WorldWideScience

Sample records for avert dangerous climate

  1. How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to "tipping points" with unacceptable consequences, especially ice sheet disintegration with sea level rise out of humanity's control, has a bright side. It implies an imperative: we must find a way to keep the CO2 amount so low that it will also avert other detrimental effects that had begun to seem inevitable, e.g., ocean acidification, loss of most alpine glaciers and thus the water supply for millions of people, and shifting of climatic zones with consequent extermination of species. Here I outline from a scientific perspective actions needed to achieve low limits on CO2 and global warming. These changes are technically feasible and have ancillary benefits. Achievement of needed changes requires overcoming t...

  2. Between traditional means of averting danger and dynamical protection of fundamental rights - does the law rule over technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates the regulatory structure of the atomic energy law, the provisions for averting danger, and the obligation to provide for precautionary measures, and subsequently discusses proposals published in the literature that are heading towards more differentiation of the concepts above. The author thus discusses the significance of the term 'suspected danger' in risk assessments for normal operation of nuclear facilities, and the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court on the Kalkar reactor station. According to the author, the definition of the risk to be tolerated has to be done by the legislative body, as it is a decision on 'socially adequate burden' and thus represents an impairment of fundamental rights which can only be decided upon by the legislature. (HSCH)

  3. Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m-2 yr-1) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  4. The ''state of the art in science'' examined as a concept of law from the angle of epistemology, with the example of the principle of averting danger, as defined in the emission control law and in the atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term ''state of the art in science'' is the essential element guaranteeing the legally required measures for averting danger during specified normal operation and in case of an accident, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act and in the Federal Emission Control Act. The literature, jurisdiction, and the licensing practice are not unanimous in the interpretation of the content of this term ''state of the art in science'', its function in the licensing procedure, and its distinctions as compared to the term ''state of the art in technology''. The book in hand sets out to provide answers. The term state of the art in science appears at different places in the Atomic Energy Act (AtG) or the Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), and in different factual contexts. Reference to the measures for averting danger offers the possibility of gearing to a specific context of this term and thus to discuss the term in a selected context. The principle of averting danger therefore offers the factual frame for an epistemological examination of the term ''state of the art in science''. Other than the Federal Constitutional Court in its Kalkar reactor judgment, the author's opinion is that the limits of the human capacity of knowledge are not due to theoretical capacities, but rather to practical. The aquired knowledge thus lags behind the knowledge achievable from the angle of epidemology. The remaining uncertainty in the author's theory thus is larger than that assumed in the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court. The limits of the human capacity of knowledge, the author says, cannot be regarded to likewise set the same limits to the principle or instrument of averting danger. The limits of averting danger are a result of the administrative capacities. (orig.)

  5. Climate Change Represents Real, Present Danger

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2013-01-01

    The President of the World Bank, Jim Yong Kim, pointed to the serious consequences to global economic outlook of failing to tackle the challenges of climate change. He remarked that the risks associated with climate change could threaten international peace and security. The Bank is stepping up mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk management work.

  6. On Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference and Climate Change Risk (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commits signatory nations (which includes all major nations including the United States) to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at levels short of Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference (“ DAI”) with the climate. To properly define DAI, one must take into account issues that are not only scientific, but, economic, political, and ethical in nature. Defining DAI is furthermore complicated by the inter-generational and regionally-disaggregated nature of the risks associated with climate change. In this talk, I will explore the nature of anthropogenic climate change risks and the notion of DAI.

  7. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification - Supplementary Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp. -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  8. Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, K. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, PA (United States); Hall, M. [Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, Seung-Rae [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bradford, D.F. [Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School and Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Robertson Hall 448, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the avoidance of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'. Among the many plausible choices, dangerous interference with the climate system may be interpreted as anthropogenic radiative forcing causing distinct and widespread climate change impacts such as a widespread demise of coral reefs or a disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet. The geological record and numerical models suggest that limiting global warming below critical temperature thresholds significantly reduces the likelihood of these eventualities. Here we analyze economically optimal policies that may ensure this risk-reduction. Reducing the risk of a widespread coral reef demise implies drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions within decades. Virtually unchecked greenhouse gas emissions to date (combined with the inertia of the coupled natural and human systems) may have already committed future societies to a widespread demise of coral reefs. Policies to reduce the risk of a West Antarctic ice sheet disintegration allow for a smoother decarbonization of the economy within a century and may well increase consumption in the long run.

  9. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy. PMID:21115511

  10. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world. PMID:12319368

  11. Averting a holocaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberg nuclear power station is running computer software developed in South Africa to maximise the health and safety of both staff and public. Escom has prepared an extensive and costly emergency plan, and should be able to identify some potential problem areas and thus avert accidents

  12. The climate: dangerous game. Last news of the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no doubt, the climate is changing. But why the actions in favor of the change are so slow? In this framework the authors aims to answer the following questions: what was the weather yesterday? What is the impact of the human activities on the climate? In which world will live our children? What can we do? (A.L.B.)

  13. Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Camia, A.; Moreno, J.M.; Gutiérrez, J M

    2014-01-01

    We present future fire danger scenarios for the countries bordering the Mediterranean areas of Europe and north Africa building on a multi-model ensemble of state-of-the-art regional climate projections from the EU-funded project ENSEMBLES. Fire danger is estimated using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and a related set of indices. To overcome some of the limitations of ENSEMBLES data for their application on the FWI System-recently highlighted in a previous study by Herre...

  14. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  15. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions-one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  16. The 2003 heat wave in France: dangerous climate change here and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poumadère, Marc; Mays, Claire; Le Mer, Sophie; Blong, Russell

    2005-12-01

    In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to an excess of 14,947 deaths in France, between August 4 and 18, 2003. The greatest increase in mortality was due to causes directly attributable to heat: dehydration, hyperthermia, heat stroke. In addition to age and gender, combinatorial factors included preexisting disease, medication, urban residence, isolation, poverty, and, probably, air pollution. Although diversely impacted or reported, many parts of Europe suffered human and other losses, such as farming and forestry through drought and fires. Summer 2003 was the hottest in Europe since 1500, very likely due in part to anthropogenic climate change. The French experience confirms research establishing that heat waves are a major mortal risk, number one among so-called natural hazards in postindustrial societies. Yet France had no policy in place, as if dangerous climate were restricted to a distant or uncertain future of climate change, or to preindustrial countries. We analyze the heat wave's profile as a strongly attenuated risk in the French context, as well as the causes and the effects of its sudden shift into amplification. Research and preparedness needs are highlighted. PMID:16506977

  17. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: A GISS modelE study

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J; Bauer, S; Baum, E; Cairns, B; Canuto, V; Chandler, M; Cheng, Y; Cohen, A; Faluvegi, G; Fleming, E; Friend, A; Genio, A D; Hall, T; Jackman, C; Jonas, J; Kelley, M; Kharecha, P; Kiang, N Y; Koch, D; Labow, G; Lacis, A; Lerner, J; Lo, K; Menon, S; Miller, R; Nazarenko, L; Novakov, T; Oinas, V; Perlwitz, J; Rind, D; Romanou, A; Ruedy, R; Russell, G; Sato, M; Schmidt, G A; Schmunk, R; Shindell, D; Stone, P; Streets, D; Sun, S; Tausnev, N; Thresher, D; Unger, N; Yao, M; Zhang, S; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the 'alternative' scenario of Hansen and Sato. Identification of 'dangerous' effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1 degree C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1 degree C if climate sensitivity is \\~3 degrees C or less for doubled CO2. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2 emissions and decrease non-CO2 forcings are needed to achieve the low forcing of the alt...

  18. The impact of climate change on forest fire danger rating in China's boreal forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang; DI Xue-ying; GUO Qing-xi; SHU Zhan; ZENG Tao; YU Hong-zhou; WANG Chao

    2011-01-01

    The Great Xing'an Mountains boreal forests were focused on in the northeastern China.The simulated future climate scenarios of IPCC SRES A2a and B2a for both the baseline period of 1961-1990 and the future scenario periods were downscaled by the Delta Method and the Weather Generator to produce daily weather data.After the verification with local weather and fire data, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System was used to assess the forest fire weather situation under climate change in the study region.An increasing trend of fire weather severity was found over the 21st century in the study region under the both future climate change scenarios, compared to the 1961-1990 baseline period.The annual mean/maximum fire weather index was predicted to rise continuously during 2010-2099, and by the end of the 21st century it is predicted to rise by 22%-52% across much of China's boreal forest.The significant increases were predicted in the spring from of April to June and in the summer from July to August.In the summer, the fire weather index was predicted to be higher than the current index by as much as 148% by the end of the 21st century.Under the scenarios of SRES A2a and B2a, both the chance of extremely high fire danger occurrence and the number of days of extremely high fire danger occurrence was predieted to increase in the study region.It is anticipated that the number of extremely high fire danger days would increase from 44 days in 1980s to 53-75 days by the end of the 21st century.

  19. Future impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; SHU Li-fu; ZHAO Feng-jun; WANG Ming-yu; Douglas J. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming has a rapid and far-reaching impact on forest fire management in the boreal forests of China. Regional climate model outputs and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) Sys- tern were used to analyze changes to fire danger and the fire season for future periods under IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2, and the data will guide future fire management planning. We used regional climate in China (1961-1990) as our validation data, and the period (1991-2100) was modeled under SRES A2 and B2 through the weather simulated by the regional climate model system (PRECIS). Meteorological data and fire danger were interpolated to 1 km by using ANUSPLIN software. The average FWI value for future spring fire sea-sons under Scenarios A2 and B2 shows an increase over most of the region. Compared with the baseline, FWI averages of spring fire season will increase by -0.40, 0.26 and 1.32 under Scenario A2, and increase by 0.60, 1.54 and 2.56 under Scenario B2 in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, re-spectively. FWI averages of autumn fire season also show an increase over most of the region. FWI values increase more for Scenario B2 than for Scenario A2 in the same periods, particularly during the 2050s and 2080s. Average future FWI values will increase under both scenarios for autumn fire season. The potential burned areas are expected to increase by 10% and 18% in spring for 2080s under Scenario A2 and B2, respec- tively. Fire season will be prolonged by 21 and 26 days under Scenarios A2 and B2 in 2080s respectively.

  20. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the issue of 'dangerous human-made interference with climate' using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcing for 1880-2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the 'alternative' scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of 'dangerous' effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1 degrees C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing similar to 1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1 degrees C if climate sensitivity is similar to 3 degrees C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2 σ (standard deviations) of 20. century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5-10 σ, i.e. mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We conclude that a CO2 level exceeding about 450 ppm is 'dangerous', but reduction of non-CO2 forcing can provide modest relief on the CO2 constraint. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot) as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs) may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcing has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative

  1. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880–2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004. Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5–10σ, i.e. mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We conclude that a CO2 level exceeding about 450 ppm is "dangerous", but reduction of non-CO2 forcings can provide modest relief on the CO2 constraint. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt

  2. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880–2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004. Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative scenario, with peak added forcing ~1.5 W/m2 in 2100, keeps further global warming under 1°C if climate sensitivity is ~3°C or less for doubled CO2. The alternative scenario keeps mean regional seasonal warming within 2σ (standard deviations of 20th century variability, but other scenarios yield regional changes of 5–10σ, i.e., mean conditions outside the range of local experience. We discuss three specific sub-global topics: Arctic climate change, tropical storm intensification, and ice sheet stability. We suggest that Arctic climate change has been driven as much by pollutants (O3, its precursor CH4, and soot as by CO2, offering hope that dual efforts to reduce pollutants and slow CO2 growth could minimize Arctic change. Simulated recent ocean warming in the region of Atlantic hurricane formation is comparable to observations, suggesting that greenhouse gases (GHGs may have contributed to a trend toward greater hurricane intensities. Increasing GHGs cause significant warming in our model in submarine regions of ice shelves and shallow methane hydrates, raising concern about the potential for accelerating sea level rise and future positive feedback from methane release. Growth of non-CO2 forcings has slowed in recent years, but CO2 emissions are now surging well above the alternative scenario. Prompt actions to slow CO2 emissions and decrease non-CO2

  3. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  4. Book review: the two degrees dangerous limit for climate change: public understanding and decision making by Christopher Shaw

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In The Two Degrees Dangerous Limit for Climate Change: Public Understanding and Decision Making, Christopher Shaw explores environmental policymaking by focusing on the public circulation of 2°C as the widely cited maximum figure by which temperatures can be allowed to rise. Derek Wall praises the book for combining natural science and social science to offer a well-researched and provocative interrogation of policy claims made about climate change.

  5. The Coming Global Climate-Technology Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Barrett

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases can be reduced significantly using existing technologies, but stabilizing concentrations will require a technological revolution--a "revolution" because it will require fundamental change, achieved within a relatively short period of time. Inspiration for a climate-technology revolution is often drawn from the Apollo space program or the Manhattan Project, but averting dangerous climate change cannot be "solved" by a single new technology, deployed ...

  6. The role of sea-level rise and the Greenland ice sheet in dangerous climate change: implications for the stabilisation of climate

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, J A; J. M. Gregory; J. Ridley; Huybrechts, Philippe; Nicholls, R J; Collins, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sea level rise is an important aspect of future climate change because, without upgraded coastal defences, it is likely to lead to significant impacts. Here we report on two aspects of sea-level rise that have implications for the avoidance of dangerous climate change and stabilisation of climate. If the Greenland ice sheet were to melt it would raise global sea levels by around 7m. We discuss the likelihood of such an event occurring in the coming centuries. We also examine the time scales a...

  7. Estimating live fuel status by drought indices: an approach for assessing local impact of climate change on fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Dubrovsky, Martin; Bortolu, Sara; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Masia, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of both Mediterranean vegetation communities and understorey vegetation. They also constitute the surface fuels primarily responsible for the ignition and the spread of wildland fires in Mediterranean forests. Although fire spread and behaviour are dependent on several factors, the water content of live fuel plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread, especially in the Mediterranean shrubland, where live fuel is often the main component of the available fuel which catches fire. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel, affecting load distribution in vegetation strata, floristic composition, and live and dead fuel ratio. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status, and consequently flammability, and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The main aim of this work was to propose a methodology for evaluating possible impacts of future climate change on moisture dynamic and length of fire danger period at local scale. Specific objectives were: i) evaluating performances of meteorological drought indices in describing seasonal pattern of live fuel moisture content (LFMC), and ii) simulating the potential impacts of future climate changes on the duration of fire danger period. Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of three Mediterranean shrub species were performed in North Western Sardinia (Italy) for 8 years. Seasonal patterns of LFMC were compared with the Drought Code of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index and the Keetch-Byram Drought Index. Analysis of frequency distribution and cumulative distribution curves were carried out in order to evaluate performance of codes and to identify

  8. Valutazione economica dello studio AVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona De Portu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the AVERT study (“Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy compared with angioplasty in stable coronary artery disease” compared aggressive cholesterol-lowering (with the statin atorvastatin to angioplasty in patients with mild to moderate coronary artery disease. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs percutaneous coronary revascularization followed by standard therapy in Italian patients with stable coronary artery disease Methods: clinical information were taken from the AVERT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus angioplasty in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2006. Effects were measured in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction (number of deaths, life years gained and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 18 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. We also conducted a threshold analysis. Results: the cost of atorvastatin therapy or angioplasty over the 18 months period amounted to approximately 779 euro and 5.5 millions euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to angioplasty and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 18 months of follow-up was estimated at 1.8 millions euro in the atorvastatin group and 7.2 millions euro in the angioplasty group, resulting into a cost saving of 5.4 millions euro that is 74,9% of total costs occurred in the angioplasty group. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high does atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the

  9. Dangers of using global bioclimatic datasets for ecological niche modeling. Limitations for future climate projections

    OpenAIRE

    Bedia, Joaquín; Herrera, Sixto; Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Global bioclimatic datasets are being widely used in ecological research to estimate the potential distribution of species using Climate Envelope Models (CEMs). These datasets are easily available and offer high resolution information for all land areas globally. However, they have not been tested rigorously in smaller regions, and their use in regional CEM studies may pose problems derived from their poor representation of local climate features. Moreover, these problems may be enhanced when...

  10. Averting a Global Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Boyfield

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank’s Food Price Watch reached a new historic peak in August 2012. High and volatile food prices spell real hardship for the world’s poor, and supply problems due to volatile climatic conditions have exacerbated the surge in global food prices. Investment in agriculture is handicapped by the lack of reliable, accurate data. In many developing countries, the methods of collecting agricultural statistics have hardly advanced in 50 years. This article analyses these flaws and omis...

  11. The case for deep reductions : Canada's role in preventing dangerous climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramley, M.; Chandler, M. (ed.) [David Suzuki Foundation, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    Canada chaired the annual session of United Nations climate change negotiations in Montreal in late 2005 at the Conference of Parties (COP)-11. This constituted the first session at which the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol required participating countries to initiate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets for the post-2012 period. Canada will hold the presidency of the negotiations for approximately one year, making Canada's responsibility in reducing GHG emissions a leading one. Two key questions are examined in determining what it should entail: what post-2012 GHG targets should Canada adopt and how should Canada approach the negotiations on the post-2012 international regime for GHG reductions? This paper seeks to provide answers to these questions. It presents a discussion of the need to stabilize GHG concentrations, by how much and when must emissions be reduced, post 2012 targets for Canada, and how should Canada approach the negotiations on the post 20012 international regime. The Pembina Institute and David Suzuki Foundation make a number of recommendations for the Government of Canada to consider such as calling on the Government of Canada to refrain from seeking operational rules for the post-2012 regime that threaten the environmental integrity of emissions targets. 201 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Averting Catastrophes: The Strange Economics of Scylla and Charybdis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Ian; Pindyck, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    How should we evaluate public policies or projects to avert, or reduce the likelihood of, a catastrophic event? Examples might include inspection and surveillance programs to avert nuclear terrorism, investments in vaccine technologies to help respond to a "mega-virus," or the construction of levees to avert major flooding. A policy to avert a particular catastrophe considered in isolation might be evaluated in a cost-benefit framework. But because society faces multiple potential catastrophe...

  13. A strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia to avoid dangerous climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the cost-effective strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia through the 21st century under a 400 ppmv CO2 stabilization constraint using a global energy model that treats the bioenergy sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, under the 400 ppmv CO2 stabilization constraint, it is cost-effective to use modern bioenergy largely to generate heat and replace direct coal use in developing Asia in the first half of the century, because direct heat generation from modern biomass is efficient and expected to achieve large CO2 reduction. As second-generation bioenergy conversion technologies (mainly gasification-based technologies) become mature in the second half of the century, it becomes cost-effective to introduce biomass-derived hydrogen, electricity, and Fischer-Tropsch synfuels and bioethanol produced using these technologies into developing Asia instead of modern biomass-derived heat. All biomass gasification-based conversion technologies are combined with CO2 capture and storage from 2060, which enables negative CO2 emissions and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the stringent climate stabilization target. Second, due to its small availability of biomass resources, large-scale import of biofuels and wood pellets is inevitable in developing Asia except southeastern Asia under the CO2 constraint used here. It is shown that this contributes to diversifying liquid fuel import sources and improving energy security in developing Asia. Third, sensitivity analysis shows that these findings are robust to bioenergy-related cost parameters. (author)

  14. Our climate in danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the effect of the increase in the temperature of the earth's atmosphere as a consequence of the increase in the CO2 content and other trace gases has been reviewed. The results have been obtained by a number of model studies. The effect of the depletion of the ozone layer has also been considered. There is the horrific prediction that the global mean temperature of the earth will rise by about 3 deg. C and the antarctic ice will melt by the middle of the next century. As a result, the mean sea level will rise by several meters and this will make many cities and countries or part of countries vanish from the globe. As Bangladesh is a low deltaic region, it will be specially vulnerable. Model computations show that in some regions rainfall will increase whereas in other regions specially in the tropics, rainfall will decrease and desertification will increase. If this happens, mankind will be faced with a major disaster in history. Effect on the society in general and remedial measures have been discussed. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...... and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse...

  16. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A Añel; Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Paul J Hearty; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of similar to 500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere a...

  17. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  18. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  19. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  20. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hansen

    Full Text Available We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  1. CO{sub 2} and climate: danger or hysteria?; CO{sub 2} und Klima: Gefahr oder Hysterie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haecker, W.D. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The influence of trace gases on the climatic conditions of the earth has been proved. The present contribution of CO{sub 2} to the greenhouse effect amounts to approx. 50-55 % and the contribution of fluorocarbon reaches approx. 25%. CO{sub 2} emissions caused by automobile in the street traffic contribute less than 10% to the greenhouse effect. Interdependences between the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and global climate changes are regarded as probable. The dimension of climate changes are investigated by various scientific institutes in the frame of trend calculations. The applied approaches partly differ very much from each other and put different emphasis on the interaction of the major influencing factors. Hence trend statements about the changes of the climate and the global average temperature can only be evaluated with great difficulty. On the other hand it would be rather irresponsible to accept the risk of major climatic changes and to wait until these change actually occur. Thus the corresponding industry branches still have the task to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Hence automobile manufacturers and purveyors must continue working on the reduction of the fuel consumption of vehicles. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einfluss der Spurengase auf die klimatischen Bedingungen der Erde gilt als nachgewiesen. Der Anteil des CO{sub 2} am Treibhauseffekt belaeuft sich zur Zeit auf rund 50-55%, der von FCKW auf rund 25%. - CO{sub 2}-Emissionen von Kraftfahrzeugen im Strassenverkehr sind am Treibhauseffekt mit weniger als 10% beteiligt. - Zusammenhaenge zwischen menschlich beeinflusstem Treibhauseffekt und globaler Klimaveraenderung werden als wahrscheinlich angenommen. Ihr Ausmass wird von verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Institutionen im Rahmen von Trendrechnungen untersucht; die hierbei verwendeten Ansaetze sind zum Teil stark unterschiedlich und messen den Wechselwirkungen der wesentlichen Einflussgroessen unterschiedliche Bedeutung zu. Trendaussagen ueber die

  2. Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M S; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliora...

  3. Goal implementation perspectives of the Framework U N Convention on Climate Change in Russian Federation - Federal Objective Program on prevention of dangerous climate change and their negative consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal goals and tasks of Federal Target-oriented Program (FTP), system of program measures, its resources ensuring, mechanism for the FTP realization, supervision of execution and data on assessment of its effectiveness are expounded. Results of Russian Federation Inter-department commission activity on climate change issues are cited. Some aspects of negotiation process on Framework U N Convention o climate change are considered. (author)

  4. Dangerous surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of existing arms control reduction commitments, approximately 50 metric tons of weapon-grade plutonium is expected to become surplus in the United States--and a similar or larger amount in Russia--over the next 10 years. It is crucial that this surplus weapons plutonium be managed in a way that minimizes the danger that it will be re-used for weapons, does not lead to increased accessibility of civilian plutonium for weapons use, and meets reasonable standards for cost and human and environmental safety. The Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) of the National Academy of Sciences recently conducted an 18-month study for the U.S. government for methods of weapons plutonium management. This article summarizes the resulting report, which was released on January 24. The special security problems posed by plutonium are outlined. Three early phases of plutonium management emphasized by the report are discussed. Two candidate approaches for reducing the accessibility of weapons plutonium are described. One is to fabricate the weapons plutonium into mixed oxide fuel for reactors; the other is to mix the weapons plutonium with already reprocessed high-level radioactive waste for vitrification and long-term disposal. In either of the two approaches, the end result would be the dilution and the contamination of the weapons plutonium with a radioactive waste form. For both approaches, the ultimate destination of the plutonium would be a geologic repository

  5. Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2C Global Warming Could Be Dangerous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    warmer than today. Ice melt cooling of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans increases atmospheric temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, thus driving more powerful storms. The modeling, paleoclimate evidence, and ongoing observations together imply that 2 C global warming above the preindustrial level could be dangerous. Continued high fossil fuel emissions this century are predicted to yield (1) cooling of the Southern Ocean, especially in the Western Hemisphere; (2) slowing of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation, warming of the ice shelves, and growing ice sheet mass loss; (3) slowdown and eventual shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation with cooling of the North Atlantic region; (4) increasingly powerful storms; and (5) nonlinearly growing sea level rise, reaching several meters over a timescale of 50-150 years. These predictions, especially the cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic with markedly reduced warming or even cooling in Europe, differ fundamentally from existing climate change assessments. We discuss observations and modeling studies needed to refute or clarify these assertions.

  6. Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-03-01

    C warmer than today. Ice melt cooling of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans increases atmospheric temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, thus driving more powerful storms. The modeling, paleoclimate evidence, and ongoing observations together imply that 2 °C global warming above the preindustrial level could be dangerous. Continued high fossil fuel emissions this century are predicted to yield (1) cooling of the Southern Ocean, especially in the Western Hemisphere; (2) slowing of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation, warming of the ice shelves, and growing ice sheet mass loss; (3) slowdown and eventual shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation with cooling of the North Atlantic region; (4) increasingly powerful storms; and (5) nonlinearly growing sea level rise, reaching several meters over a timescale of 50-150 years. These predictions, especially the cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic with markedly reduced warming or even cooling in Europe, differ fundamentally from existing climate change assessments. We discuss observations and modeling studies needed to refute or clarify these assertions.

  7. Averting group failures in collective-risk social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1209/0295-5075/99/68003

    2012-01-01

    Free-riding on a joint venture bears the risk of losing personal endowment as the group may fail to reach the collective target due to insufficient contributions. A collective-risk social dilemma emerges, which we here study in the realm of the spatial public goods game with group-performance-dependent risk levels. Instead of using an overall fixed value, we update the risk level in each group based on the difference between the actual contributions and the declared target. A single parameter interpolates between a step-like risk function and virtual irrelevance of the group's performance in averting the failure, thus bridging the two extremes constituting maximal and minimal feedback. We show that stronger feedback between group performance and risk level is in general more favorable for the successful evolution of public cooperation, yet only if the collective target to be reached is moderate. Paradoxically, if the goals are overambitious, intermediate feedback strengths yield optimal conditions for coopera...

  8. Bacterial danger sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor. PMID:26434507

  9. Sensitivity of collective action to uncertainty about climate tipping points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott; Dannenberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Despite more than two decades of diplomatic effort, concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to trend upwards, creating the risk that we may someday cross a threshold for `dangerous' climate change. Although climate thresholds are very uncertain, new research is trying to devise `early warning signals' of an approaching tipping point. This research offers a tantalizing promise: whereas collective action fails when threshold uncertainty is large, reductions in this uncertainty may bring about the behavioural change needed to avert a climate `catastrophe'. Here we present the results of an experiment, rooted in a game-theoretic model, showing that behaviour differs markedly either side of a dividing line for threshold uncertainty. On one side of the dividing line, where threshold uncertainty is relatively large, free riding proves irresistible and trust illusive, making it virtually inevitable that the tipping point will be crossed. On the other side, where threshold uncertainty is small, the incentive to coordinate is strong and trust more robust, often leading the players to avoid crossing the tipping point. Our results show that uncertainty must be reduced to this `good' side of the dividing line to stimulate the behavioural shift needed to avoid `dangerous' climate change.

  10. Industry and dangerous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serious danger present tailing dumps of functioning and closed mineral resource industry in consequence of their weak security from natural disasters, proximity to water-ways, towns and state boundaries and also considering of past accidents

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ...

  12. Trauma is danger

    OpenAIRE

    Porterfield Nancy; Hwang Paul F; Pannell Dylan; Davis Thomas A; Elster Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in young adult patients. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies attempt to investigate the immunological pathways involved, however the true mediators remain to be elucidated. Herein, we attempt to describe the immunologic response to systemic trauma in the context of the Danger model. Data Sources A literature search using PubMed was used to identify pertinent articles describing the Danger model in relation to trauma. Conclusi...

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF ROMANIAN SOILS TO THE POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERE WITH CO2, THE DANGERS OF CLIMATE CHANGES AND MEASURES TO ATTENUATE OR ELIMINATE THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Berca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a surface of abt. 24 mil ha, and is almost entirely covered with soils. Over 9 millions hectars belong to thegroup of arable soils, cultivated with different field crops and permanently submitted to agricultural machineinterventions. This led to the oxidation of organic matter and of the heteropolycondensed humus due to the lack oftechnical and scientific instruments to stabilize the soils. In the moment when soils in the Southern, Eastern andWestern part of Romania were fallowed, these owned up to 15 % humus, either in a condensed form (huminic acids,either as humus-C, i.e. biomass residua in transformation.By the taking in culture and the soil tillage within the conventional system practiced still in our days, the analysis ofliterature and simulation calculations made by us showed that beginning 1930 until nowadays, over 70% of theagricultural soil humus was lost and abt 29 billions tons of CO2 and other dangerous gases were cast in the air.Recuperation of CO2 from air can be done only by „greening” all the surfaces and reintroducing CO2 in soil as humus.This can be done the speediest possible in a rate of maximum 0,1 % humus /year. There is no a viable solution for this,able to solve quickly the absorbtion.

  14. The emissions reduction commitments set out by the U.S. and China are welcome steps towards avoiding dangerous climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Bob

    2014-01-01

    On 12 November President Obama and China’s President Xi Jinping announced a commitment that the two countries would reduce their greenhouse gas emissions beyond what had been previously promised. Bob Ward looks at the agreement, writing that while it bodes well for next year’s Paris climate change summit, stronger commitments will be needed for emissions to stay below the warming limit.

