaining Safe and Avoiding Dangers Online: A Social Media Q&A with Kimberly Mitchell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention Researcher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The news media is often full of stories about the dangers of social media, including such concerns as cyberbullying and sexting. In this article, Kimberly Mitchell, a researcher noted for her experience on youth internet victimization, answers questions about the risks of social media and how we can keep youth safe online. Questions in this Q&A…

  16. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 41st session of the United...

  17. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 42nd session of the United...

  18. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 38th session of the United...

  19. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 39th session of the United...

  20. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Administration International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting...

  1. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 40th session of the United...

  2. 75 FR 19885 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zone at Naval Station Mayport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... the arc of a circle with a radius of 466 feet, centered at latitude 30 23'48.52'' N, longitude 081 23... restricted area as well as establishing two new restricted areas and a new danger zone in the waters adjacent... third largest naval facility in the continental United States and is unique in that it is home to a...

  3. 76 FR 75453 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... follows: Sec. 334.700 Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a... Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas. (1) The danger zone....

  4. Pleasure, power and dangerous substances: applying Foucault to the study of 'heroin dependence' in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergschmidt, Viktoria B

    2004-04-01

    Taking the observation of disciplining and controlling everyday practices of methadone substitution as a point of departure, this paper explores the question of what exactly is so threatening or dangerous about heroin and heroin users. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler, the main argument of this article is that the danger of heroin use is a discursive construction in accordance with bio-power. On the one hand, the juridical governance of heroin dependence is shifting from punishment to therapy, and biomedical discourses proclaim the substitution of a moral notion of heroin dependence by a disease model. Nevertheless, in the context of the anxiety associated with HIV, heroin remains the dangerous drug par excellence, and heroin users are constructed as 'abject others', unable to subordinate to certain social norms. As a reaction to such injurious ascriptions, I argue, applicants to the methadone programme in their life stories intensely narrate a desire for normalization, which I read as a desire to emerge from the realm of the abject. Both the danger and the pleasure associated with heroin use are bound to fundamental processes of subject formation, which are often ignored in biomedical and anthropological discourses.

  5. Predicting Danger: The Nature, Consequences, and Neural Mechanisms of Predictive Fear Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    The ability to detect and learn about the predictive relations existing between events in the world is essential for adaptive behavior. It allows us to use past events to predict the future and to adjust our behavior accordingly. Pavlovian fear conditioning allows anticipation of sources of danger in the environment. It guides attention away from…

  6. On the Dangers of Antiquarian Investigations: Nietzsche, the Excesses of History, and the Power of Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on Nietzsche's insights as well as those of his critics, this article explores the dangers and limitations of the antiquarian type of historical investigations. The author begins his analysis by closely examining Nietzsche's conception of antiquarian history and explaining why he finds this mode of historical investigation so troubling.…

  7. 33 CFR 126.27 - General permit for handling dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) in bulk, portable tanks, containers, or packagings, at designated waterfront facilities, conditioned... cargo in limited-quantity packaging. (e) Transport units and portable tanks containing dangerous cargo... in the event of an accident. Cargo not required to be segregated, when in break-bulk form, is...

  8. Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of 'Dangerous' Sex Offenders in the Community: The Spanish Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Martínez Garay (Lucía); J. Correcher Mira (Jorge)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents an overview of the legal regime provided in the Spanish system of criminal sanctions regarding the control of dangerous sex offenders in the community. It focuses on the introduction, in 2010, of a post-prison safety measure named supervised release. We describe the

  9. On Genies and Bottles: Scientists’ Moral Responsibility and Dangerous Technology R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.

    2009-01-01

    The age-old maxim of scientists whose work has resulted in deadly or dangerous technologies is: scientists are not to blame, but rather technologists and politicians must be morally culpable for the uses of science. As new technologies threaten not just populations but species and biospheres, scient

  10. 77 FR 50926 - Security Zones; Certain Dangerous Cargo Vessels, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of... boarding and inspection of the vessel and persons onboard. The security zones would be enforced from 12:01... the vessel and persons onboard. (4) The Coast Guard will provide notice of the regulated areas...

  11. There Are No Safe Places: Pedagogy as Powerful and Dangerous Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Annette

    1994-01-01

    In this article, a black feminist teacher educator shares personal reflections on learning and teaching about "difference," a political, dangerous, and "unsafe" terrain. She discusses her experiences within the context of misogyny and racism and contrasts her students' struggles against her black female authority in the…

  12. Predation danger can explain changes in timing of migration: the case of the barnacle goose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy M Jonker

    Full Text Available Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in The Netherlands by approximately one month and have reduced their staging duration at stopover sites in the Baltic accordingly. Consequently, this extended stay increases agricultural damage in The Netherlands. Using a dynamic state variable approach we explored three hypotheses about the underlying causes of these changes in migratory behavior, possibly related to changes in (i onset of spring, (ii potential intake rates and (iii predation danger at wintering and stopover sites. Our simulations showed that the observed advance in onset of spring contradicts the observed delay of departure, whereas both increased predation danger and decreased intake rates in the Baltic can explain the delay. Decreased intake rates are expected as a result of increased competition for food in the growing Barnacle goose population. However, the effect of predation danger in the model was particularly strong, and we hypothesize that Barnacle geese avoid Baltic stopover sites as a response to the rapidly increasing number of avian predators in the area. Therefore, danger should be considered as an important factor influencing Barnacle goose migratory behavior, and receive more attention in empirical studies.

  13. Suicide by Cop in Film and Society: Dangerousness, Depression, and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Bowman, Barbara; Lester, David

    2012-01-01

    Provoking police officers to kill oneself or "suicide by cop" (SBC) has received scholarly as well as public attention. The extent to which film representations of SBC reflect SBC in society in relation to danger, depression, and other features was assessed in this study. Data on cinematic portrayals of SBC are from 16 American films;…

  14. Attitudes about Mental Illness and Professional Danger among New Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Matthew T.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study comparing attitudes toward mental illness and perceptions of professional danger among new social work students (n=64) and other university students (n=111). Such topics have implications for social work education and curriculum development but have not been studied adequately. Results from…

  15. CHINA'S NAVIGATION SATELLITES SERVE ROAD TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    State Administration of Work Safety held a technological appraisal conference on Application System for the Monitoring and Management of the Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods on August 8, 2004. During two months' operation, the system has been widely praised and the navigation satellite application market has a bright future.

  16. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...

  17. [Effect of various technical parameters on potential danger of an electric injury in the bathtub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, M; Brinkmann, B; Fechner, G

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to common beliefs there is not strict necessity for lethal danger during electric shock in a bathtub. Measurements of the electric field demonstrates the ground conditions and water temperature are of vital importance as are a variety of other parameters. With an electronic amplifier especially designed for this problem measurement of the electric parameters in the water was made possible.

  18. Results of the MITRA project: Monitoring and intervention for the transportation of dangerous goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas, E. [Centre d' Estudis del Risc Tecnologic (CERTEC), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)], E-mail: eulalia.planas@upc.edu; Pastor, E. [Centre d' Estudis del Risc Tecnologic (CERTEC), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Presutto, F. [M3 Systems, 1 Rue des Oiseaux, 31410 Lavernose (France); Tixier, J. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, Ales (France)

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the MITRA (monitoring and intervention for the transportation of dangerous goods) project was to prototype a new operational system for monitoring the transportation of dangerous goods in Europe based on regional responsibilities. This concept, based on systems used in air traffic control, aims to provide civil security centres with real-time knowledge of the position and contents of dangerous vehicles circulating in their area of responsibility, and, in the event of a dangerous situation, to issue warnings, alerts and crisis management information, thereby allowing intervention teams to react immediately with maximum safety. The project was funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme (STREP - specific targeted research project - under the Information Society Technologies priority). It started on 1 September 2004 and ended on 31 October 2006. This paper presents the results of this project and the conclusions derived from the field tests carried out in Germany and in the French/Spanish border region in order to test the proposed operational system.

  19. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Klaus; Robinson, Alexander; Bradford, David F.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination—the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  20. The Dendritic Cell Response to Classic, Emerging, and Homeostatic Danger Signals. Implications for Autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Matthew Gallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs initiate and control immune responses, participate in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and are pivotal players in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In patients with autoimmune disease and in experimental animal models of autoimmunity, DCs show abnormalities in both numbers and activation state, expressing immunogenic levels of costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Exogenous and endogenous danger signals activate DCs to stimulate the immune response. Classic endogenous danger signals are released, activated, or secreted by host cells and tissues experiencing stress, damage, and non-physiologic cell death; and are therefore referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. Some DAMPs are released from cells, where they are normally sequestered, during necrosis (e.g. heat shock proteins, uric acid, ATP, HMGB1, mitochondria-derived molecules. Others are actively secreted, like Type I Interferons. Here we discuss important DAMPs in the context of autoimmunity. For some, there is a clear pathogenic link (e.g. nucleic acids and lupus. For others, there is less evidence. Additionally, we explore emerging danger signals. These include inorganic materials and man-made technologies (e.g. nanomaterials developed as novel therapeutic approaches. Some nanomaterials can activate DCs and may trigger unintended inflammatory responses. Finally, we will review homeostatic danger signals, danger signals that do not derive directly from pathogens or dying cells but are associated with perturbations of tissue/cell homeostasis and may signal pathological stress. These signals, like acidosis, hypoxia and changes in osmolarity, also play a role in inflammation and autoimmunity.

  1. Climate Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ From June to August 2009, the western part of northeast China's Liaoning Province suffered from drought and extremely high temperatures, which damaged about 4.9 million hectares of farmland. Almost 827,000 hectares yielded no harvest as a result of the drought and 3 million people were impacted. The villagers might not know that a conference held in December on the other side of the globe has something to do with their hard times, but many are waking up to the reality that the disastrous effects of climate change have already begun to exert great influence on people's lives.

  2. Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    According to the National Academy of Sciences in American,the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases-primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The heat-trapping property of these gases is undisputed although uncertainties exist about exactly how earth's climate responds to them.

  3. Safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises.

  4. Awareness of critical danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, preparations for delivery, and utilization of skilled birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Cometto, Giorgio; Afenyadu, Godwin Y

    2013-02-01

    Maternal mortality in northern Nigeria is among the highest in the world. To understand better the pathways through which the socio-demographic environment affects awareness of obstetric danger signs (i.e., potential problems associated with pregnancy), preparations for delivery, and skilled birth attendance, we conducted a survey of 5,083 women with recent pregnancies in three northern Nigerian states. Only 25% attended antenatal care (ANC), and 91% of all births took place at home. Less than one-third knew three or more danger signs of pregnancy or labor and delivery. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with knowledge of danger signs, but not with knowledge of life-threatening, critical danger signs. Antenatal care visits did not increase knowledge of critical danger signs, but they were associated with skilled birth attendance. Knowledge of critical pregnancy danger signs also was associated with skilled birth attendance. Improving the quality and coverage of ANC will ensure greater awareness of the critical danger signs. Future research is needed to identify creative and innovative ways to strengthen strategies for educating pregnant women about danger signs and in facilitating uptake of delivery services.