  15. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  16. Trauma is danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porterfield Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in young adult patients. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies attempt to investigate the immunological pathways involved, however the true mediators remain to be elucidated. Herein, we attempt to describe the immunologic response to systemic trauma in the context of the Danger model. Data Sources A literature search using PubMed was used to identify pertinent articles describing the Danger model in relation to trauma. Conclusions Our knowledge of Danger signals in relation to traumatic injury is still limited. Danger/alarmin signals are the most proximal molecules in the immune response that have many possibilities for effector function in the innate and acquired immune systems. Having a full understanding of these molecules and their pathways would give us the ability to intervene at such an early stage and may prove to be more effective in blunting the post-injury inflammatory response unlike previously failed cytokine experiments.

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started ... vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. ...

  18. Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2{\\deg}C Global Warming is Dangerous

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    We use numerical climate simulations, paleoclimate data, and modern observations to study the effect of growing ice melt from Antarctica and Greenland. Meltwater tends to stabilize the ocean column, inducing amplifying feedbacks that increase subsurface ocean warming and ice shelf melting. Cold meltwater and induced dynamical effects cause ocean surface cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic, thus increasing Earth's energy imbalance and heat flux into most of the global ocean's surface. Southern Ocean surface cooling, while lower latitudes are warming, increases precipitation on the Southern Ocean, increasing ocean stratification, slowing deepwater formation, and increasing ice sheet mass loss. These feedbacks make ice sheets in contact with the ocean vulnerable to accelerating disintegration. We hypothesize that ice mass loss from the most vulnerable ice, sufficient to raise sea level several meters, is better approximated as exponential than by a more linear response. Doubling times of 10, 20 or 4...

  19. A Scientific Basis for Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scientific Council on Climate Issues has been commissioned by the Swedish Government to provide a scientific assessment as a basis for the work of the Climate Committee, the all-party committee for the review of climate policy. An important part of this task is to provide a basis and recommendations for Swedish climate policy targets at national, EU and international level. In the opening chapters, the Council looks at climate change, its reasons and its consequences for ecosystems and society. The Council then makes recommendations concerning Swedish climate policy targets at global, EU and national levels, aimed at averting dangerous impact on the climate. In the concluding chapters, the Council presents a number of possible measures and policy instruments, and outlines the likely costs involved if the goals are to be achieved. Taken as a whole, the document represents a comprehensive basis for policy decisions that consider what needs to be achieved to reduce the risks of climate impact and what is actually achievable, i.e. decisions involving trade-offs between economic benefits and costs. The Council considers: that the EU's GHG emissions compared to the 1990 level should be reduced by 30-40 % by 2020 and by 75-90 % by 2050 if the Union is to take its share of the global responsibility for achievement of the two-degree target; that Sweden's GHG emissions compared to the 1990 level should be reduced by 20-25 % by 2020 and by 70-85 % by 2050 if Sweden is to take its share of the global responsibility for achievement of the two-degree target; that a national emission target for Sweden should be formulated as a target with deductible emissions allowances, i.e., that assessment of target achievement is based on the amount of emission allowances allocated or auctioned by Sweden to activities covered by the EU emissions trading scheme rather than the actual volume of emissions from these activities. The Council has provided an overview of possible measures for

  20. Sources of increased danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present and future facts of absolute liability under specific laws will have to be supplemented by the legislator, and the claims for damages will have to be limited to physical and material damage. The formulation should be about as follows: 'If a person is killed by a source of increased danger or damage done to his/her body or health or material damage done, the owner of that source will be liable for payment of damages'. A standard of this kind has good chances of being realized and applied in German or even European technical and social developments of the future. The general clause of absolute reliability for sources of increased danger depends on the judge's decision and models so far, also of other countries, give no cause to doubt this. (orig./HP)

  1. Dangerous Energy : Atomic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the disaster in Chernobyl, Russia. Through the accident It reveals the dangerous nuclear energy with a lot of problems on the nuclear power plants which includes four reasons about propelling development of atomic and criticism about that, eight reasons against development of atomic, the problem in 11 -12 nuclear power plant, the movement of antagonism towards nuclear waste in Anmyon island, cases of antinuclear in foreign country and building of new energy system.

  2. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    constantely. Recently both media and migrations have accelerated considerably in speed. In Europe and thus in Denmark homogenous populations have developed into multicultural ones. Language has not kept pace with this development, and millions of people have to adapt to this new situation with lightning speed...... tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations....

  3. The dangerous story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes of the dangerous accident i Chernobyl, which includes what happen in Chernobyl, report of the soviet union and secret conversation between IAEA and Kremlin. It deals with presupposition of disasters and reality like atomic soldier's leukemia and pollution in West Europe and Poland Next, it reports of a great accident caused defect of nuclear power plant in Japan and nuclear power industry and stagnation of journalism.

  4. A Dangerous Awakening

    OpenAIRE

    Enwerem, Iheanyi M.; Ikime, Obaro

    2013-01-01

    Students of religion and interested observers of politics in Africa will cherish this book for providing a thorough analysis of the origin and politics of the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN). A Dangerous Awakening chronicles the religious clashes in Nigeria, and shows how religion has been used in the struggle for political power. Dr. Enwerem bases his study on interviews and unpublished memos, papers and letters not otherwise accessible to the public. This book is an invaluable contri...

  5. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  6. Reducing Nuclear Dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    Ron Rosenbaum wants us to be worried. His book How the End Begins: The Road to a Nuclear World War III is intended as an urgent warning that the terrifying dangers of nuclear weapons did not disappear when the Cold War ended two decades ago. There are still many thousands of nuclear weapons in the world—about 95% of them in the U.S. and Russian arsenals—and thousands of them are constantly poised for launch within minutes.

  7. Dangers and Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha Maria; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of young people’s conceptions of illegal drug use as dangerous and/or pleasurable and an analysis of the relationship between attitudes to drugs, drinking, friends’ reported drug use and own experience with drug use and drinking. The article applies a mixed methods approach using......-old Danes: the anti-drug position, usually held by youths who do not use illegal drugs and do not have drug-using friends; the ambivalent position, occupied by non-users who report that they have drug-using friends; the transitory position, held by cannabis users, some of whom express positive attitudes to...

  8. Averting the Unlikely: Fearing, Assessing, and Preventing Threats of Rampage Violence in American Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madfis, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, school rampage shootings have taken multiple lives and caused widespread fear throughout the United States. During this same period, there have also been dozens of averted incidents where student plots to kill multiple peers and faculty members came to the attention of authorities and thus were thwarted. This dissertation…

  9. Avertable dose intervention applied in emergency response dose evaluation system for nuclear emergency preparedness in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan the new guides for the nuclear emergency public protective action were laid down by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC on July 15th, 2005. The main modifications of the guides are that the avertable dose is applied as the intervention levels and suggests the public protective actions. The emergency response dose evaluation system named RPDOSE, which was developed in 2005, was employed in this work to enhance the capability of the avertable dose evaluation for the villages in the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The period of the long-term weather forecasting data was extended from 4 to 8 days to satisfy the requirement of avertable dose computing. According to the intervention levels, the RPDOSE system is used to calculate the avertable dose and suggest appropriate public protective actions such as sheltering, evacuation or iodine prophylaxis as well as the proposed acting times for each village in the EPZ. This system was employed and examined in the annual nuclear emergency exercise of 2008 in the Maanshan nuclear power plant.

  10. Avertable dose intervention applied in emergency response dose evaluation system for nuclear emergency preparedness in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Chunghsin, E-mail: chlu@iner.gov.t [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Teng Jenhsin [Research and Development Center, Central Weather Bureau, Taiwan (China); Yang Yungmuh; Chang Borjing [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-21

    In Taiwan the new guides for the nuclear emergency public protective action were laid down by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC on July 15th, 2005. The main modifications of the guides are that the avertable dose is applied as the intervention levels and suggests the public protective actions. The emergency response dose evaluation system named RPDOSE, which was developed in 2005, was employed in this work to enhance the capability of the avertable dose evaluation for the villages in the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The period of the long-term weather forecasting data was extended from 4 to 8 days to satisfy the requirement of avertable dose computing. According to the intervention levels, the RPDOSE system is used to calculate the avertable dose and suggest appropriate public protective actions such as sheltering, evacuation or iodine prophylaxis as well as the proposed acting times for each village in the EPZ. This system was employed and examined in the annual nuclear emergency exercise of 2008 in the Maanshan nuclear power plant.

  11. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  12. PFP dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the minimum training requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) personnel who are responsible for management of dangerous waste. The training plan outlines training requirements for handling of solid dangerous waste during generator accumulation and liquid dangerous waste during treatment and storage operations. The implementation of this training plan will ensure the PFP facility compliance with the training plan requirements of Dangerous Waste Regulation. Chapter 173-303-330. Washington Administrative Code (WAC). The requirements for such compliance is described in Section 11.0 of WHC-CM-7-5 Environmental Compliance Manual

  13. Manifesto for a Dangerous Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cisneros, César

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on my experience as a Mexican sociologist, I argue for the practice of a "Dangerous Sociology". I examine the process of sociological observation to show the need for such a practice. Some dimensions of this "Dangerous Sociology" are defined.

  14. Semantic Gaps are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops and adapts constantely. R...... we do not have these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations.......Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops and adapts constantely....... Recently both media and migrations have accelerated considerably. In Europe and thus in Denmark homogenous populations have developed into multicultural ones. Language has not kept pace with this development, and millions of people have to adapt to this new situation with lightning speed. That seems not to...

  15. A dangerous mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old woman was admitted for fatigue and arm paresthesias with Trousseau sign. Her medical history included thyroidectomy and hypercholesterolemia recently treated with simvastatin. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia and hypocalcemia, severe increase in muscle enzymes, metabolic alkalosis; low plasma renin activity, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone, normal free thyroxine, increased parathyroid hormone, decreased vitamin D3; alterations in electrolyte urinary excretion, cortisol and aldosterone were excluded. Hypothesizing a statin-related myopathy, simvastatin was suspended; the patient reported use of laxatives containing licorice. Electrolytes normalized with intravenous supplementation. Among many biochemical alterations, none stands out as a major cause for muscular and electrolyte disorders. All co-factors are inter-connected, starting with statin-induced myopathy, worsened by hypothyroidism, secondary hyperaldosteronism and vitamin D deficiency, leading to hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, perpetrating muscular and electrolyte disorders. The importance of considering clinical conditions as a whole emerges with multiple co-factors involved. Another issue concerns herbal products and their potential dangerous effects.

  16. Matrix analysis and risk management to avert depression and suicide among workers

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Takeaki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Suicide is among the most tragic outcomes of all mental disorders, and the prevalence of suicide has risen dramatically during the last decade, particularly among workers. This paper reviews and proposes strategies to avert suicide and depression with regard to the mind body medicine equation hypothesis, metrics analysis of mental health problems from a public health and clinical medicine view. In occupational fields, the mind body medicine hypothesis has to deal with working environ...

  17. Exposure to pesticides, ill-health and averting behaviour: Costs and determining the relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Clevo Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Farmers\\' exposure to pesticides is high in developing countries. As a result they suffer from ill-health, both short and long term. Deaths are not uncommon. The paper examines the cause of this high exposure by estimating farmers’ expenditure on precautions taken using the avertive behaviour approach. The data show that the expenditures on defensive behaviour are low. The paper then uses tobit regression analysis to determine factors that influence defensive behaviour. The results are useful...

  18. Temporal variations and change of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960–2012

    OpenAIRE

    A. Venäläinen; N. Korhonen; N. Koutsias; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; J. M. Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how fire-weather danger indices changed in the past, and detecting how changes affected forest fire activity is important in changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis datasets, ERA 40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960–2012. Additionally, we used national forest-fires statistical data from Greece and Spain to relate fire danger and fire ...

  19. Temporal variations and change in forest fire danger in Europe for 1960–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; O. Hyvärinen; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; I. R. Urbieta; Moreno, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how fire weather danger indices changed in the past and how such changes affected forest fire activity is important in a changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis data sets, ERA-40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960–2012. Additionally, we used national forest fire statistics from Greece, Spain and Finland to examine the relationship between fire danger ...

  20. Dangerous scorpion fauna of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goyffon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the main Malian scorpion species of medical interest, Androctonus amoreuxi, is responsible for severe envenomings and perhaps some deaths, it has hitherto been considered not dangerous for humans. This population is located in the Saharian North-Eastern regions of Mali where it is accompanied by Leiurus quinquestriatus, a well known dangerous species of the Sahara. In the Gao district, divided by the Niger River, less desolate than the Tessalit and Kidal regions, one specimen of the dangerous species Androctonus australis was found. To summarize, Mali harbors at least three dangerous scorpion species: Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus amoreuxi and A. australis, the latter recently having been identified in Mali for the first time. The absence of Androctonus aeneas is surprising in this context because it is found in neighboring countries (Algeria, Niger and should be detected by new surveys. The possibility of preparing a single scorpion antivenom intended for Saharian and sub-Saharian populations is discussed.

  1. Financial Consolidation: Dangers and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that although financial consolidation creates some dangers because it is leading to larger institutions who might expose the U.S. financial system to increased systemic risk, these dangers can be handled by vigilant supervision and a government safety net with an appropriate amount of constructive ambiguity. Financial consolidation also opens up opportunities to dramatically reduce the scope of deposit insurance and limit it to narrow bank accounts, thus substantially reduci...

  2. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  3. Gathering storm. The human cost of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friends of the Earth International demonstrates the urgency of action needed to halt climate change (Part 1). Personal testimonies from survivors of Hurricane Mitch, the Mozambique floods and other events give a chilling insight of what may lie ahead for more of us in the future (Part 2). Extreme high-temperature events, droughts, floods, cyclones and storm surges with knock-on effects for ecosystems, fires, pest outbreaks, human health, our settlements and food security (Part 3). Part 4 looks at which countries are blocking action on climate change and proposes solutions for the way forward. Much deeper cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, based on an equitable sharing of the atmosphere, are needed if dangerous climate change is to be averted. Global protection will only happen when all parties at the climate summit acknowledge the real risks of climate change and their own responsibilities in improving the situation through emissions reductions. Industrialised countries must make much deeper cuts in their greenhouse gas emissions of as much as 80-90% to keep climate change within acceptable limits while allowing developing countries space to develop, Friends of the Earth International calls on governments to ensure that decisions taken at the CoP-6 in The Hague, Netherlands (1) Ensure that the Kyoto Protocol results in real and permanent emissions reductions through the development of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures; (2) Commit industrialised countries to achieving 80% of their Kyoto objective through emissions reductions at home; and (3) Enshrine principles of equity in the framework for emission reductions in the next and future commitment periods based on an equal per capita approach and ecological limits

  4. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  5. Averting a food crisis: private imports and public targeted distribution in Bangladesh after the 1998 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Ninno, Carlo del; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 flood in Bangladesh caused a shortfall of 2.2 million tonnes (mill.t) in the rice production and threatened the food security of tens of millions of households. Despite the best efforts of donors and the government, the public distribution ofrice and wheat was only 188,000t more than originally planned for July 1998 to April1999. However, a major food crisis was averted as private imports, made possible by trade liberalisation in the early 1990s, stabilised market prices and supplies...

  6. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  7. [Prevalence of neural tube defects and estimation of cases averted in the post-fortification period in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María P; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo; Groisman, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid has demonstrated to be effective to reduce the frequency of neural tube defects, and food fortification has been one of the strategies implemented to increase it. An update is herein presented on the reduced prevalence of neural tube defect cases in the post-fortification period in Argentina and an estimation of cases averted in the 2005-2013 period as a result of this intervention. When comparing the prevalence observed in the post-fortification period to that reported in the pre-fortification period, anencephaly and encephalocele decreased by 66%, and spina bifida, by 47%, which were significant reductions. The estimated number of cases averted was higher for anencephaly, followed by spina bifida; encephalocele showed the lowest number of cases averted given that the prevalence of this defect was smaller. The decrease observed in the prevalence supports findings from previous studies on the impact of fortification. PMID:26593794

  8. Danger.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1993-01-01

    The paintings in Allyson Clay’s series "Some places in the world a woman could walk" combine abstraction, photo silkscreen, and text to describe the experiences of women in the city. The works call up Baudelaire’s idea of the flâneur; far from being detached observers, Clay’s flâneuses reflect on their relationship to others and to public spaces. In each diptych text divulges the experiences, predilections and desires of individual women as they navigate public and private spaces within the...

  9. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programs. I show how Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism can be art...... articulated within the framework of an ethos of democratization. The article takes its empirical point of departure in debates over dangerous dogs....

  10. Climate Change Education: Student Media Production to Educate and Engage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Brisk, A. A.; Ledley, T. S.; Shuldman, M.

    2011-12-01

    -depth scientific information to the broader public, we have found that they can be successful in conveying some of the key, basic concepts needed to understand anthropogenic climate change. Some of these concepts include the causal relationships between fossil fuel-based energy systems, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change; the distinction between natural and anthropogenic processes in the carbon cycle; impacts of climate change on ecosystem services; and transitioning to renewable energy systems that do not emit carbon dioxide is necessary to avert 'dangerous' climate change.

  11. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed. PMID:18307647

  12. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  13. Nuclear power: no solution to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past years the nuclear power industry has once again tried to exploit concern about climate change to reverse its ongoing decline. One positive aspect of this debate is that it has highlighted the need for action to avert the adverse social and environmental impacts associated with climate change. The debate has shifted - the science has been accepted and we are now debating solutions

  14. Evaluation of averted doses to infants by tap water restrictions after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been some concern in reviewing the effectiveness of making decisions on the implementation of protective measures in emergency exposure situations. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, temporal changes in the concentration of iodine 131 in tap water were studied using published data from several authorities in Fukushima, Ibaraki, and Tokyo. Averted doses to infants (1-year-old children) due to the intake of iodine 131 through tap water restrictions were also evaluated. Consequently, it was found that the apparent half-life of iodine 131 in tap water was 2.8 days. The averted equivalent doses to the thyroids of 1-year-old children were found to have a maximum value of 8.3 mSv in a local area of Fukushima. Hence, the tap water restrictions implemented by the authorities were considered to be effective in the early phase of the emergency exposure situation. (author)

  15. The impact of perceptions in averting-decision models: An application of the special regressor method to drinking water choices

    OpenAIRE

    Bontemps, Christophe; Nauges, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are commonly surveyed about their perception or assessment of risk and these variables are often used to explain individuals’ actions to protect themselves against these risks. Perceptions appear as endogenous variables in traditional theoretical averting-decision models but, quite surprisingly, endogeneity of perceived risk is not always controlled for in empirical studies. In this article, we present different models that can be useful to the practitioner when estimating binary ...

  16. Matrix analysis and risk management to avert depression and suicide among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Takeaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide is among the most tragic outcomes of all mental disorders, and the prevalence of suicide has risen dramatically during the last decade, particularly among workers. This paper reviews and proposes strategies to avert suicide and depression with regard to the mind body medicine equation hypothesis, metrics analysis of mental health problems from a public health and clinical medicine view. In occupational fields, the mind body medicine hypothesis has to deal with working environment, working condition, and workers' health. These three factors chosen in this paper were based on the concept of risk control, called San-kanri, which has traditionally been used in Japanese companies, and the causation concepts of host, agent, and environment. Working environment and working condition were given special focus with regard to tackling suicide problems. Matrix analysis was conducted by dividing the problem of working conditions into nine cells: three prevention levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary were proposed for each of the three factors of the mind body medicine hypothesis (working environment, working condition, and workers' health. After using these main strategies (mind body medicine analysis and matrix analysis to tackle suicide problems, the paper talks about the versatility of case-method teaching, "Hiyari-Hat activity," routine inspections by professionals, risk assessment analysis, and mandatory health check-up focusing on sleep and depression. In the risk assessment analysis, an exact assessment model was suggested using a formula based on multiplication of the following three factors: (1 severity, (2 frequency, and (3 possibility. Mental health problems, including suicide, are rather tricky to deal with because they involve evaluation of individual cases. The mind body medicine hypothesis and matrix analysis would be appropriate tactics for suicide prevention because they would help the evaluation of this issue as a

  17. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  18. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level. PMID:10828157

  19. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save Earth's Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been nearly four decades since scientists first realized that global warming posed a potential threat to our planet. Why, if we knew of the threats way back in the Carter Administration, cannot we act decisively to limit greenhouse gases, deforestation, and catastrophic warming trends? Why are we still addicted to fossil fuels? Have we all just been fiddling for 40 years as the world burns around us? The author, part of the Nobel Prize-winning team that shared the accolade with Al Gore in 2007, had a front-row seat at this unfolding environmental meltdown. Piecing together events like a detective story, the author reveals that as expert consensus grew, well-informed activists warned of dangerous changes no one knew how to predict precisely - and special interests seized on that very uncertainty to block any effective response. He persuasively outlines a plan to avert the building threat and develop a positive, practical policy that will bring climate change back under our control, help the economy with a new generation of green energy jobs and productivity, and reduce the dependence on unreliable exporters of oil - and thus ensure a future for ourselves and our planet that is as rich with promise as our past

  20. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  1. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information. PMID:24624104

  2. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids and how many ... but the truth is that the frequency of steroid use in this age group is far greater than ...

  3. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet ... containing xylitol. back to top Other Foods Containing Xylitol But gum isn’t the only product containing ...

  4. How dangerous are atomic power stations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at potential dangers presented by atomic power stations and measures taken to ensure safety. Since the accident in Chernobyl, atomic power stations represent, from the point of view of the general public, a considerable danger. The article analyses the actual risks presented by atom power stations and asks the question, if these risks can even be assessed. Basic considerations on the stability and safety of reactors are discussed. Safety precautions implemented for the world's first nuclear reactor in the USA are discussed. The various safety precautions taken for various types of reactor are examined in detail. Also, the dangers presented by emissions that occur during normal operation are examined. The danger of a nuclear meltdown caused by external factors such as earthquakes, fire, aircraft crashes and terrorist activity is discussed

  5. How Dangerous are 'Dirty Bombs'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dangerous, contrary to the 'threshold' model, according to which small or even moderate increases in background radiation may be safe. b) National and international radiation-safety organizations set differing safety levels. c) The bigger the conventional bomb that distributes the radioactive material, the better it will disperse. Thus, for a given amount of a particular isotope, a smaller explosion will expose a few people to a higher dose. A larger explosion will expose more people to a lower dose. d) A steady wind will carry the radiation in one direction. A changing wind will spread it more widely, increasing the affected area and population, but reducing the individual dose. e) The higher the radiation in the bomb, the better the chance it will be detected before detonation. Many relatively low cost practical steps can be taken to reduce risks from radiological weapons and minimize the effects if an attack should occur. The first step is ensuring that the radioactive materials are safe, secure and out of reach of possible terrorists. The coherent response plan should be prepared in advance. Ability to detect lost and stolen materials should be developed. Radiation detection devices should be installed on key points such as frontier passages, airports etc. Training of population and experts should be continuously implemented etc. (author)

  6. Cardiovascular disease and impoverishment averted due to a salt reduction policy in South Africa: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David A; Olson, Zachary D; Verguet, Stéphane; Nugent, Rachel A; Jamison, Dean T

    2016-02-01

    The South African Government recently set targets to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) by lowering salt consumption. We conducted an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to model the potential health and economic impacts of this salt policy. We used surveys and epidemiologic studies to estimate reductions in CVD resulting from lower salt intake. We calculated the average out-of-pocket (OOP) cost of CVD care, using facility fee schedules and drug prices. We estimated the reduction in OOP expenditures and government subsidies due to the policy. We estimated public and private sector costs of policy implementation. We estimated financial risk protection (FRP) from the policy as (1) cases of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) averted or (2) cases of poverty averted. We also performed a sensitivity analysis. We found that the salt policy could reduce CVD deaths by 11%, with similar health gains across income quintiles. The policy could save households US$ 4.06 million (2012) in OOP expenditures (US$ 0.29 per capita) and save the government US$ 51.25 million in healthcare subsidies (US$ 2.52 per capita) each year. The cost to the government would be only US$ 0.01 per capita; hence, the policy would be cost saving. If the private sector food reformulation costs were passed on to consumers, food expenditures would increase by expenditures and providing FRP, particularly for the middle class. The policy could also provide large government savings on health care. PMID:25841771

  7. Complexity and determining dangerous levels of climate impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Huntingford, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper (Gerten et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034032) finds very different global warming thresholds of concern between water scarcity and ecosystem changes. This may at first appear surprising, as each process is controlled to some extent by functioning of the land surface. Hence this analysis reflects the fundamentally different character of what constitutes water scarcity among people, compared to water stress for ecosystems. Gerten et al (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034032) find ...

  8. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  9. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  10. Transport of dangerous substances by road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a collection of the Finnish acts and regulations concerning transport of dangerous substances by road as of 31st March 1985. Included are: Act and Decree on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road (Nos 510/74 and 861/74), both as amended; Decree setting up a related Commission (No. 862/74), as amended; Act on the Contract for Carriage of Goods by Road (No. 345/79); Decree bringing into force the ADR (No. 289/79); and Decision of the Ministry of Communications on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road (No. 610/78) as amended by Decisions No. 344/79, 995/79, 218/82 and 935/83. (NEA)

  11. Principles of estimation of Radiative danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korogodin, V. I.

    1990-08-01

    The main principles of the estimation of Radiative danger has been discussed. Two main particularities of the danger were pointed out: negatve consequencies of small doses, which does not lead to radiation sickness, but lead to disfunctions of sanguine organs and thin intestines; absolute estimation of biological anomalies, which was forwarded by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1989). The ethic aspects of the use of Nuclear weapons on the fate of Human civilization were pointed out by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1990).

  12. The importance of determining the air exchange rate in flats and buildings for calculations of the averted indoor inhalation doses arising from contaminated outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indoor-outdoor air exchange rate is an important parameter when refining estimates of the averted inhaled doses to population in houses and buildings after an emergency event resulting in contamination of outdoor air with a radioactive material. The air exchange rates measured in 70 occupied houses and in 20 unoccupied houses using N2O as the tracer gas are presented, and the results of modelling the averted doses in the residential buildings for both gaseous and aerosol outdoor contaminants are demonstrated. (orig.)

  13. Danger on mountain roads, Iglesia Department, San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is related to Mining Projects at Valle del Cura - Iglesia Department-San Juan Province-Argentina Republic. Basis for an Integrated Management of a Sustainable Mining.It aims at locating and analyzing natural dangers which may interfere high mountain paths, such as climatic, anthropic and/or tectonic factors since they may stop a region development. A hillside, a mountainside,a talus or a slope may have, due to their extensive areas, either lithological or structural variations which might determine the presence of un stability phenomena.The cordillera n Iglesia sector major dangers are related to mass displacement movements as a result of the great quantity of unstable detritus situated in valleys slopes.Landsat images, aerial photographs, topographic and geological maps data allowed to detect several sectors that may generate mass displacement movements, Arroyo de Aguas Negras rising sector was selected because it is on the right of National Route No. 150 trace. It is not only a national, but also an international route that connects Argentina and Chile.(author)

  14. Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Lacroix, Didier; Amundsen, F.H.;

    1999-01-01

    A paper which describes the work of an OECD research group. The group has suggested a grouping of dangerous materials, a quantitative risk assessment model and a decision support model which should allow tunnel operators to determine if a given material should be allowed throug a given tunnel...

  15. The wind energy in danger in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law project of march 2005, concerning the energy policy in France is dangerous for the wind power development. The new regulation favor the big installations in order to protect the environment. In fact this decision will limit the wind turbines installations. (A.L.B.)

  16. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discuss...

  17. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  18. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  19. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Sign Up forJoslin Newsletters Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Low blood glucose or hypoglycemia is one of the most common ... In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose ...

  20. The dangers of non-empirical confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In the book "String Theory and the Scientific Method", Richard Dawid describes a few of the many non-empirical arguments that motivate theoretical physicists' confidence in a theory, taking string theory as case study. I argue that excessive reliance on non-empirical evidence compromises the reliability of science, and that precisely the case of string theory well illustrates this danger.

  1. Long-term temporal changes in the occurrence of a high forest fire danger in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mäkelä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate variation and change influence several ecosystem components including forest fires. To examine long-term temporal variations of forest fire danger, a fire danger day (FDD model was developed. Using mean temperature and total precipitation of the Finnish wildfire season (June–August, the model describes the climatological preconditions of fire occurrence and gives the number of fire danger days during the same time period. The performance of the model varied between different regions in Finland being best in south and west. In the study period 1908–2011, the year-to-year variation of FDD was large and no significant increasing or decreasing tendencies could be found. Negative slopes of linear regression lines for FDD could be explained by the simultaneous, mostly not significant increases in precipitation. Years with the largest wildfires did not stand out from the FDD time series. This indicates that intra-seasonal variations of FDD enable occurrence of large-scale fires, despite the whole season's fire danger is on an average level. Based on available monthly climate data, it is possible to estimate the general fire conditions of a summer. However, more detailed input data about weather conditions, land use, prevailing forestry conventions and socio-economical factors would be needed to gain more specific information about a season's fire risk.

  2. Net financial benefits of averting HIV infections among people who inject drugs in Urumqi, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China (2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Mingjian J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To quantify the contribution of locally implemented prevention programmes in contributing to reductions in treatment and care costs by averting HIV infections among those who inject drugs this study calculates net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes using information from services being implemented in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China ( between 2005 and 2010. Methods Information was collected to assess cost of providing methadone treatment (MMT and needle and syringe programmes (NSP. HIV incidence was estimated among people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV infections averted were calculated. Net benefit was assessed by estimating costs of providing prevention programmes and comparing these to the costs of providing care. Results An estimated 5678 (range 3982–7599 HIV infections were averted between 2005 and 2010 and the net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes compared to treatment and care costs for HIV infections averted was USD 4.383 million during the same time period. Conclusion These results demonstrate the net and accumulating benefit of investing in harm reduction programmes for PWID in Urumqi. The return on investment progressively increased during the time period studied and it is clear that these cost savings will continue to accrue with the continued implementation of HIV prevention interventions in the community that include harm reduction programmes targeted at PWID.

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification

  4. Mapping the Cultural Learnability Landscape of Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark Barrett, H; Peterson, Christopher D; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2016-05-01

    Cultural transmission is often viewed as a domain-general process. However, a growing literature suggests that learnability is influenced by content and context. The idea of a learnability landscape is introduced as a way of representing the effects of interacting factors on how easily information is acquired. Extending prior work (Barrett & Broesch, ), learnability of danger and other properties is compared for animals, artifacts, and foods in the urban American children (ages 4-5) and in the Shuar children in Ecuador (ages 4-9). There is an advantage for acquiring danger information that is strongest for animals and weakest for artifacts in both populations, with culture-specific variations. The potential of learnability landscapes for assessing biological and cultural influences on cultural transmission is discussed. PMID:27189404

  5. Toxic or dangerous substances present construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation is the elaboration of a guide which could be used as a support and consultation concerning the topic of safety in the construction, specifically in the area of the use and managing of material and dangerous substances; considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of the common construction materials represent for the health. The gathered information is the result of the review of bibliographical material, the visits to public institutions at national level and to international offices which representation in our country, this way as a work of field and of study of the national market, among others. Besides important consult through the Internet checking many sites of interest with the finality of getting more updated information as possible, like that as the consultation to professionals and workers related to the construction area. (Author)

  6. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic...

  7. A unified narrative for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Simon; Colley, Thomas; Workman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There is a significant 'action gap' between what scientists argue is necessary to prevent potentially dangerous climate change and what the government and public are doing. A coherent strategic narrative is key to making meaningful progress.

  8. Classification plan of dangerous wastes according to Italian regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give a classification model founded on chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the materials which constitute dangerous wastes. A particular treatment is reserved to radioactive wastes, which are to be considered dangerous wastes. 10 refs.; 1 table

  9. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...

  10. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  11. Voice as a Lightning Rod for Dangerous Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbow, Peter

    "Voice" has become a dangerous term. It has tended to imply romanticism, expressionism, and individualism--dangerous things. There are, however, two safe or prudent thoughts that can be expressed about voice and writing and four dangerous or adventuresome thoughts. The first point is that the choice between the use of terms such as text and…

  12. Climate hotspots: key vulnerable regions, climate change and limits to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, W.; Cramer, W.; Schaeffer, M.; Battaglini, A.; Jaeger, C.

    2011-01-01

    Defining and operationalizing Article 2 of the UNFCCC remains a challenge. The question of what is dangerous climate change is not a purely scientific one, as danger necessarily has a subjective dimension and its definition requires judgment and precaution. The papers in this special issue of Region

  13. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  14. Comparisons and Assessment of Forest Fire Danger Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiao-rui; Douglas J Mcrae; Den Boychuk; Jin Ji-zhong; Gao Cheng-da; Shu Li-fu; Wang Ming-yu

    2005-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description about the current main forest fire danger rating systems in the world, which include forest fire danger rating system used in Canada, USA, Australia, and other countries. It shows the composition, structure and development of the main fire danger rating systems. The limitations of those systems are also discussed. Through a comparison of the three main forest fire danger rating systems the paper describes their differences on development, fuel complex descriptions, inputs and outputs, and their applications and finds that the technologies of the Canadian forest fire danger rating system can be adopted for China to develop a national forest fire danger rating system. Two steps are needed to develop our own national forest fire danger rating system. Firstly, we apply the CFFDRS directly. Then some studies should be done to calibrate the FDRS to local weather and fuel characteristics.

  15. Nuclear weapons, a danger for our world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about an exhibition about the danger of the increasing amount of nuclear-weapons and was presented in the occasion of the second special meeting of the UN General Assembly (1982). This report describes the causes of a nuclear-war and analyses the causes of the bomb-drop of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as possible causes of a bombing of New York City and long-term-consequences of nuclear radiation. Furthermore it lists problems with a higher priority than the armament of nuclear-arms. (kancsar)

  16. Interaction with the dirty, dangerous, and dull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyer, Clint; Husøy, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    work is at times dirty, dangerous, and dull. We describe how we approached design for this unfamiliar environment and outline some of our concepts. In our general program of research, we are exploring new, yet “close to market” artifacts and systems for use in oil and gas, potentially for...... and the forms of prototyping and evaluation. For example, we might assume a stable and safe physical environment, or that if something doesn’t work, it is an annoyance rather than a life-or-death situation. In our work, we have explored quite a different context: that of an oil and gas facility, where...

  17. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  18. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments. PMID:24043236

  19. STUDY ON FOREST FIRE DANGER MODEL WITHREMOTE SENSING BASED ON GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Forest fire is one of the main natural hazards because of its fierce destructiveness. Various researches on fire real-time monitoring, behavior simulation and loss assessment have been carried out in many countries. As fire prevention is probably the most efficient means for protecting forests, suitable methods should be developed for estimating the fire danger. Fire danger is composed of ecological, human and climatic factors. Therefore, the systematic analysis of the factors including forest characteristics, meteorological status, topographic condition causing forest fire is made in this paper at first. The relationships between biophysical factors and fire danger are paid more attention to. Then the parameters derived from remote sensing data are used to estimate the fire danger variables, According to the analysis, not only PVI (Perpendicular Vegetation Index) can classify different vegetation but also crown density is captured with PVI. Vegetation moisture content has high correlation with the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (LE) to potential ecapotranspiration (LEp). SI (Structural Index), which is the combination of TM band 4 and 5 data, is a good indicator of forest age. Finally, a fire dsnger prediction model, in which relative importance of each fire factor is taken into account, is built based on GIS.

  20. Temporal variations and change of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Venäläinen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how fire-weather danger indices changed in the past, and detecting how changes affected forest fire activity is important in changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI, calculated from two reanalysis datasets, ERA 40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960–2012. Additionally, we used national forest-fires statistical data from Greece and Spain to relate fire danger and fire activity. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA 40 (1960–1999 whereas for the period 1980–2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI and the number of high fire risk days shows an increasing trend which is significant at the 99% confidence level for South and East Europe. The cross-correlation calculated at national level in Greece and Spain between mean yearly area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order 0.5–0.6, and demonstrates the importance of the fire-season weather on forest fires. Our results show that, fire risk is multifaceted, and factors like changes in fire fighting capacity, ignition patterns, or landscapes might have played a role in forest fires trends. However, weather trends remain as important determinants of forest fires.

  1. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, H. Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change c...

  2. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay to Avert the Negative Externalities of Pollution of Dyeing Industry in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasakthi Devi, T.; Ramasamy, C.; Gurunathan, S

    2010-01-01

    Effluents discharged by several industries, particularly the textile dyeing industry, have led to severe pollution of surface and groundwater sources and soils, which have ultimately affected the livelihood of the poor. Environmental problems in the agricultural sector caused by dyeing industrial pollution in Karur district have been discussed in this study. Averting Expenditure Approach and Contingent Valuation technique have been employed for this purpose. The farm income and distance betwe...

  3. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  4. How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models provide compelling evidence that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at present rates, then key global temperature thresholds (such as the European Union limit of two degrees of warming since pre-industrial times) are very likely to be crossed in the next few decades. However, there is relatively little attention paid to whether, should a dangerous temperature level be exceeded, it is feasible for the global temperature to then return to safer levels in a usefully short time. We focus on the timescales needed to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated temperatures back below potentially dangerous thresholds, using a state-of-the-art general circulation model. This analysis is extended with a simple climate model to provide uncertainty bounds. We find that even for very large reductions in emissions, temperature reduction is likely to occur at a low rate. Policy-makers need to consider such very long recovery timescales implicit in the Earth system when formulating future emission pathways that have the potential to 'overshoot' particular atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and, more importantly, related temperature levels that might be considered dangerous.

  5. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  6. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind,but memories of the meltdown have barely faded.But what made the world's economy so vulnerable,and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it? Yi Gang,Deputy Governor of the People's Bank of China and Administrator of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange,discussed these issues in a speech at the Lujiazui Forum 2010 held in Shanghai on June 25-26.Edited excerpts follow:

  7. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind, but memories of the meltdown have barely faded. But what made the world’s economy so vulnerable, and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it?

  8. Averting a Moral Landslide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao said food safety scandals in China indicate serious moral degradation Incidents related to food safety indicate that"dishonesty and moral degradation"have become a very serious problem in the country,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said on April 14.Wen made the remark during a

  9. Nuclear danger in the modern world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is noted, that nowadays a nuclear danger proceeds from nuclear depositions of countries having own nuclear weapons. Since Kazakhstan is one of the first country in the world which fulfilled regulations of Lisbon Protocol and liquidated own nuclear potential, author regards that Kazakhstan have moral right for initiating process of attachment to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty by countries having nuclear weapon. Now for Kazakhstan there are urgent problems: financing of post-conversion processes; re-cultivation of territory contaminated by residuals from nuclear weapons test; rehabilitation of population health, damaged from test of mass destruction weapon. Scientists of Kazakhstan estimated damage from nuclear test on Kazakstan territory in 10 billion dollars. It is necessary international efforts of all public organizations of the world for all world sites. One of the financing source could be means from reduction of nuclear arms production

  10. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains ''umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit

  11. The dangers of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A book has been written which summarizes studies, published very largely in the last decade, which indicate that the health risks from low level radiation (less than 5-10 rem per year) are considerably higher than the official estimates. Chapters 1 to 5 are mainly concerned with techniques for estimating the risks of human exposure to low level radiation and the difficulties and uncertainties involved. Chapters 6 to 10 consider various categories of radiation exposure including the medical, industrial, military and power sectors and present evidence of the dangers to humans. Finally, chapter eleven considers a cost-benefit approach to radiation exposure. A helpful glossary of terms is included at the end of the book. (UK)

  12. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  13. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  14. The identification of dangerously coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriocanal, C.; Patrick, J.W.; Walker, P.A. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    When coals are carbonised in slot-type ovens, layers of plastic coal are formed parallel to the oven walls and move progressively inwards eventually meeting at the oven centre. It is within these plastic layers that the principal processes which result in particulate coal being converted into porous, fused coke take place. For some coals, usually having volatile matter contents between 17 and 25wt% (dry, ash-free basis), these processes are accompanied by the generation of measurable gas pressures within the plastic layers which attain maximum levels when the two layers meet at the oven centre. These pressures are transmitted through the coke to the oven walls, causing damage if sufficiently high. Other coals, similar in chemical analysis and swelling properties, can be carbonised with impunity. The technical aspects of the coking pressure phenomenon are well known. However, the fundamental processes involved in the generation of internal gas pressures are not fully understood. Thus, before being used in blends for commercial coke production, potentially dangerous coals are tested by carbonising upwards of 180kg charges in moveable-wall ovens and measuring directly the pressures exerted on the walls. Clearly, it would be helpful if dangerously coking coals could be identified from laboratory tests. Preliminary findings of a laboratory study designed to gain further insight into coking pressure development are presented in this paper. Internal gas pressures have been ascribed to volatiles trapped within either the plastic envelope or the plastic layer implying an overlap of the temperature ranges of volatile release and fluidity. An attempts to assess this view using, initially, thermogravimetric analysis and Gieseler plastometry and, later, a coking bomb are described, the results being related to internal gas pressures measured in a 1.5kg double-wall oven.

  15. Network Proactive Defense Model Based on Immune Danger Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenxing Wang; Liancheng Zhang; Yazhou Kong; Yu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations into proactive network defense have not produced a systematic methodology and structure; in addition, issues including multi-source information fusion and attacking behavior analysis have not been resolved. Borrowing ideas of danger sensing and immune response from danger theory, a proactive network defense model based on danger theory is proposed. This paper defines the signals and antigens in the network environment as well as attacking behavior analysis algorithm, pro...

  16. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA)

  17. Change trends of summer fire danger in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China under climate change%气候变化背景下黑龙江大兴安岭林区夏季火险变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 舒立福; 邸雪颖

    2012-01-01

    By using Delta and WGEN downscaling methods and Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index , this paper analyzed the variation characteristics of summer fire in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region of Heilongjiang Province in 1966-2010, estimated the change trends of the summer fire danger in 2010-2099, compared the differences of the forest fire in summer, spring, and autumn , and proposed the prevention and control strategies of the summer fire based on the fire environment. Under the background of climate wanning, the summer forest fire in the region in 2000-2010 showed a high incidence trend. In foreseeable future, the summer forest fire across the region in 2010-2099, as compared to that in the baseline period 1961-1990, would be increased by 34% , and the increment would be obviously greater than that of spring and autumn fire. Relative to that in 1961-1990, the summer fire in 2010-2099 under both SRES A2a and SRES B2a scenarios would have an increasing trend, and, with the lapse of time, the trend would be more evident, and the area with high summer fire would become wider and wider. Under the scenario of SRES A2a, the summer fire by the end of the 21st century would be doubled, as compared to that in 1961 — 1990, and the area with high summer fire would be across the region. In the characteristics of fire source, attributes of forest fuel, and fire weather conditions, the summer forest fire was different from the spring and autumn forest fire, and thus, the management of fire source and forest fuel load as well as the forest fire forecast ( mid-long term forecast in particular) in the region should be strengthened to control the summer forest fire.%采用Delta、WGEN降尺度方法和加拿大森林火险天气指标,分析了1966-2010年黑龙江大兴安岭林区夏季火灾变化特征,预估了2010-2099年夏季森林火险变化趋势,分析了夏季森林火灾与春、秋季森林火灾的差异,并提出了基于火环境的夏季森林火灾防控策

  18. Climate Change and European Union Member Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Margaux Tharin; Alina Gabriela Brezoi; Livia–Irina Olaru

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects us all both global and personal level. In recent years, we have seen an increase in extreme weather phenomena such as floods, droughts, tornadoes, increased shoreline erosion seas and oceans. The phenomenon of climate change that changed the globe is an irreversible process. Due to extreme weather events to human civilization began to be in danger.

  19. Organization of dangerous goods transportation on a tactical level

    OpenAIRE

    Бутько, Т.В.; ГОЙ, Т А

    2015-01-01

    The work is dedicated to the organization of dangerous goods transportation in a «technical station – ajacent area» subsystem that allows reducing the number of traffic accidents involving dangerous goods of various hazard classes. The applied approach based on fuzzy situational management, will formalize inaccurate knowledge of the management process.

  20. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  1. The generic danger and the idiosyncratic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    This contribution argues two main points. First, that generic landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these generic landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-scale, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.

  2. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  3. The dangers of the plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast breeder is a critical point in the energy discussion which is even more controversial than other points before: Will modern industrial society submit to the constraints of a plutonium economy or will it have the power and the courage required for the alternative of a more human technology. The fast breeder can produce tons and tons of plutonium, a new energy source; this is an argument frequently presented in view of the limited uranium reserves. At the same time, plutonium is one of the most dangerous poisons, and its radiation endangers lives even at amounts as small as one-millionth of one gramme. This means that technical and political safeguards must be intensified, which in turn will result in just the 'nuclear dictatorship' which is beginning to show up at the horizon already today. In this book, committed journalists and scientists present their arguments to show that the price to be paid for this kind of progress would be two high. (orig./HP)

  4. Are proton pump inhibitors really so dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Vincenzo; Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Edoardo

    2016-08-01

    For decades, millions of patients with acid-related disorders have had their acid inhibited effectively and safely first with H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and then with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). As with any pharmacological agent, PPIs have been reported to be associated with some adverse events, but several recent large-scale observational studies have evidenced new and serious abnormalities generally linked to their chronic use. However, these studies have often important limitations for their frequent retrospective design and other methodological drawbacks, such as selection biases of the analyzed populations and the presence of various confounding factors. Overall, although the conclusions of these pharmacovigilant investigations must be taken into account and can generate important hypotheses for future research, they do not have to create panic among patients and alarmism among physicians. On considering the weakness of these studies, we suggest physicians should not refrain from continuing to use PPIs, if these drugs are given for medical indications clearly established in the literature and, more importantly, they should not be induced to shift to H2RAs, a class of antisecretory agents that are much less effective than PPIs. A return to the past is potentially dangerous for the patients, taking into account the well-known success of PPIs in the wide spectrum of all acid-related conditions. PMID:27321544

  5. Minimizing Irreversible Impacts of Human-Made Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's measured energy imbalance and paleoclimate data, along with fundamental carbon cycle and energy cycle considerations, severely constrain future fossil fuel emissions, if disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature are to be averted. Although detectable climate effects already exist, it seems technically feasible to restore Earth's energy balance, without hard geo-engineering, before disastrous consequences are inevitable. The barriers to achievement of climate stabilization appear to be political, but I will argue that our biggest shortcomings have been a failure to communicate the full scientific and technical information that we possess.

  6. Burden of Injuries Avertable By a Basic Surgical Package in Low- and Middle-Income Regions: A Systematic Analysis From the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study

    OpenAIRE

    Higashi, Hideki; Barendregt, Jan J.; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Weiser, Thomas G; Bickler, Stephen W.; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background Injuries accounted for 11 % of the global burden of disease in 2010. This study aimed to quantify the burden of injury in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that could be averted if basic surgical services were made available and accessible to the entire population. Methods We examined all causes of injury from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. We split the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for these conditions between surgically “avertable” and “nonavertable” bur...

  7. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  8. Parrots and macaws: Species in extinction danger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to the privileged position of Colombia due to their position in the tropic, the influence of two oceans, their wide hydrographic net, variety of climates, etc; they make that Colombia occupies first places in biodiversity; but due to the indiscriminate pruning of primary forest, they make that this enormous biological potential is seriously threatened, where many of its birds are in extinction road

  9. The Liability of European States for Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Roger H J Cox

    2014-01-01

    According to climate science and the 195 signatory States to the UN Climate Convention, every emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributes to climate change. Furthermore, they hold that a two degree Celsius rise of Earth’s average temperature is to be considered as a dangerous climate change to mankind and all of the world’s ecosystems. Using the climate proceedings of Dutch citizens against the Dutch state as a starting point, the author of this case note explains why each European...

  10. The European climate under a 2 degrees C global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Vautard, R.; Gobiet, A.; S. Sobolowski; Kjellström, E.; Stegehuis, A.; Watkiss, P.; Mendlik, T.; Landgren, O.; Nikulin, G.; C. Teichmann; Jacob, D.

    2014-01-01

    A global warming of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change. The possible changes in regional climate under this target level of global warming have so far not been investigated in detail. Using an ensemble of 15 regional climate simulations downscaling six transient global climate simulations, we identify the respective time periods corresp...

  11. Evaluation of dangerousness of Greek mental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaki, S; Tsopelas, Ch; Ploumpidis, D; Douzenis, A; Tzavara, H; Skapinakis, P; Mavreas, V

    2013-01-01

    There is a diachronic interest on the evaluation of the risk of violence by mental patients.Difficulties that have been underlined concern the definition of the term dangerousness and the different methods of approaching it. Accurate risk assessments are particularly important for psychiatric patients, with history of violence, in indoor care. The accuracy of predictions can better determine the patients designated as "at risk" for violence and avoid false designations. The aim of this study was to investigate the probability of patients, from several psychiatric units, to become violent after their discharge and over the next three years. We also investigate the predictive validity and accuracy of the HCR-20 in relation to post-discharge outcomes. Two hundred ninety five (295) psychiatric patients, from several psychiatric units, were assessed with the HCR-20, PCL: SV and GAF scales at discharge (using case file data, interviews with the patients and the clinicians of the units, and also information from the collateral informants) and were monitored for violent episodes over the following three years. The study was conducted in two phases: 1st phase: During the last week before discharge. 2nd phase: Every six months, over the following three years. Both the HCR-20 and PCL: SV scales and their subscales are significant predictors of readmission, suicide attempts and violent behavior. The GAF scale had a low positive correlation with the HCR-20 scale. A number of other variables such as duration of hospitalization, previous violent acts, diagnosis, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, number of previous hospitalizations, were statistically related with failure of re-integration in the community. The results provide a strong evidence base that the HCR-20 is a good predictor of violent behavior in psychiatric patients, following their discharge from psychiatric wards in Greece, and hence can be used by clinicians in routine clinical practice. PMID:24185085

  12. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  13. Reinforcing a Dangerous Rock Mass Using the Flexible Network Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wendong; Xie Quanmin; Xia Yuanyou; Li Xinping

    2005-01-01

    Because the main failure type of a dangerous rock mass is collapse, the treatment of such a mass should focus on controlling collapse failure. When treating dangerous rock masses, disturbing the mass (e.g. by blasting) needs to be avoided, as this new damage could cause collapse. So the self-bearing capacity of the mountain mass must be used to treat the dangerous rock mass. This article is based on a practical example of the control of a dangerous rock mass at Banyan Mountain, Huangshi, Hubei Province. On the basis of an analysis of damage mechanism and the stability of the dangerous rock mass, a flexible network reinforcement method was designed to prevent the collapse of the rock mass. The deformations of section Ⅱw of the dangerous rock mass before and after the flexible network reinforcement were calculated using the two-dimensional finite element method. The results show that the maximum deformation reduced by 55 % after the application of the flexible network reinforcement, from 45.99 to 20.75 mm, which demonstrates that the flexible network method is effective, and can provide some scientific basis for the treatment of dangerous rock masses.

  14. Evaluation of non radiation dangerous in multipurpose reactor GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the potential non irradiation dangerous in RSG-GAS included of : the fire dangerous, the chemical hazard and gas dangerous have been performed to evaluate its potential on causing the accident and evaluate the performance of the equipment to protect the accident. Evaluate the performance of the equipment to protect to accident . Evaluate to the fire dangerous performed by identified the potential dangerous of fire at each rooms and evaluate the performance of each equipment included of dry powder fire extinguishing system, hydrant system, fire detectors and alarm system. Evaluation to the chemical hazard and gas dangerous performed by identified the number and it's the management of chemical hazard in the chemical storage and laboratory. The result of evaluation included of data of the fire dangerous potential class and the performance of its equipment in each room in RSG-GAS and the data of the number and the management system of the chemical hazard and gas in chemical storage and chemical laboratory. From this evaluation it is concluded that the equipment of fire system are available to protect against the accident and the chemical hazard and gas potential are relating small, and has been managed properly

  15. Modeling human-caused forest fire ignition for assessing forest fire danger in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have not been considered as a significant threat for mountain forests of the European Alpine Space so far. Climate change and its effects on nature, ecology, forest stand structure and composition, global changes according to demands of society and general trends in the provision of ecosystem services are potentially going to have a significant effect on fire ignition in the future. This makes the prediction of forest fire ignition essential for forest managers in order to establish an effective fire prevention system and to allocate fire fighting resources effectively, especially in alpine landscapes. This paper presents a modelling approach for predicting human-caused forest fire ignition by a range of socio-economic factors associated with an increasing forest fire danger in Austria. The relationship between touristic activities, infrastructure, agriculture and forestry and the spatial occurrence of forest fires have been studied over a 17-year period between 1993 and 2009 by means of logistic regression. 59 independent socio-economic variables have been analysed with different models and validated with heterogeneous subsets of forest fire records. The variables included in the final model indicate that railroad, forest road and hiking trail density together with agricultural and forestry developments may contribute significantly to fire danger. The final model explains 60.5% of the causes of the fire events in the validation set and allows a solid prediction. Maps showing the fire danger classification allow identifying the most vulnerable forest areas in Austria and are used to predict the fire danger classes on municipality level.

  16. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and technologica

  17. Paste and Future Trends of Forest Fire Danger in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    CAMIA Andrea; Amatulli, Giuseppe; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Forest fire danger is meant to rate the component of fire risk dependent on weather conditions. Fire danger indices, normally applied on a daily bases, can be summarized for each year to rate the seasonal severity (i.e. the fire potential due to weather) and its changes over time. The index of Seasonal Severity Rating (SSR) has been derived from daily values of Van Wagner¿s Fire Weather Index (FWI, Van Wagner 1987) the fire danger assessment method most widely applied all over the world (San ...

  18. How much climate change can be avoided by mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Warren M.; Knutti, Reto; Meehl, Gerald A.; Teng, Haiyan; Tebaldi, Claudia; Lawrence, David; Buja, Lawrence; Strand, Warren G.

    2009-04-01

    Avoiding the most serious climate change impacts will require informed policy decisions. This in turn will require information regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions required to stabilize climate in a state not too much warmer than today. A new low emission scenario is simulated in a global climate model to show how some of the impacts from climate change can be averted through mitigation. Compared to a non-intervention reference scenario, emission reductions of about 70% by 2100 are required to prevent roughly half the change in temperature and precipitation that would otherwise occur. By 2100, the resulting stabilized global climate would ensure preservation of considerable Arctic sea ice and permafrost areas. Future heat waves would be 55% less intense, and sea level rise from thermal expansion would be about 57% lower than if a non-mitigation scenario was followed.

  19. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  20. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  1. Artificial Immune Danger Theory Based Model for Network Security Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixian Sun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the principles of immune danger theory, a danger theory based model for network security risk assessment is presented in this paper. Firstly, the principle of the danger theory is introduced. And then, with the improved concepts and formal definitions of antigen, antibody, danger signal, and detection lymphocyte for network security risk assessment presented, the distributed architecture of the proposed model is described. Following that, the principle of network intrusion detection is expounded. Finally, the method of network security risk assessment is given. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed model can evaluate the network attack threats in real time. Thus, it provides an effective risk evaluation solution to network security.

  2. Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159631.html Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer More than half of victims are under ... at risk To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will ...

  3. Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 157736.html Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection Researchers believe the disease might dampen immune system, ... News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Diabetes Complications Staphylococcal Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  4. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  5. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  6. Danger Signals Activating the Immune Response after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hirsiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs play a crucial role in the initiation of the immune response. With popularization of the “danger theory,” numerous DAMPs and PAMPs and their corresponding pathogen-recognition receptors have been identified. In this paper, we highlight the role of the DAMPs high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1, interleukin-1α (IL-1α, and interleukin-33 (IL-33 as unique dual-function mediators as well as mitochondrial danger signals released upon cellular trauma and necrosis.

  7. Thermal instability and runaway criteria: the dangers of disregarding dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Two exemplary exothermic processes, synthesis of nitroglycerine in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and synthesis of the explosive RDX in a CSTR, are used to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the system dynamics when defining criteria for thermal criticality or runaway. Stability analyses are necessary to prescribe such criteria, and for these systems prove the presence of dangerous oscillatory thermal instability which cannot be detected using the steady state thermal balances.

  8. Perception of flood danger dependency on the site of living

    OpenAIRE

    Polic, M.; Brilly, M.; Tusak, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Slovenian contribution on FLOODAWARE is report about our recent research on inhabitants perception of flood danger and behavior concerning floods. Only a part of the data is presented here. We were interested how site of living (flooded vs. non-flooded) influences people's opinion. Therefore inhabitants from flooded and non-flooded parts of small Slovenian town Celje were questioned about the danger of floods and relevant behavior concerning prevention or mitigation of flood consequences....

  9. Danger signals activating the immune response after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Hirsiger; Hans-Peter Simmen; Werner, Clément M. L.; Wanner, Guido A; Daniel Rittirsch

    2012-01-01

    Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins) as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) play a crucial role in the initiation of the immun...

  10. Digital danger: the dark side of the net

    OpenAIRE

    Watling, Sue; Rogers, Jim

    2014-01-01

    On line there are no walls, no doors, no boundaries, nowhere to hide. How safe are you? This 40 minute workshop investigates danger and safety in online environments. Text messages, social media statuses, emails, photographs and video are all ways in which online abuse hurts its vulnerable victims, sometimes with fatal consequences. This session will invite participants to look at the nature and consequences of digital dangers and how to stay safe in online environments. We will explore sel...