  5. 29 CFR 2700.22 - Notice of contest of imminent danger withdrawal orders under section 107 of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of contest of imminent danger withdrawal orders under section 107 of the Act. 2700.22 Section 2700.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued....22 Notice of contest of imminent danger withdrawal orders under section 107 of the Act. (a) Time...

  6. Advancing Health Equity and Climate Change Solutions in California Through Integration of Public Health in Regional Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Solange M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant public health danger, with a disproportionate impact on low-income and communities of color that threatens to increase health inequities. Many important social determinants of health are at stake in California climate change policy-making and planning, and the distribution of these will further impact health inequities. Not only are these communities the most vulnerable to future health impacts due to the cumulative impacts of unequal environmental exposures a...

  7. The habenulo-raphe serotonergic circuit encodes an aversive expectation value essential for adaptive active avoidance of danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Ryunosuke; Fredes, Felipe; Kinoshita, Masae; Aoki, Ryo; Aizawa, Hidenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Aoki, Tazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Kakinuma, Hisaya; Matsuda, Masaru; Yamazaki, Masako; Takahoko, Mikako; Tsuboi, Takashi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Koide, Tetsuya; Yabuki, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Fukai, Tomoki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2014-12-03

    Anticipation of danger at first elicits panic in animals, but later it helps them to avoid the real threat adaptively. In zebrafish, as fish experience more and more danger, neurons in the ventral habenula (vHb) showed tonic increase in the activity to the presented cue and activated serotonergic neurons in the median raphe (MR). This neuronal activity could represent the expectation of a dangerous outcome and be used for comparison with a real outcome when the fish is learning how to escape from a dangerous to a safer environment. Indeed, inhibiting synaptic transmission from vHb to MR impaired adaptive avoidance learning, while panic behavior induced by classical fear conditioning remained intact. Furthermore, artificially triggering this negative outcome expectation signal by optogenetic stimulation of vHb neurons evoked place avoidance behavior. Thus, vHb-MR circuit is essential for representing the level of expected danger and behavioral programming to adaptively avoid potential hazard.

  8. Azithromycin-Ciprofloxacin-Impregnated Urinary Catheters Avert Bacterial Colonization, Biofilm Formation, and Inflammation in a Murine Model of Foreign-Body-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Hina; Vadekeetil, Anitha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multifaceted pathogen causing a variety of biofilm-mediated infections, including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The high prevalence of CAUTIs in hospitals, their clinical manifestations, such as urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, meningitis, urosepsis, and death, and the associated economic challenges underscore the need for management of these infections. Biomaterial modification of urinary catheters with two drugs seems an interesting approach to combat CAUTIs by inhibiting biofilm. Previously, we demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of urinary catheters impregnated with azithromycin (AZM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) against P. aeruginosa Here, we report how these coated catheters impact the course of CAUTI induced by P. aeruginosa in a murine model. CAUTI was established in female LACA mice with uncoated or AZM-CIP-coated silicone implants in the bladder, followed by transurethral inoculation of 10(8) CFU/ml of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. AZM-CIP-coated implants (i) prevented biofilm formation on the implant's surface (P ≤ 0.01), (ii) restricted bacterial colonization in the bladder and kidney (P < 0.0001), (iii) averted bacteriuria (P < 0.0001), and (iv) exhibited no major histopathological changes for 28 days in comparison to uncoated implants, which showed persistent CAUTI. Antibiotic implants also overcame implant-mediated inflammation, as characterized by trivial levels of inflammatory markers such as malondialdehyde (P < 0.001), myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05), reactive oxygen species (P ≤ 0.001), and reactive nitrogen intermediates (P < 0.01) in comparison to those in uncoated implants. Further, AZM-CIP-coated implants showed immunomodulation by manipulating the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 to the benefit of the host. Overall, the study demonstrates long-term in vivo effectiveness of AZM-CIP-impregnated catheters, which may

  9. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-08-21

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors` designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors` contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  10. Statement of Problem: Dangerous Desires in Orwell's 1984 and the Present Spanish Penal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our construct of a dangerous subject has changed little over the past century. Dangerous subjects in Oceania, a region created by Orwell in his novel 1984 in a constant state of war, consciously or unconsciously manifest too much autonomy. Self-autonomy and agency breach established moral codes of conduct and manifest an inability to self-govern and conform i.e. discipline. What is deemed dangerous is constructed by Ingsoc, Oceania’s prevailing political philosophy; however, if considered of value to the party, time is invested and mandatory treatment is imposed to bring them into line with normative conduct. This treatment consists in stripping them of their identity and desires, which is achieved through them being rendered physically and psychologically innocuous. In the same vein, two new dangerous collectives were designated by the Spanish legislature in a reform introduced to the Penal Code in June 2010, the terrorist and sex offender. On this occasion, it is their efforts to resist this normalization onslaught that renders them dangerous. Unable to incarcerate indeterminately or execute both collectives, a new post-custodial security measure is deployed to ensure that both collectives remain socially and politically isolated. This article compares the dangerous symptomatology depicted by Orwell in 1984 with the dangerous offender constructed by the Spanish legislature in OL 5/2010, the problematization of their habits and behaviours as well as the alleged cure offered to these dangerous subjects. For Ingsoc and the Spanish legislature, the imminent danger is a threat to social and public order. Nuestra construcción de un sujeto peligroso ha cambiado poco durante el siglo pasado. Sujetos peligrosos en Oceanía, una región creada por Orwell en su novela 1984 que está en un constante estado de guerra, manifiestan demasiada autonomía de forma consciente o inconsciente. La anulación de la propia autonomía y la voluntad establecieron c

  11. Transient climate-carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H Damon; Caldeira, Ken

    2007-06-12

    Geoengineering (the intentional modification of Earth's climate) has been proposed as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming while greenhouse gas emissions continue. Most proposals involve managing incoming solar radiation such that future greenhouse gas forcing is counteracted by reduced solar forcing. In this study, we assess the transient climate response to geoengineering under a business-as-usual CO2 emissions scenario by using an intermediate-complexity global climate model that includes an interactive carbon cycle. We find that the climate system responds quickly to artificially reduced insolation; hence, there may be little cost to delaying the deployment of geoengineering strategies until such a time as "dangerous" climate change is imminent. Spatial temperature patterns in the geoengineered simulation are comparable with preindustrial temperatures, although this is not true for precipitation. Carbon sinks in the model increase in response to geoengineering. Because geoengineering acts to mask climate warming, there is a direct CO2-driven increase in carbon uptake without an offsetting temperature-driven suppression of carbon sinks. However, this strengthening of carbon sinks, combined with the potential for rapid climate adjustment to changes in solar forcing, leads to serious consequences should geoengineering fail or be stopped abruptly. Such a scenario could lead to very rapid climate change, with warming rates up to 20 times greater than present-day rates. This warming rebound would be larger and more sustained should climate sensitivity prove to be higher than expected. Thus, employing geoengineering schemes with continued carbon emissions could lead to severe risks for the global climate system.

  12. Future Projections of Fire Occurrence in Brazil Using EC-Earth Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Fire has a fundamental role in the Earth system as it influences global and local ecosystem patterns and processes, such as vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle and climate. Since, in the global context, Brazil is one of the regions with higher fire activity, an assessment is here performed of the sensitivity of the wildfire regime in Brazilian savanna and shrubland areas to changes in regional climate during the 21st Century, for an intermediate scenario (RCP4.5 of climate change. The assessment is based on a spatial and temporal analysis of a meteorological fire danger index specifically developed for Brazilian biomes, which was evaluated based on regional climate simulations of temperature, relative humidity and precipitation using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA4 forced by the EC-Earth earth system model. Results show a systematic increase in the extreme levels of fire danger throughout the 21st Century that mainly results from the increase in maximum daily temperature, which rises by about 2 °C between 2005 and 2100. This study provides new insights about projected fire activity in Brazilian woody savannas associated to climate change and is expected to benefit the user community, from governmental policies to land management and climate researches.

  13. Dangerous universal donors: the reality of the Hemocentro in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Godin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The term dangerous universal blood donor refers to potential agglutination of the erythrocytes of non-O recipients due to plasma of an O blood group donor, which contains high titers of anti-A and/or anti-B hemagglutinins. Thus, prior titration of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins is recommended to prevent transfusion reactions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of dangerous universal donors in the blood bank of Belo Horizonte (Fundação Central de Imuno-Hematologia - Fundação Hemominas - Minas Gerais by determining the titers of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in O blood group donors. METHOD: A total of 400 O blood group donors were randomly selected, from March 2014 to January 2015. The titers of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins (IgM and IgG classes were obtained using the tube titration technique. Dangerous donors were those whose titers of anti-A or anti-B IgM were ≥128 and/or the titers of anti-A or anti-B IgG were ≥256. Donors were characterized according to gender, age and ethnicity. The hemagglutinins were characterized by specificity (anti-A and anti-B and antibody class (IgG and IgM. RESULTS: Almost one-third (30.5% of the O blood group donors were universal dangerous. The frequency among women was higher than that of men (p-value = 0.019; odds ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.56 and among young donors (18-29 years old it was higher than for donors between 49 and 59 years old (p-value = 0.015; odds ratio: 3.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-7.69. There was no significant association between dangerous universal donors and ethnicity, agglutinin specificity or antibody class. CONCLUSION: Especially platelet concentrates obtained by apheresis (that contain a substantial volume of plasma, coming from dangerous universal donors should be transfused in isogroup recipients whenever possible in order to prevent the occurrence of transfusion reactions.

  14. Talks with EU Avert Textile Trade War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After 10 hours of tough negotiations, China and the European Union finally agreed late on June 10 to avoid escalating the textile trade disputes. The two sides agreed that by the end of 2007, the rate of increase of certain textile exports will be fixed.

  15. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy.

  16. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of refugia has long been studied from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change ref...

  17. Living Dangerously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch film maker Joris Ivens (1898-1989) was one of the founding fathers of documentary film. The career of this eternal traveller spanned over sixty years, from his first film in the twenties to his last, finished at the age of ninety. Among Ivens's friends and collaborators were leading filmma

  18. Dangerous liaisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Teramura, Yuji; Hamad, Osama A

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity is fundamental to our defense against microorganisms. Physiologically, the intravascular innate immune system acts as a purging system that identifies and removes foreign substances leading to thromboinflammatory responses, tissue remodeling, and repair. It is also a key contributor...

  19. Sensing danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornblit, B; Müller, K

    2017-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses. Based mainly on animal studies there is growing evidence to suggest that TLRs are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and in the pro......Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses. Based mainly on animal studies there is growing evidence to suggest that TLRs are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis...

  20. Detection technology and application of electromagnetic method for hidden danger of water gushing at coal face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian-xin Shi; Shu Yan; Ming-sheng Chen; Jun-mei Fu [China Coal Research Institute, Xi' an (China). Xi' an Research Institute

    2009-06-15

    The principles, methods, technologies and application effects of several electromagnetic methods for the detection of the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face were introduced. Also, emphasis was laid on expounding the methods, principles and effects of down-hole detections by electric transmission tomography and transient electromagnetic method. The potential of point power supplied in the underground homogeneous semi-space, as well as the response to a low-resistivity abnormal body in the homogeneous semi-space, was simulated by adopting 3-D finite element method to interpret the basic theory of the electric transmission tomography. The results of actual measurement show that the mine electromagnetic method is sensitive to water-bearing low-resistivity bodies and can play a unique role in detecting the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Detection technology and application of electromagnetic method for hidden danger of water gushing at coal face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xian-xin; YAN Shu; CHEN Ming-sheng; FU Jun-mei

    2009-01-01

    The principles, methods, technologies and application effects of several elec-tromagnetic methods for the detection of the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face were introduced. Also, emphasis was laid on expounding the methods, principles and effects of down-hole detections by electric transmission tomography and transient elec-tromagnetic method. The potential of point power supplied in the underground homoge-neous semi-space, as well as the response to a low-resistivity abnormal body in the ho-mogeneous semi-space, was simulated by adopting 3-D finite element method to interpret the basic theory of the electric transmission tomography. The results of actual measure-ment show that the mine electromagnetic method is sensitive to water-bearing low-resistivity bodies and can play a unique role in detecting the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face.

  2. Active fire monitoring and fire danger potential detection from space: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John J. QU; Wanting WANG; Swarvanu DASGUPTA; Xianjun HAO

    2008-01-01

    Wildland fire is both one of the major natural hazards and a natural process for ecosystem persistence. Accurate assessment of fire danger potential and timely detection of active fires are critical for fire fighting and fuel management. Space-borne measurements have become the primary approaches for these efforts. Many research works have been conducted and some data pro-ducts have been generated for practical applications. This paper presents a review of the major sensors and algo-rithms for active fire monitoring and fire danger potential detection from space. Major sensors and their character-istics, physical principles of the major algorithms are sum-marized. Limitations of these algorithms and future improvements are also discussed.

  3. Supplement use in sport: is there a potentially dangerous incongruence between rationale and practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naughton Declan P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplement use by athletes is complex and research supports the alarming notion of misinformed decisions regarding supplements. Hypothesis A frequent divergence between the type of supplements chosen by athletes and the rationale dictating the supplement use is hypothesized. Thus, a potentially dangerous incongruence may exist between rationale and practice. Testing the hypothesis In the continued absence of reliable data on supplement use, an alternative approach of studying the reasons underlying supplement use in athletes is proposed to determine whether there is an incongruence between rationale and practice. Existing data from large scale national surveys can be used to investigate this incongruence. Implications of the hypothesis In this report, analyses of distinctive patterns between the use and rationale for use of supplements among athletes are recommended to explore this potentially dangerous phenomenon.

  4. Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: the roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, JeeWon

    2009-08-01

    This study examined an ecological perspective on the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence, examining direct, additive, and interactive effects of child and both parenting and community factors in relation to youth problem behavior. To address this goal, the authors examined early adolescent dispositional qualities as predictors of boys' antisocial behavior within the context of parents' knowledge of adolescent activities and neighborhood dangerousness. Antisocial behavior was examined using a multimethod latent construct that included self-reported delinquency, symptoms of conduct disorder, and court petitions in a sample of 289 boys from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds who were followed longitudinally from early childhood through adolescence. Results demonstrated direct and additive findings for child prosociality, daring, and negative emotionality, which were qualified by interactions between daring and neighborhood dangerousness, and between prosociality and parental knowledge. The findings have implications for preventive intervention approaches that address the interplay of dispositional and contextual factors to prevent delinquent behavior in adolescence.

  5. Adolescent coping and neighborhood violence: perceptions, exposure, and urban youths' efforts to deal with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Aber, Mark S; Bhana, Arvinkumar

    2004-03-01

    Neighborhood violence is a persistent source of danger, stress, and other adverse outcomes for urban youth. We examined how 140 African American and Latino adolescents coped with neighborhood danger in low, medium, and high crime neighborhoods throughout Chicago. Participants reported using a range of coping strategies (measured via a modified version of the Ways of Coping Scale; R. S. Lazarus & S. Folkman, 1984). In low and medium crime rate areas, using confrontive strategies was significantly correlated with increased exposure to violence, and no strategies were associated with perceptions of safety. Coping strategies were associated with perceived safety to a substantial degree only in high crime neighborhoods, and none were associated with exposure to violence. A k means cluster analysis identified groups that differed in coping profiles and varied in rates of exposure to violence. Moderating effects of gender, ethnicity, and neighborhood were found for both person level and variable level analyses.

  6. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know? The Strange Allure and Elusive Reality of North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Fahy, Marching Through Suffering: Loss and Survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. 272 pp. $40 (cloth/e-book. Hazel Smith, North Korea: Markets and Military Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 394 pp. $90 (cloth, $33 (paper, $26 (e-book. Lady Caroline Lamb famously called Lord Byron “mad, bad, and dangerous to know.” In describing North Korea, Hazel Smith replaces “dangerous to know” with “sad,” but she, like Sandra Fahy, seeks to recuperate the ultimate humanity of North Koreans. Both Smith and Fahy have spent considerable time in North Korea or with North Koreans, and they convey the contemporary dynamics of North Korea without relying on the ready-made caricatures and stereotypes that dominate in the West (and the rest...

  7. Stress-induced glucocorticoids as a neuroendocrine alarm signal of danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthew G; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2013-10-01

    A considerable number of studies demonstrate that acute and chronic stressors prime CNS innate immune responses to subsequent pro-inflammatory challenges and that glucocorticoids mediate, in part, stress-induced sensitization of pro-inflammatory immune responses. Here, we explore the notion that GCs produce a persisting sensitization of CNS innate immune effectors (e.g. microglia) so that they will generate a potentiated pro-inflammatory response after the GC rise has dissipated, thereby enhancing the sickness response to infection or injury and maximizing the animal's ability to neutralize danger. The stress-induced GC response is conceptualized here as an neuroendocrine warning signal or alarmin to the innate immune system, which prepares or sensitizes the innate immune response to potential danger. Thus, a new understanding of the stress response and its function (priming CNS innate immune responses to infection or injury during a fight/flight emergency) would be suggested.

  8. Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Twycross, Jamie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of system calls is one method employed by anomaly detection systems to recognise malicious code execution. Similarities can be drawn between this process and the behaviour of certain cells belonging to the human immune system, and can be applied to construct an artificial immune system. A recently developed hypothesis in immunology, the Danger Theory, states that our immune system responds to the presence of intruders through sensing molecules belonging to those invaders, plus signals generated by the host indicating danger and damage. We propose the incorporation of this concept into a responsive intrusion detection system, where behavioural information of the system and running processes is combined with information regarding individual system calls.

  9. Obstetric danger signs and factors affecting health seeking behaviour among the Kassena-Nankani of Northern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborigo, Raymond A; Moyer, Cheryl A; Gupta, Mira; Adongo, Philip B; Williams, John; Hodgson, Abraham; Allote, Pascale; Engmann, Cyril M

    2014-09-01

    Improving community members' knowledge of obstetric danger signs is one strategy for increasing the use of skilled care during pregnancy and the puerperium. This study explored knowledge of obstetric danger signs among a range of community members, examined the sources of their information, and the perceived factors that affect health seeking behaviour in rural northern Ghana. We conducted 72 in-depth interviews and 18 focus groups with community members. All interactions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo 9.0. Community members demonstrated knowledge of a wide range of obstetric danger signs, including excessive bleeding, stomach aches, waist pains, vomiting and fever. Pregnant women learn about danger signs from a range of providers, and regular contact with formal providers typically coincided with increased knowledge of danger signs. Traditional remedies for problems in obstetrics are plentiful and cultural beliefs often restrict the use of allopathic medicine. Increasing knowledge of obstetric danger signs is necessary but not sufficient to overcome cultural preferences for traditional treatments for pregnancy danger signs.

  10. Non-genetic risk factors in haemophilia A inhibitor management - the danger theory and the use of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, K M; Søndergaard, H; Skov, S; Wiinberg, B

    2016-09-01

    In haemophilia A (HA) management, antidrug antibodies, or inhibitors, are a serious complication that renders factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy ineffective, increases morbidity and reduces quality of life for affected patients. Inhibitor development aetiology is multifactorial and covers both genetic and therapy related risk factors. Many therapy-related risk factors have proven difficult to confirm due to several confounding factors and the small study populations available. However, clinical studies indicate that e.g. on-demand treatment and surgery affect inhibitor development, and explanations for this association are being investigated. A potential explanation is the danger signal effect, where the immune response is activated by endogenous or exogenous danger or damage signals present at the time and site of FVIII administration. The danger theory explains how alarm signals from stressed, injured or dying cells can activate an immune reaction, without the involvement of foreign antigens. Bleeds, trauma, surgery or concomitant infection could be events initiating danger signalling in HA patients, resulting in an immune reaction towards administered FVIII that otherwise would pass unnoticed. This role of danger in HA inhibitor formation has previously been suggested, but a thorough discussion of this subject is lacking. The present review will discuss the potential role of danger signals in haemophilia and inhibitor development, with focus on treatment related risk factors with a suspected danger signal aetiology; on-demand treatment, treatment during major bleeds or surgery, and treatment during infection or vaccination. Clinical studies as well as animal experiments addressing these factors will be reviewed.

  11. TRACKING CLIMATE MODELS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CLAIRE MONTELEONI*, GAVIN SCHMIDT, AND SHAILESH SAROHA* Climate models are complex mathematical models designed by meteorologists, geophysicists, and climate...