  11. Geoethics in the Years of Living Dangerously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences lag behind the ecologic and atmospheric sciences in addressing the major scientific and societal ethical issues facing the inhabitants of planet Earth. Regardless, major emerging ethical issues at the interface of the earth system with society demand geoscientist engagement. These include climate change, extinction and biodiversity decline, transformation of terrestrial landscapes and related impacts on ocean ecosystems, and the consequential resonance of these changes on human health, economic and environmental justice, and political stability. The societal factors driving these issues derive from a world view founded on speciesism (human dominion), utilitarian use of resources, unquestioned population and economic growth, and human difficulty in perceiving deep time and large spatial scale. Accommodation of the supernatural, mythical, and political realms with science has led to widespread conflation of scientific consensus with opinion, driving denial of both climate change and evolution. Future success in rationally addressing these ethical conundrums requires geoscientist engagement across the social, political, economic, ethical, philosophical, and historical realms of inquiry. Geoscientists must be well-versed in earth system science principles and the major geologic concepts relevant to understanding anthropogenic change including deep time, the fossil record of evolution, and changes across multiple spatial and temporal scales that transcend human experience. They must also: 1) confront the global population issue, using the archaeological and historical record of its recent rapidly accelerated growth, especially as it impacts resource consumption and earth system function, 2) forcefully address the effects of agriculture on the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, disease, urbanization, and political instability, 3) apply the synthetic principles of conservation biology, including ecosystem science, geoecology, and major advances

  12. Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has highlighted risks associated with the use of climate engineering as a method of stabilizing global temperatures, including the possibility of rapid climate warming in the case of abrupt removal of engineered radiative forcing. In this study, we have used a simple climate model to estimate the likely range of temperature changes associated with implementation and removal of climate engineering. In the absence of climate engineering, maximum annual rates of warming ranged from 0.015 to 0.07 deg. C/year, depending on the model's climate sensitivity. Climate engineering resulted in much higher rates of warming, with the temperature change in the year following the removal of climate engineering ranging from 0.13 to 0.76 deg. C. High rates of temperature change were sustained for two decades following the removal of climate engineering; rates of change of 0.5 (0.3,0.1) deg. C/decade were exceeded over a 20 year period with 15% (75%, 100%) likelihood. Many ecosystems could be negatively affected by these rates of temperature change; our results suggest that climate engineering in the absence of deep emissions cuts could arguably constitute increased risk of dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system under the criteria laid out in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  13. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  14. Man and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is explain and balance the real dangers associated with the climate changes that may result from human activities, those which lack some scientific background, and the precaution and prudence needs which are claimed by human beings and society. The main parts of the report are: the scientific aspects of climate changes (inventory of present knowledge, assessment of uncertainties; what are greenhouse effect, which sectors of human activities are emitting greenhouse gases, what are the threats for our planet); the international negotiations on climate (their stakes and problematic since the start of the 90's, is a world consensus possible?); the room for maneuver on economical, social and technological levels in order to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions and allocate the application of solutions between States, enterprises and citizens

  15. The sounds of safety: Stress and danger in music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1 there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2 any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3 in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the

  16. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment. PMID:26300825

  17. The Economic Value of Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems

  18. EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF RADIONUCLIDE DETECTORS FOR CONDUCTING A MARITIME ON-BOARD SEARCH USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION IMPLEMENTED IN AVERT(regsign)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation implemented in AVERT(regsign). AVERT(regsign), short for the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risk of Terrorism, is personal computer based vulnerability assessment software developed by the ARES Corporation. The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The detectors, a RadPack and also a Personal Radiation Detector (PRD), were chosen from the class of Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS). Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS) serve multiple purposes. In the maritime environment, there is a need to detect, localize, characterize, and identify radiological/nuclear (RN) material or weapons. The RadPack is a commercially available broad-area search device used for gamma and also for neutron detection. The PRD is chiefly used as a personal radiation protection device. It is also used to detect contraband radionuclides and to localize radionuclide sources. Neither device has the capacity to characterize or identify radionuclides. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of both the RadPack and the PRD while being used under controlled conditions in a simulated maritime environment for detecting hidden RN contraband. The detection distance varies by the source strength and the shielding present. The characterization parameters of the source are not indicated in this report so the results summarized are relative. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicate the probability of detection of the RN source at certain distances from the detector which is a function of transverse speed and instrument sensitivity for the specified RN source

  19. Averting HIV infections in New York City: a modeling approach estimating the future impact of additional behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. METHODS: A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. RESULTS: Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted. An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average. The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.

  20. Market-oriented management method of coalmine accident hidden dangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-xia; LI Xing-dong; LU Ying; REN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the problems which exist currently in the accident hidden dangers management of the coal mine, this paper proposed a new kind of management method-"simulating the market", in which an operation pattern of simulating the market to transact hidden troubles was constructed. This method introduces "Market Mechanism"into safe management, and adopts measurable value to describe the hidden dangers such as" human behavior, technique, environment, equipments etc.". It regards the hidden dangers as "the goods produced by labor" which are found out by the safety managers and the security inspectors, then sells as "commodity". By the process of disposing, counterchecking, re-selling, and redisposing. It forms a set of market-oriented closed-form management pattern of coalmine accident hidden dangers. This kind of management method changes the past traditional methods in which the wageworkers treat safety management passively, but to encourage and restrict them to participate in the check-up and improvement of the hidden dangers.

  1. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  2. The return of the dangerous man. Reflections on the idea of dangerousness and its uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Kaluszynski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, the re-emergence of the notion of dangerousness in the process of law making has rendered it necessary to elaborate on the objectives of political actors. (Act on the Retention of Safety and the Declaration of Criminal Irresponsibility Due to Mental Disorder, 25 February 2008., Act of August 10, 2007 Strengthening the Fight Against Recidivism in Adults and Minors  The aim of this article is to analyse the social construction of this notion through the criminological discourse prevalent at the end of the XIXth century. The Third Republic was preoccupied with the question of recidivism, fearing degeneration and a declining birth rate, and was seduced by another notion emerging at this time: eugenism. Contemporary law making has reactivated a historical heritage based on extreme measures that have derived from these concepts. Based on a socio-historical approach, this article attempts to understand the mechanisms of governance in a republican society, as well as the influence of these mechanisms in the production of legal, political, moral and societal norms.

  3. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1978 (Statutory Instrument 1543, 25 October 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Rules supersede the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rule of 1965 as amended by the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules of 1968 and 1972. The Rules now define 'dangerous goods' by reference to goods classified as dangerous for carriage by sea as well as any other goods whose properties might be dangerous it they were carried by sea. This classification is based on that of the 1978 Report of the Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods of the Department of Trade, and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code published by the Intergovernmental Maritime consultative Organisation. (NEA)

  4. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt...... itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  5. Ordinance on the transport of dangerous goods by road (SDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Ordinance regulates the transport of dangerous goods by road and replaces a similar Ordinance of 1972. The dangerous goods are listed in Annex A and the special provisions to be complied with for their transport are contained in Annex B. Radioactive materials, categorized as Class IVb, are included in the goods covered by the Ordinance. The Ordinance which entered into force on 1 May 1985 was amended on 9 April 1987 on a minor point and on 27 November 1989 so as to provide for special training for drivers of vehicles carrying such goods. This latter amendment entered into force on 1 January 1990. (NEA)

  6. Parent awareness of the internet dangers on their children

    OpenAIRE

    Stopar, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with risks of the internet and with dangers that can occur when using the internet and modern technologies. The number of users increases every day, especially among children and teens who are the ones that are the most exposed to the various risk factors. The internet is no longer used on home computers only, but can also be accessed from anywhere by any child or teen who has a smart phone or a tablet. The thesis introduces quite a few dangers that we must pay atten...

  7. Averting a Disaster with Groundwater Depletion in India: The General Case of Water Management Principles and Development (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    Many countries, including the USA, China, and India are experiencing chronic groundwater depletion. In part this unsustainable water use results from climatic factors that reduce surface water availability and also the recharge to the aquifer system. However, a more critical factor is uncontrolled use for agriculture and energy and mineral processing. Interestingly in places such as India endowments have been politically created that lead to ever increasing use, through the provision of free energy for pumping. Reversing the situation is considered politically challenging, and the concept of metering and payment for what is essentially economic use of water is also considered difficult to apply. In this talk I use the Indian situation as a general example and discuss the role central planning strategies for demand and resource management can play recognizing the private action by millions of users as an inevitable tool that needs to be leveraged without necessarily the high transaction costs that come with monitoring and fee collection for monitored use. Specifically, targeting and stimulating potential cropping strategies and on farm water and energy management emerge as a choice in a difficult management environment. In a broader development context, I argue that the role of private sector aggregators in developing farm to market procurement strategies can play a role in both improving rural economies and providing a trajectory for more efficient water use through technology and crop choice.

  8. The Liability of European States for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger H J Cox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to climate science and the 195 signatory States to the UN Climate Convention, every emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributes to climate change. Furthermore, they hold that a two degree Celsius rise of Earth’s average temperature is to be considered as a dangerous climate change to mankind and all of the world’s ecosystems. Using the climate proceedings of Dutch citizens against the Dutch state as a starting point, the author of this case note explains why each European Member State’s contribution to dangerous climate change as a result of inadequate emission reduction policies constitutes a tort of negligence against its citizens and poses a real threat for its citizens’ effective enjoyment of human rights. The author argues that this makes individual European Nations severally liable for dangerous climate change and gives European citizens and non-governmental organisations the possibility to request their Nation State’s competent court to compel the Nation’s government to implement stricter emission reductions in accordance with what is deemed necessary to help avoid dangerous climate change and to protect their human rights.

  9. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  10. Climate Change and Health: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2016-05-01

    Climate change could have a devastating effect on human and environmental health. Potential effects of climate change on human health include higher rates of respiratory and heat-related illness, increased prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne diseases, food and water insecurity, and malnutrition. Persons who are elderly, sick, or poor are especially vulnerable to these potential consequences. Addressing climate change could have substantial benefits to human health. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that physicians and the broader health care community throughout the world engage in environmentally sustainable practices that reduce carbon emissions; support efforts to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change; and educate the public, their colleagues, their community, and lawmakers about the health risks posed by climate change. Tackling climate change is an opportunity to dramatically improve human health and avert dire environmental outcomes, and ACP believes that physicians can play a role in achieving this goal. PMID:27089232

  11. Using risk-based corrective action (RBCA) to assess (theoretical) cancer deaths averted compared to the (real) cost of environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decades of processing uranium ore for use in the government's nuclear weapons and energy programs resulted in the accumulation of contaminated mill tailings, a sand-like by-product of ore precessing, at 24 sites located primarily in the Western United States. The uranium mill tailings were allowed to accumulate, often in unstabilized and unprotected conditions. About 5,314 vicinity properties identified to date used these tailings for constructing foundations and walls of private and public buildings, and under streets and utility corridors. In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at 22 inactive sites. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, we have the opportunity to compare theoretical benefits (i.e., risk averted) to actual costs of remediation. Approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were estimated to have been prevented in the next 100 years by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project at a cost of $1.45 billion to the Federal Government. The most favorable cost benefits were associated with the high-risk sites. These included Salt Lake City, Grand Junction, and the vicinity properties, of which $0.2, $0.4, and $1.2 million were estimated to have been spent per cancer death averted over the next 100 years, respectively. The medium-, to low-risk sites were the least cost effective. For example, the Slick Rock site netted the least benefit for the cost with a projected $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted. The lower cost benefit is attributable to its remote, rural location and sparse population resulting in very few persons being exposed. Since resources required to sustain remediation activities are often subject to reduction over time, this subsequent evaluation using a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA) demonstrates how remediation

  12. The choice of locations for disposal of dangerous (radioactive) waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a managerial and psychological analysis, based on literature study and case analysis, is presented of various policy strategies which are or can be followed by governments in decisions about disposal of dangerous waste. Special attention is given to radioactive waste. (Auth.)

  13. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences. PMID:26987739

  14. Guide On Analysis Of Dangerous And Harmful Object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book lists the dangerous and harmful object, which are Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetone, Acrolein, Aldrin Ammonia, Arsenic, Asphalt, Barium, Benzene, Benzyl chloride, Butane, Butylamine, Butyl mercaptan, Cadmium, Cadmium chloride, Cadmium nitrate, Cadmium sulfate, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium chloride, Calcium cyanamide, Calcium oxide, Captan, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Catechol, Chlordane, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorine trifluoride and Chloroacetic acid.

  15. The Neglected Heart: The Emotional Dangers of Premature Sexual Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Discussions of teen sex usually focus on the dangers of pregnancy and disease but ignore the emotional hazards and destructive psychological consequences of temporary sexual relationships. Teenagers absorbed in a sexual relationship may turn inward at a time then they should be reaching out to others. (SLD)

  16. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  17. Danger-signaler og inflammasomer ved autoinflammatoriske og autoimmune sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inflammasomes are formed through activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system. Endogenous and exogenous danger signals, e.g. DNA- and RNA-fragments, urate- and cholesterol crystals, silica and asbestos, ß-amyloid, UV-light and skin irritants, may induce...

  18. Harnessing the biosphere to mitigate global climate change and sea level rise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smetacek, V.

    to the responsible media and educated public to separate the wheat from the chaff and, in the interests of future generations of humans, as also the plants and animals with which we share the planet, to take the steps necessary to avert impending calamity... that can be lethal for humans and animals. Forecasting the effect of cleaning the notorious ‘Asian brown haze’ on local temperatures and ultimately on the global climate machinery in the coming decades is a challenge facing climate modellers...

  19. Towards a model for forming psychological safety climate in construction project management

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Y.; Tuuli, MM; Xia, B.; Koh, TY; Rowlinson, SM

    2014-01-01

    The nature of construction projects and their delivery exposes participants to accidents and dangers. Safety climate serves as a frame of reference for employees to make sense of safety measures in the workplace and adapt their behaviors. Though safety climate research abounds, fewer efforts are made to investigate the formation of a safety climate. An effort to explore forming psychological safety climate, an operationalization of safety climate at the individual level, is an appropriate sta...

  20. Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Striessnig; Wolfgang Lutz; Patt, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future ...

  1. Paleoclimate Implications for Human-Made Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, James E; Sato, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    Paleoclimate data help us assess climate sensitivity and potential human-made climate effects. We conclude that Earth in the warmest interglacial periods of the past million years was less than 1{\\deg}C warmer than in the Holocene. Polar warmth in these interglacials and in the Pliocene does not imply that a substantial cushion remains between today's climate and dangerous warming, but rather that Earth is poised to experience strong amplifying polar feedbacks in response to moderate global w...

  2. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. PMID:23525177

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report)

  4. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  5. Toxic substances or dangerous presents in the construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work of investigation is the elaboration of a guide who serves as support and consults in the referring thing to the subject of the security in the construction, specifically in and area of the use and handling of materials and dangerous substances; Considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of but the common construction equipments represent for the health. The obtained data is a bibliographical review, the visits to public institutions and international offices with representation in our country, as well as a work of field and study of the national market, among others. In addition it made an important consultation through network Internet reviewing many sites of with the purpose of obtaining the data but updated interest possible, as well as the consultation to professionals and workers with the area of the construction. (Author)

  6. Advancing climate justice and the right to health through procedural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaux J

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have increasingly recognized the ways in which climate change threatens the human rights of people around the world, with a disproportionate burden on the rights of already vulnerable persons. At particular risk to these populations is the right to health, as well as to interconnected human rights. Yet, scholars have generally not provided a thorough assessment of precisely how human rights law can catalyze a response to climate change to effectively avert health harms. This article suggests that human rights law is better suited to guide procedural responses to climate change and its health harms than it is to guide substantive decision-making. This article describes the ways in which climate change implicates the right to health and then analyzes human rights law's response. While acknowledging the intrinsic value of human rights in prompting climate change action, the article focuses its analysis on human rights' instrumental value in this arena. PMID:25474612

  7. Geothermal heat. Potential, danger, efficiency; Erdwaerme. Potential, Gefahr, Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbuero Timmer Reichel GmbH, Haan (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the potential, danger and utilization of geothermal heat. Geothermal heat promises the solution of numerous energy problems. From the use of near-surface layers which substantially are affected by enviromental impacts such as solar radiation up to the depth use of the heat flow from the interior of the earth, there exist very different energy sources which are to be considered separately for each application.

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  9. Nuclear smuggling in Europe real dangers and enigmatic deceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, alarming news has accumulated on smuggled nuclear material, migrating experts, stolen bombs and new miracle substances that render obsolete all nonproliferation efforts. Together with a look at the economic difficulties, sinking living standards, and rising unemployment in the CIS countries, a pessimistic impression evolves of how to control the huge Russian nuclear complex and how to stem further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This paper tries to assess the dangers of nuclear smuggling and to discuss some possibilities for remedies

  10. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are accepta...

  11. A Protection plan of wildlife in a danger of extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don; Park, Yong Ha; Suh, Jung Soo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This report collected data on the present situation of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, insects, invertebrates, and 43 kinds of plants, which is in a danger of extinction, and their habitat, by the article 2 of 1998 Natural Environmental Conservation Act, as a part of 'Establishment of Biological diversity strategy'. This will utilize as a basic data for protection management to establish the recovery plan for each species. 358 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  13. Information on risks of irradiation and danger perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article studies the risk assessment in front of ionizing radiations and the informations got in media. If radiations are dangerous by themselves, the question of doses must be present in mind and there is no reasons to practice a policy of fear as generally seen in newspapers or magazines or T.V. shows. The units used in dosimetry are explained and the new standards of ICRP are given. 15 refs

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 242-A evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 242-A Evaporator (this document, DOE/RL-90-42)

  15. IAEA regulations: originality within general regulations for dangerous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks from transport of dangerous materials are briefly recalled. Safety of transport is improved by regulation aiming at the limitation of accident consequences. For radioactive material transport the safety is based on the packaging. Limitations of dose rate, labelling, type of packagings risk evaluation, transport operation, intervention in case of accidents are reviewed. A data bank is constituted and a research program is coordinated by the IAEA

  16. A dangerous joke: Colon perforation by an air compressor

    OpenAIRE

    HAZAR, Erkan; Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Coskun, Abuzer; Ozbay, Sedat; Okur, Osman Mahir; Ozkan, Ilham; Eren, Sevki Hakan; Kavalci, Cemil

    2015-01-01

    The most dangerous complication of air entry into rectum at a high volume and velocity in a short time are sigmoid colon rupture and pneumoperitoneum.We present a 28-year-old male was brought to emergency with abdominal nausea, vomiting, pain, and abdominal swelling for 4 hours. Based on physical examination and laboratory data the patient was taken to operating theatre for suspected acute appendicitis. On exploration an excessive amount of gas distention was observed in whole colon with caec...

  17. Organisation and methods for the transport of dangerous goods by road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews certain parts of Act No. 209 BGBL1 (1967) concerning the transport of dangerous goods by road. In particular, it sets out the dangerous goods, by class, covered by the Act and describes the labelling requirements. (NEA)

  18. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous...-HazMat@faa.gov . Please include your name, organization, email address, and indicate whether you...

  19. Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford CY 2002 dangerous waste generation and management forms. The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes. In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, electronic copies of the report are also transmitted to the regulatory agency

  20. Kidney sales and the analogy with dangerous employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear that kidney sales and dangerous jobs involve comparable risks on an appropriately broad comparison. Second, and more importantly, even if they do involve comparable risks it does not follow that kidney sales must be permitted because dangerous jobs are. The analogy assumes that kidney sales are banned for paternalistic reasons. But there may be other, non-paternalistic reasons for the ban. And paternalists, too, can consistently defend the ban even if kidney sales are no riskier than occupations that they find acceptable. Soft paternalists may want to protect would-be vendors from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen. Egalitarian hard paternalists may want to protect already badly off vendors from further worsening their situation. For neither species of paternalist is the size of the risk prevented decisive. I conclude that the analogy with dangerous jobs, while rhetorically powerful, pulls little real argumentative weight. Future debates on living kidney sales should therefore proceed without it. PMID:24370887

  1. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  2. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E

  3. Death-associated Protein Kinase Mediated Cell Death Modulated by Interaction with DANGER

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bingnan N.; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Saleem, Sofiyan; Patterson, Randen L.; Hester, Lynda; Doré, Sylvain; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2010-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a key player in multiple cell death signaling pathways. We report that DAPK is regulated by DANGER, a partial MAB-21-domain containing protein. DANGER binds directly to DAPK and inhibits DAPK catalytic activity. DANGER-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and neurons exhibit greater DAPK activity and increased sensitivity to cell death stimuli than do wild-type control cells. In addition, DANGER-deficient mice manifest more severe brain damage after ...

  4. USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative

  5. Taming the Climate Emergency: Geoengineering and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Oksanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shed some light into two questions with regard to te idea of climate emergency and dangerous climate change: Presuming that the negative effects of climate change can occur abruptly we want to investigate, in particular, whether there is any kind of rational basis to the conclusion that a state of climate emergency would require geoengineering implementations such as solar radiation management (SRM. Related to this, we will pose the question whether there can be exemptions from conventional morality justified by climate emergency for instance to use such largely untested geoengineering methods like SRM. We will take a look at SRM from an ethical point of view and analyze the concept of climate emergency and its policy relevance in order to assess the moral justification for the implementation of SRM.

  6. Transport and handling of dangerous goods. Training of persons in charge of vehicles or vessels carrying dangerous goods by road or by inland waterways (Dangerous Goods 1979 No.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order supplements the Regulations of 15 April 1945 on the transport of dangerous goods by rail, land and inland waterways. It deals with the training of persons in charge of vehicles or boats carrying dangerous goods by road or by inland waterways. It refers in particular to transport of radioactive materials. (NEA)

  7. Averting problems caused by solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is given of a report on Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) Recirculation Reliability Knowledge Base compiled by the International Working Group on ECCS Reliability for the OECD/NEA/CSNI. Four safety issues are identified which arise in the context of loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and are connected with materials and/or processes that interfere with the ECCS safety function in ways other than just strainer head loss generation. They are: the generation of missiles during a LOCA from encapsulated insulation materials used to reduce insulation debris production; clogging of BWR pressure suppression containment vent pipes by insulation jackets or metallic insulation foil pieces; strainer or sump debris ingestion and the effects of ingested debris on ECCS equipment and core cooling; miscellaneous items such as material aging and self-cleaning strainer concepts. The emphasis is mainly on BWRs but many of the considerations also apply to PWRs. (UK)

  8. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  9. The application of dangerous goods regulations to the transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some radioactive materials to be transported, including certain radioactive wastes, contain materials that qualify as dangerous goods as defined by the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (United Nations 1997). The regulations governing the transport of radioactive and dangerous goods in the UK are largely based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA 1990) and the UN Recommendations (United Nations 1993). Additional legislation will also apply including the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (Driver Training) Regulations 1996 (UK 1996). The IAEA Transport Regulations are clear that where radioactive materials have other dangerous properties the requirements of other relevant transport regulations for dangerous goods must also be met. They require that consignments are appropriately segregated from other dangerous goods, in accordance with relevant legislation, and that dangerous properties such as explosiveness, flammability etc. are taken into account in packing, labelling, marking, placarding, storage and transport. In practice, however, it requires a clear understanding of the relationship between the IAEA Transport Regulations and other dangerous goods legislation in order to avoid a number of problems in the approval of package design. This paper discusses the regulations applying to the transport of dangerous goods and explores practical problems associated with implementing them. It highlights a number of opportunities for developing the regulations, to make them easier to apply to radioactive materials that also have other potentially dangerous properties. (authors)

  10. Does the radioactivity represent a danger to our drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Already since the beginning of the sixties, the DVGW in its worksheet W 253, 'Drinking water supplies and radioactivity' (latest issue now of 1982), has pointed out to the waterworks the hazards to be considered when using less protected water resources for drinking water preparation. The worksheet's information takes into account experience obtaines from measurements in the period following the atmospheric weapons tests. These measurements, and the most recent ones and their results show that radioactive contamination of drinking water is not a real danger, and protective measures are effective enough to exclude any hazards to the population. (orig./HP)

  11. [Doctors and the benefits and dangers of social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseron, Serge

    2015-05-13

    Social networks have many different uses. Most young people use them for experimentation and innovation. Social networks help young people get familiar with the digital world, and develop themselves in interrelation with their peers. But social networks can also be used to avoid relationships in the real world, or to practice different forms of harassment. A specific danger lies in forgetting that a great number of people can have access to personal information posted online. Doctors should be particularly aware of this issue. PMID:26118232

  12. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the and lt;90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench

  13. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench

  14. Radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorsky, P. M.; Yakovleva, V. S.; Makarov, E. O.; Firstov, P. P.; Kondratyeva, A. G.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena has been proposed: the ratio of the measured flux density of β- and γ-radiations in the surface layer of the atmosphere. The time dependence analysis of the ratio of β- and γ-pulse count rate has been carried out. A significant increase of the γ/β ratio was recorded under the cyclone passing through Japan (Fukushima) to Kamchatka. The proposed γ/β tracer can be a very sensitive indicator of nonstationary processes related to hazardous natural and technogenic phenomena.

  15. Sensitivity and fire danger of mixtures for SPHTS under impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to results of investigation into sensitivity of mixtures self-propagating high-temperature synthesis to impact at different pin diameters and layer thicknesses with account of combustion. Mixtures on the basis of zirconium, titanium, magnesium, aluminium in stoichiometric proportion with different oxidizers (B, NiO, B2O3, TiO2, Cr2O3 etc) were studied. It is shown that forming combustion centers can be dangerous only under certain conditions. favourable for combustion propagation. Ignition places don't cause the combustion, if these conditions are not satisfied, for example, due to concentration limits or short duration of impact

  16. Daring to Fear: Optimizing the Encounter of Danger through Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Cristian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Through its would-be extrication from education, fear just gets forced into a less detectable and hence more efficacious modus operandi characteristic of anxiety and deep boredom. Since proscribing fear protects students not against the danger it foreshadows but against acknowledging the existence thereof, a conditional acceptance of it might empower them to manage their lives superlatively. Being only bureaucratically objective when conveying threats to their future, as schools do, is a limitation imposed upon a more responsible, deeper-level intersubjective involvement to which fear holds the key. Schools are best placed for attempting to restore the public management of ‘individual’ fears.

  17. Technological Dangers and the Potential of Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco

    positioning with regard to HRI. It is argued that the process itself is an artifact with moral significance, and consequently tantamount to discrimination. Furthermore, influenced by Heidegger’s warnings concerning technology, this chapter explores the possibilities of HRI with respect to the accompanying...... technological dangers and opportunities. Finally, aiming for the very limits of the theory, I discuss the contours of a praxis facilitating being-with-robots beyond conceptualization. Basically, this mode of being, pertaining to non-technological HRI, bypasses Heidegger’s warnings, and potentially facilitates a...... certain kind of self-realization for the human involved....

  18. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev;

    the manufacturer's or importer's responsibility to carry out an appropriate classification of the dangerous intrinsic properties (“self-classification”). In most cases, no test data (from animal testing, etc.) is available on their hazardous properties in relation to human health or the environment...... endpoint . This report describes the methodology and the models applied. Further updates of the advisory list are also under consideration. One relevant update would be to modify it to meet the criteria set out in the new CLP-regulation for the classification and labelling of chemicals. The list could also...

  19. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  20. Language issues, an underestimated danger in major hazard control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Language issues are problems with communication via speech, signs, gestures or their written equivalents. They may result from poor reading and writing skills, a mix of foreign languages and other circumstances. Language issues are not picked up as a safety risk on the shop floor by current safety management systems. These safety risks need to be identified, acknowledged, quantified and prioritised in order to allow risk reducing measures to be taken. This study investigates the nature of language issues related danger in literature, by experiment and by a survey among the Seveso II companies in the Netherlands. Based on human error frequencies, and on the contents of accident investigation reports, the risks associated with language issues were ranked. Accident investigation method causal factor categories were found not to be sufficiently representative for the type and magnitude of these risks. Readability of safety related documents used by the companies was investigated and found to be poor in many cases. Interviews among regulators and a survey among Seveso II companies were used to identify the gap between the language issue related dangers found in literature and current best practices. This study demonstrates by means of triangulation with different investigative methods that language issue related risks are indeed underestimated. A recommended coarse of action in order to arrive at appropriate measures is presented.

  1. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  2. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility

  3. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  4. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B section consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Volumes 2, 3 and 4 are composed of detailed maps

  5. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  6. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 222-S Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 222-S Laboratory Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-27). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation is current as of August 2000

  7. Stroke: a Hidden Danger of Margin Trading in Stock Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chien-Ho; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Using 10-year population data from 2000 through 2009 in Taiwan, this is the first paper to analyze the relationship between margin trading in stock markets and stroke hospitalizations. The results show that 3 and 6 days after an increase of margin trading in the Taiwan stock markets are associated with greater stoke hospitalizations. In general, a 1 % increase in total margin trading positions is associated with an increment of 2.5 in the total number of stroke hospitalizations, where the mean number of hospital admissions is 233 cases a day. We further examine the effects of margin trading by gender and age groups and find that the effects of margin trading are significant for males and those who are 45-74 years old only. In summary, buying stocks with money you do not have is quite risky, especially if the prices of those stocks fall past a certain level or if there is a sudden and severe drop in the stock market. There is also a hidden danger to one's health from margin trading. A person should be cautious before conducting margin trading, because while it can be quite profitable, danger always lurks just around the corner. PMID:26014381

  8. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  9. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  10. Dangerous and endangered youth: social structures and determinants of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as "youth violence" itself) attendant to race, class, sex, and other invidious distinctions. Structural violence "naturalizes" poverty, sickness, hunger, and premature death, erasing their social and political origins so that they are taken for granted and no one is held accountable except the poor themselves. Structural violence also refers to the ease with which humans are capable of reducing the socially vulnerable (even those from their own class and community) into expendable non-persons, thus allowing the licence--even the duty--to kill them. I exemplify this through two ethnographic critical case studies: the operation of a virulent death squad in Northeast Brazil that mobilized the support of ordinary people in an almost genocidal attack against Afro-Brazilian street kids and young "marginals"; and the uneasy truce with, and incomplete integration of "dangerous and endangered" youth still living in squatter camps and shack communities of urban South Africa. PMID:15817729

  11. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  12. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  13. Fair adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article identifies social justice dilemmas associated with the necessity to adapt to climate change, examines how they are currently addressed by the climate change regime, and proposes solutions to overcome prevailing gaps and ambiguities. We argue that the key justice dilemmas of adaptation include responsibility for climate change impacts, the level and burden sharing of assistance to vulnerable countries for adaptation, distribution of assistance between recipient countries and adaptation measures, and fair participation in planning and making decisions on adaptation. We demonstrate how the climate change regime largely omits responsibility but makes a general commitment to assistance. However, the regime has so far failed to operationalise assistance and has made only minor progress towards eliminating obstacles for fair participation. We propose the adoption of four principles for fair adaptation in the climate change regime. These include avoiding dangerous climate change, forward-looking responsibility, putting the most vulnerable first and equal participation of all. We argue that a safe maximum standard of 400-500 ppm of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and a carbon tax of $20-50 per carbon equivalent ton could provide the initial instruments for operationalising the principles. (author)

  14. Decree 2211: Standards to control the generation and handling of dangerous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree has for object to establish the conditions under which should be carried out the activities of generation and handling of dangerous waste, in order to prevent damages to health and to the atmosphere. It includes: definitions; a list of sources of waste; a list of constituent of dangerous waste; the characteristics of danger; a lists of maximum permissible concentrations in leachates, handling of dangerous waste, criterion for transport, monitoring form, storage areas, treatment and final disposition, storage, elimination, incineration, recycling, reuse and recovery, installation and operation of security backfilling, book of waste record, control of activities, obligations in charge of those who manage dangerous waste, and trans border movements of dangerous waste

  15. A Review of Studies of Danger Perception and Prospects of its Study in Clinical Psychology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veschikova M.I.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of studies of danger perception is to predict the behavior of a person, group, or society in terms of the potential hazard, to identify the main groups of factors that affect the risk assessment and sources of distortion of the evaluation. The review presents the sociological theories of danger, reveals the gender differences in the danger perception, and describes in details the individual factors of danger perception. We discuss the prospects of studying the outside world danger perception in clinical psychology of development. We emphasize that the key period for the development of danger assessment process is adolescence, because this is the age when most significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the cognitive sphere occur: the development of abstract logical thinking, increased interest to the life and death, the appearance of “personal myth”.

  16. Climate changes, biofuels and the sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is one of the most dangerous problems of the contemporary world. We can either adapt to the corresponding changes or try to reduce their impact by significantly reducing fossil fuel burning. A hydrogen-based economy using energy from biomass, solar, wind and other renewable sources and/or nuclear energy seems to be a viable alternative. Here we analyse the possibilities of the biofuels to replace fossil fuels and their potential to contribute to hydrogen economy. (author)

  17. Climate changes, biofuels and the sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidansek, Aleksander; Blinc, Robert [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeglic, Anton [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik [Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (RS); Slaus, Ivo [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-08-15

    Climate change is one of the most dangerous problems of the contemporary world. We can either adapt to the corresponding changes or try to reduce their impact by significantly reducing fossil fuel burning. A hydrogen-based economy using energy from biomass, solar, wind and other renewable sources and/or nuclear energy seems to be a viable alternative. Here we analyse the possibilities of the biofuels to replace fossil fuels and their potential to contribute to hydrogen economy. (author)

  18. Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Lissner, Tabea K.; Fischer, Erich M.; Wohland, Jan; Perrette, Mahé; Golly, Antonius; Rogelj, Joeri; Childers, Katelin; Schewe, Jacob; Frieler, Katja; Mengel, Matthias; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Robust appraisals of climate impacts at different levels of global-mean temperature increase are vital to guide assessments of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The 2015 Paris Agreement includes a two-headed temperature goal: "holding the increase in the global average

  19. Risk-informed security system for nuclear-dangerous objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prototype of the risk-informed security system is developed. This system is designed for use in system of physical protection of nuclear dangerous objects in order to reduce the influence of human factor. The program analyzes the events occurred from data obtained with the help of video surveillance system. During the work the program uses fault trees and event trees built. Event tree is used to determine the development of the event (with intermediate probability calculation) including complex interactions between elements of the security systems. Fault tree is used to construct logical and probabilistic models of cause-effect relations of system failures with failures of its elements and other events (effects)

  20. The health dangers of uranium mining and jurisdictional questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining and milling presents a danger to the health of workers from gamma radiation, radon and thoron daughters, uranium oxides, and dust. The public is threatened by radon products, short and long term tailings failures, radium, uranium, and other chemicals. Present dose limits to workers and the public exposed to radiation from all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle have been set by organizations with vested interests in the nuclear industry and are too high. Uranium workers have in the past been poorly monitored and protected against radiation and other occupational hazards. Uranium tailings disposal methods at present are not adequate; tailings will remain hazardous for tens of thousands of years and will probably require deep geologic disposal. The non-substitutable end uses of uranium are nuclear power and nuclear weapons production, both of which have entirely unacceptable health effects

  1. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Lindberg; M.J. Hartman

    1999-08-17

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters.

  2. Online System for Fire Danger Rating in Colorado

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Kochanski, A.; Mandel, J.

    Prague: Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2014 - (Kůrková, V.; Bajer, L.; Peška, L.; Vojtáš, R.; Holeňa, M.; Nehéz, M.), s. 93-98 ISBN 978-80-87136-19-5. [ITAT 2014. European Conference on Information Technologies - Applications and Theory /14./. Demänovská dolina (SK), 25.09.2014-29.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fire danger * fuel moisture * data assimilation * remote automated weather stations * real-time mesoscale analysis * software * nebezpečí požáru * vlhkost paliva * asimilace dat * vzdálené automatické meteostanice Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters

  4. Biological mothers may be dangerous blood donors for their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, C; Strauss, R G; Barrett, F; Goeken, N E; Pittner, B; Cordle, D

    1991-01-01

    Premature neonates require blood transfusions, and biological parents may wish to be directed donors. Biological mothers pose a potential danger because their plasma may contain antibodies that will react with blood cell antigens inherited by the infant from the father. We studied 25 healthy, pregnant women at the time of delivery for the presence of antibodies against red blood cell, leukocyte and platelet antigens. Mothers known to have red cell antibodies earlier in pregnancy were excluded, and no new red cell antibodies appeared at delivery. Antileukocyte and antiplatelet antibodies were found in 16 and 12% of mothers, respectively. Because these antibodies have the potential to cause adverse reactions when transfused passively, we suggest that either biological mothers not provide blood components containing plasma for their neonates or that maternal red cells and platelets be given as washed products. PMID:1853680

  5. [Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsamer, F

    2001-03-01

    A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

  6. Trends of the development in the transport of dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume the papers read at a colloquium of TUeV-Akademie Rheinland in Cologne in March 1982 are published. Every year some 1.500 accidents involving dangerous goods transports happen on federal German roads, railways and waterways. The goods may be petroleum products such as petrol, heating and diesel fuel, chemicals and acids, but also explosives and radioactive materials. 10% of accidents end up with a release of hazardous material. In spite of the high safety standard in the Federal Republic of Germany there remains a residual risk that must be kept as small as possible. But this must not lead to abandoning economic efficiency. Thus it is inevitable that safety rules are often a compromise between contradictory demands such as maximum safety and high profits. Careful analyses of accident statistics have made clear where the weak points influencing the course of an accident are. The proceedings of the meeting inform on these questions. (orig./HSCH)

  7. The Pott's puffy tumor: a dangerous sign for intracranial complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenci, Ibrahim; Unlü, Yaşar; Tucer, Bülent; Vural, Alperen

    2011-12-01

    The Pott's puffy tumor is a subperiosteal abscess of the frontal bone associated with osteomyelitis. The purpose of this article is to alert the physician to the severe complications of this entity. The records of six patients were reviewed retrospectively. There were four adults and two adolescents. Nasal endoscopy showed edematous, polypoid mucosa in middle meatus in three and nasal polyps in the rest. At initial admission, two had orbital subperiosteal abscess, but normal cranial CT findings. During hospitalization, three experienced frontal lobe abscess and one frontal cerebritis. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in all with external drainage of Pott's puffy tumor in addition to antibiotherapy. Three patients underwent craniotomy/craniectomy for removal of frontal lobe abscesses. One patient with frontal lobe abscess died. Pott's puffy tumor may result in potentially dangerous intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:21660452

  8. Possible danger in staff occupationally exposed to radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch Triantopoulou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The successful use of radiological equipment in Radiology and the undoubtful help in clinical diagnosis and patient treatment led to the increasing use of this type of equipment. In the old days, the X‐ray systems were only found in the Radiological departments of a hospital. In recent years, these machines are used by orthopedic surgeons, angiosurgeons, gastroenterologists in the surgery room, or by interventional radiologists and cardiologists in specialized departments. They are even moving between departments (mobile X‐ray systems for performing urgent radiographs in very ill patients. Apart radiological departments, the personnel is not trained or even informed about the ionizing radiation.The main purpose of this review paper was to : (1 analyze in detail ionizing radiation, (2 to determine the dangers during its use, (3 to note down the main radiation protection rules and 4 finally to provide practical tools for best radiation protection in such hospital departments.

  9. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  10. Reservoir Systems in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W.; Tung, C.; Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may cause more climate variability and further results in more frequent extreme hydrological events which may greatly influence reservoir¡¦s abilities to provide service, such as water supply and flood mitigation, and even danger reservoir¡¦s safety. Some local studies have identified that climate change may cause more flood in wet period and less flow in dry period in Taiwan. To mitigate climate change impacts, more reservoir space, i.e. less storage, may be required to store higher flood in wet periods, while more reservoir storage may be required to supply water for dry periods. The goals to strengthen adaptive capacity of water supply and flood mitigation are conflict under climate change. This study will focus on evaluating the impacts of climate change on reservoir systems. The evaluation procedure includes hydrological models, a reservoir water balance model, and a water supply system dynamics model. The hydrological models are used to simulate reservoir inflows under different climate conditions. Future climate scenarios are derived from several GCMs. Then, the reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir¡¦s storage and outflows according to the simulated inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. At last, those outflows are further input to the system dynamics model to assess whether the goal of water supply can still be met. To mitigate climate change impacts, the implementing adaptation strategies will be suggested with the principles of risk management. Besides, uncertainties of this study will also be analyzed. The Feitsui reservoir system in northern Taiwan is chosen as a case study.

  11. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  12. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for T Plant Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the T Plant Complex (this document, DOE/RL-95-36). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the T Plant Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the T Plant Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text

  13. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  14. Protocol for the Control of Emergencies with Dangerous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is required to serve as a guide for plant engineers, in charge of the security and industrial hygiene or those people that for its work, have relationship with the use, storage and distribution of chemical substances, which represent a diversity of risks as the toxicity, the inflammability and the risk of explosion. The information that the specific protocol contains is precise and a series of sections that summarize the general information of the substance are developed, like its use, the risk of explosion, the inflammability and the physical-chemical properties. Additionally, some sections are included like the answer mechanisms before the fire presence, the personnel's decontamination and of the equipment, the gathering of the waste and the procedures of first aids. The chemical substances that cause bigger quantity of events for dangerous materials in Costa Rica are the acids, the bases, the chlorine, the liquate petroleum gas (LPG), the ammonia and the agro-chemicals. Due to the intrinsic risk that it possesses these substances, a protocol to act efficiently in front of an emergency related with some of the substances are developed. Due to the increment in the incidence of events with dangerous materials in different population's sectors, for example spills in the roads, emergencies in industries and educational centers, a law with the purpose of stopping the use and the indiscriminate manipulation of these substances in non-capable locations is necessary. Additionally, it is necessary the upgrade in the equipment and in the containers that don't fulfill the minimum requirements of security, as well as to offer the maximum security to people that have contact with such chemical substances. (Author)

  15. Potential dangers of oxygen supplementation during facial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R J; Gonzalez, R; Johnson, P; Scolieri, M; Rekhopf, P G; Heckler, F

    1995-05-01

    The use of local anesthesia and intravenous sedation has made same-day outpatient surgery a viable option for many aesthetic and reconstructive procedures. These procedures often include the use of supplemental oxygen. Oxygen-enriched environments increase the combustibility of most materials, and "oxygen pooling" has been suspected to play an integral role in intraoperative fires. A personal experience with an intraoperative explosion and fire during a cosmetic blepharoplasty compelled us to explore the potential danger inherent in the use of supplemental oxygen as well as potential strategies to minimize that danger. This study systematically examines the microenvironment created by the use of oxygen both in the operative field and beneath the surgical drapes under conditions simulating routine facial surgery and various recommended modifications of its delivery. With the use of oxygen supplementation, oxygen concentration beneath the drapes was found to be consistently elevated when compared with ambient air (20.9 percent) and reached levels as high as 53.5 percent. Oxygen concentration in the operative environment was mildly but not significantly elevated. Although criteria for the use of oxygen supplementation are not clear, when administration is deemed necessary, the use of a posterior pharyngeal catheter for its delivery had no advantage over nasal prongs. However, appropriate alternatives include the use of "open face" draping techniques, the use of compressed air beneath the drapes as a substitute for oxygen supplementation in unsedated patients, and cessation of oxygen supplementation for 60 seconds prior to the use of a possible ignition source with oxygen flow rates of less than 3 liters per minute. PMID:7732145

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997

  17. [SOME ASPECTS OF NON-SPECIFIC PROPHYLAXIS AND THERAPY OF ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS INFECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippenko, A V; Omelchenko, N D; Ivanova, I A; Bespalova, I A; Doroshenko, E P; Galicheva, A L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due to spread of dangerous and especially dangerous infections much attention is given to development of complex approaches to their prophylaxis and therapy. Data on use of immune modulators, cytokines, probiotics, preparations of plant origin for non-specific prophylaxis of especially dangerous infections are analyzed in the review, and expediency of their combined use with specific and emergency prophlaxis of these diseases is evaluated. PMID:26829862

  18. The safety of Ignalina NPP and ecological danger in public opinion of inhabitants of Daugavpils region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inquest of Daugavpils' region pointed to a big anxiety for ecological danger of Ignalina NPP by inhabitants and experts. Absolute majority of respondents (73-78% inhabitants and 68-82% experts) apprehend the NPP as very dangerous and dangerous. More than half of respondents apprehend the dangerous increased during last two-three years. It is because no one has a good reference about situation, because tragic al Chernobyl NPP burst was on. The anxiety increases if the respondent lives nearer of NPP. Inhabitants of Daugavpils and it's region wants the better reference about situation, about future of Ignalina NPP after 2010 year, about securities means in case of NPP burst. (author)

  19. Distributed Danger Assessment Model for the Internet of Things Based on Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Run Chen; Jiliu Zhou; Caiming Liu

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) confronts complicated and changeful security threats. It harms IoT and brings IoT potential danger. However, the research achievements of the danger assessment technology for IoT are rare. To calculate the danger value of IoT with many dispersive sense nodes, the theoretical model of distributed danger assessment for IoT is explored in this paper. The principles and mechanisms of Artificial Immune System (AIS) are introduced into the proposed model. Data packets i...

  20. Fossil fuels and climate protection: the carbon logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing dangerous climate change will involve limiting both the rate and magnitude of climate change over the next century to levels that natural and human systems can tolerate without significant damage. This report shows the implications for overall fossil fuel use, in the form of a 'carbon budget', over the next century if the global community is to prevent dangerous climate change. It is demonstrated that it is only possible to burn a small fraction of the total oil, coal and gas that has already been discovered, if such dangerous changes are to be avoided. Even the reserves of fossil fuels that are considered economic to recover now, with no advances in technology, are far greater than the total allowable 'carbon budget'. This conclusion is shown to be robust to a wide range of assumptions about how sensitive the climate is to human interference, and the levels of change that might be considered unacceptable or dangerous. Comparison of the 'carbon budget' with projections of possible future energy sources nevertheless suggests that such a target is both technically and economically feasible. 17 figs., 23 tabs

  1. Fossil fuels and climate protection. The carbon logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing dangerous climate change will involve limiting both the rate and magnitude of climate change over the next century to levels that natural and human systems can tolerate without significant damage. This report shows the implications for overall fossil fuel use, in the form of a 'carbon budget', over the next century if the global community is to prevent dangerous climate change. It is demonstrated that it is only possible to burn a small fraction of the total oil, coal and gas that has already been discovered, if such dangerous changes are to be avoided. Even the reserves of fossil fuels that are considered economic to recover now, with no advances in technology, are far greater than the total allowable 'carbon budget'. This conclusion is shown to be robust to a wide range of assumptions about how sensitive the climate is to human interference, and the levels of change that might be considered unacceptable or dangerous. Comparison of the 'carbon budget' with projections of possible future energy sources nevertheless suggests that such a target is both technically and economically feasible.

  2. New Feed Sources Key to Ambitious Climate Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B.(Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America)

    2015-01-01

    Net carbon sinks capable of avoiding dangerous perturbation of the climate system and preventing ocean acidification have been identified, but they are likely to be limited by resource constraints. Land scarcity already creates tension between food security and bioenergy production, and this competition is likely to intensify as populations and the effects of climate change expand. Despite research into microalgae as a next-generation energy source, the land-sparing consequences of alternativ...

  3. New feed sources key to ambitious climate targets

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Brian J.; Rydzak, Felicjan; Palazzo, Amanda; Kraxner, Florian; Herrero, Mario; Schenk, Peer M.; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Peñuelas, Josep; Niederl-Schmidinger, Anneliese; Obersteiner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Net carbon sinks capable of avoiding dangerous perturbation of the climate system and preventing ocean acidification have been identified, but they are likely to be limited by resource constraints (Nature 463:747–756, 2010). Land scarcity already creates tension between food security and bioenergy production, and this competition is likely to intensify as populations and the effects of climate change expand. Despite research into microalgae as a next-generation energy source, the land-sparing...

  4. Interactions of Mean Climate Change and Climate Variability on Food Security Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alexander C.; McDermid, Sonali; Mavromatis, Theodoros; Hudson, Nicholas; Morales, Monica; Simmons, John; Prabodha, Agalawatte; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahuja, Laj R.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that climate change will affect agricultural systems both through mean changes and through shifts in climate variability and associated extreme events, we present preliminary analyses of climate impacts from a network of 1137 crop modeling sites contributed to the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP). At each site sensitivity tests were run according to a common protocol, which enables the fitting of crop model emulators across a range of carbon dioxide, temperature, and water (CTW) changes. C3MP can elucidate several aspects of these changes and quantify crop responses across a wide diversity of farming systems. Here we test the hypothesis that climate change and variability interact in three main ways. First, mean climate changes can affect yields across an entire time period. Second, extreme events (when they do occur) may be more sensitive to climate changes than a year with normal climate. Third, mean climate changes can alter the likelihood of climate extremes, leading to more frequent seasons with anomalies outside of the expected conditions for which management was designed. In this way, shifts in climate variability can result in an increase or reduction of mean yield, as extreme climate events tend to have lower yield than years with normal climate.C3MP maize simulations across 126 farms reveal a clear indication and quantification (as response functions) of mean climate impacts on mean yield and clearly show that mean climate changes will directly affect the variability of yield. Yield reductions from increased climate variability are not as clear as crop models tend to be less sensitive to dangers on the cool and wet extremes of climate variability, likely underestimating losses from water-logging, floods, and frosts.

  5. Thunderstorms as extreme climate event in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humankind has been exposed to climate extremes from the very beginning of its existence. Today, prevention and mitigation of natural catastrophes have become a priority for International Union and World Meteorological Organization. Atmospheric electrical discharges and thunders represent an event characteristic of our part of the world in the warm half of a year. This climate event pose a danger to human life and material goods, so this work discusses approximate number of days with thunder and the absolutely highest number of days with thunder in Serbia in the period from 1995 to 2005.

  6. Impacts of climate change in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main conclusion of the study on the title subject is that the impacts of climatic change in the Netherlands are still limited. However, the impacts will be stronger in the next decades and will be even problematic at the end of this century. In this book an overview is given of probable changes in the climate for the Netherlands, danger for flooding in specific areas of the Netherlands, changes of the nature, impacts for agriculture, tourism and recreation, and industry and businesses, and risks for public health

  7. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  8. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  9. Tropical forests and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyond protecting the climate, reducing tropical deforestation has the potential to eliminate many negative impacts that may compromise the ability of tropical countries to develop sustainably, including reduction in rainfall, loss of biodiversity, degraded human health from biomass burning pollution, and the unintentional loss of productive forests. Providing economic incentives for the maintenance of forest cover can help tropical countries avoid these negative impacts and meet development goals, while also complementing aggressive efforts to reduce fossil fuel emissions. Industrialized and developing countries urgently need to support the RED policy process and develop effective and equitable compensation schemes to help tropical countries protect their forests, reducing the risk of dangerous climate change and protecting the many other goods and services that these forests contribute to sustainable development. (authors)

  10. Climate change: Moving from scientific to institutional and policy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of how societies, through their policies and institutional arrangements, can most effectively respond to climate change, is discussed. Four characteristics contributing to the continued failure to resolve the issue are an enormous uncertainty in every part of the problem; the long time scale of effects, ensuring that a modest amount of discounting reduces the present day cost of any future environmental impact that is less than catastrophic to minor proportions; a belief that trying to avert climate change will be very expensive no matter how it is done; and the global nature of the issues calls for an unprecedented amount of international cooperation. Strategies to deal with climate change may be grouped into three categories: preventative, curative and adaptive. The preventative or adjustment strategy involves the restriction or reduction of activities that contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. Under this approach there would be no new fossil fuel plants constructed, and some existing plants might be closed. The curative strategy focuses on addressing the carbon dioxide concentrations being produced and concentrates on neutralizing them. The adaptive or adaptation strategy assumes that carbon dioxide concentrations will continue to build and that society will eventually develop means to cope with the climatic alteration. To assist policy makers, those conducting research need to devote more effort to examining the interrelationships among climate change and other societal concerns, the aspects of uncertainty and surprise, and the range of strategies. 21 refs

  11. Integrating economic analysis and the science of climate instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific understanding of climate change and climate instability has undergone a revolution in the past decade with the discovery of numerous past climate transitions so rapid, and so unlike the expectation of smooth climate changes, that they would have previously been unbelievable to the scientific community. Models commonly used by economists to assess the wisdom of adapting to human-induced climate change, rather than averting it, lack the ability to incorporate this new scientific knowledge. Here, we identify and explain the nature of recent scientific advances, and describe the key ways in which failure to reflect new knowledge in economic analysis skews the results of that analysis. This includes the understanding that economic optimization models reliant on convexity are inherently unable to determine an 'optimal' policy solution. It is incumbent on economists to understand and to incorporate the new science in their models, and on climatologists and other scientists to understand the basis of economic models so that they can assist in this essential effort. (author)

  12. Climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Previdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the sensitivity of Earth's climate to an imposed external forcing is one of the great challenges in science and a critical component of efforts to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Climate sensitivity (or equilibrium global surface warming to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 has long been estimated to be about 3 °C, considering only fast climate feedbacks associated with increases in water vapor, decreases in sea ice, and changes in clouds. However, evidence from Earth's history suggests that slower surface albedo feedbacks due to vegetation change and melting of Greenland and Antarctica can come into play on the timescales of interest to humans, which could increase the sensitivity to significantly higher values, as much as 6 °C. Even higher sensitivity may result as present-day land and ocean carbon sinks begin to lose their ability to sequester anthropogenic CO2 in the coming decades. The evolving view of climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene is therefore one in which a wider array of Earth system feedbacks are recognized as important. Since these feedbacks are overwhelmingly positive, the sensitivity is likely to be higher than has traditionally been assumed.

  13. Climate Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  14. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be caused by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate change can affect our health. It can lead to More heat-related illness ...

  15. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  16. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E [V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: Amber.J.Soja@nasa.go [National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), NASA Langley Research Center, Climate Sciences, 21 Langley Boulevard, Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  17. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  18. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  19. Development of dangerous geological processes in the Hankaisky Region of Primorskiy Krai (Russian Far East)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V. Selivanova

    2006-01-01

    Hankaisky Region is the most densely populated and economic developed part of the Primorskiy Krai. It is promoting development of dangerous geological processes there. In the article the reasons of formation and intensive development in Hankaisky Region of the following dangerous geological processes lateral, winder and ground erosive, sill, floods, taluses, bogging, slope wash, karts, rebound of ground are considered.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Kücük

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1 creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2 evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

  1. 9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. 105.3 Section 105.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. (a) If at any time...

  2. No. 610 Decision of the Ministry of Communications on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order on the transport of dangerous goods by road, is based on the Annexes of the European Agreement concerning the International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) which lay down technical requirements for radioactive materials (Class 7). The ADR came into force in Finland on 28 March 1979. (NEA)

  3. Ministerial Order of 22 August 1957 on the transport of dangerous materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order provides for the conditions of transport of dangerous materials by air. Materials regarded as dangerous to handle or transport by aircraft from a safety or health standpoint may possibly not be accepted, or only accepted under certain conditions. These materials include radioactive materials in Class IV(b). (NEA)

  4. 28 CFR 549.94 - Definition of “sexually dangerous to others.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âsexually dangerous to others.â 549.94 Section 549.94 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Civil Commitment of a Sexually Dangerous Person § 549.94 Definition...

  5. 28 CFR 549.91 - Definition of “sexually dangerous person.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âsexually dangerous person.â 549.91 Section 549.91 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Civil Commitment of a Sexually Dangerous Person § 549.91 Definition...

  6. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent...

  7. Dangerous materials for fire-brigades in action. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the point of view of fire-brigades, remarkable accidents and other problems related to dangerous materials are reported. In addition to the release of radioactive materials, the dangers involved in storing and transporting liquid gases and chemicals in the event of fires are described. Plans of action, equipment and possibilities of fire flighting are presented. (DG)

  8. Nuclear energy. Danger only in case of accidents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts of nuclear energy are highly underestimated. Nuclear weapons, atomic bomb tests, and nuclear accidents are considered a danger for the environment and a human cancer risk. However, childhood leukemia is consistently elevated near nuclear power plants and the Chernobyl accident entailed elevated human birth sex ratios across Europe. We studied the annual sex ratio near nuclear facilities in Germany, France, and Switzerland at the municipality level. We will demonstrate that low doses of ionizing radiation cause effects in human beings. This is shown by strongly consistent spatial-temporal shifts in the human sex ratio trends in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. In the chosen countries complete official data on over 70 million gender specific annual births at the municipality level are available. By Lambert-93 coordinates (France) and GK3 coordinates (Germany, Switzerland) we determined the minimum distances of municipalities from major nuclear facilities. Spatial-temporal trend analyses of the annual sex ratio depending on municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities were carried out. Applying ordinary linear logistic regression (jump or broken-stick functions) and non-linear logistic regression (Rayleigh functions) we demonstrate that the sex ratio at birth shows the influence of mutagenic ionizing radiation on human health. As important environmental chemical contaminants are also mutagenic, the usefulness of the sex ratio at birth as a genetic health indicator can be inferred by analogy.

  9. Searching for a dangerous host: randomized vs. deterministic

    CERN Document Server

    Nitto, Igor

    2007-01-01

    A Black Hole is an harmful host in a network that destroys incoming agents without leaving any trace of such event. The problem of locating the black hole in a network through a team of agent coordinated by a common protocol is usually referred in literature as the Black Hole Search problem (or BHS for brevity) and it is a consolidated research topic in the area of distributed algorithms. The aim of this paper is to extend the results for BHS by considering more general (and hence harder) classes of dangerous host. In particular we introduce rB-hole as a probabilistic generalization of the Black Hole, in which the destruction of an incoming agent is a purely random event happening with some fixed probability (like flipping a biased coin). The main result we present is that if we tolerate an arbitrarily small error probability in the result then the rB-hole Search problem, or RBS, is not harder than the usual BHS. We establish this result in two different communication model, specifically both in presence or a...

  10. A Contrarian Perspective on Altruism: The Dangers of First Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, David

    The key word in the title of this chapter - Altruism - generally conveys certain assumptions. The first of these is that altruism - a selfless imperative to assist others without expectation of reward - is likely to be a valued attribute among advanced technological civilizations. Moreover, in the SETI context, it implies that humanity should strive to display this attribute in communicating with extraterrestrial life forms that may be 1E8 to1E9 years ahead of us in development. Finally, one topic much under discussion within the SETI community - how to craft and send a deliberate message from Earth into space - is based on the supposition that we can dismiss any substantial likelihood that transmitting will expose humanity and our world to danger. Are all of these assumptions warranted? Or do they reflect the personal inclinations and wishes of a narrow group, arising from a particular culture and era? Given the potentially overwhelming implications of contact, we may be wise to reflect upon the full range of possible outcomes, not only those we yearn for. I, for one, would feel more confident in the inevitability of alien altruism if that beneficent trait appeared more often in nature.

  11. Nuclear energy. Danger only in case of accidents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina; Kusmierz, Ralf [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. of Computational Biology

    2014-07-01

    The environmental impacts of nuclear energy are highly underestimated. Nuclear weapons, atomic bomb tests, and nuclear accidents are considered a danger for the environment and a human cancer risk. However, childhood leukemia is consistently elevated near nuclear power plants and the Chernobyl accident entailed elevated human birth sex ratios across Europe. We studied the annual sex ratio near nuclear facilities in Germany, France, and Switzerland at the municipality level. We will demonstrate that low doses of ionizing radiation cause effects in human beings. This is shown by strongly consistent spatial-temporal shifts in the human sex ratio trends in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. In the chosen countries complete official data on over 70 million gender specific annual births at the municipality level are available. By Lambert-93 coordinates (France) and GK3 coordinates (Germany, Switzerland) we determined the minimum distances of municipalities from major nuclear facilities. Spatial-temporal trend analyses of the annual sex ratio depending on municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities were carried out. Applying ordinary linear logistic regression (jump or broken-stick functions) and non-linear logistic regression (Rayleigh functions) we demonstrate that the sex ratio at birth shows the influence of mutagenic ionizing radiation on human health. As important environmental chemical contaminants are also mutagenic, the usefulness of the sex ratio at birth as a genetic health indicator can be inferred by analogy.