  12. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  13. The effect of stress and personality on dangerous driving behavior among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Jiang, Caihong; Du, Feng; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between stress and road safety has been studied for many years, but the effect of global stress and its joint effect with personality on driving behavior have received little attention in previous studies. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of global stress and various personality traits on driving behavior. 242 drivers completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI), and several personality trait scales related to anger, sensation seeking, and altruism. The results showed that perceived stress and sensation seeking were significantly correlated with the four subcategories of dangerous driving behavior, namely, negative cognitive/emotional driving (NCED), aggressive driving (AD), risky driving (RD), and drunk driving (DD). Moreover, anger was positively correlated with negative cognitive/emotional driving, aggressive driving, and risky driving, and altruism was negatively correlated with aggressive driving and drunk driving. Hierarchical multiple regressions were applied to analyze the mediating effect of personality traits, and the results showed that anger mediated the relationship between stress and dangerous driving behavior and that this mediating role was especially strong for negative cognitive/emotional driving and aggressive driving. Collectively, the results showed that stress is an important factor that can affect people's driving behavior but that personality traits mediate the effect of stress on driving behavior. The findings from this study regarding the relationship among stress, anger, and dangerous driving behavior could be applied in the development of intervention programs for stress and anger management in order to improve drivers' ability to manage emotional thoughts and adjust their behavior on the road.

  14. Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsall, Brooke T.

    2016-10-01

    The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.

  15. Changes in gene expression induced by aromatic amine drugs: testing the danger hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Winnie; Uetrecht, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all drugs that contain a primary aromatic amine are associated with a high incidence of idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs), suggesting that this functional group has biological effects that may be used as biomarkers to predict IDR risk. Most IDRs exhibit evidence of immune involvement and the ability of aromatic amines to form reactive metabolites and redox cycle may be responsible for initiation of an immune response through induction of cell stress, as postulated by the Danger Hypothesis. If true, danger signals could be biomarkers of IDR risk. A previous attempt to test the Danger Hypothesis found that sulfamethoxazole (SMX), the only aromatic amine tested, was also the only drug not associated with an increase of cell stress genes in mice. To ensure that these observations were not species-specific, and to determine biomarkers of IDR risk common to aromatic amines, rats were treated with SMX and two other aromatic amine drugs, dapsone (DDS) and aminoglutethimide (AMG), and hepatic gene expression was determined using microarrays. As in mice, SMX induced minimal gene changes in the rat, and none indicated cell stress, whereas DDS and AMG induced several changes including up-regulation of enzymes such as aldo-keto reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which may represent danger signals. Early insulin-induced hepatic gene (Eiih) was up-regulated by all three drugs. Some mRNA changes were observed in the Keap-1-Nrf2-ARE pathway; however, the pattern was significantly different for each drug. Overall, the most salient finding was that the changes in the liver were minimal, even though aromatic amines cause a high incidence of IDRs. The liver generates a large number of reactive species; however, the ability of aromatic amines to be bioactivated by cells of the immune system may be why they cause a high incidence of IDRs.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  17. Relationship Between Psychological Characteristics Mental Health, Aggression and Driving Habits in Dangerous Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadpoor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, all kinds of people need vehicles for performing their daily activities. The need for use of these vehicles for transportation frequently leads to a high rate of road accidents and it seems that certain people do not have enough ability to use these vehicles. Dangerous behaviors lead to financial and life risking irreparable damages. Methods: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The researchers chose 110 injured men drivers and asked them to complete the Manchester Driving Behavior, Type A Characteristic, Ahvaz Aggressive and Mental Health questionnaires. The data was analyzed by Pearson's Correlation and Regression Analysis. Results: The findings showed that there is a significant relation between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The regression analysis also foresees the aggressive and mental health of testers’ dangerous driving behavior. Meanwhile, Type A characteristic is not able to foresee driving behaviors. Conclusion: Risky driving is a phenomenon that leads to many irreparable damages for the society and individual. Present study suggests that in order to reduce dangers and probable damages, procurement of driving license procedures should be prolonged and drivers should be regularly assessed psychologically (personal or public. Risky drivers or the attackers who need education or consultation should attend education-consultation programs.

  18. Exploring Arsenic danger awareness in the Polish Copper Basin via network simulation - preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Buda, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Information spread plays crucial role in risk management in case of environmental danger. The structure of local society may be well described by social network analysis. We have investigated the role of hubs within that concept. In case of danger, there are two different strategies of information management: 1) information spread that leads to awareness of the whole society 2) keeping the whole information in secret under control that leads to a partial social awareness, available to a small number of people only. In our model, the probability of information spread between two nodes is inverse proportional to connectivity of the next node because people who have a lot of connections are more immune. We have applied agent-based modelling on Barabasi Albert networks to explore various scenarios of information spread. We have considered recent arsenic environmental danger in G{\\l}og\\'ow and Legnica (Copper Basin) according to the official available data (2015 - 2016) from social network analysis point of view. ...

  19. Body as Danger: Gender, Race and Body in Toni Morrison's Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-hua Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n2p115 This paper aims at tackling the question as to why Sula as a social nonconformist and sexual dissident ends up as an avatar of evil, a powerless victim of witch-hunt and eventually a scapegoat for the decline and misfortunes of her community. To facilitate this critical task, this paper shall irst apply Michel Foucault’s genealogy of “the body as the bearer of pleasure and desire” as laid out in Abnormal to illustrate that Christian folks in Sula’s community interpret Sula’s nonconformity as evil and treat her as a danger to their social order. Thus, this paper argues that the black folks’ ostracism of Sula betokens their mass hysteria and witch-hunt to exorcise their community of danger and evil. Moreover, this paper suggests that Sula is gendered and racialized as a black witch and symbolically executed. In conclusion, this paper contends that an identiication of body with lesh, a phallocentric gender ideology and race bias converge into the black folk’s association of Sula with a witch and a danger and their subsequent victimization of sula as a scapegoat for all the misfortunes of their community.

  20. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Xiong, Yuexin; Carciofo, Richard; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage) and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines). The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  1. 危险驾驶行为定性研究%Research on Dangerous Driving Behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋

    2011-01-01

    危险驾驶行为不仅包括醉酒驾车和飙车,还包括吸毒品后和无驾驶技术驾车等具有高度危险的驾驶行为。严重的“危险驾驶”行为被定性为犯罪,而对于闯红灯、疲劳驾驶等交通违法行为,由行政管理手段进行调控。醉酒驾驶、飙车引发的恶性交通事故,引起社会各界对此类恶性交通事故定罪量刑的争论。对此类行为是定此罪还是彼罪,应结合具体案情,坚持主、客观相统一的原理进行认定。%Dangerous driving behaviour not only includes driving while drunk and motorcycle, but also includes a drug, to drive after driving for a highly dangerous driving. Serious "dangerous driving" is crime, but running the red light and driving tiredly is regulated by administrative means. Serious traffic accident caused by drunk driving and drag racing caused discussion of society. Deciding this kind of crime should be combined with the specific case and the unity principle of subjective and objective.

  2. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines. The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  3. The Danger Model Approach to the Pathogenesis of the Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pacheco-Tena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The danger model was proposed by Polly Matzinger as complement to the traditional self-non-self- (SNS- model to explain the immunoreactivity. The danger model proposes a central role of the tissular cells’ discomfort as an element to prime the immune response processes in opposition to the traditional SNS-model where foreignness is a prerequisite. However recent insights in the proteomics of diverse tissular cells have revealed that under stressful conditions they have a significant potential to initiate, coordinate, and perpetuate autoimmune processes, in many cases, ruling over the adaptive immune response cells; this ruling potential can also be confirmed by observations in several genetically manipulated animal models. Here, we review the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s disease and provide realistic approaches based on the logic of the danger model. We assume that tissular dysfunction is a prerequisite for chronic autoimmunity and propose two genetically conferred hypothetical roles for the tissular cells causing the disease: (A the Impaired cell and (B the paranoid cell. Both roles are not mutually exclusive. Some examples in human disease and in animal models are provided based on current evidence.

  4. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG, free fatty acid (FFA, uric acid (UA and methylglyoxal (MG. Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption.

  5. Selecting danger signals: dissociable roles of nucleus accumbens shell and core glutamate in predictive fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; McNally, Gavan P

    2015-06-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CSs) vary in their reliability as predictors of danger. Animals must therefore select among CSs those that are appropriate to enter into an association with the aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). The actions of prediction error instruct this stimulus selection so that when prediction error is large, attention to the CS is maintained and learning occurs but when prediction is small attention to the CS is withdrawn and learning is prevented. Here we studied the role of glutamate acting at rat nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in this selection of danger signals. Using associative blocking and unblocking designs in rats, we show that antagonizing AcbSh AMPA receptors via infusions of 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX; 0.5 μg) prevents the unblocking of fear learning, whereas antagonizing AcbC AMPA receptors via infusions of NBQX (0.5 μg) prevents both the blocking and unblocking of fear learning. These results identify dissociable but complementary roles for AcbSh and AcbC glutamate acting at AMPA receptors in selecting danger signals: AcbSh AMPA receptors upregulate attention and learning to CSs that signal surprising USs, whereas AcbC AMPA receptors encode the predicted outcome of each trial.

  6. The danger model approach to the pathogenesis of the rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Tena, César; González-Chávez, Susana Aideé

    2015-01-01

    The danger model was proposed by Polly Matzinger as complement to the traditional self-non-self- (SNS-) model to explain the immunoreactivity. The danger model proposes a central role of the tissular cells' discomfort as an element to prime the immune response processes in opposition to the traditional SNS-model where foreignness is a prerequisite. However recent insights in the proteomics of diverse tissular cells have revealed that under stressful conditions they have a significant potential to initiate, coordinate, and perpetuate autoimmune processes, in many cases, ruling over the adaptive immune response cells; this ruling potential can also be confirmed by observations in several genetically manipulated animal models. Here, we review the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease and provide realistic approaches based on the logic of the danger model. We assume that tissular dysfunction is a prerequisite for chronic autoimmunity and propose two genetically conferred hypothetical roles for the tissular cells causing the disease: (A) the Impaired cell and (B) the paranoid cell. Both roles are not mutually exclusive. Some examples in human disease and in animal models are provided based on current evidence.