  12. Are there dangers in biologic dose reduction strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher K Y; Holroyd, Christopher R; Mason, Alice; Zarroug, Jalaa; Edwards, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Biologic dose reduction strategies, for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have been assessed in multiple studies to assess outcomes compared to ongoing maintenance dosing. Whilst cessation in established disease usually leads to disease flare, dose tapering approaches for those achieving low disease activity often appear to be successful in the short term. However, tapering can be associated with a higher risk of losing disease control and rates of recapture of disease control using the original biologic dose vary between studies. Over relatively short periods of follow-up, a number of studies have shown no statistical difference in radiographic progression in patients tapering or discontinuing biologics. However, a Cochrane review found that radiographic and functional outcomes may be worse after TNF inhibitor discontinuation, and over long-term disease follow-up flares have been associated with radiographic progression and worse patient reported outcomes. To date, no studies of biological therapy dose reduction have specifically investigated the risk of increased immunogenicity or the effects on cardiovascular risk and other co-morbidities, although these remain important potential risks. In addition, whether there are greater dangers in certain dose reduction approaches such as a reduction in dose at the same frequency or a spacing of doses is not established. PMID:26970488

  13. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Dangerous Waste Training Plan (DWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) Dangerous Waste Training Plan (DWTP) applies to personnel who perform work at, or in support of WESF. The plan, along with the names of personnel, may be given to a regulatory agency inspector upon request. General workers, subcontractors, or visiting personnel who have not been trained in the management of dangerous wastes must be accompanied by an individual who meets the requirements of this training plan. Dangerous waste management includes handling, treatment, storage, and/or disposal of dangerous and/or mixed waste. Dangerous waste management units covered by this plan include: less-than-90-day accumulation area(s); pool cells 1-8 and 12 storage units; and process cells A-G storage units. This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the WESF permitted miscellaneous storage units and the Less-than-90-Day Accumulation Areas

  14. Managing Climate Change Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, PMB1 Aspendale, Victoria 3195 (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Issues of uncertainty, scale and delay between action and response mean that 'dangerous' climate change is best managed within a risk assessment framework that evolves as new information is gathered. Risk can be broadly defined as the combination of likelihood and consequence; the latter measured as vulnerability to greenhouse-induced climate change. The most robust way to assess climate change damages in a probabilistic framework is as the likelihood of critical threshold exceedance. Because vulnerability is dominated by local factors, global vulnerability is the aggregation of many local impacts being forced beyond their coping ranges. Several case studies, generic sea level rise and temperature, coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef and water supply in an Australian catchment, are used to show how local risk assessments can be assessed then expressed as a function of global warming. Impacts treated thus can be aggregated to assess global risks consistent with Article 2 of the UNFCCC. A 'proof of concept' example is then used to show how the stabilisation of greenhouse gases can constrain the likelihood of exceeding critical thresholds at both the both local and global scale. This analysis suggests that even if the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the benefits of avoiding climate damages can be estimated, the likelihood of being able to meet a cost-benefit target is limited by both physical and socio-economic uncertainties. In terms of managing climate change risks, adaptation will be most effective at reducing vulnerability likely to occur at low levels of warming. Successive efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases will reduce the likelihood of reaching levels of global warming from the top down, with the highest potential temperatures being avoided first, irrespective of contributing scientific uncertainties. This implies that the first cuts in emissions will always produce the largest economic benefits in terms of avoided

  15. Climate-carbon cycle feedbacks under stabilization: uncertainty and observational constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Chris D.; Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Avoiding ‘dangerous climate change’ by stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at a desired level requires reducing the rate of anthropogenic carbon emissions so that they are balanced by uptake of carbon by the natural terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycles. Previous calculations of profiles of emissions which lead to stabilized CO2 levels have assumed no impact of climate change on this natural carbon uptake. However, future climate change effects on the land carbon cycle are predict...

  16. A dangerous twist of the ‘T’ wave: A case of Wellens’ Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Balasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wellens’ syndrome is a condition in which electrocardiographic (ECG changes indicate critical proximal left anterior descending artery narrowing occurring during the chest pain-free period. Due to the severity of the obstruction, if such cases are managed by early invasive revascularisation therapy, a major threat in the form of a massive myocardial infarction or sudden death may be averted. We present the case of a patient with previous chest pain, whose ECG showing subtle ischemic changes was initially overlooked. A repeat ECG taken during the painless period showed a biphasic T wave, suggestive of Wellen’s’ syndrome. This was confirmed by an immediate coronary angiogram.

  17. Tuvalu is sinking : dance of a dangerous sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, K.

    2008-10-15

    Tuvalu is a group of islands located halfway between Hawaii and Australia. It is the fourth smallest and third least populated country in the world. This article discussed the impacts of climate change on this small country of islands. The article discussed the concerns of journalists, environmentalists, and Tuvalu government officials about the possibility that the islands would be extinct if human induced climate change continued. In a recent visit to Funafuti of the Tuvalu islands, the author noted coastal erosion, flooding problems and tide inundation, some of which may be attributed to human behaviour such as trench digging that disrupted the hydrology of the island. The article also discussed the problem of reduced freshwater runoff. Data was presented from the South Pacific sea level and climate monitoring project, which was set up by the Australian government in 1991 in response to concerns about the regional impact of global warming. Scientific instruments were installed in 14 countries, including Tuvalu, to measure sea level, wind speed and direction, air and water temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The article presented some of the observed data for Funafuti. 12 figs.

  18. Danger and Dignity: Immigrant Day Laborers and Occupational Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Jayesh M

    2016-01-01

    The plight of immigrant workers in the United States has captured significant scholarly attention in recent years. Despite the prevalence of discourses regarding this population, one set of issues has received relatively little attention: immigrant workers' exposure to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions, and their corresponding susceptibility to workplace injuries and illnesses. Researchers have consistently found that immigrant workers suffer disproportionately from occupational injuries and fatalities, even when controlling for industry and occupation. Why, then, are foreign-born workers at greater risk for workplace injuries and fatalities, when compared with their native-born counterparts? This Article seeks to develop answers to that question with the aid of empirical research and to build upon a growing interdisciplinary literature. This Article presents findings from a qualitative research study designed to explore the factors that shape occupational risks for immigrants. The study, conducted over several months in 2014, centered on in-depth interviews of eighty-four immigrant day laborers seeking employment in different parts of Northern Virginia. The workers' responses present a complex picture of the immigrant worker experience, reflecting persistent dangers alongside powerful expressions of worker dignity: while the Virginia day laborers continue to encounter significant occupational risks, many comfortably asserted their rights, complicating standard narratives of immigrant worker subordination and vulnerability. The results of the study also point to ongoing economic insecurities, and regulatory failures relating to the provision of training, use of protective equipment, and oversight of smaller worksites. The findings also signal the need for a more holistic approach to workplace regulation that concomitantly examines a range of workplace concerns, including wage violations, hostile work environments, and health and safety risks. Finally, the day

  19. Extreme jobs: the dangerous allure of the 70-hour workweek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann; Luce, Carolyn Buck

    2006-12-01

    Today's overachieving professionals labor longer, take on more responsibility, and earn more than the workaholics of yore. They hold what Hewlett and Luce call "extreme jobs", which entail workweeks of 60 or more hours and have at least five often characteristics-such as tight deadlines and lots of travel--culled from the authors' research on this work model. A project of the Hidden Brain Drain Task Force, a private-sector initiative, this research consists of two large surveys (one of high earners across various professions in the United States and the other of high-earning managers in large multinational corporations) that map the shape and scope of such jobs, as well as focus groups and in-depth interviews that get at extreme workers' attitudes and motivations. In this article, Hewlett and Luce consider their data in relation to increasing competitive pressures, vastly improved communication technology, cultural shifts, and other sweeping changes that have made high-stakes employment more prominent. What emerges is a complex picture of the all-consuming career-rewarding in many ways, but not without danger to individuals and to society. By and large, extreme professionals don't feel exploited; they feel exalted. A strong majority of them in the United States-66%-say they love their jobs, and in the global companies survey, this figure rises to 76%. The authors' research suggests, however, that women are at a disadvantage. Although they don't shirk the pressure or responsibility of extreme work, they are not matching the hours logged by their male colleagues. This constitutes a barrier for ambitious women, but it also means that employers face a real opportunity: They can find better ways to tap the talents of women who will commit to hard work and responsibility but cannot put in over-long days. PMID:17183793

  20. Staphylococcal Superantigens Spark Host-Mediated Danger Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry eKrakauer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB of Staphylococcus aureus, and related superantigenic toxins produced by myriad microbes, are potent stimulators of the immune system causing a variety of human diseases from transient food poisoning to lethal toxic shock. These protein toxins bind directly to specific V regions of T-cell receptors (TCR and major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II on antigen-presenting cells, resulting in hyperactivation of T lymphocytes and monocytes / macrophages. Activated host cells produce excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-2, interferon γ (IFNγ, and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 causing clinical symptoms of fever, hypotension, and shock. Because of superantigen-induced T cells skewed towards TH1 helper cells, and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines, superantigens can exacerbate autoimmune diseases. Upon TCR / MHC ligation, pathways induced by superantigens include the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and cytokine receptor signaling, resulting in activation of NFκB and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase / mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Various mouse models exist to study SEB-induced shock including those with potentiating agents, transgenic mice and an SEB-only model. However, therapeutics to treat toxic shock remain elusive as host response genes central to pathogenesis of superantigens have only been identified recently. Gene profiling of a murine model for SEB-induced shock reveals novel molecules upregulated in multiple organs not previously associated with SEB-induced responses. The pivotal genes include intracellular DNA / RNA sensors, apoptosis / DNA damage-related molecules, immunoproteasome components, as well as anti-viral and IFN-stimulated genes. The host-wide induction of these, and other, anti-microbial defense genes provide evidence that SEB elicits danger signals resulting in multi

  1. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is submitted to request an exemption for Trench 94 from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements. This exemption request is based on an evaluation which demonstrates that burial in Trench 94 of cathodically protected submarine reactor compartments (SRC), which contain lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as hazardous constituents, is as effective as disposal in a landfill having a liner/leachate system. This demonstration also considers the effectiveness of burial in Trench 94 in terms of preventing long-term migration of contaminants to groundwater or surface water. Modeling results indicate that release of contaminants to the groundwater or surface water will not occur until after long periods of time and that even after reaching the groundwater, contaminants will not be in excess of current regulatory limits, such as drinking water standards. Chapter 1.0 provides introductory information concerning this request, including the scope of the exemption request and relevant background information. The five subsequent chapters provide information needed to support the exemption request. Chapter 2.0 discusses the regulatory basis for the exemption request and presents performance objectives related to regulatory requirements. Chapter 3.0 provides a description of the site and its operation. Chapter 4.0 describes the wastes subject to this exemption request Chapter 5.0 discusses the performance of the disposal site with respect to performance objectives. Finally, Chapter 6.0 presents the actual request for exemption from requirements for a liner/leachate system. 30 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities. PMID:25425100

  3. Ecological safety during radiological accidents. Analysis and evaluation of emergency situations at radiologically dangerous objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of radiological accidents at dangerous objects is minimal when with the help of technical and organizational means it is guaranteed that indoor and outdoor radiation doses are not exceeded. Also, it is necessary to ensure that the quantity of radiological products in the environment doesn't exceed allowed levels both at a normal exploitation of an object and during an accident. In regions with high radiological loads it is necessary to pay enough attention to the safety of dangerous objects in the situations of accidents. An example given in the paper on how to deal with accidents is based on a situation in the Archangelsk region. Analysis was implemented at 23 radiologically dangerous objects. The results of the analysis allowed to determine objects that are dangerous in an ecological sense. Relying on that, methodology of evaluating the situation in the region was created. The main thing is that evaluation of an ecological situation is judged relying on an emergency situation at a radiologically dangerous object. The first step of the methodology preparation is identification of particularly dangerous objects, and modeling of radiological load on an investigated area. The second step of the work is to review the second stage of the methodology which would be dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of emergency situations at radiologically dangerous objects. (author)

  4. Danger Signs of Childhood Pneumonia: Caregiver Awareness and Care Seeking Behavior in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikenna K. Ndu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Efforts to reduce child mortality especially in Africa must as a necessity aim to decrease mortality due to pneumonia. To achieve this, preventive strategies such as expanding vaccination coverage are key. However once a child develops pneumonia prompt treatment which is essential to survival is dependent on mothers and caregiver recognition of the symptoms and danger signs of pneumonia. Methods. This community based cross-sectional study enrolled four hundred and sixty-six caregivers in Enugu state. It aimed to determine knowledge of caregivers about danger signs of pneumonia and the sociodemographic factors that influence knowledge and care seeking behaviour of caregivers. Results. There is poor knowledge of the aetiology and danger signs of pneumonia among caregivers. Higher maternal educational attainment and residence in semiurban area were significantly associated with knowledge of aetiology, danger signs, and vaccination of their children against pneumonia. Fast breathing and difficulty in breathing were the commonest known and experienced WHO recognized danger signs while fever was the commonest perceived danger sign among caregivers. Conclusion. Knowledge of danger signs and health seeking behaviour among caregivers is inadequate. There is need for intensified public and hospital based interventions targeted at mothers to improve their knowledge about pneumonia.

  5. Impacts of climate extremes on activity sectors stakeholders' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Schwarb, M.; Stjernquist, I.; Schlyter, P.; Szwed, M.; Palutikof, J.

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in the climatic system have been observed, which may be attributed to human-enhanced greenhouse effect. Even stronger changes are projected for the future, impacting in an increasing way on human activity sectors. The present contribution, prepared in the framework of the MICE (Modelling the Impact of Climate Extremes) Project of the European Union, reviews how climate change may impact on winter tourism in the Alpine region, intense precipitation and flood potential in central Europe, forest damage in Scandinavia and beach holidays in the Mediterranean coast. Impacts are likely to be serious and largely adverse. Due to a lack of adequate information and lack of broadly accepted and reliable mathematical models describing the impact of changes in climate extremes on these activity sectors, it has been found useful to use expert judgement based impact assessment. Accordingly, regional mini-workshops were organized serving as platforms for communication between scientists and stakeholders, vehicles for dissemination of the state-of-the-art of the scientific understanding and for learning stakeholders’ view on extreme events, their impacts and the preparedness system. Stakeholders had the opportunity to react to the scientific results and to reflect on their perception of the likely impacts of projected changes in extremes on relevant activity sectors and the potential to adapt and avert adverse consequences. The results reported in this paper present the stakeholders’ suggestions for essential information on different extreme event impacts and their needs from science.

  6. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization

  7. Danger zone in mandibular molars before instrumentation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Filho, Paulo Ferreira; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Carmo, Antônio Márcio Rezende do

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the danger zone in mandibular molars, relating to strip perforations that might affect the mesial root during canal instrumentation. One hundred mesial roots were sectioned 2mm below the furcation and the distal concavities were measured with a microscope from the border of the canals to the outer dentin of the root. The average thickness of the danger zone of the mesial roots was 0.789 +/- 0.182mm. No significant statistical differences were observed comparing the danger zone of mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. PMID:21394408

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  9. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined and...... evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change and...... illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  10. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on contributions on 120 French and foreign scientists representing different disciplines (mathematics, physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and so on), this report proposes an overview of the scientific knowledge and debate about climate change. It discusses the various indicators of climate evolution (temperatures, ice surfaces, sea level, biological indicators) and the various factors which may contribute to climate evolution (greenhouse gases, solar radiation). It also comments climate evolutions in the past as they can be investigated through some geological, thermal or geochemical indicators. Then, the authors describe and discuss the various climate mechanisms: solar activity, oceans, ice caps, greenhouse gases. In a third part, the authors discuss the different types of climate models which differ by the way they describe processes, and the current validation process for these models

  11. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  12. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  13. Identification of dangerous fibers: some examples in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Giovanna; Marini, Paola; Giorgis, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    , 2007; Addison and McConnel, 2007) may show inhalable elements with width less than 3 micron, length more than 5 micron and width length ratio 1:3, whose dangerousness (fiber coming from fibrous tremolite or the cleavage fragments coming from prismatic tremolite) could be different and it is object of epidemiologic studies.

  14. Reducing dangerous waste by applying low-waste technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mijanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Growing level of automatism, information technologies and other technological achievements on the one hand and unadjusted production companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the other, impose a need for new knowledge from the aspect of adaptability and increasing eco-efficiency of production systems. Engineers face the problems of growing trends of change in the area of technology, organization, decision making process and management of production systems. Changes cause searching for new solutions, and solutions demand innovative action in changed conditions. New and innovated technologies, also wide appliance of recycle procedures of waste materials and their further use, will lead to appliance of new production principle “production-consumer-waste-recycle-entrance”, which demands a need for new knowledge connected with relationship between production system and environment. For production systems, strategy of Cleaner Production is primarily applied to reducing pressure during whole cycle of production and services, from design and use to the final disposal.Design/methodology/approach: This work will show how dangerous and toxic waste can be controlled and reduced by using principles of “Cleaner Production”, as well as how that task will be transferred to the lower level of managers, who should predict, plan, manage and control the market. Using control of quantity and quality of raw materials, parameters of workability and reduction of waste risk materials can be influenced. The factory producing tools planned and carried out an experiment with the purpose of substitution of the mineral oils for cutting. That experiment has been carried out by the mathematic apparatus „Box-Wilson” with the usage of two-factor plan of the experiment.Findings: Experiment showed that it is possible to use synthetic oils for cutting in certain intervals of work. Synthetic oils are biodegradable thus they have lesser pressure to the environment

  15. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  17. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  18. Highly enriched uranium, a dangerous substance that should be eliminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium is needed to construct a nuclear weapon. While plutonium is radioactive and hazardous in handling, HEU is far less dangerous. Furthermore, it is more difficult to detect by technical means. Therefore, in comparison to plutonium, HEU is much easier to divert, smuggle and hide. Moreover, a crude nuclear explosive made of HEU can be constructed in a much simpler way than one made using plutonium. For these reasons, HEU is the material most wanted by terrorists. A few tens of kilograms are sufficient for one explosive, but the quantities existing in the world add up to hundreds of tons. Due to the disarmament at the end of the Cold War, the NPT nuclear weapon states possess large quantities of HEU in excess of their needs for nuclear weapons. Therefore, these countries have not produced HEU for many years. Several international projects are working towards reducing the proliferation risks posed by HEU. The projects include the reduction of existing HEU by converting it to civilian reactor fuel that cannot be easily used for nuclear weapons. Other projects work towards reducing the number of countries and sites where HEU is stored by transferring it back to the countries of origin. And there are yet other projects which seek to minimize uses which would require new production of HEU. An international non-proliferation goal should be to eliminate all uses of HEU and thus to eliminate the need for any future production. Uses of HEU other than for nuclear weapons are as fuel in civilian research reactors, as base material for the production of special isotopes used in medical diagnostics, so-called medical targets and as fuel in military naval reactors. It is desirable to replace the HEU in all these applications with other materials and thus cease all HEU production forever. Use as fuel in civilian reactors has been greatly reduced during the last few decades. Within an international campaign, the Reduced Enrichment for

  19. Public Views on Climate Change. European and USA Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If uncontrolled, human influences on the climate system may generate changes that will endanger various aspects of life on Earth. The precise implications of the scientific claims about climate change, and the extent to which they pose dangers to various populations, are becoming intensely debated at many levels in relation to policy. How 'danger' is interpreted will ultimately affect which actions are taken. In this paper, we examine how climate change is conceptualised by publics in Europe and in the USA. Although there is widespread concern about climate change, it is of secondary importance in comparison to other issues in people's daily lives. Most individuals relate to climate change through personal experience, knowledge, the balance of benefits and costs, and trust in other societal actors. We analyse these factors through findings from various surveys and studies, which highlight both the distinctiveness and some shared perspectives at a generalised level. We reflect upon these in relation to trust and responsibility for climate change action, and risk communication, supporting the call for discourses about climate change to also be situated in people's locality, as a means of increasing its saliency

  20. Businesses Should Be Mindful of Zika Danger to Workers, CDC Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158458.html Businesses Should Be Mindful of Zika Danger to Workers, CDC ... a news release. As for travel protocols, "employers should consider allowing flexibility in required travel to areas ...

  1. Burns Interagency Fire Zone : Fire Danger Operating and Preparedness Plan 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fire Danger Operating and Preparedness Plan for the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. This plan provides a method to calculate the preparedness and dispatch...

  2. A Danger Theory Based Mobile Virus Detection Model and Its Application in Inhibiting Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Lu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the propagation and destruction characteristics of mobile phone viruses, a virus detection model based on the Danger Theory is proposed. This model includes four phases: danger capture, antigen presentation, antibody generation and antibody distribution. In this model, local knowledge of mobile phones is exploited by the agents that are running in mobile phones to discover danger caused by viruses. The Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs present the antigen from mobile phones in the danger zone, and the Decision Center confirms the infection of viruses. After the antibody is generated by self-tolerating using the negative selection algorithm, the Decision Center distributes the antibody to mobile phones. Due to the distributed and cooperative mechanism of artificial immune system, the proposed model lowers the storage and computing consumption of mobile phones. The simulation results show that based on the mobile phone virus detection model, the proposed virus immunization strategy can effectively inhibit the propagation of mobile phone viruses.

  3. Danger Zones and Restricted Areas in the United States as of July 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the location of Danger Zones and Restricted Areas within coastal and marine waters, as outlined by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and...

  4. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  5. Distinct neural circuits underlie assessment of a diversity of natural dangers by American crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna J; Marzluff, John M; Palmquist, Ila; Minoshima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Toru; Miyaoka, Robert

    2013-08-22

    Social animals encountering natural dangers face decisions such as whether to freeze, flee or harass the threat. The American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos, conspicuously mobs dangers. We used positron emission tomography to test the hypothesis that distinct neuronal substrates underlie the crow's consistent behavioural response to different dangers. We found that crows activated brain regions associated with attention and arousal (nucleus isthmo-opticus/locus coeruleus), and with motor response (arcopallium), as they fixed their gaze on a threat. However, despite this consistent behavioural and neural response, the sight of a person who previously captured the crow, a person holding a dead crow and a taxidermy-mounted hawk activated distinct forebrain regions (amygdala, hippocampus and portion of the caudal nidopallium, respectively). We suggest that aspects of mobbing behaviour are guided by unique neural circuits that respond to differences in mental processing-learning, memory formation and multisensory discrimination-required to appropriately nuance a risky behaviour to specific dangers. PMID:23825209

  6. Poor Vision and Dangerous Falls Plague Many U.S. Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158679.html Poor Vision and Dangerous Falls Plague Many U.S. Seniors Year- ... HealthDay News) -- Millions of American seniors have severe vision impairment, and with it comes the risk of ...

  7. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other... or upon any facility, installation or real property subject to this part, is prohibited....

  8. 77 FR 25952 - Oregon Army National Guard, Camp Rilea, Clatsop County, OR; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... boundaries of the Camp. If a vessel is detected in the danger zone, a cease fire will be called on all active weapons ranges and Camp Rilea will attempt to contact the vessel using marine VHF radio. Cease fire...

  9. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  10. Cosmic rays and other space phenomena dangerous for the Earth's civilization: Foundation of cosmic ray warning system and beginning steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    This report is an example how fundamental research in Cosmic Ray (CR) Astrophysics and Geophysics can be applied to very important modern practical problem: monitoring by CR space weather and prediction by using on-line CR data space phenomena dangerous for satellites electronics and astronauts health in the space, for crew and passengers health on commercial jets in atmosphere (altitude about 10 km and higher), and in some rare cases for technology and people health on the ground, prediction on the role of CR and other space weather factors in climate change and influence on agriculture production. It is well known that in periods of great SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) events, the fluxes can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be destroyed, satellites and spaceships became dead (each year Insurance Companies paid billions dollars for these failures (if will be event as February 23, 1956, will be destroyed about all satellites in few hours, the price of this will be more than 10-20 billion dollars, will be total destroying satellite communications and a rose a lot of other problems). In periods of great SEP events is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for short time to protect computer memories. These periods are also dangerous for astronauts on space-ships, and International Space Station (ISS), passengers and crew in commercial jets (especially during S5-S7 radiation storms). The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecast can be made by using high-energy particles (about 2-10 GeV/nucleon and higher) which transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coefficient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore high energy particles came from the Sun much more early (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into solar wind) than main part of smaller energy particles caused dangerous situation for electronics and people health (about 60

  11. Evaluation of Forest Fire Danger Indexes for Eucalypt Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Alves Secundo White; Benjamin Leonardo Alves White; Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    A Forest Fire Danger Index is a valuable tool in forest fire prevention and firefight because it grades fire occurrence possibility on a daily basis. Six Fire Danger Indexes were tested for accuracy based on forest fire occurrence in eucalyptus plantations of the north coast of Bahia, Brazil. They are Angstron, Nesterov, Telicyn Logarithmic Index, Monte Alegre, Rodríguez and Moretti, and Modified Monte Alegre. The results were analyzed using two parameters of the Heidke Skill Score test: Skil...

  12. Perception of dangers related to privacy on the web and social networks by Spanish university students

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Herrero Gutiérrez; Hilario José Romero Bejarano

    2015-01-01

    This article collects data from an experiment conducted with a group of students from the University of Salamanca. The aims are focused on inquiring about several variables relating to information posted on social networks, the potential vulnerability of users and the degree of awareness of potential dangers. From an experiment where participants are involved, the results and conclusions lead to reject the hypothesis, because of the increasing assumption of the social networks´ dangers by use...

  13. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to danger posed by aerial predators by modifying their behavior to mitigate danger. We observed Tufted Puffins making repeated colony fly-ins and departures and characterized (1) the timing of this behav...

  14. TRACKING AND TRACING SOLUTION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS CARRIED BY INTERMODAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kvet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of designing a complex tracking and tracing solution for dangerous goods transportation with the support of modern information technologies. This research activity presents a part of the “ChemLogTT” [2] project solved at the University of Žilina. The main goal of our contribution is to present basic conception of a complex developed software tool for monitoring and analyzing mentioned dangerous goods transportation.

  15. The Relation of Perceived Neighborhood Danger to Childhood Aggression: A Test of Mediating Mechanisms1

    OpenAIRE

    Colder, Craig R.; Mott, Joshua; Levy, Susan; Flay, Brian

    2000-01-01

    In the current study, two mediational mechanisms, parenting practices and children’s beliefs about aggression, were hypothesized to account for the relationship between perceived neighborhood danger and childhood aggression. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed from an inner-city school-based sample of 732 predominantly African American 5th graders. Results suggested that perceived neighborhood danger was associated with strong positive beliefs about aggression, which in tur...

  16. GREY CLASSIFICATION FOR EVALUATING THE STABILITY OF DANGEROUS ROCK-BLOCK MASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a grey classification method for evaluating the stability of dangerous rockblock masses according to the Grey System Theory. This method is applied to the stability of the V# dangerous rockblock masses of Qingjiang water conservancy project, and better results are abtained. The method which is advanced in the article is very single and practical, and it can meet all kinds of project′s demands.

  17. Climate Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Space, William

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections exist between climate science and topics normally covered in physics and physical science courses. For instance, lessons on heat and light can be used to introduce basic climate science, and the study of electric circuits provides a context for studying the relationship between electricity consumption and carbon pollution. To…

  18. Climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, V.; Dellink, R.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Clapp, C.; Chateau, J.; Magné, B.; Lanzi, E.; Vliet, J. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter analyses the policy implications of the climate change challenge. Are current emission reduction pledges made in Copenhagen/Cancun enough to stabilise the climate and limit global average temperature increase to 2 oC? If not, what will the consequences be? What alternative growth pathwa

  19. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  20. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  1. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  2. Stopping Accidents before They Happen: Perceiving Lane-Level Moving Vehicle Danger Regions to Warn Surrounding Drivers and Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving the location of dangerous moving vehicles and broadcasting this information to vehicles nearby are essential to achieve active safety in the Internet of Vehicles (IOV. To address this issue, we implement a real-time high-precision lane-level danger region service for moving vehicles. A traditional service depends on static geofencing and fails to deal with dynamic vehicles. To overcome this defect, we devised a new type of IOV service that manages to track dangerous moving vehicles in real time and recognize their danger regions quickly and accurately. Next, we designed algorithms to distinguish the vehicles in danger regions and broadcast the information to these vehicles. Our system can simultaneously manipulate a mass of danger regions for various dangerous vehicles and broadcast this information to surrounding vehicles at a large scale. This new system was tested in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and other cities; the data analysis is presented in this paper as well.