  7. The Power of Metaphor in Communicating Risk in Climate Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, T.; Gann, T. M.; Bergmann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Risk messages are intended to capture attention whether danger is almost certain or only a remote possibility. When used the right way, metaphor is an effective tool for getting people to pay attention to hazard and take the right course of action. Metaphor is effective because it immediately grounds what is unknown and abstract in terms what is known and concrete. For instance, when talking about a wildfire that is "swallowing up homes" we instantly understand that it is dangerous and destructive (not literally eating homes), or when talking about a drought "crippling California" we instantly know that it is leading to suboptimal agricultural and economic conditions. TV journalists often use metaphor in reporting climate information because it can vivify information. In contrast, government officials who work with risk are inclined to avoid it. The aim of this presentation is twofold: 1) to analyze and characterize types metaphors in climate discourse, especially messages about extreme wildfires and severe drought conditions, and 2) to discuss the utility of metaphor to framing risk messages for varied stakeholders across varied timescales. Many examples of risk messages in natural discourse about climate are analyzed and discussed, including examples from the TV News Archive.

  8. DMPD: Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger:the role of RP105. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17470533 Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger:the role...tion of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger:the role ...of RP105. PubmedID 17470533 Title Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger:the role

  9. 12 CFR 543.7-1 - Federal savings association created in connection with an association in default or in danger of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... connection with an association in default or in danger of default. 543.7-1 Section 543.7-1 Banks and Banking... connection with an association in default or in danger of default. The preceding sections of this part do not... by the Office in connection with an association in default or in danger of default. Incorporation...

  10. 12 CFR 552.2-3 - Federal stock association created in connection with an association in default or in danger of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with an association in default or in danger of default. 552.2-3 Section 552.2-3 Banks and Banking... default or in danger of default. Sections 552.2-1 and 552.2-2 of this part do not apply to a Federal stock... connection with an association in default or in danger of default. Incorporation and organization of...

  11. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... areas and danger zone. (a) The areas. (1) All waters within 100 yards of the south shoreline of...

  12. Planetary climates (princeton primers in climate)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingersoll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This concise, sophisticated introduction to planetary climates explains the global physical and chemical processes that determine climate on any planet or major planetary satellite--from Mercury to Neptune and even large moons such as Saturn's Titan. Although the climates of other worlds are extremely diverse, the chemical and physical processes that shape their dynamics are the same. As this book makes clear, the better we can understand how various planetary climates formed and evolved, the better we can understand Earth's climate history and future.

  13. The role of biomass and CCS in China in a climate mitigation perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Mikael; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Gregg, Jay Sterling

    2011-01-01

    As the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), China plays a central role in the suite of options for climate change mitigation. To analyze the importance of biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) availability in China, varying levels of these parameters are created...... and then global climate scenarios are simulated using TIAM (TIMES Integrated Assessment Model). TIAM is a 16-region global energy system optimization model that includes a climate module that calculates the global concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere. We analyze the potential for using biomass, CCS......, and bioenergy CCS (BECCS) in China under the constraint of meeting a climate stabilization target such that dangerous climate change (as defined by the Copenhagen Accord) is avoided. When considering hypothetical scenarios where GHG emissions are constrained, China consumes all available domestic biomass...

  14. Science, Ethics and the Climate Responsibilities of Industrial Carbon Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumhoff, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The question of responsibility for climate change lies at the heart of societal debate over actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for now unavoidable climate impacts. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change established the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" among nations, signaling the recognition that industrialized nations who had produced the lion's share of historic emissions bore particular responsibility for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. But climate responsibilities can be distributed in other ways as well. This talk focuses on the scientific, historical and ethical basis for considering the climate responsibilities of the major fossil energy companies that have produced and marketed the coal, oil and natural gas whose use largely drives global warming, often while investing in efforts to discredit the scientific evidence and prevent policies that would encourage a transition to low-carbon energy. Earth scientists and scientific societies who rely on financial support from these companies have an opportunity to consider what ethical stance they might take to align their research, scientific understanding and values.

  15. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  16. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools…

  17. Hyper-Parodic Machineries from Narrative to Cinema: Dürrenmatt's A Dangerous Game between Ettore Scola and Alberto Sordi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rosario Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Dürrenmatt’s A Dangerous Game finds in Lizzani’s episode a precursor of some distortions of "judgment" and "condemns ", which will culminate in Comencini's film where a whole path of the highway will be shut off.

  18. The image enhancement and region of interest extraction of lobster-eye X-ray dangerous material inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Xu, Jie; Xie, Qing; Li, Yaran; Chen, Yifan; He, Yanan

    2016-10-01

    Dangerous materials inspection is an important technique to confirm dangerous materials crimes. It has significant impact on the prohibition of dangerous materials-related crimes and the spread of dangerous materials. Lobster-Eye Optical Imaging System is a kind of dangerous materials detection device which mainly takes advantage of backscatter X-ray. The strength of the system is its applicability to access only one side of an object, and to detect dangerous materials without disturbing the surroundings of the target material. The device uses Compton scattered x-rays to create computerized outlines of suspected objects during security detection process. Due to the grid structure of the bionic object glass, which imitate the eye of a lobster, grids contribute to the main image noise during the imaging process. At the same time, when used to inspect structured or dense materials, the image is plagued by superposition artifacts and limited by attenuation and noise. With the goal of achieving high quality images which could be used for dangerous materials detection and further analysis, we developed effective image process methods applied to the system. The first aspect of the image process is the denoising and enhancing edge contrast process, during the process, we apply deconvolution algorithm to remove the grids and other noises. After image processing, we achieve high signal-to-noise ratio image. The second part is to reconstruct image from low dose X-ray exposure condition. We developed a kind of interpolation method to achieve the goal. The last aspect is the region of interest (ROI) extraction process, which could be used to help identifying dangerous materials mixed with complex backgrounds. The methods demonstrated in the paper have the potential to improve the sensitivity and quality of x-ray backscatter system imaging.

  19. Comparative Study on Discrimination Methods for Identifying Dangerous Red Tide Species Based on Wavelet Utilized Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study on discrimination methods for identifying dangerous red tide species based on wavelet utilized classification methods is conducted. Through experiments, it is found that classification performance with the proposed wavelet derived shape information extracted from the microscopic view of the phytoplankton is effective for identifying dangerous red tide species among the other red tide species rather than the other conventional texture, color information.

  20. L'étude des dangers : contenu, limites et spécificités françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Farret, Régis

    2008-01-01

    National audience; Il ne s'agit pas aujourd'hui de présenter par le menu ce qu'est une étude de dangers, mais de prendre un peu de recul pour exposer la méthode d'analyse des risques qu'est l'étude de dangers et de montrer les particularités françaises avec un regard sur ce qui passe ailleurs en Europe.

  1. Talking Climate Science in a Changing Media Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    Founded in 2008 by leading scientists and communications experts at Princeton, Yale and Stanford, Climate Central brings together award-winning journalists and internationally recognized scientists to report the science and impacts of climate change through its research and journalism programs. Climate Central works to tackle the misperception that climate change is a distant thing - affecting other people and other places - by demonstrating the local and personal impacts of global warming. This talk will focus on describing three important Climate Central initiatives. First, our Climate Matters program delivers localized climate information at the regional and local level to weathercasters around the U.S., providing ready-to-use, broadcast quality graphics and analyses that put climate change in a local context. After three years, the program has grown from a pilot with just one TV meteorologist in Columbia, South Carolina to a network of more than 150 weathercasters across the country. Climate Central was also closely involved in the development and production of Years of Living Dangerously - a 9-part global warming documentary that premiered in April 2014. Finally, the World Weather Attribution project is a new initiative that aims to identify the human fingerprint in certain types of extreme weather events, including sea level rise and its contribution to storm surges, extreme heat events, heavy rainfall events/flooding, and drought. Our goal is to objectively and transparently assess certain extreme events and equip journalists and scientists with the tools to provide the larger global warming context in real-time while there is still media interest.

  2. Triggers of the Great Depression: comparing economic climates in the 1920s with the 1980s.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis examines the similarities in economic climates between the 1920s and the 1980s. It concludes that dangerous economic conditions arise whenever there is an insufficient flow of funds to debtor nations. It is proposed that Japan contribute to the stability of the world economy through an expansion of its imports and, through its global corporations, encouraging continued direct investment abroad. http://arc...

  3. Climate Change and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Bolivian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Maria Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is causing many tropical glaciers to retreat, creating dangerous glacier lakes with risks of outbursts. Although it is a growing hazard in many countries, glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have not been studied much in the Bolivian Andes. Through this literature review, the risks of GLOFs has been researched by looking into temperature, precipitation and glacier retreat trends in the Altiplano, Cordillera Real and Cordillera Apolobamba, as well as the vulnerability of mounta...

  4. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  5. Who is a dangerous driver? Socio-demographic and personal determinants of risky traffic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Peplińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to search for comprehensive socio-demographic and personal (personality and temperamental determinants of risky on-the-road behavior. Based on the results of previous studies, we assumed that the main predictors of dangerous traffic behavior include: internal locus of control, sensation seeking, risk seeking and risk acceptance, as well as high self-esteem, a low level of reactivity combined with a high level of endurance and activity (which together determine a strong need for stimulation and a preference for hedonistic values; and among socio-demographic variables – age, gender, education and duration of having a driving license. Participants and procedure The study included a group of 380 participants, aged between 19 and 61 years (Me = 24. In order to verify the hypothesis, a battery of research tools measuring personality and temperamental variables was adopted, namely: the Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Questionnaire, Rotter I-E Scale, Risk Acceptance Scale, Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory, Scheler Value Scale, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results The dangerous driver syndrome was found to be promoted by high levels of experience and sensation seeking, low levels of tolerance to boredom and monotony, high need for stimulating risk and high risk acceptance, high self-esteem, a preference for hedonistic values coupled with aversion towards moral values, as well as low sensory sensitivity, and was especially visible among older men with short driving experience. Conclusions It can be concluded that both socio-demographic and psychological variables, such as temperament and personality, are significant predictors of dangerous traffic behavior.

  6. Dangerous (toxic) atmospheres in UK wood pellet and wood chip fuel storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew T.; Hemingway, Michael A.; Seymour, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing use of wood pellet and wood chip boilers in the UK. Elsewhere fatalities have been reported, caused by carbon monoxide poisoning following entry into wood pellet storage areas. The aim of this work was to obtain information on how safely these two fuels are being stored in the UK. Site visits were made to six small-scale boiler systems and one large-scale pellet warehouse, to assess storage practice, risk management systems and controls, user knowledge, and potential for exposure to dangerous atmospheres. Real time measurements were made of gases in the store rooms and during laboratory tests on pellets and chips. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted and the microbiological content of the fuel was also determined. Knowledge of the hazards associated with these fuels, including confined space entry, was found to be limited at the smaller sites, but greater at the large pellet warehouse. There has been limited risk communication between companies supplying and maintaining boilers, those manufacturing and supplying fuel, and users. Risk is controlled by restricting access to the store rooms with locked entries; some store rooms have warning signs and carbon monoxide alarms. Nevertheless, some store rooms are accessed for inspection and maintenance. Laboratory tests showed that potentially dangerous atmospheres of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, with depleted levels of oxygen may be generated by these fuels, but this was not observed at the sites visited. Unplanned ventilation within store rooms was thought to be reducing the build-up of dangerous atmospheres. Microbiological contamination was confined to wood chips. PMID:27030057

  7. Responses of macrophages to the danger signals released from necrotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Hanihara-Tatsuzawa, Fumito; Sayama, Aoi; MaruYama, Takashi; Muta, Tatsushi

    2014-12-01

    The immune system maintains homeostasis by recognizing and responding to cell death caused by various stresses. The immune response is considered to be elicited by 'danger signals' released from necrotic cells. However, the identity of the danger signals remains elusive. In this study, we focused on the expression of chemokines by macrophages stimulated with necrotic cells. In mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-3 was induced at both the mRNA and protein levels in response to heat-killed murine cells. The induction of MCP-3 was also observed in MyD88-deficient macrophages, indicating that Toll-like receptors and the IL-1 receptor are not involved in this response. Consistent with this observation, the activation of NF-κB was not detected in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with necrotic cells. Treatments with proteinase K, DNaseI or RNaseA did not affect the ' STIMULATING ACTIVITY': of necrotic cells. In contrast, treatment with apyrase, which removes phosphates from nucleoside tri- and di-phosphates, abolished the inducing activity. Purified UDP at 30 µM concentration elicited similar induction of MCP-3 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of the UDP receptor P2Y6 in RAW264.7 cells significantly reduced the induction of MCP-3 in response to necrotic cells, but not its induction by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the P2Y6 receptor in HEK293 cells conferred responsiveness to necrotic cells. These results suggest that UDP released by necrotic cells plays a critical role as an endogenous danger signal and that P2Y6 is required for the induction of MCP-3 in response to necrotic cells.

  8. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  9. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  10. Reliable JavaScript how to code safely in the world's most dangerous language

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Create more robust applications with a test-first approach to JavaScript Reliable JavaScript, How to Code Safely in the World's Most Dangerous Language demonstrates how to create test-driven development for large-scale JavaScript applications that will stand the test of time and stay accurate through long-term use and maintenance. Taking a test-first approach to software architecture, this book walks you through several patterns and practices and explains what they are supposed to do by having you write unit tests. Write the code to pass the unit tests, so you not only develop your technique

  11. [Danger or security of spontaneous apnea in relation with previous ventilation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brille, P; Milhaud, A

    1981-01-01

    Using a spectrometer for the study of exhaled gases and a monitor of transcutaneous oxygen pressure, our purpose has been to quantify our ideas about physiological apneas in the conscious voluntary adults. We compared the apneas, concerning the duration and the induced fall of peripheric oxygen pressure, after normoventilations in air and in oxygen, then after hyperventilations in air and in oxygen. These experiences confirm the tiny interest of previous normoventilation in oxygen compared with in air, the danger of hypoxemia by previous hyperventilation in air and the possibility of prolonged but safe apnea after hyperventilations in oxygen, that we can advocate in the induction of anaesthesia for some circumstances.

  12. RESEARCH OF LEVEL OF SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION ON COAL HEAPS GENESIS DANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the summary of information about the spontaneous combustion of brown coal mass on coal heaps. It describes the procedure “The evaluation of the degree of the danger for the genesis of the spontaneous combustion of coal on coal heaps”. The evaluation includes analysis of important influencing factors. The conclusion of this article contains definite text of the proposition. It will be verified in the last year of the solution of this project TA01020351 – program ALFA.

  13. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zimowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and bark breaking. Phoma nepeticolawas obtained from the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca leaves and stems with symptoms of small necrotic spots. Phyllosticta plantaginiswas isolated from leaves of ribwort (Plantago lanceolata showing symptoms of small, regular, necrotic spots.

  14. Dangerous Liaisons: Working Women and Sexual Justice in the American Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, E. Susan; Ritter, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The American Civil War drew thousands of white and black women into paid and unpaid work for the Union and Confederate armies.  While the armies provided some women with a reliable income, their very proximity also represented a dangerous liaison that drew them into closer contact with Union troops that rendered them vulnerable to sexual assault.  By 1865, more than four hundred Union soldiers had been court-martialed for sexual crimes against white and black women and girls. At the war’s ons...

  15. Riding the storm--landslide danger in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Movie Synopsis: --A catastrophic 1982 rainstorm triggered 18,000 landslides in the Bay Area, claiming 25 lives and causing $66 million in property damage. --The combination of steep slopes, weak rocks, and intense winter storms make Bay Area uplands an ideal setting for landslides. --Landslides include both swift, potentially deadly debris flows and slower, but destructive deepseated slides. --Learn what USGS scientists have discovered about landslide dynamics and which slopes are most susceptible to sliding. --Hear the devastating stories of Bay Area residents affected by landslides and learn to recognize the danger signs.

  16. Comparison of outburst danger criteria of coal seams for acoustic spectral and instrumental forecast methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, A. V.; Bireva, Yu A.

    2016-10-01

    Outburst danger criteria for the two methods of current coal seam outburst forecast are considered: instrumental - by the initial outgassing rate and chippings outlet during test boreholes drilling, and geo-physical - by relation of high frequency and low frequency components of noise caused by cutting tool of operating equipment probing the face area taking into consideration the outburst criteria correction based on methane concentration at the face area and the coal strength. The conclusion is made on “adjustment” possibility of acoustic spectral forecast method criterion amended by control of methane concentration at the coal face and the coal strength taken from the instrumental method forecast results.

  17. Study on dangers of methane in the gob of fully mechanized caving mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-li; WU Li-rong; ZOU De-yun

    2007-01-01

    Divided the gob gas in different types according to falling structure and spatial patterns of gob of the fully mechanized caving mining and analyzed its main form of harm.This passage preliminarily studied the law of unusual gush of gob gas of the fully mechanized caving mining. According to the basic condition for the gas explosion, made comprehensive analysis and appraisal about the oxygen condition, gas concentration distribute and fire source conditions. And find that there is the dangerous district of gas explosion in a certain area of the producing gob and give the three zone theory of gob gas explosion.

  18. Law & psychiatry: Treatment of incompetent, dangerous criminal defendants: parsing the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-07-01

    The case of Jared Lee Loughner, who killed or wounded 19 people in a shooting rampage in Tucson, demonstrates the confusion inherent in current rules for the treatment of defendants with mental illness. Found incompetent to stand trial and committed for treatment, Jared Loughner refused medication. However, when he became dangerous and suicidal, the facility treated him. Loughner's attorneys objected, arguing that the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Sell v. United States entitled him to a judicial hearing. The lack of clarity over the rules that should govern such cases stems from the court's failure to make explicit the rationale for its landmark decision.

  19. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  20. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    . We show that upon cessation, an abrupt, spatially broad, and sustained warming over land occurs that is well outside the bounds of 20th century climate variability. We then use an upwelling-diffusion energy balance climate model to further show the sensitivity of these trends to background greenhouse gas emissions, termination year, and climate sensitivity. We find that the rate of warming from cessation of solar radiation management -- of critical importance for ecological and human systems -- is principally controlled by the background greenhouse gas concentrations. It follows that the only way to avoid the risk of an abrupt and dangerous warming that is inherent to the large-scale implementation of solar radiation management is to also strongly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The climate system responds to radiative forcing on a diverse spectrum of timescales, which will affect what goals can be achieved for a given stratospheric aerosol implementation. We next investigate how different rates of stratospheric sulfate aerosol deployment affect what climate impacts can be avoided by simulating two rates of increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations in a fully-coupled global climate model. We find that disparate goals are achieved for different rates of deployment; for a slow ramping of sulfate, land surface temperature trends remain small but sea levels continue to rise for decades, whereas a quick ramp-up of sulfate yields large land surface cooling trends and immediately reduces sea level. However, atmospheric circulation changes also act to create a large-scale subsurface ocean environment around Antarctica that is favorable for increased basal melting of ice sheet outlets, thereby leaving the potential open for increased sea level rise even in the absence of large atmospheric surface warming. We show that instead, when greenhouse gases are abruptly returned to preindustrial levels, circulation anomalies are reversed, and the subsurface ocean environment

  1. FUTURE CLIMATE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.M. Forester

    2000-03-14

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure l), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog.

  2. Stress spatial evolution law and rockburst danger induced by coal mining in fault zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Teng; Mu Zonglong; Liu Guangjian; Du Junliu; Lu Hao

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of coal mining disturbance on the rockburst occurring in fault zone, this research constructed a mechanical model for the evolution of fault stress, and analyzed the influence of the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress on the stability of fault, and the spatial distribution of the stress in fault zone as well as its evolution rule. Furthermore, the rockburst danger at different spatial areas of fault zone was predicated. Results show that: when both sides of the working face are mined out, the fault zone in the working face presents greater horizontal and vertical stresses at its boundaries but exhibits smaller stresses in its middle section;however, the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress is found to be greater at middle section and smaller at boundaries. As the working face advances towards the fault, the horizontal and vertical stresses of the fault firstly increases and then decreases;conversely, the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress keeps decreasing all the time. Therefore, if the fault zones are closer to the goaf and the coal wall, the stress ratio will be smaller, and the fault slip will be more prone to occur, therefore rockburst danger will be greater. This research results provide guidance for the rockburst prevention and hazard control of the coal mining in fault zone.

  3. Licensing Procedures for Sodium Experiment Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Jiyoung; Lee, Jewhan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR is utilized in various fields and yet there has been no record of handling and storing sodium exceeding designated quantity, which is a quantity that serves as the lowest level permitted for construction. The difficulty in achieving the license for sodium experiment facilities and equipment has been the main issue since the first time of sodium-related plan. Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material and water-prohibiting substance). The objective of this study is to investigate the procedure of installing a sodium-related facility and achieving the license from the fire agency of government. In this work, the licensing procedure for a sodium experiment facility was investigated under the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium cooled Fast Reactor), the described procedure should be reviewed and prepared carefully in accordance with the fire safety regulatory body.