  3. Climate change and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate issue is a great political and scientific challenge for several reasons: (1) There are many uncertain aspects of the climate problem, such as future emission of climate gases, the response of the climate system upon these gases, and the effects of climate changes. (2) It is probable, however, that anthropogenic emission of climate gases, deforestation etc. will cause noticeable climate changes in the future. This might be observed as increased frequency of extreme weather situations. This appears to be a greater threat than a gradual increase of temperature and precipitation. (3) Since the climate system is large and react only relatively slowly on changes in for instance the emission of climate gases, the climate problem can only be solved by means of long-term measures. (4) The climate changes may be irreversible. A rational short-term strategy is to ensure maximum flexibility, which can be done by ''slowing down'' (curtailing emissions) and by avoiding irreversible actions as much as possible. The long-term challenge is to develop an economically responsible alternative to the present fossil-based energy system that permits carbon-efficient technologies to compete on price with coal and unconventional oil and gas. Norway is in a special position by being a large exporter of fossil fuel and at the same time wanting to appear responsible in environmental matters. This combination may incur considerable expenses upon Norway and it is therefore important that environmental commitments like the Kyoto agreement can be honoured to the lowest possible cost. The costs can be minimized by: (1) minimizing the measure costs in Norway, (2) working to make the international quota price as low as possible, and (3) reducing the loss of petroleum income as much as possible. This report describes the earth's climate history, the forces behind climatic changes and what the prospects for the future look like. It also reviews what is being done to curtail the emission of

  4. From climate assessment to climate services

    OpenAIRE

    Visbeck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change has convinced the public that climate change is real. To tackle it, the panel needs complementary climate services that provide continuous climate information for all regions and the globe.

  5. Climate change and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  6. Climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book proposes both a scientific and societal approach of a phenomenon which is today the object of lot of debates. Climates perception is illustrated with examples taken in various modern civilizations and in the history of mankind. The Sahara example illustrates the notion of climate evolution. The last chapters are devoted to forecasting and scenarios for the future, taking into account the share of uncertainty. The controversies generated by these forecasts and the Kyoto protocol stakes demonstrate the tight links between the scientific, economical and political aspects in climatic change debates. (J.S.)

  7. Frontiere pericolose: l’adattamento Dangerous frontiers: adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Volpe

    2011-04-01

    riscrittura di un testo, una sua continuazione, una sua variazione. Se la traduzione cerca riparo nei confortevoli territori della somiglianza, l’adattamento – un buon adattamento – deve spingersi oltre, osare sul terreno della diversità. Partire da un testo significa ripartire, viaggiare, attraversare una frontiera per approdare altrove. E qualche volta, come auspicava Truffaut, fare «un’altra cosa, migliore».Discourses on adaptation revolve incessantly around a succession of deep-rooted clichés: at opposite ends the imaginary illusions of disappointed readers and the programmatic indifference of hardened film lovers. Theory should tenaciously oppose itself to common sense, but it's been bogged down in jargon and self-references: experts read each other's works, they position and reposition themselves, modify and revise their taxonomical grids, almost always triadic, engaged in endlessly redefining the continuum that goes from fidelity to originality. They simply ask that each adaptation fit into related compartments. With the only purpose of finding their bearings. But their terminology almost always reflects the same concern: an obsession with translatability. Doggedly formalizing a concept based on a wrong premise: because an adaptation is not a translation, it's an interpretation. Or, better, it isn't only an interpretation but certainly implies one. Of all the misunderstandings this is the most dangerous one because it doesn't have the alibi of ingenuousness. The whole exhausting debate on fidelity, even in its most recent declensions, falls through when the erroneousness of the premise is uncovered. If it's legitimate to judge a translation based on the principle of fidelity, this becomes entirely devoid of relevance when one considers an adaptation as something new, a re-writing of a text, its continuation, its variation. While a translation seeks refuge in the comfortable territories of similarity, an adaptation – a

  8. Habitable Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S; Scharf, Caleb A

    2007-01-01

    The Earth is only partially habitable according to the standard liquid-water definition. We reconsider planetary habitability in the framework of energy-balance models, the simplest seasonal models in physical climatology, to assess the spatial and temporal habitability of Earth-like planets. In order to quantify the degree of climatic habitability of our models, we define several metrics of fractional habitability. Previous evaluations of habitable zones may have omitted important climatic conditions by focusing on close Solar System analogies. For example, we find that model pseudo-Earths with different rotation rates or different land-ocean fractions generally have fractional habitabilities that differ significantly from that of the Earth itself. Furthermore, the stability of a planet's climate against albedo-feedback snowball events strongly impacts its habitability. Therefore, issues of climate dynamics may be central in assessing the habitability of discovered terrestrial exoplanets, especially if astro...

  9. Climate catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budyko, Mikhail

    1999-05-01

    Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

  10. Climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of man's remarkable advances in technology, ultimately he is still dependent on the Earth's climatic system for food and fresh water. The recent occurrences in certain regions of the world of climatic extremes such as excessive rain or droughts and unseasonably high or low temperatures have led to speculation that a major climatic change is occurring on a global scale. Some point to the recent drop in temperatures in the northern hemisphere as an indication that the Earth is entering a new ice age. Others see a global warming trend that may be due to a build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. An authoritative report on the subject has been prepared by a World Meteorological Organization Panel of Experts on Climatic Change. Excerpts from the report are given. (author)

  11. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large...

  12. Climate engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Es klingt wie eine Mischung aus Größenwahn und Science Fiction: Wissenschaftler wollen das Klima mit Hightechverfahren beeinflussen. "Climate engineering" heißt der Fachbegriff. Natürlich geht es dabei nicht um den verregneten Sommer, sondern um den globalen Klimawandel. Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann hat sich bei den Umweltforschern der Uni Heidelberg umgehört, ob was dran ist am "climate engineering". Der Beitrag erschien in der Sendereihe "Campus-Report" - einer Beitragsreihe, in ...

  13. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann T. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children’s perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = 0.66; 51% girls and their mothers (n = 1282 and fathers (n = 1075 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children’s reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

  14. Real-time EEG-based detection of fatigue driving danger for accident prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Tianwei; Wang, Fuwang; Ma, Shujun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a real-time electroencephalogram (EEG)-based detection method of the potential danger during fatigue driving. To determine driver fatigue in real time, wavelet entropy with a sliding window and pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) were used to process the EEG signals in the visual area (the main information input route). To detect the fatigue danger, the neural mechanism of driver fatigue was analyzed. The functional brain networks were employed to track the fatigue impact on processing capacity of brain. The results show the overall functional connectivity of the subjects is weakened after long time driving tasks. The regularity is summarized as the fatigue convergence phenomenon. Based on the fatigue convergence phenomenon, we combined both the input and global synchronizations of brain together to calculate the residual amount of the information processing capacity of brain to obtain the dangerous points in real time. Finally, the danger detection system of the driver fatigue based on the neural mechanism was validated using accident EEG. The time distributions of the output danger points of the system have a good agreement with those of the real accident points. PMID:25541095

  15. Distributed Danger Assessment Model for the Internet of Things Based on Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT confronts complicated and changeful security threats. It harms IoT and brings IoT potential danger. However, the research achievements of the danger assessment technology for IoT are rare. To calculate the danger value of IoT with many dispersive sense nodes, the theoretical model of distributed danger assessment for IoT is explored in this paper. The principles and mechanisms of Artificial Immune System (AIS are introduced into the proposed model. Data packets in IoT are captured in each gateway and converted into antigens in the simulated immune environment. Detectors use self-learning and self-adaptation mechanisms in AIS to evolve themselves to adapt the local IoT environment and detect security threats. The mechanism of antibody density is simulated to reflect the intensity of security threats which are happening. Through the detected security threats and their intensity, the values of IoT property and security threats’ harm are combined to assess the quantitative value of danger for IoT. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed model is significative of theory and practice.

  16. [Dangerous dogs as a problem of regulatory law--the GefHuVO NW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindt, T

    1996-01-01

    The GefHuVO NW Council Regulation, introduced in September 1994 ("Official Ordinance with regard to the Breeding, Teaching, Special Training and Keeping of Dangerous Dogs") deals with the dangers for humankind and animals caused by dangerous dogs. Although the public is regularly disturbed by reports on injuries by certain thoroughbreds (so-called pit-bull terriers), the Regulation leaves out a conclusive catalogue of dog breeds to be classified as dangerous, and rather attempts to circumscribe the danger in abstract terms. Cooperation with the local veterinary surgeons is to provide the information necessary to prepare for the Council intervention. The Regulation lays down a canon with varying and increasing power of legal possibilities of intervention which extend from decrees regarding muzzles to a certificate of expertise, to a ban on keeping animals. In the author's estimation, this new Regulation proves to be legally superfluous and partly--insofar as it creates hitherto unknown possibilities of intervention--as impracticable, as it confronts the Council such as veterinary surgeons in administrative practice with difficult problems of assessment. PMID:8647011

  17. Climate change and mountain Grouse: recent evidences from alpine habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Brugnoli A

    2013-01-01

    Current climate change, referring as well to the observed rain and temperature patterns as to the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions, has a deep influence on biotic communities and, in particular, on mountain Grouse. These species show great adaptation to coldness, are highly sedentary and have quite “strict” ecological requirements, when it deals with habitat selection. Moreover, their alpine ranges are dangerously marginal to the main distribution areas, which i...

  18. By-law from December 5, 1996 relative to the road transport of dangerous goods (called ''ADR by-law''). (Dangerous materials no. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this by-law from the French ministry of equipment, lodging, transports and tourism is to define the specific rules that must be applied in France to the national or international road transport of dangerous freight (radioactive materials, explosive materials, under pressure compressed, liquefied or dissolved gases, flammable liquids and solids, spontaneously flammable materials, combustive agents, organic peroxides, noxious, infectious and corrosive materials etc..). The classification of dangerous materials and the freight that cannot be transported by road is listed in two appendixes [700 p.] at the end of the document. This by-law gives the rules concerning: the building, testing, agreement, labelling, periodical controls and conditions for use of packing materials, drums, containers, tanks and vehicles; the equipments, the loading and unloading, the running and parking of vehicles; the training of personnel and the organization of companies; the documents for control or safety assistance. Special rules concerning the transportation of gamma radiography apparatuses are given. (J.S.)

  19. Psychological characteristics of the type of relationship the relationship of the individual to the dangers and the ability to predict students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kydaka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship of the individual to the dangers. We consider the response of the individual types of danger, sensitivity, to the dangers, the ability to predict the students. The interrelation of the type of relationship of the individual to the dangers and the ability to predict the students.

  20. Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

  1. Sensitivity of water scarcity events to ENSO-driven climate variability at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Eisner, S.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consum

  2. Sensitivity of water scarcity events to ENSO-driven climate variability at the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    T. I. E. Veldkamp; S. Eisner; Wada, Y.; J. C. J. H. Aerts; Ward, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consumptive water use and, in some regions, climate change. Although it is well-known that El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects patterns of precipitation and drought at global and regional scales,...

  3. Sensitivity of water scarcity events to ENSO-driven climate variability at the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    T. I. E. Veldkamp; S. Eisner; Wada, Y.; J. C. J. H. Aerts; Ward, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consumptive water use and, in some regions, climate change. Although it is well-known that El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects patterns of precipitation and drought at global ...

  4. Climate certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced emissions of climate gases at the lowest cost require international cooperation in order to ensure that the most cost-efficient measures are taken. A market for emission rights is one way of achieving this. However, creating the right conditions for such a market to operate requires an unambiguous definition of the product to be traded. In this PM, the Swedish Power Association sketches out how such a product could be defined, and how a market for the resulting unambiguously defined product could be operated internationally, in parallel with other markets for energy products. Trade in climate certificates could become a joint EU approach to achieving common results within the field of climate policy. The main features of the proposal are as follows: Electricity producers would be allowed to issue climate certificates for electricity produced without climate-affecting emissions, e.g. in wind power plants. 1 kWh of electricity produced without emissions would entitle the utility to issue a climate certificate for 1 kWh. Electricity from power stations having low emissions, e.g. modern natural gas-fired plants, would entitle the utility to issue certificates in proportion to how much lower their emissions were in comparison with those from conventional coal-fired power stations. The number of certificates would be reduced by an individual coefficient, related directly to the quantity of climate-affecting emissions from the plant concerned. They would be traded and noted on markets in the various member countries. The certificates would not be nationally restricted, but could be traded across borders. Exchanges would be authorised by national authorities, in accordance with overall EU directives. These authorised exchanges would act as certification bodies, checking that certificates had been properly issued in accordance with a corresponding volume of electricity production. Electricity and certificates could be purchased from different suppliers. The

  5. High-resolution mass spectrometry driven discovery of peptidic danger signals in insect immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Arton; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard; Römpp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The 'danger model' is an alternative concept for immune response postulating that the immune system reacts to entities that do damage (danger associated molecular patterns, DAMP) and not only to entities that are foreign (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMP) as proposed by classical immunology concepts. In this study we used Galleria mellonella to validate the danger model in insects. Hemolymph of G. mellonella was digested with thermolysin (as a representative for virulence-associated metalloproteinases produced by humanpathogens) followed by chromatographic fractionation. Immune-stimulatory activity was tested by measuring lysozyme activity with the lytic zone assays against Micrococcus luteus cell wall components. Peptides were analyzed by nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometers. Addressing the lack of a genome sequence we complemented the rudimentary NCBI protein database with a recently established transcriptome and de novo sequencing methods for peptide identification. This approach led to identification of 127 peptides, 9 of which were identified in bioactive fractions. Detailed MS/MS experiments in comparison with synthetic analogues confirmed the amino acid sequence of all 9 peptides. To test the potential of these putative danger signals to induce immune responses we injected the synthetic analogues into G. mellonella and monitored the anti-bacterial activity against living Micrococcus luteus. Six out of 9 peptides identified in the bioactive fractions exhibited immune-stimulatory activity when injected. Hence, we provide evidence that small peptides resulting from thermolysin-mediated digestion of hemolymph proteins function as endogenous danger signals which can set the immune system into alarm. Consequently, our study indicates that the danger model also plays a role in insect immunity. PMID:24303012

  6. Feeding–Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  7. High Incidence of Neonatal Danger Signs and Its Implications for Postnatal Care in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiyo Okawa

    Full Text Available Reducing neonatal mortality is a major public health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous studies have examined the determinants of neonatal mortality, but few have explored neonatal danger signs which potentially cause morbidity. This study assessed danger signs observed in neonates at birth, determined the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and identified factors associated with neonatal danger signs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in three sites across Ghana between July and September in 2013. Using two-stage random sampling, we recruited 1,500 pairs of neonates and their mothers who had given birth within the preceding two years. We collected data on their socio-demographic characteristics, utilization of maternal and neonatal health services, and experiences with neonatal danger signs and maternal complications. We calculated the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and performed multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with neonatal danger signs.More than 25% of the neonates were born with danger signs. At-birth danger signs in neonates were correlated with maternal delivery complications (r = 0.20, p < 0.001, and neonatal complications within the first six weeks of life (r = 0.19, p < 0.001. However, only 29.1% of neonates with danger signs received postnatal care in the first two days, and 52.4% at two weeks of life. In addition to maternal complications during delivery, maternal age less than 20 years, maternal education level lower than secondary school, and fewer than four antenatal care visits significantly predicted neonatal danger signs.Over a quarter of neonates are born with danger signs. Maternal factors can be used to predict neonatal health condition at birth. Management of maternal health and close medical attention to high-risk neonates are crucial to reduce neonatal morbidity

  8. Perception of dangers related to privacy on the web and social networks by Spanish university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Herrero Gutiérrez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article collects data from an experiment conducted with a group of students from the University of Salamanca. The aims are focused on inquiring about several variables relating to information posted on social networks, the potential vulnerability of users and the degree of awareness of potential dangers. From an experiment where participants are involved, the results and conclusions lead to reject the hypothesis, because of the increasing assumption of the social networks´ dangers by users. The case study could be an important starting point for further work on the subject in the same generations, close to the native digital, and other generations away from this concept.

  9. Removable butterfly valve, especially for polluting and/or dangerous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a valve for use in systems carrying polluting, corrosive or dangerous fluids requiring the use of biological protection. The facilities concerned are those in which fluids, mainly polluting, corrosive or dangerous liquids requiring the use of various types of biological protection, are handled. This is particularly so for nuclear installations in which the equipment is surrounded by protective shields which stop the radiation and prevent radioactive gases and aerosols from spreading. The invention proposes for the present valve a high-safety leaktightness system which respects the most specifications and standards and which suppresses any dead volume inside the valve

  10. Improved genetic algorithm freely searching for dangerous slip surface of slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Wen; CAO Ping; FENG Tao; YUAN Hai-ping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the slice method of the non-circular slip surface for the calculation of integral stability of slope, an improved genetic algorithm was proposed, which can freely search for the most dangerous slip surface of slope and the corresponding minimum safety factor without supposing the geometric shape of the most dangerous slip surface. This improved genetic algorithm can simulate the genetic evolution process of organisms and avoid the local minimum value compared with the classical methods. The results of engineering cases show that it is a global optimal algorithm and has many advantages, such as higher efficiency and shorter time than the simple genetic algorithm.

  11. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know? The Strange Allure and Elusive Reality of North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    John Lie

    2016-01-01

    Sandra Fahy, Marching Through Suffering: Loss and Survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. 272 pp. $40 (cloth/e-book). Hazel Smith, North Korea: Markets and Military Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 394 pp. $90 (cloth), $33 (paper), $26 (e-book). Lady Caroline Lamb famously called Lord Byron “mad, bad, and dangerous to know.” In describing North Korea, Hazel Smith replaces “dangerous to know” with “sad,” but she, like Sandra Fahy, seeks to ...

  12. How dangerous is a nuclear reactor melt-down (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dangers of nuclear power are placed in context by comparison with those of coal burning. The possibility and result of melt-down is discussed in terms of the containment and forces necessary to breach it. The number of fatalities is shown to be far less for a meltdown than for other types of non-nuclear disasters. For nuclear power to be as dangerous to the public as coal now is, there would have to be a meltdown every two weeks. (J.T.A.)

  13. Climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on

  14. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on water

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  16. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  17. Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future climate. The empirical evidence presented for a cross-country time series of factors associated with past natural disaster fatalities since 1980 in 125 countries confirms this overriding importance of education in reducing impacts. We also present new projections of populations by age, sex, and level of educational attainment to 2050, thus providing an appropriate tool for anticipating societies' future adaptive capacities based on alternative education scenarios associated with different policies.

  18. Guiding Science and Policy Through the Global Climate Change Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, J.; Bullock, M. A.; Frodeman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Facing the possibility of global climate change, policy makers are forced to make decisions about the research and application of science and technology to mitigate both the causes and effects of an evolving global climate. In the past, when deciding what kinds of research to fund, policy makers have relied on the criteria of feasibility and possible effectiveness in choosing areas to support. However, given both the complexity of the climate and its sensitivity to human decisions, future policy makers will need to develop a variety of criteria for choosing which subjects are worth pursuing. One issue that policy makers are likely to consider is the restriction of some areas of research based on the possible dangers that they may entail. This talk considers the question of whether and how policy makers should make such decisions within the context of global climate change.

  19. Predicting Danger: The Nature, Consequences, and Neural Mechanisms of Predictive Fear Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    The ability to detect and learn about the predictive relations existing between events in the world is essential for adaptive behavior. It allows us to use past events to predict the future and to adjust our behavior accordingly. Pavlovian fear conditioning allows anticipation of sources of danger in the environment. It guides attention away from…

  20. Assessment model for the transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelisse, R.M.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In many cases decisions have to be made with respect to the safety level that has to be maintained in tunnels. In this paper the central question is how one can decide between (a) a tunnel with limited allowance for dangerous goods and a deviation route for the prohibited goods or (b) a tunnel allow

  1. Are College Students' Assessments of Threat Shaped by the Dangers of Their Childhood Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Amanda K; Minich, Steven H; Langen, Tom A; Skufca, Joseph; Wilke, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Humans internalize environmental cues of mortality risk at an early age, which influences subsequent risk perceptions and behavior. In this respect, an individual's current risk assessment may be viewed as an adaptive response to the dangers present within his or her early local environment. Here we examine the relationship between several variables indicating threat within an individual's early environment (e.g., prevalence of violent and property crimes, registered sex offenders) and their perception of crime risk within both the childhood and current adult environments. We recruited a group of 657 students who hail from diverse geographic backgrounds to provide the zip code location of their childhood residence along with subjective ratings of danger of that and their current location, which enabled us to compare their ratings of risk/danger with the federally reported crime statistics of each setting. Our results indicate that the early prevalence of registered sex offenders indeed influences an individual's risk perception in adulthood, and that these factors have a differential effect on males and females. Our findings provide support for the theory that early environmental factors signaling danger affect how individuals assess risk within their adult environment. PMID:25805844

  2. 77 FR 50926 - Security Zones; Certain Dangerous Cargo Vessels, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of..., which, due to their ] political, economic, social, or religious significance, may render them... Ombudsman evaluates these actions annually and rates each agency's responsiveness to small business. If...

  3. Ranking the solid radioactive waste storage as concerns their potential danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of ranking the storages of solid radioactive waste as concerns their danger has been developed and tested. The results can be used in establishing the priorities while planning the storage decommissioning, as well as to conduct a detailed assessment of their safety

  4. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. EPA

  5. CHINA'S NAVIGATION SATELLITES SERVE ROAD TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    State Administration of Work Safety held a technological appraisal conference on Application System for the Monitoring and Management of the Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods on August 8, 2004. During two months' operation, the system has been widely praised and the navigation satellite application market has a bright future.

  6. The risk assesment in storage and transportation of dangerous substances - preoccupations and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a risk assessment model for dangerous substance storage and transportation. It will combine also qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods, the results being referred to the lethal risk at individual and social level. The model includes the main tasks to classify the risks and to achieve a scale of priorities. To achieve a proper analysis of a regional risk the following steps should be observed: a list of dangerous substances; the classification of storage and transportation activities in the area; the selection of those activities that can be included in the study; establishing the category of effects ; the estimation of consequences to the environment and people; the calculation of major accidents frequency; the risk level classification. Generally, in the global risk assessment in industrial sector one neglects the risk induced by the transport of dangerous substances. Because of that the decision process in the risk management field can be seriously affected and the initiatives to reduce the risk and to decrease the consequences of potential accidents can be reduced, too. The model will be applied to evaluate the risk due major accidents occurring in the storage of dangerous substances and their transportation on roads, railway or by pipes. It represents a prime action plan at national level to evaluate and analyze the transportation risk. (authors)

  7. Administrative regulations concerning the carriage of dangerous substances by civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations, which entered into force on the date they were adopted, apply to the transport of dangerous substances by civil aircraft in Norway and by aircraft registered in Norway for transport outside Norwegian territory. They provide that such substances, including radioactive materials, must be carried in accordance with the IATA Restricted Articles Regulations

  8. Slovakian and Turkish Students' Fear, Disgust and Perceived Danger of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…

  9. The Encounter With Life-Threatening Danger: Its Nature and Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Russell, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A factor analysis of questionnaire responses from (N=189) victims of life-threatening accidents identified three dimensions of the altered state of consciousness produced by dangerous circumstances. These dimensions, included depersonalization, hyperalertness, and mystical consciousness, appeared meaningful in terms of the endangered personality's…

  10. Earthquake-induced collapse mechanism of two types of dangerous rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Qizhi; Xue, Kang

    2016-06-01

    As the economy of China develops, an increasing number of key traffic projects have been undertaken in the west of China, where there are high, steep rock slopes. The collapse of dangerous rock masses, especially following a strong earthquake, is one of common geological disasters known in rock slope engineering. Therefore, it is important to study the collapse mechanism of dangerous rock masses induced by an earthquake and the analysis approach of its stability. This study provides a simple and convenient method to determine the collapse mechanisms of two types of dangerous rock masses (i.e. cantilever and upright) associated with the definition and calculation of the safety factor, which is based on the flexure theory of a constant-section beam by combining with the maximum tensile-stress criterion to depict the process of crack propagation caused by seismic waves. The calculation results show that there are critical crack depths in each form of the dangerous rock masses. Once the accumulated depth of the crack growth during an earthquake exceeds the critical depth, the collapse will occur. It is also demonstrated that the crack extension amount of each step is not a constant value, and is closely associated with the current accumulated crack depth. The greater the cumulative crack depth, the more easily the crack propagates. Finally, the validity and applicability of the proposed method are verified through two actual engineering examples.

  11. On Genies and Bottles: Scientists’ Moral Responsibility and Dangerous Technology R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.

    2009-01-01

    The age-old maxim of scientists whose work has resulted in deadly or dangerous technologies is: scientists are not to blame, but rather technologists and politicians must be morally culpable for the uses of science. As new technologies threaten not just populations but species and biospheres, scient

  12. Remaining Safe and Avoiding Dangers Online: A Social Media Q&A with Kimberly Mitchell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention Researcher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The news media is often full of stories about the dangers of social media, including such concerns as cyberbullying and sexting. In this article, Kimberly Mitchell, a researcher noted for her experience on youth internet victimization, answers questions about the risks of social media and how we can keep youth safe online. Questions in this Q&A…

  13. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  14. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 37th session of the United Nations... 17th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model... and the meeting agenda may be obtained from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at:...

  15. 78 FR 68501 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Session of the United Nations Sub- Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCOE TDG... that PHMSA and OSHA will conduct a joint public meeting in preparation for United Nations meetings... proposals in preparation for the 44th session of the United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on...

  16. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 42nd session of the United Nations... 18th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model... from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at...

  17. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 38th session of the United Nations... 17th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model... by downloading them from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at:...

  18. Using an Activity to Simulate the Dangers of Multitasking with Technology while Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Xu, Renmei; Londt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    People are increasingly trying to multitask while walking. Text messaging while walking is a significant area for concern. The number of text messages sent is expected to be more than 8 trillion in 2012. Texting is becoming so commonplace that people use this technology while engaged in other activities. The dangers of multitasking have hit the…

  19. Suicide by Cop in Film and Society: Dangerousness, Depression, and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Bowman, Barbara; Lester, David

    2012-01-01

    Provoking police officers to kill oneself or "suicide by cop" (SBC) has received scholarly as well as public attention. The extent to which film representations of SBC reflect SBC in society in relation to danger, depression, and other features was assessed in this study. Data on cinematic portrayals of SBC are from 16 American films;…

  20. Invisible grazings and dangerous bifurcations in impacting systems: The problem of narrow-band chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumitro; Ing, James; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian; Reddy, Ramesh K.

    2009-03-01

    We discovered a narrow band of chaos close to the grazing condition for a simple soft impact oscillator. The phenomenon was observed experimentally for a range of system parameters. Through numerical stability analysis, we argue that this abrupt onset to chaos is caused by a dangerous bifurcation in which two unstable period-3 orbits, created at “invisible” grazings, take part.

  1. Academic Procrastination in Mathematics: Causes, Dangers and Implications of Counselling for Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikhia, Olubusayo A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focused on causes and dangers of academic procrastination (a behavioural problem that involves delaying a task which needs to be accomplished) in mathematics and the need for counseling students who are procrastinators especially of mathematics. Thus, in order to have a comprehensive understanding of the topic, the meaning, causes and…

  2. Does predation danger on southward migration curtail parental investment by female western sandpipers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Lank, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that if extending parental care delays migratory departure, and if later migration is more dangerous, then parental care should be curtailed to make an earlier departure. Adult western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) depart Alaska in July, and the presence of peregrine falcons (Falco per

  3. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... regard to Annex 6 6.5: Coordination with international organizations (e.g. UPU) Agenda Item 7: Other... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO)...

  4. Application of the Dangerous Preparation Directive: consequences on plant protection products in the internal market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Rubbiani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Legislative Decree March 2003, n. 65 brought about implementation of Directive 1999/45/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council dated 31 May 1999 and Directive 2001/60/EC of the Commission dated 7 August 2001 concerning laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations come into force. Directive 1999/45/EC brought about a series of modifications representing the new regulatory framework for dangerous preparations. The above-mentioned Decree supplies the criteria for the evaluation of hazardous preparations, regardless of their intended use, and completes previously undertaken steps, in strict connection with the analogous Directives of the EU, for the problematic complexity of the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances and preparations. The applicative importance of Directive 99/45/EC derives directly from these innovations. Among these, for the first time, the category of "dangerous for the environment" has been extended also to preparations. Moreover, also for the first time, the scope of the Directive is extended to plant protection products and biocides. This paper provides an overview on the results of the hazard classification procedure carried out at national level for plant protection products in light of the new rules and the outcomes in terms of variations of the labels through comparison between previous and new classification. Furthermore the most significant issue which come up during the classification process and the criteria applied for their solution are also reported.

  5. The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

  6. Dangers on the Web--Pornography, Hate, the Internet, and the Character Development of America's Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoj, John

    1998-01-01

    Cautions that with growing access to new technologies, the expansion of Internet pornography and hate sites is fast becoming a danger for students, teachers, parents, and communities. Discusses technological possibilities for regulating Internet use available at school and at home. Relates Internet regulation with the goals of character education.…

  7. Uncertainty in climate science and climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rougier, Jonathan; Crucifix, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinc...