  4. Danger Signals and Graft-versus-host Disease: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubai, Tomomi; Mathewson, Nathan D.; Magenau, John; Reddy, Pavan

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents one of the most intense inflammatory responses observed in humans. Host conditioning facilitates engraftment of donor cells, but the tissue injury caused from it primes the critical first steps in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Tissue injuries release pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) through widespread stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by the release of danger stimuli, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). DAMPs and PAMPs function as potent stimulators for host and donor-derived antigen presenting cells (APCs) that in turn activate and amplify the responses of alloreactive donor T cells. Emerging data also point towards a role for suppression of DAMP induced inflammation by the APCs and donor T cells in mitigating GVHD severity. In this review, we summarize the current understanding on the role of danger stimuli, such as the DAMPs and PAMPs, in GVHD. PMID:27965667

  5. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdelhaq

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  6. On worries, concerns and dangers among spanish population: a qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.; Cebrian, A.L.; Menard, M. [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sola, R.; Prades, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents qualitative findings on the principal worries, concerns and dangers surrounding risk perception extracted from the Cross-cultural Survey carried out within RISKPERCOM' research project (Risk Perception and Communication). A questionnaire was mailed to arandom sample of the Spanish population allowing a study of amplification/attenuation with regard to the tenth anniversary as well as investigating management and communication issues related to radiological matters. The questionnaires were mailed to the adult population from 18 to 75 years of age, where 48.9% males and 51.1 % females. The number of questionnaires obtained for each wave were 490. The response rate was around 69%. At this paper we present the principal concerns, worries and dangers perceived by the Spanish population as identified through three open questions. The items were grouped in different categories; national political situation, economical concern, personal/social concerns, environmental concerns, global concerns... These categories are associated through correspondence analysis to socio-demographical variables as sex, age, education, political orientation an environmental attitude. (authors)

  7. Release of Danger Signals during Ischemic Storage of the Liver: A Potential Marker of Organ Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anding Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver grafts suffer from unavoidable injury due to ischemia and manipulation before implantation. Danger signals such as high-mobility group box -1(HMGB1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF play a pivotal role in the immune response. We characterized the kinetics of their release into the effluent during cold/warm ischemia and additional manipulation-induced mechanical damage. Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between HMGB1/MIF release and ischemic/mechanical damage. Liver enzymes and protein in the effluent increased with increasing ischemia time. HMGB1/MIF- release correlated with the extent of hepatocellular injury. With increasing ischemia time and damage, HMGB1 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasma as indicated by weak nuclear and strong cytoplasmic staining. Enhancement of liver injury by mechanical damage was indicated by an earlier HMGB1 translocation into the cytoplasm and earlier release of danger signals into the effluent. Our results suggest that determination of HMGB1 and MIF reflects the extent of ischemic injury. Furthermore, HMGB1and MIF are more sensitive than liver enzymes to detect the additional mechanical damage inflicted on the organ graft during surgical manipulation.

  8. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  9. Modeling Fire Danger in Galicia and Asturias (Spain from MODIS Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Bisquert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of the most dangerous natural hazards, especially when they are recurrent. In areas such as Galicia (Spain, forest fires are frequent and devastating. The development of fire risk models becomes a very important prevention task for these regions. Vegetation and moisture indices can be used to monitor vegetation status; however, the different indices may perform differently depending on the vegetation species. Eight different spectral indices were selected to determine the most appropriate index in Galicia. This study was extended to the adjacent region of Asturias. Six years of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer images, together with ground fire data in a 10 × 10 km grid basis were used. The percentage of fire events met the variations suffered by some of the spectral indices, following a linear regression in both Galicia and Asturias. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI was the index leading to the best results. Based on these results, a simple fire danger model was established, using logistic regression, by combining the EVI variation with other variables, such as fire history in each cell and period of the year. A seventy percent overall concordance was obtained between estimated and observed fire frequency.

  10. Nanomaterials A Danger or a Promise? A Chemical and Biological Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud

    2013-01-01

    With the increased presence of nanomaterials in commercial products such as cosmetics and sunscreens, fillers in dental fillings, water filtration process, catalysis, photovoltaic cells, bio-detection, a growing public debate is emerging on toxicological and environmental effects of direct and indirect exposure to these materials. Nanomaterials: A Danger or a Promise? forms a balanced overview of the health and environmental issues of nanoscale materials.   By considering both the benefits and risks associated with nanomaterials, Nanomaterials: A Danger or a Promise? compiles a complete and detailed image of the many aspects of the interface between nanomaterials and their real-life application. The full cycle of nanomaterials life will be presented and critically assessed to consider and answer questions such as: ·         How are nanomaterials made? ·         What they are used for? ·         What is their environmental fate? ·         Can we make them better?   Includi...

  11. Potentiation of the early visual response to learned danger signals in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levita, Liat; Howsley, Philippa; Jordan, Jeff; Johnston, Pat

    2015-02-01

    The reinforcing effects of aversive outcomes on avoidance behaviour are well established. However, their influence on perceptual processes is less well explored, especially during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether learning to actively or passively avoid harm can modulate early visual responses in adolescents and adults. The task included two avoidance conditions, active and passive, where two different warning stimuli predicted the imminent, but avoidable, presentation of an aversive tone. To avoid the aversive outcome, participants had to learn to emit an action (active avoidance) for one of the warning stimuli and omit an action for the other (passive avoidance). Both adults and adolescents performed the task with a high degree of accuracy. For both adolescents and adults, increased N170 event-related potential amplitudes were found for both the active and the passive warning stimuli compared with control conditions. Moreover, the potentiation of the N170 to the warning stimuli was stable and long lasting. Developmental differences were also observed; adolescents showed greater potentiation of the N170 component to danger signals. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that learned danger signals in an instrumental avoidance task can influence early visual sensory processes in both adults and adolescents.

  12. Cultural values, U.S. neighborhood danger, and Mexican American parents' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed.

  13. Nonlinear softening as a predictive precursor to climate tipping

    CERN Document Server

    Sieber, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Approaching a dangerous bifurcation, from which a dynamical system such as the Earth's climate will jump (tip) to a different state, the current stable state lies within a shrinking basin of attraction. Persistence of the state becomes increasingly precarious in the presence of noisy disturbances. We consider an underlying potential, as defined theoretically for a saddle-node fold and (via averaging) for a Hopf bifurcation. Close to a stable state, this potential has a parabolic form; but approaching a jump it becomes increasingly dominated by softening nonlinearities. If we have already detected a decrease in the linear decay rate, nonlinear information allows us to estimate the propensity for early tipping due to noise. If there is no discernable trend in the linear analysis, nonlinear softening is even more important in showing the proximity to tipping. After extensive normal form calibration studies, we apply our technique to two geological time series from paleo-climate tipping events. For the ending of ...

  14. 'Geoengineering'--taking control of our planet's climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Ridgwell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    There is international consensus that 'dangerous' climate change must be avoided. Yet without radical changes in energy sources and usage and global economies, changes that so far society has been unable or unwilling to make, it seems highly likely that we will start to experience unacceptably damaging and/or societally disruptive global environmental change later this century. What actions can be taken to safeguard future environmental quality, ecosystems, agriculture, economy, and society? A new science--'geoengineering'--that until recently would have seemed pure science fiction, promises an alternative way of temporarily regaining control of climate. Colossal engineering schemes to shade the sun, make the atmosphere hazier, modify clouds, even throw iron into the ocean, are all being promoted as possible ways out of our dilemma. This article considers the state of this new science, and its implications for society.

  15. Waste management and climate protection; Abfallwirtschaft und Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergs, Claus-Gerhard [Bundesministerium fuer Umweltschutz, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time. In becoming a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (1997) Germany undertook to reduce the emission rates of six different greenhouse gases by 21% by the year 2012 relative to 1990 as the baseline year. A further milestone was defined for 2020, namely a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% relative to 1990. As the 40% target is now in danger of being missed, the German Federal Environment Ministry has launched the ''2020 Climate Protection Action Programme''. In effect this programme is aimed at closing the gap that currently looms between the planned and actual reduction in greenhouse gas emission rates. It also includes an investigation of whether further contributions can be generated in the field of waste management.

  16. Natural Climate Variability and Future Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Caldeira, K.

    2013-12-01

    Individual beliefs about climate change and willingness-to-pay for its mitigation are influenced by local weather and climate. Large ensemble climate modeling experiments have demonstrated the large role natural variability plays in local weather and climate on a multidecadal timescale. Here we illustrate how if support for global climate policies and subsequent implementation of those policies are determined by citizens' local experiences, natural variability could influence the timeline for implementation of emissions reduction policies by decades. The response of complex social systems to local and regional changes in weather and climate cannot be quantitatively predicted with confidence. Both the form and timing of the societal response can be affected by interactions between social systems and the physical climate system. Here, to illustrate one type of influence decadal natural variability can have on climate policy, we consider a simple example in which the only question is when, if ever, the different parties will support emissions reduction. To analyze the potential effect that unpredictable extreme events may have on the time to reach a global agreement on climate policy, we analyzed the output from a 40-member Community Climate System Model version 3 simulation ensemble to illustrate how local experiences might affect the timing of acceptance of strong climate policy measures. We assume that a nation's decision to take strong actions to abate emissions is contingent upon the local experiences of its citizens and then examine how the timelines for policy action may be influenced by variability in local weather. To illustrate, we assume that a social 'tipping point' is reached at the national level occurs when half of the population of a nation has experienced a sufficiently extreme event. If climate policies are driven by democratic consensus then variability in weather could result in significantly disparate times-to-action. For the top six CO2 emitters

  17. Organizational Climates: An Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin

    1975-01-01

    The purposes of this essay are to (a) present some evidence about the importance of the climate concept as an aid in understanding employee behavior in work organizations and (b) provide a framework for guiding future climate research. (Author)

  18. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  19. Climate Change and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Climate change and health Fact sheet Reviewed June 2016 Key ... in improved health, particularly through reduced air pollution. Climate change Over the last 50 years, human activities – particularly ...

  20. Abrupt change in climate and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pitman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available First, we review the evidence that abrupt climate changes have occurred in the past and then demonstrate that climate models have developing capacity to simulate many of these changes. In particular, the processes by which changes in the ocean circulation drive abrupt changes appear to be captured by climate models to a degree that is encouraging. The evidence that past changes in the ocean have driven abrupt change in terrestrial systems is also convincing, but these processes are only just beginning to be included in climate models. Second, we explore the likelihood that climate models can capture those abrupt changes in climate that may occur in the future due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. We note that existing evidence indicates that a major collapse of the thermohaline circulation seems unlikely in the 21st century, although very recent evidence suggests that a weakening may already be underway. We have confidence that current climate models can capture a weakening, but a collapse in the 21st century of the thermohaline circulation is not projected by climate models. Worrying evidence of instability in terrestrial carbon, from observations and modelling studies, is beginning to accumulate. Current climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the 4th Assessment Report do not include these terrestrial carbon processes. We therefore can not make statements with any confidence regarding these changes. At present, the scale of the terrestrial carbon feedback is believed to be small enough that it does not significantly affect projections of warming during the first half of the 21st century. However, the uncertainties in how biological systems will respond to warming are sufficiently large to undermine confidence in this belief and point us to areas requiring significant additional work.