  8. Royal Decree 1749/1984 of 1 August approving the national regulations on the safe transport of dangerous goods by air together with technical instructions for the safe transport of dangerous goods by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Royal Decree approves the national Regulations on the safe transport of dangerous goods by air. The Regulations as well as the attached detailed technical instructions are based on the 1981 revised text of the Annex concerning dangerous goods of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation. It also covers radioactive materials. (NEA)

  9. Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods. Model regulations. 11. revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods are addressed to governments and to the international organizations concerned with the regulation of the transport of dangerous goods. They have been prepared by the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, and they were first published in 1956 (ST/ECA/43-E/CN.2/170). Pursuant to Resolution 645 G (XXIII) of 26 April 1957 of the Economic and Social Council and subsequent resolutions, they have been regularly amended and updated at succeeding sessions of the Committee of Experts. At its eighteenth session (28 November-7 December 1994), the Committee of Experts considered that reformatting the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods into Model Regulations that could be directly integrated into all modal national and international regulations would enhance harmonization, facilitate regular up-dating of all legal instruments concerned, and result in overall considerable resource savings for the Governments of the Member States, the United Nations, the specialized agencies and other international organizations. At its nineteenth session (2-10 December 1996), the Committee adopted a first version of the Model Regulations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, which was annexed to the tenth revised edition of the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. At its twentieth session (7-16 December 1998), the Committee adopted various amendments to the Model Regulations and new provisions including, in particular, packing instructions for individual substances and articles and additional provisions for the transport of radioactive material. The additional provisions concerning the transport of radioactive material were developed in close cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and are based on the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material which have been reformatted so as to be

  10. Climate Change: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: EPA Home Climate Change Basic Information Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change ... We can make a difference How is the climate changing in the U.S.? Observations across the United ...

  11. Estimating live fuel status by drought indices: an approach for assessing local impact of climate change on fire danger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pellizzaro, G.; Dubrovský, Martin; Bortolu, S.; Ventura, A.; Arca, B.; Masia, P.; Duce, P.

    Vol. 16. Göttingen: EGU, 2014. EGU2014-5795. ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly /11./. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-5795.pdf

  12. The Dendritic Cell Response to Classic, Emerging, and Homeostatic Danger Signals. Implications for Autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Matthew Gallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs initiate and control immune responses, participate in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and are pivotal players in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In patients with autoimmune disease and in experimental animal models of autoimmunity, DCs show abnormalities in both numbers and activation state, expressing immunogenic levels of costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Exogenous and endogenous danger signals activate DCs to stimulate the immune response. Classic endogenous danger signals are released, activated, or secreted by host cells and tissues experiencing stress, damage, and non-physiologic cell death; and are therefore referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. Some DAMPs are released from cells, where they are normally sequestered, during necrosis (e.g. heat shock proteins, uric acid, ATP, HMGB1, mitochondria-derived molecules. Others are actively secreted, like Type I Interferons. Here we discuss important DAMPs in the context of autoimmunity. For some, there is a clear pathogenic link (e.g. nucleic acids and lupus. For others, there is less evidence. Additionally, we explore emerging danger signals. These include inorganic materials and man-made technologies (e.g. nanomaterials developed as novel therapeutic approaches. Some nanomaterials can activate DCs and may trigger unintended inflammatory responses. Finally, we will review homeostatic danger signals, danger signals that do not derive directly from pathogens or dying cells but are associated with perturbations of tissue/cell homeostasis and may signal pathological stress. These signals, like acidosis, hypoxia and changes in osmolarity, also play a role in inflammation and autoimmunity.

  13. Climate and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the existing knowledge on the inter-relationships between climate and patterns of development; the impact variables on water and agricultural development; and the effects of climate on human health. A case study is also given of the effect of climatic fluctuations on human population in Mesopotamia. Contents: Climate and Development; Climate and Agriculture; Climate and Water Management; Climate and Health; Effects of Climate Fluctation on Human Populations; Study of Mesopotamian Society.

  14. Uncertainty in climate science and climate policy

    CERN Document Server

    Rougier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinction will become clearer in what follows. In a nutshell, we do not think that academic climate science equips climate scientists to be as helpful as they might be, when involved in climate policy assessment. Partly, we attribute this to an over-investment in high resolution climate simulators, and partly to a culture that is uncomfortable with the inherently subjective nature of climate uncertainty.

  15. Climate oblige

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file contains 15 articles discussing various aspects of the struggle against climatic change: 'greening' the industry in order to cope with the COP 21 expectations of a 2 deg C maximum warming at the end of this century; financing the transition energy policy in the poorest countries; the issues and stakes for the COP 21 conference to be held in Paris; towards an energy system with fossil fuels to be left in the ground, especially coal; emerging and developing countries could be in the future at the forefront to benefit from the renewable energy technologies; towards a 100 pc renewable France with wind and solar power; low carbon electric power (including nuclear power) is one of the best solutions against global warming; solar energy: the example of India and its 100 GW objective in 2022; the main struggle against climatic change lies in the cities and especially with the development of low-energy buildings and energy conservation systems; with de-polluted engine, connectivity and light structure technologies, the automotive sector can mix mobility and environment protection; some examples of the environmental policy underway in Grenoble city; green collective transportation systems in Sweden; application of simulation tools and satellite observations for climatic change forecasting and analysis; the importance of eco-design of manufactured products following the 'from well to wheel' and 'from cradle to grave' concepts

  16. Climate Change: Ethics and Collective Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Brown, M. B.; Mann, M. E.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change poses grave risks for societies and people all around the earth. Though details of the risks remain uncertain, they include accelerating sea level rise and ocean acidification, regional drought, floods and heat waves, crop failures and more: dangerous changes are already occurring, while GHG emissions continue to grow, ice melts, water expands, temperature rises, and weather patterns shift. Our roles as individuals and nations in producing the emissions of GHGs responsible for this episode of climate change, and the actions that could be taken to mitigate it, raise difficult ethical questions. When we are responsible for putting others in danger, we have a duty to mitigate that danger. But our sense of responsibility is diluted here: each individual act contributes only minutely to the overall risks, and the links between individual acts and the harms they produce are complex, indirect and involve many other agents. In these circumstances, our sense of personal responsibility is diminished and uncoordinated, individual responses to the risks become ineffective. We propose a view of the ethics of climate change that begins with the tragedy of the commons: Free use of a shared, indispensable resource can lead to catastrophe as the resource is overrun, and the destruction of the commons arises from choices that are individuallyrational, if each person's choice is made independently of others'. Finally, individuals often fail to make ethical choices when the links between individual actions and their negative outcomes are obscure, when individual choices are made separately and privately, and when special interests stand to gain from actions that are generally harmful. Philosophical work in ethics has emphasized the role of ethics in enabling cooperation between individuals and coordinating group responses to problems, while recent work on social rules has modeled them as generalized forbiddings, taught and enforced by 'blocking' behaviours which

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy's contractors are identified as ''co-operators'' and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ''operator'' elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors' designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors' contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  18. Statement of Problem: Dangerous Desires in Orwell's 1984 and the Present Spanish Penal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our construct of a dangerous subject has changed little over the past century. Dangerous subjects in Oceania, a region created by Orwell in his novel 1984 in a constant state of war, consciously or unconsciously manifest too much autonomy. Self-autonomy and agency breach established moral codes of conduct and manifest an inability to self-govern and conform i.e. discipline. What is deemed dangerous is constructed by Ingsoc, Oceania’s prevailing political philosophy; however, if considered of value to the party, time is invested and mandatory treatment is imposed to bring them into line with normative conduct. This treatment consists in stripping them of their identity and desires, which is achieved through them being rendered physically and psychologically innocuous. In the same vein, two new dangerous collectives were designated by the Spanish legislature in a reform introduced to the Penal Code in June 2010, the terrorist and sex offender. On this occasion, it is their efforts to resist this normalization onslaught that renders them dangerous. Unable to incarcerate indeterminately or execute both collectives, a new post-custodial security measure is deployed to ensure that both collectives remain socially and politically isolated. This article compares the dangerous symptomatology depicted by Orwell in 1984 with the dangerous offender constructed by the Spanish legislature in OL 5/2010, the problematization of their habits and behaviours as well as the alleged cure offered to these dangerous subjects. For Ingsoc and the Spanish legislature, the imminent danger is a threat to social and public order. Nuestra construcción de un sujeto peligroso ha cambiado poco durante el siglo pasado. Sujetos peligrosos en Oceanía, una región creada por Orwell en su novela 1984 que está en un constante estado de guerra, manifiestan demasiada autonomía de forma consciente o inconsciente. La anulación de la propia autonomía y la voluntad establecieron c

  19. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  20. How to predict and avert economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Tao

    2010-01-01

    Our study shows that many firms would accumulate at zero output level (namely, Bankruptcy status) if a perfectly competitive market reaches full employment (namely, those people who should obtain employment have obtained employment). As a result, appearance of economic crisis is determined by two points; that is, (a). Stock market approaches perfect competition; (b). Society reaches full employment. The empirical research of these two points would lead to early warning of economic crisis. Mor...

  1. India seeks outside help to avert crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy policy in India is changing with a more liberal attitude to licensing and imports. Domestic supply and fuel quality problems are common. As a consequence of this and growing power demand, gas is now being imported on a large scale and foreign investment in the sub-continent is likely to grow over the next decade. The paper explores how this turn-around in policy will effect areas such as exploration, the import and export of crude oil, and the development of a gas industry in India. (UK)

  2. Averting War in Northeast Asia: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Gurtov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the United States and South Korea consider whether or not to accept North Korea's call for an "unconditional" return to the Six Party Talks (6PT or China's call for multilateral negotiations, Northeast Asia is sliding in the direction of deepening conflict that could lead to war. China-Japan relations, which had been warming since the departure of Koizumi Junichiro, and especially since the victory of the Democratic Party of Japan in 2008, are again in a deep freeze over disputed territory. One consequence is a reorientation of Japan's defense strategy southward, in the direction of the Senkakus (Diaoyutai. Washington is encouraging that shift, as well as closer military cooperation between Japan and South Korea. North-South Korea relations are very tense as the result of the Cheonan incident, the North's artillery barrage against a small South Korean island, and revelations of a modern North Korean uranium enrichment plant-all coming in the wake of the Lee Myung Bak administration's almost complete reversal of his predecessors' engagement policies. And China-US relations are increasingly contentious, going beyond the longstanding differences over currency valuation and human rights to include a host of security matters. Even though China-Taiwan relations have improved, U.S. naval activity in the Pacific has picked up, with a number of exercises conducted alone and with allies leading some Chinese analysts to conclude that containment is again prominent on the U.S. policy agenda. And both China and the United States are beefing up their weapons capabilities relevant to the Taiwan Strait.A bipolar lineup, reminiscent of the Cold War, is shaping up, with China, Russia, and North Korea on one side, the United States, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India on the other-with each side competing for the affections of the ten Southeast Asian countries grouped under ASEAN. Despite substantial economic ties between all these countries-even between the two Koreas, until Lee Myung Bak suspended trade with the North last spring-their political and strategic divisions are wide and deep.President Hu Jintao's January 19, 2011 visit to Washington provides the occasion to attempt a diplomatic breakthrough. The most critical need of countries in Northeast Asia is an institution for crisis prevention, crisis management, and other security-promoting purposes-what might be called a Northeast Asia Security Dialogue Mechanism (NEASDM. It would be an outgrowth of the Six Party Talks, where all the parties twice agreed (in 2005 and 2007 to create such a mechanism. This article outlines the nature of such a dialogue mechanism.

  3. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination-the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change

  4. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Klaus [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Robinson, Alexander [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bradford, David F [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Oppenheimer, Michael [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO{sub 2} emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO{sub 2} emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO{sub 2} abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination-the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  5. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Klaus; Robinson, Alexander; Bradford, David F.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination—the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  6. The state control of radioecological danger of the sunken and scuttled nuclear objects on the sea bottom in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the bottom of World ocean there is the significant number of underwater potentially dangerous objects (PDO): nuclear submarines; diesel submarines with nuclear weapon; solid radioactive waste; chemical weapon; petroleum and gas pipelines (including perspective); sunken ships with petroleum and other dangerous loads. For nuclear objects is developed a model for estimating the radioecological consequences of the release of radionuclides to the marine environment. The model is practically used at fulfilment of the program of researches on the sunken nuclear submarine Komsomolets'. Under orders of Ministry of extreme situations of Russia the experts from naval research institutes have carried out the analysis and expert estimation of potentially dangerous objects, being at the sea bottom and belonging to Russian Federation. The first turn of a databank about PDO is created. Classification of PDO on a degree of danger on three categories is developed: 1-(extremely dangerous), 11-(highly dangerous), 111-(middle dangerous). Offers on priorities of work on underwater potentially dangerous objects are reasonable. Is shown, that forwarding inspections of places of probable radioactive pollution in the Arctic seas and places of wreck of nuclear submarines 'K-8'(1960), 'K-219'(1986), 'K-27'(1968) are first of all expedient. Received data have allowed to prove necessity of development of the federal law about safety underwater potentially dangerous objects in the seas, international agreements concerning the control for similar objects. Is reasonable is necessary development the bills of Government of Russian Federation, in particular about the status about declaration of safety of underwater potentially dangerous objects and about the responsibility for these objects. The Ministry of extreme situations of Russia in 1999 has organized special commission with the representatives of all interested ministries for development of the coordinated approach to creation of the state

  7. Climate - Options for broadening climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts JCJH; Asselt H van; Bakker SJA; Bayangos V; Beers C van; Berk MM; Biermann F; Bouwer LM; van Bree L; Dorland K; Elzen ME den; Gupta J; Heemst J van; Jansen JC; Nabuurs GJ

    2005-01-01

    In this study ways are explored to increase the policy coherence between the climate regime and a selected number of climate relevant policy areas, by adding a non-climate policy track to national and international climate strategies. The report assesses first the potential, synergies and trade-offs of linking the climate regime to relevant other policy areas, including poverty reduction, land-use, security of energy supply, trade and finance and air quality and health. Next the possibilities...

  8. Living Dangerously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch film maker Joris Ivens (1898-1989) was one of the founding fathers of documentary film. The career of this eternal traveller spanned over sixty years, from his first film in the twenties to his last, finished at the age of ninety. Among Ivens's friends and collaborators were leading filmma

  9. Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    According to the National Academy of Sciences in American,the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases-primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The heat-trapping property of these gases is undisputed although uncertainties exist about exactly how earth's climate responds to them.

  10. Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Twycross, Jamie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of system calls is one method employed by anomaly detection systems to recognise malicious code execution. Similarities can be drawn between this process and the behaviour of certain cells belonging to the human immune system, and can be applied to construct an artificial immune system. A recently developed hypothesis in immunology, the Danger Theory, states that our immune system responds to the presence of intruders through sensing molecules belonging to those invaders, plus signals generated by the host indicating danger and damage. We propose the incorporation of this concept into a responsive intrusion detection system, where behavioural information of the system and running processes is combined with information regarding individual system calls.

  11. B Plant Complex generator dangerous waste storage areas inspection plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the inspection plan for the <90 day dangerous/mixed waste storage areas and satellite accumulation areas at B Plant Complex. This inspection plan is designed to comply with all applicable federal, state and US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office training requirements. In particular, the requirements of WAC 173-303 ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' are met by this inspection plan. This inspection plan is designed to provide B Plant Complex with the records and documentation showing that the waste storage and handling program is in compliance with applicable regulations. The plan also includes the requirements for becoming a qualified inspector of waste storage areas and the responsibilities of various individuals and groups at B Plant Complex

  12. [GABA-NO interaction in the N. Accumbens during danger-induced inhibition of exploratory behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In Sprague-Dawley rats by means of in vivo microdialysis combined with HPLC analysis, it was shown that presentation to rats during exploratory activity of a tone previously pared with footshock inhibited the exploration and prevented the exploration-induced increase in extracellular levels of citrulline (an NO co-product) in the medial n. accumbens. Intra-accumbal infusions of 20 μM bicuculline, a GABA(A)-receptor antagonist, firstly, partially restored the exploration-induced increase of extracellular citrulline levels in this brain area, which was inhibited by presentation of the tone, previously paired with foot-shock and, secondly, prevented the inhibition of exploratory behavior produced by this sound signal of danger. The data obtained indicate for the first time that signals of danger inhibit exploratory behavior and exploration-induced activation of the accumbal nitrergic system via GABA(A)-receptor mechanisms. PMID:25508395

  13. Evaluation of the flaring in mandibular molars danger zone using ProTaper rotatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Missao Brugin MATSUBARA

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the flaring in mandibular molars danger zone, after root canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotatory instrument system. Sixty extracted mandibular molars with fully formed apices had the mesial roots sectioned. The specimens were divided into four groups and instrumented until Shaping X, Shaping 1 and Shaping 2 files, respectively. One group was kept as control with no instrumentation. The results submitted to statistical analysis, showed a 1% significant differenceamong experimental groups, with an enlargement of the flaring in danger zone being directly proportional to the diameter of ProTaper instruments. It is concluded that the use of this instruments on the preparation of mandibular molars is safe because there isn’t any report of root perforation.

  14. Prognosis of radiation damage probability in the time of railway transportation of radiation-dangerous objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The models for prediction of the intensity and probability of radiation accidents during railway transportation of radiation-dangerous objects are suggested. The models are based on those developed for transport accident with general cargoes. Ultimate velocity of the special train at a moment of accident characterizing the object stability is used as a criterion for transformation of a transport accident into radiation one. The formulae for calculation of radiation accident intensities as a result of different events including accidents with a special train, collision with a train moving in opposite direction on railroad between stations, natural phenomenon (earthquake) are derived. The conclusion is made that application of the models suggested in optimization problems gives an opportunity to reduce the total cost of radiation-dangerous object design and operation

  15. How Dangerous Are Your Smartphones? App Usage Recommendation with Privacy Preserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konglin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid proliferation of mobile devices, explosive mobile applications (apps are developed in the past few years. However, the functions of mobile apps are varied and the designs of them are not well understood by end users, especially the activities and functions related to user privacy. Therefore, understanding how much danger of mobile apps with respect to privacy violation to mobile users is becomes a critical issue when people use mobile devices. In this paper, we evaluate the mobile app privacy violation of mobile users by computing the danger coefficient. In order to help people reduce the privacy leakage, we combine both the user preference to mobile apps and the privacy risk of apps and propose a mobile app usage recommendation method named AppURank to recommend the secure apps with the same function as the “dangerous” one for people use. The evaluation results show that our recommendation can reduce the privacy leakage by 50%.

  16. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know? The Strange Allure and Elusive Reality of North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Fahy, Marching Through Suffering: Loss and Survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. 272 pp. $40 (cloth/e-book. Hazel Smith, North Korea: Markets and Military Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 394 pp. $90 (cloth, $33 (paper, $26 (e-book. Lady Caroline Lamb famously called Lord Byron “mad, bad, and dangerous to know.” In describing North Korea, Hazel Smith replaces “dangerous to know” with “sad,” but she, like Sandra Fahy, seeks to recuperate the ultimate humanity of North Koreans. Both Smith and Fahy have spent considerable time in North Korea or with North Koreans, and they convey the contemporary dynamics of North Korea without relying on the ready-made caricatures and stereotypes that dominate in the West (and the rest...

  17. The development of regulations for road vehicles used in the conveyance of dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects of dangerous goods transport are classified according to risks associated with control of the vehicles themselves, trailers, traffic, the goods carried, safety of packing materials, crates and containers and the handling problems. Eight different classifications of goods (e.g. explosive, inflammable, radioactive) listed as potentially dangerous by European authorities are quoted. Theoretical studies are outlined, requiring 6 hours for general studies of the official (ADR) classifications, and 3 hours for specialist work. Documentation involved includes accident reports, licence applications, personnel and traffic records. Practical work (3 hours study) includes examination of vehicles and goods and visual displays (e.g. by film) of typical accidents, causes, consequences and negotiations with civil authorities. (G.C.)

  18. Management and hazardous waste characterization in Central for Isotop and Radiation Application based on potential dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separating and storing hazardous waste have been done based on the physical, chemical, and based on potential dangers due to safety hazardous waste temporary storage warehouse. From the results of data collection in 2014 found that the most dominant hazardous waste is organic liquid waste which reaches 61 %, followed by inorganic liquid waste 33 % while organic solid waste and inorganic solid waste has a small portion. When viewed from potential danger, flammable liquid waste has the greatest volume percentage it is 47 % and is followed by a corrosive liquid waste 26 %, while the liquid waste that has not been identified is quite large, which is 9 %. From the highest hazard potential data, hazardous waste storage warehouse is required to have good air circulation and waste storage shelf protected from direct solar heat. Cooperation of lab workers and researchers are also indispensable in providing identification of each waste generated to facilitate the subsequent waste management. (author)

  19. Advancing Health Equity and Climate Change Solutions in California Through Integration of Public Health in Regional Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Solange M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant public health danger, with a disproportionate impact on low-income and communities of color that threatens to increase health inequities. Many important social determinants of health are at stake in California climate change policy-making and planning, and the distribution of these will further impact health inequities. Not only are these communities the most vulnerable to future health impacts due to the cumulative impacts of unequal environmental exposures a...

  20. The dangers of using intention as a surrogate for Retention in brand positioning decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ballings, Michel; Van den Poel, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the dangers of using intention as a surrogate for retention in a decision support system (DSS) for brand positioning. An empirical study is conducted, using structural equations modeling and both data from the internal transactional database and a survey. The study is aimed at evaluating whether the DSS recommends different product benefits for brand positioning when intention is used as opposed to retention as a criterion variable. The results show tha...

  1. Registering Dangerous Strangers: Psychology and Justice in the Politics of the Sex Offender Registry

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jin

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation addresses the phenomenon of stranger danger to children and tries to answer the question of how the category of sex offender has been produced to become the primary target in contemporary sex crime control. I examine the period from the 1960s through the 1990s, the period beginning with the rising awareness of child abuse and criminal and psychiatric patient rights challenges to preventive confinement and ending with institutionalizing the regime of sex offender risk managemen...

  2. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Birth Weight: The Role of Perceived Danger and Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Moiduddin, Emily; Massey, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birt...

  3. Development of a New Daily-Scale Forest Fire Danger Forecasting System Using Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Quazi K. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires are a critical natural disturbance in most of the forested ecosystems around the globe, including the Canadian boreal forest where fires are recurrent. Here, our goal was to develop a new daily-scale forest fire danger forecasting system (FFDFS) using remote sensing data and implement it over the northern part of Canadian province of Alberta during 2009–2011 fire seasons. The daily-scale FFDFS was comprised of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived four-inp...

  4. The Dula Dangerous Driving Index: An Investigation of Reliability and Validity across Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen, Jochem; Dula, Chris S.; Declercq, Frédéric; Verhaeghe, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to further establish the validity and reliability of the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The reliability and validity of the instrument was investigated by comparing data from a US university sample, a US community sample, and a sample of Belgian traffic offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported the presence of a four-factor structure with items for Drunk Driving forming a separate scale apart from items for Risky Driving, Negative Cogniti...

  5. President Trump would be a mortal danger to the US and to the world

    OpenAIRE

    Blaney III, Harry C

    2016-01-01

    While nearly unthinkable even a year ago, there is now a very real possibility that Donald Trump will take over the White House in January 2017. Harry C. Blaney III writes that with his potential to control the US’ nuclear arsenal and other weapons of mass destruction means that the rest of the world should have an interest in what Trump might do as president. He argues that Trump’s ignorance and self-importance would make him a very dangerous president.

  6. Efficiency of the Traffic Control and Management System measures in potentially dangerous situations on highway

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič Demšar, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The Traffic Control and Management System (TCMS) is implemented on the five most critical sections of Slovenian highways with the purpose to re-establish the optimal traffic conditions in case of potentially dangerous situations on the road. The main goal of the informing and the traffic management is to increase traffic safety as well as decrease congestions and minimise negative impact on the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficiency of the TCMS measures in the area...

  7. Cultural Values, U.S. Neighborhood Danger, and Mexican American Parents' Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness am...

  8. Website malfunction: a case report highlighting the danger of using electrical insulating tape for buddy strapping

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, Brian Meldan; Baker, Joseph F.; Fitzgerald, Eilis; McCarthy, Conor

    2010-01-01

    A case of injury to the third web space of the right hand of a rugby player, as a result of buddy strapping with electrical insulating tape of the little and ring finger, is presented. A deep laceration of the web space and distal palmar fascia resulted, necessitating wound exploration and repair. This case highlights the danger of using electrical insulating tape as a means to buddy strap fingers.

  9. On Genies and Bottles: Scientists’ Moral Responsibility and Dangerous Technology R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Koepsell, D.

    2009-01-01

    The age-old maxim of scientists whose work has resulted in deadly or dangerous technologies is: scientists are not to blame, but rather technologists and politicians must be morally culpable for the uses of science. As new technologies threaten not just populations but species and biospheres, scientists should reassess their moral culpability when researching fields whose impact may be catastrophic. Looking at real-world examples such as smallpox research and the Australian “mousepox trick”, ...

  10. Relationship Between Psychological Characteristics Mental Health, Aggression and Driving Habits in Dangerous Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadpoor, M.; I Shakerinia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Today, all kinds of people need vehicles for performing their daily activities. The need for use of these vehicles for transportation frequently leads to a high rate of road accidents and it seems that certain people do not have enough ability to use these vehicles. Dangerous behaviors lead to financial and life risking irreparable damages. Methods: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A chara...

  11. The spread of infection through the danger space to the mediastinum case report

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenkerova D; Mlcakova K; Hanzel P; Mikulasova V; Hajtman A

    2014-01-01

    Deep neck infection is an infection in the potential space and fascial planes of the neck, either with abscess formation or cellulitis. Cervical fascias create space and plane, which define and limit the spread of infection. Danger space is the area of thin connective tissue extending from the skull base down to the diaphragm. This space is enclosed on all sides, therefore inflammation in this area arises from penetration and spreads of infection from surrounding structures. This ...

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20)

  13. 1-Deoxysphingolipids Encountered Exogenously and Made de Novo: Dangerous Mysteries inside an Enigma*

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Jingjing; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional backbones of mammalian sphingolipids are 2-amino, 1,3-diols made by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Many organisms additionally produce non-traditional, cytotoxic 1-deoxysphingoid bases and, surprisingly, mammalian SPT biosynthesizes some of them, too (e.g. 1-deoxysphinganine from l-alanine). These are rapidly N-acylated to 1-deoxy-“ceramides” with very uncommon biophysical properties. The functions of 1-deoxysphingolipids are not known, but they are certainly dangerous as ...

  14. Modelling accidental releases of dangerous gases into the lower troposphere from mobile sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernatík, A.; Zimmermann, W.; Pitt, M.; Střižík, M.; Nevrlý, J.; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 86, B3 (2008), s. 198-207. ISSN 0957-5820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk OC 186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : major accidents * transportation of dangerous * substances modelling of release and dispersion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2008

  15. Evaluation of the flaring in mandibular molars danger zone using ProTaper rotatory system

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Missao Brugin MATSUBARA; Janaina Glaucia Trevizan PEREIRA; Flares BARATTO FILHO; Gisele Aihara HARAGUSHIKU; Flávia Sens FAGUNDES

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the flaring in mandibular molars danger zone, after root canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotatory instrument system. Sixty extracted mandibular molars with fully formed apices had the mesial roots sectioned. The specimens were divided into four groups and instrumented until Shaping X, Shaping 1 and Shaping 2 files, respectively. One group was kept as control with no instrumentation. The results submitted to statistical analysis, showed ...

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  17. The UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger: Context and Process

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Christopher Moseley is General Editor of the third edition of the UNESCO Atlas of the World?s Languages in Danger (2010). Alongside linguistic geography, his research interests are in newly written languages and the creation of orthographies to suit them. Moseley completed his Master?s degree in Baltic-Finnic linguistics and his doctoral research in linguistics at the University College London (UCL) School of Slavonic and East European Studies. He has held posts at BBC Monitoring (a branch of...

  18. Optimisation of protection and evaluation of risk in the case of transport accidents with dangerous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ICRP Publications 22 and 26, cost benefit analysis was recommended as the ideal mechanism for determining the acceptability of a proposal involving exposure of people to radiation and the principles of justification and optimisation were expressed in mathematical notation. These principles of optimisation of protection were applied and the risks to the public evaluated in transport accidents with dangerous materials. The cost-effective results obtained in this study were similar to those obtained for safety systems in PWR reactors. (UK)

  19. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Zimowska; Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Ewa Dorota Król; Ewa Dorota Zalewska

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita) was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis) stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and...

  20. Surgical vs percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma in dangerous locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wei Huang, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, Kristopher P Croome, Lu-Nan Yan, Hong Wu, Zhe-Yu Chen, Pankaj Prasoon, Yong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the long-term outcome of percutaneous vs surgical radiofrequency ablation (RFA for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in dangerous locations.METHODS: One hundred and sixty-two patients with HCC in dangerous locations treated with percutaneous or surgical RFA were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into percutaneous RFA group and surgical RFA group. After the patients were regularly followed up for a long time, their curative rate, hospital stay time, postoperative complications and 5-year local tumor progression were compared and analyzed.RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in curative rate between the two groups (91.3% vs 96.8%, P = 0.841. The hospital stay time was longer and more analgesics were required while the incidence of bile duct injury and RFA-related hemorrhage was lower in surgical RFA group than in percutaneous RFA group (P < 0.05. The local progression rate of HCC in dangerous locations was significantly lower in surgical RFA group than in percutaneous RFA group (P = 0.05. The relative risk of local tumor progression was 14.315 in percutaneous RFA group.CONCLUSION: The incidence of severe postoperative complications and local tumor progression is lower after surgical RFA than after percutaneous RFA.