  1. Abrupt change in climate and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pitman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available First, we review the evidence that abrupt climate changes have occurred in the past and then demonstrate that climate models have developing capacity to simulate many of these changes. In particular, the processes by which changes in the ocean circulation drive abrupt changes appear to be captured by climate models to a degree that is encouraging. The evidence that past changes in the ocean have driven abrupt change in terrestrial systems is also convincing, but these processes are only just beginning to be included in climate models. Second, we explore the likelihood that climate models can capture those abrupt changes in climate that may occur in the future due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. We note that existing evidence indicates that a major collapse of the thermohaline circulate seems unlikely in the 21st century, although very recent evidence suggests that a weakening may already be underway. We have confidence that current climate models can capture a weakening, but a collapse of the thermohaline circulation in the 21st century is not projected by climate models. Worrying evidence of instability in terrestrial carbon, from observations and modelling studies, is beginning to accumulate. Current climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the 4th Assessment Report do not include these terrestrial carbon processes. We therefore can not make statements with any confidence regarding these changes. At present, the scale of the terrestrial carbon feedback is believed to be small enough that it does not significantly affect projections of warming during the first half of the 21st century. However, the uncertainties in how biological systems will respond to warming are sufficiently large to undermine confidence in this belief and point us to areas requiring significant additional work.

  2. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  3. Melting empires? Climate change and politics in Antarctica since the International Geophysical Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between climate change and politics in Antarctica since the International Geophysical Year of 1957-8, paying particular attention to the work of the British Antarctic Survey. Research conducted in Antarctica has played an important role in the understanding of climate change on a global scale. In turn, fears about the consequences of global climate change have radically changed perceptions of Antarctica and profoundly shaped scientific research agendas: a continent that until fifty years ago was perceived largely as an inhospitable wilderness has come to be seen as a dangerously vulnerable environment. This radical shift in perception contrasts with a fundamental continuity in the political power structures of the continent. This article argues that the severity of the threat of climate change has reinforced the privileged political position of the "insider" nations within the Antarctic Treaty System.

  4. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  5. Climate models and scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortelius, C.; Holopainen, E.; Kaurola, J.; Ruosteenoja, K.; Raeisaenen, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-31

    In recent years the modelling of interannual climate variability has been studied, the atmospheric energy and water cycles, and climate simulations with the ECHAM3 model. In addition, the climate simulations of several models have been compared with special emphasis in the area of northern Europe

  6. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  7. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  8. Climate Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    The latest Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Status Report on global climate observations, delivered to the UNFCCC COP21 in November 2016, showed how satellite data are critical for observations relating to climate. Of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) identified by GCOS as necessary for understanding climate change, about half are derived only from satellite data while half of the remainder have a significant input from satellites. Hence data from Earth observing satellite systems are now a fundamental requirement for understanding the climate system and for managing the consequences of climate change. Following the Paris Agreement of COP21 this need is only greater. Not only will satellites have to continue to provide data for modelling and predicting climate change but also for a much wider range of actions relating to climate. These include better information on loss and damage, resilience, improved adaptation to change, and on mitigation including information on greenhouse gas emissions. In addition there is an emerging need for indicators of the risks associated with future climate change which need to be better quantified, allowing policy makers both to understand what decisions need to be taken, and to see the consequences of their actions. The presentation will set out some of the ways in which satellite data are important in all aspects of understanding, managing and predicting climate change and how they may be used to support future decisions by those responsible for policy related to managing climate change and its consequences.

  9. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation (a

  10. Philosophy of climate science part I: observing climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Frigg, Roman; Thompson, Erica; Werndl, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This is the first of three parts of an introduction to the philosophy of climate science. In this first part about observing climate change, the topics of definitions of climate and climate change, data sets and data models, detection of climate change, and attribution of climate change will be discussed.

  11. Kamchatka and North Kurile Volcano Explosive Eruptions in 2015 and Danger to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girina, Olga; Melnikov, Dmitry; Manevich, Alexander; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    There are 36 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka and North Kurile, and several of them are continuously active. In 2015, four of the Kamchatkan volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) and two volcanoes of North Kurile (Alaid and Chikurachki) had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Bezymianny, Kizimen, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes are the most dangerous for aircraft because they can produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere and the stratosphere till several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2015: on 07, 12, and 15 January, 01, 17, and 28 February, 04, 08, 16, 21-22, and 26 March, 07 and 12 April: ash plumes rose up to 7-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the different directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Ust'-Kamchatsk on 16 March, and Klyuchi on 30 October. Strong and moderate hot avalanches from the lava dome were observing more often in the second half of the year. Aviation color code of Sheveluch was Orange during the year. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Explosive-effusive eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano lasted from 01 January till 24 March. Strombolian explosive volcanic activity began from 01 January, and on 08-09 January a lava flow was detected at the Apakhonchich chute on the southeastern flank of the volcano. Vulcanian activity of the volcano began from 10 January. Ashfalls

  12. Geoengineering the climate: an overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J G

    2012-09-13

    The climate change that we are experiencing now is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases due to human activities, including burning fossil fuels, agriculture and deforestation. There is now widespread belief that a global warming of greater than 2(°)C above pre-industrial levels would be dangerous and should therefore be avoided. However, despite growing concerns over climate change and numerous international attempts to agree on reductions of global CO(2) emissions, these have continued to climb. This has led some commentators to suggest more radical 'geoengineering' alternatives to conventional mitigation by reductions in CO(2) emissions. Geoengineering is deliberate intervention in the climate system to counteract man-made global warming. There are two main classes of geoengineering: direct carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management that aims to cool the planet by reflecting more sunlight back to space. The findings of the review of geoengineering carried out by the UK Royal Society in 2009 are summarized here, including the climate effects, costs, risks and research and governance needs for various approaches. The possible role of geoengineering in a portfolio of responses to climate change is discussed, and various recent initiatives to establish good governance of research activity are reviewed. Key findings include the following.- Geoengineering is not a magic bullet and not an alternative to emissions reductions. - Cutting global greenhouse gas emissions must remain our highest priority. (i) But this is proving to be difficult, and geoengineering may be useful to support it. - Geoengineering is very likely to be technically possible. (i) However, there are major uncertainties and potential risks concerning effectiveness, costs and social and environmental impacts. - Much more research is needed, as well as public engagement and a system of regulation (for both deployment and for possible large-scale field tests). - The acceptability of

  13. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the

  14. The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, S E

    1983-10-01

    It is widely known that linear restrictions involve bias. What is not known is that some linear restrictions are especially dangerous for hypothesis testing. For some, the expected value of the restricted coefficient does not lie between (among) the true unconstrained coefficients, which implies that the estimate is not a simple average of these coefficients. In this paper, the danger is examined regarding the additive linear restriction almost universally imposed in statistical research--the restriction of symmetry. Symmetry implies that the response of the dependent variable to a unit decrease in an expanatory variable is identical, but of opposite sign, to the response to a unit increase. The 1st section of the paper demonstrates theoretically that a coefficient restricted by symmetry (unlike coefficients embodying other additive restrictions) is not a simple average of the unconstrained coefficients because the relevant interacted variables are inversly correlated by definition. The next section shows that, under the restriction of symmetry, fertility in Finland from 1885-1925 appears to respond in a prolonged manner to infant mortality (significant and positive with a lag of 4-6 years), suggesting a response to expected deaths. However, unscontrained estimates indicate that this finding is spurious. When the restriction is relaxed, the dominant response is rapid (significant and positive with a lag of 1-2 years) and stronger for declines in mortality, supporting an aymmetric response to actual deaths. For 2 reasons, the danger of the symmetry restriction may be especially pervasive. 1st, unlike most other linear constraints, symmetry is passively imposed merely by ignoring the possibility of asymmetry. 2nd, modles in a wide range of fields--including macroeconomics (e.g., demand for money, consumption, and investment models, and the Phillips curve), international economics (e.g., intervention models of central banks), and labor economics (e.g., sticky wage

  15. Addressing Climate Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process? What role has China played in combating climate change? Su Wei,China's chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.

  16. STUDY ON THE METHOD FOR FORECASTING DANGEROUSNESS OF COAL FACE AND HEADIG FACE OUTBURST BY TWO TEMPERATURE INDEXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏图; 鲜学福

    1998-01-01

    In line with the sensitivity of coal drillings temperature and coalbed temperature to the dangerous zone of coal and gas outburst, two temperature sensitive indexes (△Tm, △tm) for forecasting dangerousness of coal face and heading face outburst are defined, and deal with the foundation on drillings and coalbed temperatures used as sensitive indexes and the principle and method of determining drillings and coalbed temperatures. On the basis of this, we put forwardthe method for forecasting dangerousness of coal face and heading face outburst by two temperature sensitive indexes and determine the critical values of two temperature sensitive indexes(△ Tm= 5.5 ℃, △tm = 4.5 ℃ ) by in-situ observation and requirement for determining sensitive index.

  17. Financing climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.

  18. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  19. What Is Climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, S.

    2013-01-01

    Most people have an intuitive understanding of the weather as referring to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place and of the climate as a kind of average weather. A popular expression of this dichotomy is "the climate is what you expect, the weather is what you get" (Heinlein [1973, p. 352], although often attributed to Mark Twain). Implicit in this belief is the notion of climate as a kind of constant natural state to which the weather would converge if it were averaged over a long enough period. A corollary is that climate change is a consequence of "climate forcings," which are external to the natural climate system and which tend to prevent averages from converging to their true values. In this framework, past climate change may be attributed to orbital changes, variations in solar output, volcanic eruptions, etc. For the recent period, anthropogenic forcings can be added.

  20. Climate Change in Prehistory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, William James

    2005-06-01

    How did humankind deal with the extreme challenges of the last Ice Age? How have the relatively benign post-Ice Age conditions affected the evolution and spread of humanity across the globe? By setting our genetic history in the context of climate change during prehistory, the origin of many features of our modern world are identified and presented in this illuminating book. It reviews the aspects of our physiology and intellectual development that have been influenced by climatic factors, and how features of our lives - diet, language and the domestication of animals - are also the product of the climate in which we evolved. In short: climate change in prehistory has in many ways made us what we are today. Climate Change in Prehistory weaves together studies of the climate with anthropological, archaeological and historical studies, and will fascinate all those interested in the effects of climate on human development and history.